WorldWideScience

Sample records for bony groove dimensions

  1. The relationship of transverse sinus stenosis to bony groove dimensions provides an insight into the aetiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Stewart, V.R.; O' Flynn, E.A.M. [King' s College Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Ruskin Wing, London (United Kingdom); Siddiqui, M.A. [Southern General Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Transverse sinus tapered narrowings are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH); however, it remains unclear whether they are primary stenoses or whether they occur secondary to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Computed tomographic venography demonstrates both the morphology of the venous system and the adjacent bony grooves so it may provide an insight into the aetiology of these transverse sinus stenoses. Tapered transverse sinus narrowings (>50%) were studied in 19 patients without IIH and 14 patients with IIH. Computed tomography vascular studies were reviewed and the dimensions of the venous sinuses and bony grooves at the sites of maximum and minimum transverse sinus area dimensions were recorded. There was demonstrated to be a strong correlation of bony groove height with venous sinus height at the largest portions of the transverse sinus in both IIH patients and non-IIH subjects as well as at the transverse sinus narrowing in non-IIH subjects. There was a discordant relationship between bony groove height and venous sinus height at the site of transverse sinus stenoses in IIH patients. In 5/23 IIH transverse sinus stenoses, the bony groove height was proportionate to that seen in non-IIH subjects. There were a further 8/23 cases where the small or absent sinus was associated with an absent bony groove. Transverse sinus tapered narrowings in subjects without IIH and in the majority of patients with IIH were associated with proportionately small or absent grooves, and these are postulated to be primary or fixed. Some patients with IIH demonstrate tapered transverse sinus stenoses with disproportionately large bony grooves, suggesting a secondary or acquired narrowing. This implies a varied aetiology for the transverse sinus stenoses of IIH. (orig.)

  2. The relationship of transverse sinus stenosis to bony groove dimensions provides an insight into the aetiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Stewart, V.R.; O'Flynn, E.A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transverse sinus tapered narrowings are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH); however, it remains unclear whether they are primary stenoses or whether they occur secondary to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Computed tomographic venography demonstrates both the morphology of the venous system and the adjacent bony grooves so it may provide an insight into the aetiology of these transverse sinus stenoses. Tapered transverse sinus narrowings (>50%) were studied in 19 patients without IIH and 14 patients with IIH. Computed tomography vascular studies were reviewed and the dimensions of the venous sinuses and bony grooves at the sites of maximum and minimum transverse sinus area dimensions were recorded. There was demonstrated to be a strong correlation of bony groove height with venous sinus height at the largest portions of the transverse sinus in both IIH patients and non-IIH subjects as well as at the transverse sinus narrowing in non-IIH subjects. There was a discordant relationship between bony groove height and venous sinus height at the site of transverse sinus stenoses in IIH patients. In 5/23 IIH transverse sinus stenoses, the bony groove height was proportionate to that seen in non-IIH subjects. There were a further 8/23 cases where the small or absent sinus was associated with an absent bony groove. Transverse sinus tapered narrowings in subjects without IIH and in the majority of patients with IIH were associated with proportionately small or absent grooves, and these are postulated to be primary or fixed. Some patients with IIH demonstrate tapered transverse sinus stenoses with disproportionately large bony grooves, suggesting a secondary or acquired narrowing. This implies a varied aetiology for the transverse sinus stenoses of IIH. (orig.)

  3. "Sub Specie Boni": The Comfort Zone of Self-Belief--A Dimension in Counseling Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, James Lee

    1996-01-01

    Claims that self-defeating behavior is a rational attempt to satisfy early, introjected messages about the type of person one is, arising from a desire for things perceived as good--sub specie boni. Examines the notion of the comfort zone, toxic shame, and therapists' responsibility to nourish acceptable joy. (RJM)

  4. Prevalence of bony septa, antral pathology, and dimensions of the maxillary sinus from a sinus augmentation perspective: A retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Jalali, Elnaz; Al Salman, Wesam; Jambhekar, Shantanu; Katechia, Bina [University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States); Almas, Khalid [Div. of Periodontology, University of Dammam, College of Dentistry, Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    Sinus elevation procedures have become a routine and reliable way to gain bone volume in the edentulous maxilla for dental implant placement. Presence of bony septations and pathology in the maxillary sinus often cause complications leading to graft or implant failure or both. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of pathology, direction of the septa, and sinus width measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor in maxillary sinuses using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Seventy-two sinuses from 36 random preoperative CBCT scans referred for implant therapy were retrospectively evaluated for the number, prevalence, and direction of bony septations and presence of pathology. Width of the sinus was also measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor to account for the amount of bone available for implant placement. Maxillary sinus septa were found in 59.7%. Presence of a single septum was noted in 20 sinuses (27.7%), followed by two septa in 17 sinuses. The most common direction of the septum was the transverse direction. Retention pseudocyst and mucosal thickening were the most commonly seen abnormality/pathology. Based on the high prevalence of septa and sinus pathology in this sample, a preoperative CBCT scan might be helpful in minimizing complications during sinus augmentation procedures for dental implant therapy.

  5. Prevalence of bony septa, antral pathology, and dimensions of the maxillary sinus from a sinus augmentation perspective: A retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Jalali, Elnaz; Al Salman, Wesam; Jambhekar, Shantanu; Katechia, Bina; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Sinus elevation procedures have become a routine and reliable way to gain bone volume in the edentulous maxilla for dental implant placement. Presence of bony septations and pathology in the maxillary sinus often cause complications leading to graft or implant failure or both. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of pathology, direction of the septa, and sinus width measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor in maxillary sinuses using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Seventy-two sinuses from 36 random preoperative CBCT scans referred for implant therapy were retrospectively evaluated for the number, prevalence, and direction of bony septations and presence of pathology. Width of the sinus was also measured at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm from the sinus floor to account for the amount of bone available for implant placement. Maxillary sinus septa were found in 59.7%. Presence of a single septum was noted in 20 sinuses (27.7%), followed by two septa in 17 sinuses. The most common direction of the septum was the transverse direction. Retention pseudocyst and mucosal thickening were the most commonly seen abnormality/pathology. Based on the high prevalence of septa and sinus pathology in this sample, a preoperative CBCT scan might be helpful in minimizing complications during sinus augmentation procedures for dental implant therapy

  6. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  7. Endosonography of groove pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, T. L.; Luiken, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis. Distinction between pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is often difficult. Two cases of groove pancreatitis diagnosed by endosonography are described. A hypoechoic pattern between the duodenal wall and pancreas was clearly imaged in both

  8. First branchial groove anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Hickey, S; Joseph, G

    2000-06-01

    First branchial groove anomalies are very rare. We report a case of a first branchial groove anomaly presented as an infected cyst in an 11-month-old child. Management of such lesions is complicated because of their close association with the facial nerve. Surgical management must include identification and protection of the facial nerve. Embryology and facial nerve disposition in relation to the anomaly are reviewed.

  9. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  10. Vacuum sealing with a spiral grooved gas dynamic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tadashi

    1979-01-01

    Gas dynamic seals with rectangular spiral grooves are studied theoretically taking the effects of sidewalls of the grooves and the effects of gas compressibility into account, and slip boundary conditions are employed. The results are compared with the existing experimental data and the validity of the theory is confirmed over a wide pressure range except for the extremely low pressures. Suggestions are made regarding the choice of the geometrical dimensions, i.e., aspect ratio, helix angle, clearance parameter and groove width ratio. (author)

  11. Bony sequestrum: A radiologic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennin, Felicie; Bousson, Valerie; Parlier, Caroline; Jomaah, Nabil; Khanine, Vanessa; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Lariboisiere Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2011-08-15

    According to a pathological definition, a bony sequestrum is defined as a piece of devitalized bone that has been separated from the surrounding bone during the process of necrosis. However, the radiological definition of a sequestrum is different and refers to an image of calcification visible within a lucent lesion, completely separated from the surrounding bone, without referring to the vascular status and histological nature of the calcified tissue. The term ''button sequestrum'' has been used in calvarial lesions. The prototype conditions that may present with a bony sequestrum are osteomyelitis and skeletal tuberculosis. Other conditions such as radiation necrosis, eosinophilic granuloma, metastatic carcinoma, primary lymphoma of bone, aggressive fibrous tumors may also manifest as osteolytic lesions containing a sequestrum. In addition, some primary bone tumors produce a matrix that may mineralize and sometimes simulate a bone sequestrum. These include osteoid tumors (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma), cartilaginous tumors (chondroma and chondroblastoma), lipomatous tumors (lipoma), and benign fibrous tumors (fibromyxoma, myxoma, and desmoplastic fibroma). Therefore, various conditions may present at imaging as a small area of osteolysis containing central calcifications. However, a careful analysis of the sequestrum as well as the associated clinical and radiological findings often enables to point toward a limited number of conditions. (orig.)

  12. Bony ankylosis following thermal and electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balen, P.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Objective. Bony ankylosis has been described following trauma, paralysis, psoriasis, Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile chronic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Reports of bony ankylosis following thermal and electrical injury are limited.Design and patients. Thirteen cases of burn-related joint ankylosis in four patients are presented.Conclusion. Patients with burns from thermal or electrical injury may develop bony ankylosis among other radiographic manifestations. This bony ankylosis may result either from bridging extra-articular heterotopic ossification with preservation of the underlying joint or from intra-articular fusion due to joint destruction. (orig.)

  13. Bony ankylosis of temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Do; Yoon, Young Nam; Um, Ki Doo; Ra, Jong Ill; Lee, Wan [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Ankylosis of joint is defined as limited movement due to infection, trauma, or surgical procedure. A 59-year-old female with a chief complaint of limited movements during mouth opening had a positive history of trauma to her right TMJ area about 5 years ago. From that time, progressive mouth opening limitation and intermittent pain have occurred. At the time of admission the patient showed mandibular deviation to the right side during mouth opening, with a maximum opening limited to 5 mm. On plain radiographs, right condylar enlargement and joint space reduction by newly formed bony tissues were observed. CT scans showed right condylar enlargement, cortical sclerosis, and thickening of the condyle, articular fossa and articular eminence.

  14. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  15. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  16. Room to Groove?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    . As long as they stay within the parameters of legitimate financial practice to signal institutional isomorphism, the `groove', creditors may well allow borrowers room for change in self-determined ways. This paper maps out the historical and conceptual terrain concerning civilizing ideas about...... the legitimacy of financial practices within global capital markets, and investigates relationships between Western `civilizers' and Emerging Market Economies during the last two periods of financial globalization, the late-nineteenth/ early-twentieth centuries and the late-twentieth century.......The use of a `standard of civilization', a preferred form of socio-political organization, in global capital markets presents both constraints and opportunities for creditors and borrowers. When imposed, civilizing standards may change how a borrower would prefer to conduct their affairs. Creditors...

  17. Continuous blood fractionation using an array of slanted grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernate, Jorge A.; Chengxun, Liu; Lagae, Liesbet; Drazer, German

    2011-11-01

    Blood is a complex fluid having different specialized biological functions and containing a plethora of clinical information. The separation of different blood components is a crucial step in many research and clinical applications. In this work we take advantage of the flow characteristics in microfluidic devices in which the bottom surface is patterned with slanted rectangular grooves to continuously fractionate blood. We exploit the flow in the vicinity of the patterned surface when the dimensions of the grooves are much smaller than the dimensions of the main channel. In these devices, we observed that the grooves act as open channels guiding flow along them with the flow over them being in the direction of the main channel. We present experiments in which the different blood components are deflected laterally to a different extent by the flow along the grooves depending on their sedimentation velocity, which allows their continuous fractionation. In particular, the heavier red blood cells experience the largest deflection while the lighter white blood cells deflect the least, allowing their passive and minimally invasive isolation. In addition, this fluidic platform can also be used to separate magnetically labeled circulating cancer cells which can be retained in the flow along the grooves using a sufficiently strong magnetic force.

  18. Olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Stephen J; DeMonte, Franco

    2003-06-15

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) arise over the cribriform plate and may reach very large sizes prior to presentation. They can be differentiated from tuberculum sellae meningiomas because OGMs arise more anterior in the skull base and displace the optic nerve and chiasm inferiorly rather than superiorly. The authors searched the neurosurgery database at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center for cases of OGM treated between 1993 and 2003. The records of these patients were then reviewed retrospectively for details regarding clinical presentation, imaging findings, surgical results and complications, and follow-up status. Thirteen patients, (12 women and one man, mean age 56 years) harbored OGMs (mean size 5.7 cm). All patients underwent bifrontal craniotomies and biorbital osteotomies. There were 11 complete resections (including the hyperostotic bone and dura of the cribriform plate and any extension into the ethmoid sinuses) and two subtotal resections with minimal residual tumor left in patients with recurrent lesions. No complication directly due to the surgery occurred in any patient. There were no recurrences in a mean follow-up period of 2 years (range 0-5 years). With current microsurgical techniques, the results of OGM resection are excellent, with a high rate of total resection and a low incidence of complications. All hyperostotic bone should be removed with the dura of the anterior skull base to minimize the risk of recurrence.

  19. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  20. Optics of multiple grooves in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies theoretically how the optics of multiple grooves in a metal change as the number of grooves is increased gradually from a single groove to innitely many arranged in a periodic array. In the case of a single groove the out-of-plane scattering (OUP) cross section at resonance can...

  1. Optics of multiple grooves in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    This paper theoretically studies how the optics of multiple grooves in a metal change as the number of grooves gradually increased from a single groove to infinitely many arranged in a periodic array. In the case of a single groove, the out-of-plane scattering (OUP) cross section at resonance can...

  2. Raphides with barbs and grooves in Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, W S; Hanson, M; Jones, R C

    1972-10-20

    Raphides in petioles of Xanthosoma sagittifolium are needlelike crystals about 50 micrometers long. The rectangular cross sections have maximum dimensions of approximately 850 by 250 nanometers. The raphides have two distinct end structures. One end is narrow, acute, and tapered to a point; the other is broad, acute, and abruptly pointed. Barbs, about 750 angstroms long with tips oriented away from the narrow end, occur along the length of the raphide on ridges on either side of two longitudinal grooves. These grooves, located opposite each other, give the raphide cross section an H-shape.

  3. Ion implantation planar in targets with semi-cylindrical grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiz, Y.; Demokan, O.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and numerical investigations suggest that the ion-matrix phase of the sheath evolution plays a crucial role in determining the ion flux to the target surfaces . It can easily be realized that conformal mapping of the target's surface by the sheath is questionable, or even inapplicable in the case of surfaces with fine irregularities or this continuities. The theoretical analysis of such cases is evidently quite complicated. On the other hand, most actual targets fall into this category, and hence, the understanding of the corresponding sheath behavior remains vital for accomplishing uniform implantation. The ion- matrix sheaths have been treated analytically by Conrad for planar, cylindrical and spherical targets successfully. Similar y, Sheridan and Zang et al. have investigated the ion matrix sheath in cylindrical bores, without and with axial electrodes, respectively. All these works assumed targets with infinite areas or length, Zeng et al. and Kwok et al. have started studying implantation into grooves, by carrying out simulations for the inner and outer races of bearings, which are modeled as semi- cylinders of infinite length. Finally, Demokan has presented the first analytic treatment of on matrix sheaths in two- dimensions, by considering targets with rectangular grooves of infinite length, representing a broad range of industrial items. In this work, ion-matrix sheath near infinite length are theoretically analysed. Understanding the sheath formation near such targets is essential for achieving successful ion implantation on the surfaces of a broad range of industrial products, including all types of bearings. The potential profiles both inside and outside the groove are derived and the consequent ion velocity higher plasma densities may improve the uniformity of implantation on the surfaces of such grooves. Furthermore, the sheath edge deformation due to the grooves, the variation of the angle of incidence on the surface of the groove

  4. Optics of multiple ultrasharp grooves in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . When the multiple-groove array is illuminated by a plane wave the out-of-plane scattering is found to be extraordinarily large compared with the expected maximum from a geometric-optics estimate even for array widths of many wavelengths. The out-of-plane scattering is even higher per groove compared......The optics of multiple ultrasharp sub-wavelength grooves in metal is studied theoretically. Focus is on the transition from a single groove, where the scattering cross section is significant and can exceed the groove width, to infinitely many grooves in a periodic array with very low reflectance...

  5. Influence of edge conditions on material ejection from periodic grooves in laser shock-loaded tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rességuier, T. de; Roland, C. [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346, CNRS, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 ave. Clément Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Prudhomme, G.; Lescoute, E.; Mercier, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Loison, D. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2016-05-14

    In a material subjected to high dynamic compression, the breakout of a shock wave at a rough free surface can lead to the ejection of high velocity debris. Anticipating the ballistic properties of such debris is a key safety issue in many applications involving shock loading, including pyrotechnics and inertial confinement fusion experiments. In this paper, we use laser driven shocks to investigate particle ejection from calibrated grooves of micrometric dimensions and approximately sinusoidal profile in tin samples, with various boundary conditions at the groove edges, including single groove and periodic patterns. Fast transverse shadowgraphy provides ejection velocities after shock breakout. They are found to depend not only on the groove depth and wavelength, as predicted theoretically and already observed in the past, but also, unexpectedly, on the edge conditions, with a jet tip velocity significantly lower in the case of a single groove than behind a periodic pattern.

  6. Side-coupled cavity model for surface plasmon-polariton transmission across a groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.S.Q.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the transmission properties of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) across a rectangular groove in a metallic film can be described by an analytical model that treats the groove as a side-coupled cavity to propagating SPPs on the metal surface. The coupling efficiency to the groove is quantified by treating it as a truncated metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide. Finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) simulations and mode orthogonality relations are employed to derive the basic scattering coefficients that describe the interaction between the relevant modes in the system. The modeled SPP transmission and reflection intensities show excellent agreement with full-field simulations over a wide range of groove dimensions, validating this intuitive model. The model predicts the sharp transmission minima that occur whenever an incident SPP resonantly couples to the groove. We also for the first time show the importance of evanescent, reactive MDM SPP modes to the transmission behavior. SPPs that couple to this mode are resonantly enhanced upon reflection from the bottom of the groove, leading to high field intensities and sharp transmission minima across the groove. The resonant behavior exhibited by the grooves has a number of important device applications, including SPP mirrors, filters, and modulators.

  7. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  8. Laser grooving of surface cracks on hot work tool steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of laser grooving of 1.2343 tool steel hardened to 46 HRC. The effect of laser power and grooving speed on groove shape (i.e. depth and width, the material removal rate and the purity of produced groove as a measure of groove quality was investigated and analyzed using response surface methodology. Optimal parameters of laser grooving were found, which enables pure grooves suitable for laser welding.

  9. Differential diagnosis of groove pancreatic carcinomas vs. groove pancreatitis: Usefulness of the portal venous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Kousei; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Kakihara, Daisuke; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masafumi; Takahata, Shunichi; Ito, Tetsuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if the portal venous phase is helpful for the differential diagnosis of groove pancreatic carcinomas and groove pancreatitis. Materials and methods: MDCT and MRI of groove pancreatic carcinomas (n = 7) and groove pancreatitis (n = 15) were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists independently. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images was subjectively assessed. The presence or absence of common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) strictures, calcifications, and cystic lesions was evaluated. Additionally, the appearance of groove pancreatic carcinoma and that of groove pancreatitis in the portal venous phase on dynamic MDCT and MRI were compared. Results: There were no significant differences in the signal intensity on T2-weighted images and in the presence or absence of CBD and MPD strictures, calcifications, and cystic lesions between groove pancreatic carcinomas and groove pancreatitis. However, patchy focal enhancement in the portal venous phase was more commonly observed in groove pancreatitis than groove pancreatic carcinoma (Reviewers 1 and 2: 14/15 [93.3%] vs. 1/7 [14.3%], P < 0.0001). In addition, peripheral enhancement was only seen in groove pancreatic carcinomas (Reviewer 1: 4/7 [57.1%] vs. 0/15 [0%], P < 0.005, and Reviewer 2: 3/7 [42.9%] vs. 0/15 [0%], P < 0.05). Conclusion: The portal venous phase may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of groove pancreatic carcinomas and groove pancreatitis.

  10. Nutrient groove of the ilium, a subtle but important forensic radiographic marker in the identification of victims of severe trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, R.P. Jr.; Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD; Wagner, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of skeletal characteristics pertaining to the bony pelvis have, over the years, been of assistance as forensic markers, but the importance of the nutrient groove of the ilium has not been appreciated. During aircraft accident investigations we compared premortem anteroposterior abdominal radiographs with postmortem specimen radiographs of the ilium, with particular attention directed to the nutrient groove of the ilium. This marker can assume several configurations (i.e., parallel, V-shaped and Y-shaped) and is situated a few centimeters lateral to the sacroiliac joint. Left/right asymmetry, or absence of the nutrient grove on one side of the pelvis are possible variants within an individual. The purpose of this report is to emphasize the previously unrecognized importance of the nutrient groove of the ilium as a useful forensic radiographic marker. (orig.)

  11. Laser melting of groove defect repair on high thermal conductivity steel (HTCS-150)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Fazliana, F.; Reza, M. S.; Ismail, I.; Khairil, C. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents laser melting repair of groove defect on HTCS-150 surface using Nd:YAG laser system. Laser melting process was conducted using JK300HPS Nd:YAG twin lamp laser source with 1064 nm wavelength and pulsed mode. The parameters are pulse repetition frequency (PRF) that is set from 70 to 100 Hz, average power ( P A) of 50-70 W, and laser spot size of 0.7 mm. HTCS-150 samples were prepared with groove dimension of 0.3 mm width and depths of 0.5 mm using EDM wire cut. Groove defect repaired using laser melting process on groove surface area with various parameters' process. The melted surface within the groove was characterized for subsurface hardness profile, roughness, phase identification, chemical composition, and metallographic study. The roughness analysis indicates high PRF at large spot size caused high surface roughness and low surface hardness. Grain refinement of repaired layer was analyzed within the groove as a result of rapid heating and cooling. The hardness properties of modified HTCS inside the groove and the bulk surface increased two times from as received HTCS due to grain refinement which is in agreement with Hall-Petch equation. These findings are significant to parameter design of die repair for optimum surface integrity and potential for repairing crack depth and width of less than 0.5 and 0.3 mm, respectively.

  12. The effect of expert performance microtiming on listeners’ experience of groove in swing or funk music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Senn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' groove experience. Two professional rhythm section (bass/drums performances in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several magnitude levels. Music expert (n=79 and non-expert (n=81 listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation. Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove were supported by the data.

  13. Influence of musical groove on postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica M; Warlaumont, Anne S; Abney, Drew H; Rigoli, Lillian M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Musical groove describes the property of music that encourages auditory-motor synchronization and is used to study voluntary motor entrainment to rhythmic sounds. The influence of groove on balance control mechanisms remains unexplored. We recorded fluctuations in center of pressure (CoP) of standing participants (N = 40) listening to low and high groove music and during quiet stance. We found an effect of musical groove on radial sway variability, with the least amount of variability in the high groove condition. In addition, we observed that groove influenced postural sway entrainment at various temporal scales. For example, with increasing levels of groove, we observed more entrainment to shorter, local timescale rhythmic musical occurrences. In contrast, we observed more entrainment to longer, global timescale features of the music, such as periodicity, with decreasing levels of groove. Finally, musical experience influenced the amount of postural variability and entrainment at local and global timescales. We conclude that groove in music and musical experience can influence the neural mechanisms that govern balance control, and discuss implications of our findings in terms of multiscale sensorimotor coupling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  15. Mixed convection in a baffled grooved channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 16 May 2014; revised 19 October 2014; accepted 06 November 2014. Abstract. In the present numerical work, flow structure and heat transfer charac- teristics are investigated in a baffled grooved channel, differentially heated from the sides. The baffle is placed vertically downward from the top wall of grooved ...

  16. Spiral groove seal. [for rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates. This prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear. Provision is made for placing these spiral grooves in communication with the fluid to accelerate the generation of the hydraulic lifting force.

  17. Dielectric image line groove antennas for millimeterwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, K.; Wolff, I.

    Grooves in the ground plane of dielectric image lines are proposed as a new radiating structure. A figure is included showing the proposed groove structure as a discontinuity in a dielectric image line. A wave incident on the dielectric image line is partly reflected by the discontinuity, partly transmitted across the groove, and partly radiated into space above the line. In a travelling-wave antenna, a number of grooves are arranged below a dielectric guide, with spacings around one guide wavelength to produce a beam in the upper half space. A prescribed aperture distribution can be effected by tapering the series radiation resistance of the grooves. This can be done by adjusting the depths of the grooves with a constant width or by varying the widths of the grooves with a constant depth. Attention is also given to circular grooves. Here, the widths of the holes are chosen so that they can be considered as waveguides operating far below the cut-off frequency of the fundamental circular waveguide mode.

  18. The investigation of groove geometry effect on heat transfer for internally grooved tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilen, Kadir; Cetin, Murat; Gul, Hasan; Balta, Tuba

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of surface heat transfer and friction characteristics of a fully developed turbulent air flow in different grooved tubes is reported. Tests were performed for Reynolds number range 10,000-38,000 and for different geometric groove shapes (circular, trapezoidal and rectangular). The ratio of tube length-to-diameter is 33. Among the grooved tubes, heat transfer enhancement is obtained up to 63% for circular groove, 58% for trapezoidal groove and 47% for rectangular groove, in comparison with the smooth tube at the highest Reynolds number (Re = 38,000). Correlations of heat transfer and friction coefficient were obtained for different grooved tubes. In evaluation of thermal performance, it is seen that the grooved tubes are thermodynamically advantageous (Ns, a < 1) up to Re = 30,000 for circular and trapezoidal grooves and up to Re = 28,000 for rectangular grooves. It is observed that there is an optimum value of the entropy generation number at about Re = 17,000 for all investigated grooves

  19. Morphometric Measurements of Bony Nasolacrimal Canal in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Araz Server; Cigdem, Kalaycik Ertugay; Karagoz, Yesim; Yigit, Ozgur; Longur, Ecem Sevim

    2018-05-01

    Morphology and dimensions of the bony nasolacrimal canal duct (BNLD) as a key factor in the development of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We aimed to obtain detailed morphometric analysis of BNLD in children without nasolacrimal duct pathology by using computed tomography and provide standard measurements by means of age which could be utilized in planning management or in invasive interventions. Picture Archiving Communication Systems database of our hospital's radiology department was searched for this retrospective study. Subjects were under 18 years of age who had undergone a paranasal, maxillofacial, or temporal bone high-resolution computed tomography scan in last 2 years with various indications. Those with fractures including facial bones and/or nasolacrimal canal or history of nasolacrimal duct pathology were excluded from the study. We measured the diameter, angle, and surface area of BNLD. A total number of 136 subjects (86 boys, 50 girls) were included in the study. The average age was 7.3 ± 5.1 years. We documented statistically significantly positive correlation between all measured diameters and ages (P  0.050). Our study demonstrated that development of BNLD continues during childhood, regardless of gender.

  20. Bony orbital distances among the Filipino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Constance M; Jimenez, David F; Laskey, Antoinette; Alcantara, Briccio G; Braddock, Stephen R

    2002-03-01

    Six hundred and seventy seven radiographs were selected from the logs of films taken in a major hospital in Metro Manila, Philippines over the course of the previous year. Two hundred and eighty-eight female and 389 male, healthy Filipinos between the ages of birth and twenty years were selected based on the availability of a modified Waters' projection and lateral skull film taken at the same time. Measurements for the lateral orbital wall were made at the site of the suture on the medial surface of the zygomatic bone. The medial orbital wall measurement was the distance between the dacrya using a correction factor formula of CF = D-d/D where D is the target film distance and d is the object film distance (1). The actual bony measurements were calculated. The data was gathered and plotted according to sex and in age in years. Graphs were generated using SAS over a graph software. Lines were smooth using cubic spline technique developed by Reinsch with the smoothest value of 75 (2). The mean plus two, four, and six standard deviations were included in each of the curves.

  1. V-groove SnO2 nanowire sensors: fabrication and Pt-nanoparticle decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gun-Joo; Choi, Sun-Woo; Jung, Sung-Hyun; Katoch, Akash; Kim, Sang Sub

    2013-01-01

    Networked SnO 2 nanowire sensors were achieved using the selective growth of SnO 2 nanowires and their tangling ability, particularly on on-chip V-groove structures, in an effort to overcome the disadvantages imposed on the conventional trench-structured SnO 2 nanowire sensors. The sensing performance of the V-groove-structured SnO 2 nanowire sensors was highly dependent on the geometrical dimension of the groove, being superior to those of their conventional trench-structured counterparts. Pt nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of the networked SnO 2 nanowires via γ-ray radiolysis to enhance the sensing performances of the V-groove sensors whose V-groove widths had been optimized. The V-groove-structured Pt-nanoparticle-decorated SnO 2 nanowire sensors exhibited outstanding and reliable sensing capabilities towards toluene and nitrogen dioxide gases, indicating their potential for use as a platform for chemical gas sensors. (paper)

  2. DNA minor groove electrostatic potential: influence of sequence-specific transitions of the torsion angle gamma and deoxyribose conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnikova, M Y; Shestopalova, A V

    2017-11-01

    The structural adjustments of the sugar-phosphate DNA backbone (switching of the γ angle (O5'-C5'-C4'-C3') from canonical to alternative conformations and/or C2'-endo → C3'-endo transition of deoxyribose) lead to the sequence-specific changes in accessible surface area of both polar and non-polar atoms of the grooves and the polar/hydrophobic profile of the latter ones. The distribution of the minor groove electrostatic potential is likely to be changing as a result of such conformational rearrangements in sugar-phosphate DNA backbone. Our analysis of the crystal structures of the short free DNA fragments and calculation of their electrostatic potentials allowed us to determine: (1) the number of classical and alternative γ angle conformations in the free B-DNA; (2) changes in the minor groove electrostatic potential, depending on the conformation of the sugar-phosphate DNA backbone; (3) the effect of the DNA sequence on the minor groove electrostatic potential. We have demonstrated that the structural adjustments of the DNA double helix (the conformations of the sugar-phosphate backbone and the minor groove dimensions) induce changes in the distribution of the minor groove electrostatic potential and are sequence-specific. Therefore, these features of the minor groove sizes and distribution of minor groove electrostatic potential can be used as a signal for recognition of the target DNA sequence by protein in the implementation of the indirect readout mechanism.

  3. Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta, Irene Fernandez; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been proven that light can be squeezed into metallic channels with subwavelength lateral dimensions. Here, we present the study of the propagation of channel plasmon polaritons confined in gold V-grooves, filled with fluorescent particles. In this way, channel plasmon polaritons......-diameter beads, we show the possibility of individual excitation, what may have applications to develop very sensitive biosensors....

  4. Experimental Studies on Grooved Double Pipe Heat Exchanger with Different Groove Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunu, P. W.; Arsawan, I. M.; Anakottapary, D. S.; Santosa, I. D. M. C.; Yasa, I. K. A.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed on grooved double pipe heat exchanger (DPHE) with different groove space. The objective of this work is to determine optimal heat transfer parameter especially logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD). The document in this paper also provides the total heat observed by the cold fluid. The rectangular grooves were incised on outer surface of tube side with circumferential pattern and two different grooves space, namely 1 mm and 2 mm. The distance between grooves and the grooves high were kept constant, 8 mm and 0.3 mm respectively. The tube diameter is 20 mm and its made of aluminium. The shell is made of acrylic which has 28 mm in diameter. Water is used as the working fluid. Using counter flow scheme, the cold fluid flows in the annulus room of DPHE. The volume flowrate of hot fluid remains constant at 15 lpm. The volume flowrate of cold fluid were varied from 11 lpm to 15 lpm. Based on logarithmic mean temperature difference analysis, the LMTD of 1 mm grooves space was higher compared to that of 2 mm grooves space. The smaller grooves space has more advantage since the recirculating region are increased which essentially cause larger heat transfer enhancement.

  5. Avifauna of Boni-Dodori National Reserves, Lamu and Garissa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observers conducted a 60 min walk along a designated path in open ... rophoneus viridis were recorded in the Boni-Dodori area for the first time. ..... Mouse-coloured Sunbird Cyanomitra veroxii * .... Expedition Field techniques: Bird Surveys.

  6. Blunt chest trauma: bony injury in the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Nasri H; Francis, Irene; Ray, Arun; Rogers, Benedict A; Ricketts, David M

    2016-02-01

    The management of blunt chest trauma is an evolving concept with no clear current guidelines. This article explores the bony injuries associated with this, focusing on rib fractures and flail segments and the themes around investigation and best management.

  7. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  8. A surface embossing technique to create micro-grooves on an aluminum fin stock for drainage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liping; Jacobi, Anthony M; Chvedov, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances using a surface embossing technique allow us to inexpensively impart micro-scale surface features on heat exchanger construction material, which we exploit to reduce condensate retention. The retention of condensate is important to the performance of heat exchangers in a broad range of air-cooling and dehumidification applications. We report a study of wetting behavior and drainage performance on a series of embossed surfaces with different micro-groove dimensions. Static contact angles, critical sliding angles, droplet aspect ratios, etc, are reported with detailed surface topographical information. Our results show that unless the spacing between grooves is very large (>100 µm), the parallel-grooved surface feature normally increases the apparent contact angle of a droplet on the surface. The micro-groove structure causes anisotropic wetting behavior of the droplets, and apparent contact angles measured by viewing along with the micro-grooves (θ p erpendicular) were found to be larger than those measured from the other direction (θ || ) (by viewing perpendicular to the grooves). A consistent reduction of a critical sliding angle was observed on surfaces after embossing (the micro-grooves are aligned to be parallel with gravity). This may be due to contact line discontinuities and contact-line pinning induced by a groove structure of the surface. Water droplets exhibit an elongated shape along the micro-grooves, which is in contrast to the nearly circular base contour observed on an isotropic surface. Smaller groove spacing, larger depth and steeper sidewalls are observed to be favorable for drainage enhancement and recommended as design guidelines in the future

  9. Conservative Treatment for Bony Healing in Pediatric Lumbar Spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-06-15

    A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to investigate recent outcomes of conservative treatment for bony healing in pediatric patients with lumbar spondylolysis (LS) and to identify the problems that need to be resolved. Several diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for LS have been developed recently, leading to better outcomes for bony healing. Overall, 63 consecutive pediatric patients (53 boys and 10 girls) with LS (average age: 13.8 years; range: 6-17 years) were analyzed. Diagnosis and staging (very early, early, progressive, and terminal) were based on multidetector computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For all patients except those with terminal-stage pars defect, conservative treatment included rest, avoidance of sports, and the use of a thoraco-lumbo-sacral-type trunk brace. Follow-up MRI was performed monthly. When the signal changes resolved, CT scans were obtained to assess bony healing. Three patients dropped out during the study period. A total of 60 patients were included (50 boys and 10 girls) in this study (follow-up rate: 95.2%), with 86 instances of LS (very early: 36, early: 16, progressive: 15, terminal: 19) in 65 laminae. In the very early stage, the bony healing rate was 100%, and average treatment period was 2.5 months (range: 1-7 months). In the early stage, the bony healing rate was 93.8%, and the average treatment period was 2.6 months (range: 1-6 months). In the progressive stage, the bony healing rate was 80.0%, and the average treatment period was 3.6 months (range: 3-5 months). The average overall recurrence rate was 26.1%. All patients showing recurrence eventually achieved bony healing. High bony healing rates and short treatment periods were observed with conservative treatment in pediatric patients with LS. However, the recurrence rates were relatively high. This issue should be targeted in future studies. 2.

  10. Relationship of bony trabecular characteristics and age to bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Hoon; Song, Young Han; Yoon, Young Nam; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2006-01-01

    Bony strength is dependent on bone mass and bony structure. So this study was designed to investigate the relationship between the bone mass and bony mass and bony trabecular characteristics. Study subjects were 51 females (average age 68.6 years) and 20 males (average age 66.4 years). Bony mineral density (BMD, grams/cm 2 ) of proximal femur was measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected from the digitized radiographs of proximal femur. A customized computer program processed morphologic operations (MO) of ROIs. 44 skeletal variables of MO were calculated from ROIs on the Ward's triangle and greater trochanter of femur. WHO BMD classes were predicted by MO variables of the same ROI. Classification and Regression Tree analysis was used for calculating weighted kappa values, sensitivity and specificity of MO. The discriminating factors of morphologic operation were branch point, branch point [per cm sq]. Age also played important role in distinguishing osteoporotic classes. The sensitivity of MO at Ward's triangle and Greater Trochanter was 91.8%, 65.6%, respectively. The specificity of MO was 100% at Ward's triangle and Greater Trochanter. Bony trabecular characteristics obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis seem to be related to bone mass

  11. Local-scale stratigraphy of grooved terrain on Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Head, James W.; Helfenstein, Paul; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede, is divided into two main units, dark terrain cut by arcuate and subradial furrows, and light terrain consisting largely of areas with pervasive U-shaped grooves. The grooved terrain may be subdivided on the basis of pervasive morphology of groove domains into four terrain types: (1) elongate bands of parallel grooves (groove lanes); (2) polygonal domains of parallel grooves (grooved polygons); (3) polygonal domains of two orthogonal groove sets (reticulate terrain); and (4) polygons having two to several complexly cross-cutting groove sets (complex grooved terrain). Reticulate terrain is frequently dark and not extensively resurfaced, and grades to a more hummocky terrain type. The other three grooved terrain types have almost universally been resurfaced by light material during their emplacement. The sequence of events during grooved terrain emplacement has been investigated. An attempt is made to integrate observed geologic and tectonic patterns to better constrain the relative ages and styles of emplacement of grooved terrain types. A revised model of grooved terrain emplacement is proposed and is tested using detailed geologic mapping and measurement of crater density.

  12. Bony Regeneration of the Sella after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia-Cherif, Mehdi; Delpierre, Isabelle; Hassid, Sergio; De Witte, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possible bony regrowth of the sella after transsphenoidal surgery without any intraoperative sellar reconstruction. Radiologic findings of the sella were reviewed in patients with pituitary tumors treated by transsphenoidal surgery. In 17 patients who had postoperative cranial computed tomography scans, bony regeneration of the sellar floor was evaluated by comparing immediate and late postoperative scans. The bony opening reduction was measured in transverse and sagittal planes. The median bony opening diameter in the transverse plane was 8.8 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 5.7-11.4) on the first scan and 4.2 mm (IQR 0.8-6.8) on the second scan. In the sagittal plane, it was 4.8 mm (IQR 1.8-6.8) on the first scan and 2.9 mm (IQR 1.6-3.9) on the second scan. These changes occurred in a median time of 36 months (IQR 22-42). There was a statistically significant decrease of the bony opening diameters in both the transverse and sagittal planes (P transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Graphene Plasmons in Triangular Wedges and Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Dias, E. J. C.; Xiao, Sanshui

    2016-01-01

    and tunability of graphene plasmons guided along the apex of a graphene-covered dielectric wedge or groove. In particular, we present a quasi-analytic model to describe the plasmonic eigenmodes in such a system, including the complete determination of their spectrum and corresponding induced potential...... and electric-field distributions. We have found that the dispersion of wedge/groove graphene plasmons follows the same functional dependence as their flat-graphene plasmon counterparts, but now scaled by a (purely) geometric factor in which all the information about the system’s geometry is contained. We...

  14. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  15. Optimization of Grooved Micromixer for Microengineering Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabotin, I.; Tristo, G.; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Due to the absence of turbulent flow and the slow diffusion process, mixing of solutions at micro-scale is a difficult task. This paper describes the optimization route towards the efficient design of a bottom grooved micromixer. Based on thoroughly discussed mixing mechanisms, the optimization w...

  16. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Belagola D; Basavaraj, Halevoor B; Nischal, Kuchangi C; Swaroop, Mukunda R; Umashankar, Puttagangu N; Agrawal, Dhruv P; Swamy, Suchetha S; Okram, Sarda

    2012-01-01

    Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80%) predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%). Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39%) and others included transverse nasal line (28%), strip (28%), ridge (4%) and loop (1%). Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  17. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah

    2013-01-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The ...

  18. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear) of Placental Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported. Principal Findings The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha. Significance The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear. PMID:23805251

  19. The spectrum of allergy to South African bony fish (Teleosti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volunteer population-based cohort in the Western Cape. Participants. 105 volunteer subjects with suspected fish allergy were recruited by advertising in the local press. Main outcome. Species-specific bony fish allergy was confirmed or refuted by DBPCFC. Results. The four most common seafood species reported to cause ...

  20. Arthroscopic treatment of bony loose bodies in the subacromial space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The mechanism of formation of bony loose bodies is not clear, may be associated with synovial cartilage metaplasia. Arthroscopic removal of loose bodies and bursa debridement is a good option for treatment of the loose body in the subacromial space, which can receive good function.

  1. Bony exostosis of the atlas with resultant cranial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavotinek, J.P.; Sage, M.R.; Brophy, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A case of tenth and twelfth nerve compression secondary to a bony exostosis of the first cervical vertebra is described. This uncommon phenomenon serves to outline the importance of imaging the course of a cranial nerve when no intracranial abnormality is demonstrable on CT or MRI. The radiologic features of spinal osteochondromas are reviewed. (orig.)

  2. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  3. Trabectedin – the DNA minor groove binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Belitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabectedin (ET-743, Yondelis is an alkaloid that was originally isolated from the Caribbean Sea squirt, Ecteinascidia turbinata and is now produced synthetically. Its chemical structure consists in three fused tetrahydroisoquinoline rings. Two of them, A and B, binds covalently to guanine residues in the minor groove of the DNA double helix to bend the molecule toward the major groove and the third ring C protrudes from the DNA duplex, apparently allowing interactions with several nuclear proteins. Binding to the minor groove of DNA, trabectedin trigger a cascade of events that interfere with several transcription factors, DNA binding proteins, and DNA repair pathways in particular nucleotide excision repair. It acts both as a DNA-alkylating drug and topoisomerase poison. Trabectedin-DNA adduct traps the nucleotide excision repair proteins repairing the DNA damage in transcribing genes and induces DNA strand breaks. Cells deficient in homologous recombination pathway which repairs these double-strand breaks show increased sensitivity to trabectedin. The most sensitive of them were myxoid liposarcomas. Trabectedin is also effective in chemotherapy-experienced patients with advanced, recurrent liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma as well as in women with ovarian cancer and breast cancer with BRCAness phenotype. Besides of tumor cells Trabectedin inhibits inflammatory cells by affecting directly monocytes and tumorassociated macrophages and indirectly by inhibiting production of inflammatory mediators, the cytokines and chemokines. It inhibits also the MDR-1 gene, which is responsible for the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and strikes tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Labiogingival groove: A rare developmental tooth anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Chauhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Labiogingival groove is a congenital morphologic dental anomaly, in which an infolding of the inner enamel epithelium and Hertwig's epithelial root sheath create a groove extending varying depth into root. Epithelial attachment can be breached by gingival irritation secondary to plaque accumulation creating a periodontal defect that spreads to the pulp causing primary periodontal/secondary endodontic. A 12-year-old boy reported with the complaint of painful tooth with pus discharge from labial gingival surface in the maxillary right lateral incisor for 4 months. Intraoral examination revealed bluish red gingiva with loss of contour in relation to maxillary right lateral incisor and purulent discharge in relation to it. A provisional diagnosis of localized gingival abscess in relation to maxillary right incisor (primary periodontic and secondary endodontic involvement was given, and required treatment was carried out. On exposure of the involved tooth, a labiogingival groove was noticed which could have been a contributing factor for the progression of the condition.

  5. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  6. Management of segmental bony defects: the role of osteoconductive orthobiologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Our knowledge about, and the availability of, orthobiologic materials has increased exponentially in the last decade. Although previously confined to the experimental or animal-model realm, several orthobiologics have been shown to be useful in a variety of clinical situations. As surgical techniques in vascular anastomosis, soft-tissue coverage, limb salvage, and fracture stabilization have improved, the size and frequency of bony defects (commensurate with the severity of the initial injury) have increased, as well. Because all methods of managing segmental bony defects have drawbacks, a need remains for a readily available, void-filling, inexpensive bone substitute. Such a bone substitute fulfills a permissive role in allowing new bone to grow into a given defect. Such potential osteoconductive materials include ceramics, calcium sulfate or calcium phosphate compounds, hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bone, corals, and recently developed polymers. Some materials that have osteoinductive properties, such as demineralized bone matrix, also display prominent osteoconductive properties.

  7. Imaging of the hip and bony pelvis. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Johnson, K.J. [Princess of Wales Birmingham Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. (eds.) [Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of the bony pelvis and hip joint that provides a detailed description of the techniques and imaging findings relevant to this complex anatomical region. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging the pelvis and hip are discussed in detail. The second part of the book documents the application of these techniques to the diverse clinical problems and diseases encountered. Among the many topics addressed are congenital and developmental disorders including developmental dysplasia of the hip, irritable hip and septic arthritis, Perthes' disease and avascular necrosis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, bony and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, tumours and hip prostheses. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. (orig.)

  8. Between Organism and Sky: Oscar Bony, 1965-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Quiles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Bony was a key figure in the generation of avant-garde artists who famously broke with the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella in the wake of censorship at Experiencias ’68. He was also the official photographer for RCA’s affiliate record label in Argentina between 1967 and 1973, producing publicity for a new wave of rock n’ roll bands and solo popular music acts including Los Gatos and Arco Iris. Attending to key phases in his artistic oeuvre as well as close readings of his expertly crafted popular images, this article attempts to bridge these seemingly irreconcilable aspects of Bony’s practice. At first glance, his rock photography, known as el estilo Bony, has little relation to his art, and is perhaps even its political antithesis: “creative” work in the service of a top-down business model. Yet a closer look at both endeavors yields a lasting interplay between flesh and concept—at the grain of the work, a dialectic between incontrovertible index and crafted, calculated image—that was the artist’s central preoccupation in the fraught decade between the military coups. As such, Bony provides an opportunity to recover a category often absent from the Argentine art of this moment: the body, factual and libidinal.

  9. Wind rotor power station BONI-ShHV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Wind rotor power station (WRPS) BONI-ShHV has following advantages : the increase of installation stability by rise of wind velocity and rotation speed of rotor due to gyroscopic effect; the absence noise and vibration; the safety for birds and animals; ability of compact installation and creation of series of wind power dams with higher capacity; the simplicity and fast assembling and putting into operation. The price of 1 k W of installing capacity is lower about 2.5-3 times compare to usual WRPS due to simple kinematic scheme. WRPS has high specific output of electrical energy due to use of low and long existing wind velocity and due to short storms, giving greater power. It has ability to be replayed when average annual wind velocity is above 5.5 m/s in comparison with propeller WRPS, which are never repaying. WRPS BONI-ShHV are made on the plants of Republic of Kazakhstan, and tested in wind velocity range up 45 m/s, have experience of 3 years of operation, showing their reliability and effectiveness. The repayment period of individual WRPS BONI-0.5/6 ShHV is from 10 month to 1 year depending on average annual velocity

  10. Canine hip dysplasia: significance of early bony spurring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to call attention to new bone production that often occurs early in the sequence of pathological changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. New bone production extending to bony remodeling, as well as femoral head subluxation, both occur in the sequence of pathologic changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. Subluxation is considered primary, while osteoarthrosis is a secondary feature, and both are used in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. This report concerns the significance of the presence of a solitary bony osteophyte, or spur, that is frequently evident on the caudal aspect of the femoral neck as viewed on the conventional ventrodorsal projection. This report utilizes findings from pelvic radiographs of 605 dogs (five breeds). There was a greater frequency (54%)of this bony change in cases diagnosed radiographically as dysplastic than in cases diagnosed as normal(15%).Thus, it is suggested that this minimal radiographic change can be used as an indicator of early canine hip dysplasia, especially in the absence of subluxation of the femoral head

  11. On-line image guidance for frameless stereotactic radiotherapy of lung malignancies by cone beam CT: Comparison between target localization and alignment on bony anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Laura; Casamassima, Franco; Menichelli, Claudia; Pasciuti, Katia; Doro, Raffaela; Polli, Caterina; D'imporzano, Elena; Bonucci, Ivano

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Free-breathing stereotactic radiotherapy for lung malignancies requires reliable prediction of respiratory motion and accurate target localization. A protocol was adopted for reproducibility and reduction of respiratory motion and for target localization by CBCT image guidance. Tumor respiratory displacements and tumor positioning errors relative to bony anatomy alignment are analyzed. Materials and method. Image guided SRT was performed for 99 lung malignancies. Two groups of patients were considered: group A did not perform any breathing control; group B controlled visually their respiratory cycle and volumes on an Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) monitor during the acquisition of simulation CT and CBCT, and treatment delivery. GTV on end inhale and exhale CT data sets were fused in an ITV and the extent of tumor motion evaluated between these 2 phases. A pre-treatment CBCT was acquired and aligned to the reference CT using bony anatomy; for tumor positioning the ITV contour on the reference CT was matched to the visible tumor on CBCT. Interobserver variability of tumor positioning was evaluated. ITV and CBCT tumor dimensions were compared. Results. 3D tumor breathing displacement (mean±SD) was significantly higher for group A (14.7±9.9 mm) than for group B (4.7±3.1 mm). The detected differences between tumor and bony structure alignment below 3 mm were 68% for group B and 45% for group A, reaching statistical significance. Interobserver variability was 1.7±1.1 mm (mean±SD). Dimensions of tumor image on CBCT were consistent with ITV dimensions for group B (max difference 14%). Conclusions. The adopted protocol seems effective in reducing respiratory internal movements and margin. Tumor positioning errors relative to bony anatomy are also reduced. However bony anatomy as a surrogate of the target may still lead to some relevant positioning errors. Target visualization on CBCT is essential for an accurate localization in lung SRT

  12. [Microsurgical removal of olfactory groove meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ri-Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    To explore an effective method for further improving the surgical results of treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas. Sixty seven cases of olfactory groove meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery, among which fifty seven were de novo cases, eight were recurrent tumors and the other two re-recurrent cases. Modified Derome approach was used in 12 cases, bilateral subfrontal approach in 28 cases, modified pterional approach in 21 cases and unilateral subfrontal approach in six cases. Tumors were resected microsurgically with radical removal of invaded dura, bone, and paranasal sinus mucosa. Reconstruction was performed in patients with skull base defect. Simpson grade I removal was accomplished in 59 cases, grade II in seven cases and grade IV in one case. Among 57 patients with de novo tumor, Simpson I resection was accomplished in 54 cases. Postoperative rhinorrhea and intracranial infection occurred in one case and was cured after temporal lumbar CSF drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two patients (2.9%) died within one month after operation, i.e.one aged patient of heart failure and the other of severe hypothalamus complication. Forty seven patients (72.3%) were followed up from one to ten years with an average of five years and four months. With the exception of two cases died, among the alive 45 patients, there were only three patients with tumor recurrence, which had undergone Simpson II or IV tumor resection. No recurrence was found in cases with Simpson I tumor removal. Previous blurred vision was not improved in three patients, hemiparalysis in two patients, and the other patients recovered well, resuming previous jobs or being able to take care themselves. Total tumor removal (Simpson I) should be the surgical goal for treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas, especially for de novo cases. An appropriate approach is fundamental in the effort to remove an OGM totally. Appropriate anterior skull base reconstruction with vascularized material is

  13. Laser Surface Hardening of Groove Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Hamdani, A. H.; Akhter, R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-06-01

    Surface hardening of groove-edges made of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel has been carried out using 500 W CO2 laser with a rectangular beam of 2.5×3 mm2. The processing speed was varied from 150-500 mm/min. It was seen that the hardened depth increases with increase in laser interaction time. A maximum hardened depth of around 1mm was achieved. The microhardness of the transformed zone was 2.5 times the hardness of base metal. The XRD's and microstructural analysis were also reported.

  14. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    OpenAIRE

    Witek, MA; Clarke, EF; Wallentin, M; Kringelbach, ML; Vuust, P

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a ...

  15. Dual-phase CT findings of groove pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaheer, Atif, E-mail: azaheer1@jhmi.edu [The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Pancreatitis Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Haider, Maera, E-mail: mhaider3@jhmi.edu [The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Kawamoto, Satomi, E-mail: skawamo1@jhmi.edu [The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Hruban, Ralph H., E-mail: rhruban1@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Fishman, Elliot K., E-mail: efishma1@jhmi.edu [The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Groove pancreatitis is a rare focal form of chronic pancreatitis that occurs in the pancreaticoduodenal groove between the major and minor papillae, duodenum and pancreatic head. Radiologic appearance and clinical presentation can result in suspicion of malignancy rendering pancreaticoduodenectomy inevitable. This study reports dual phase CT findings in a series of 12 patients with pathology proven groove pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of preoperative CT findings in 12 patients with histologically proven groove pancreatitis after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Size, location, attenuation, presence of mass or cystic components in the pancreas, groove and duodenum, calcifications, duodenal stenosis and ductal changes were recorded. Clinical data, laboratory values, endoscopic ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were collected. Results: Soft tissue thickening in the groove was seen in all patients. Pancreatic head, groove and duodenum were all involved in 75% patients. A discrete lesion in the pancreatic head was seen in half of the patients, most of which appeared hypodense on both arterial and venous phases. Cystic changes in pancreatic head were seen in 75% patients. Duodenal involvement was seen in 92% patients including wall thickening and cyst formation. The main pancreatic duct was dilated in 7 patients, with an abrupt cut off in 3 and a smooth tapering stricture in 4. Five patients had evidence of chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal calcifications. Conclusion: Presence of mass or soft tissue thickening in the groove with cystic duodenal thickening is highly suggestive of groove pancreatitis. Recognizing common radiological features may help in diagnosis and reduce suspicion of malignancy.

  16. Wetting morphologies and their transitions in grooved substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Ralf; Bommer, Stefan; Herrmann, Carsten; Michler, Dominik [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan; Khare, Krishnacharya; Kostourou, Konstantina; Gurevich, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany); Law, Bruce M; McBride, Sean, E-mail: r.seemann@physik.uni-saarland.de [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-05-11

    When exposed to a partially wetting liquid, many natural and artificial surfaces equipped with complex topographies display a rich variety of liquid interfacial morphologies. In the present article, we focus on a few simple paradigmatic surface topographies and elaborate on the statics and dynamics of the resulting wetting morphologies. It is demonstrated that the spectrum of wetting morphologies increases with increasing complexity of the groove structure. On elastically deformable substrates, additional structures in the liquid morphologies can be observed, which are caused by deformations of the groove geometry in the presence of capillary forces. The emergence of certain liquid morphologies in grooves can be actively controlled by changes in wettability and geometry. For electrically conducting solid substrates, the apparent contact angle can be varied by electrowetting. This allows, depending on groove geometry, a reversible or irreversible transport of liquid along surface grooves. In the case of irreversible liquid transport in triangular grooves, the dynamics of the emerging instability is sensitive to the apparent hydrodynamic slip at the substrate. On elastic substrates, the geometry can be varied in a straightforward manner by stretching or relaxing the sample. The imbibition velocity in deformable grooves is significantly reduced compared to solid grooves, which is a result of the microscopic deformation of the elastic groove material close to the three phase contact line.

  17. The order of condensation in capillary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p co (L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p sat − p co (L) = 2σcosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θ cap ; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σsinθ cap /L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θ cap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented. (fast track communication)

  18. The order of condensation in capillary grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-05-15

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  19. Numerical analysis of flow in a centrifugal compressor with circumferential grooves: influence of groove location and number on flow instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Qin, G.; Ai, Z.; Ji, Y.

    2017-08-01

    As an effective and economic method for flow range enhancement, circumferential groove casing treatment (CGCT) is widely used to increase the stall margin of compressors. Different from traditional grooved casing treatments, in which the grooves are always located over the rotor in both axial and radial compressors, one or several circumferential grooves are located along the shroud side of the diffuser passage in this paper. Numerical investigations were conducted to predict the performance of a low flow rate centrifugal compressor with CGCT in diffuser. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is performed under stage environment in order to find the optimum location of the circumferential casing groove in consideration of stall margin enhancement and efficiency gain at design point, and the impact of groove number to the effect of this grooved casing treatment configuration in enhancing the stall margin of the compressor stage is studied. The results indicate that the centrifugal compressor with circumferential groove in vaned diffuser can obtain obvious improvement in the stall margin with sacrificing design efficiency a little. Efforts were made to study blade level flow mechanisms to determine how the CGCT impacts the compressor’s stall margin (SM) and performance. The flow structures in the passage, the tip gap, and the grooves as well as their mutual interactions were plotted and analysed.

  20. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  1. Radiology of Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Rickets and Other Bony Fragility States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Alistair D

    2015-01-01

    This section gives an overview of radiological findings in bony fragility states, with a special focus on osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and rickets. Conventional radiological assessment of bone density is inaccurate and imprecise and only reliably detects severe osteopaenia. However, other aspects of bone structure and morphology can be assessed, and it is possible to distinguish between osteopaenic and osteomalacic states. OI is a heterogeneous group of disorders of type 1 collagen formation and processing that are characterised by varying degrees of bony fragility, with presentations varying from perinatal lethality to asymptomatic. Radiological diagnosis of severe forms is usually straightforward, but that of milder disease may be challenging because specific features are often absent. However, a multidisciplinary approach is usually successful. Features of OI, including Wormian bones, skull base deformities, vertebral involvement and long bone fractures and deformities, are reviewed in this section. Rickets is best defined as a disorder of the growth plate characterised by the impaired apoptosis of hypertrophied chondrocytes. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets. The patho-anatomical basis of radiological findings in rickets is reviewed and illustrated. Rickets is frequently accompanied by hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia. Rickets used to be classified as calciopaenic or phosphopaenic but is now referred to as parathyroid hormone or fibroblast growth factor 23 mediated, respectively [1]. The radiological features of the two forms are reviewed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Giant Atretic Occipital Lipoencephalocele in an Adult with Bony Outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimkar, Kshama; Sood, Dinesh; Soni, Pawan; Chauhan, Narvir; Surya, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    We present unique case of a giant extracranial atretic occipital lipoencephalocele in an adult patient with new bone formation within it which was not associated with any developmental malformation of brain. Resection of the lipoencephalocele was performed for esthetic reasons. 18 year old female patient presented to the surgery OPD with complains of a large mass in the occipital region present since birth. It was of size of a betel nut at the time of birth and gradually increased in size over a long period of time. It was painless and not associated with any other constitutional symptoms. On examination the rounded fluctuant mass was present in the midline in occipital region covered with alopecic skin with dimpling in the overlying skin. On MRI there was mass showing both T1 and T2 hyperintense signal area suggestive of fat component. Herniation of meninges and atretic brain parenchyma was also seen through a defect in the occipital bone in the midline. There was a Y shaped bony outgrowth seen arising from occipital bone into the mass which was quite unusual in association with an atretic lipoencephalocele. A large lipoencephalocele with bony outgrowth in an adult patient is a rare presentation of atreic occipital encephalocele.

  4. From the Bandstand to the Classroom: Thinking and Playing Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Marsha; Santantasio, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this article, narratives of a salsa concert and a lesson with a Native American flute performer provide openings for exploring grooves and their application in the music classroom. The term "groove" is examined, along with some non-Western ideas about time as represented in the music of the West African Kpelle people. A sixth-grade…

  5. Heat transfer and thermal stress analysis in grooved tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer and thermal stresses, induced by temperature differencesin the internally grooved tubes of heat transfer equipment, have been analysed numerically. The analysis has been conducted for four different kinds of internally grooved tubes and three different mean inlet water velocities. Constant temperature was ...

  6. Grooves on the occipital lobe of Indian brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaria, K K

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a groove on the occipital lobe formed by the dural venous sinus or ridge has only rarely been described in the past. As observed in this study such grooves are either unilateral or bilateral and their incidence is very high in Indian brains. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6490537

  7. Grooves on the occipital lobe of Indian brains.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisaria, K K

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a groove on the occipital lobe formed by the dural venous sinus or ridge has only rarely been described in the past. As observed in this study such grooves are either unilateral or bilateral and their incidence is very high in Indian brains.

  8. Observations of secondary oscillations in thermal grain boundary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachenko, P.P.; Schneibel, J.H.; Zhang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal grain boundary grooving by surface diffusion is accompanied not only by main maxima on either side of a groove, but also by secondary maxima and minima. We measure these oscillations in tungsten and give reasons why the observed secondary maxima and minima are larger than predicted

  9. Olfactory groove meningiomas: approaches and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Tahara, Adriana; Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; Simm, Renata; Silva, Arnaldo Neves da; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Pedro Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) account for 4.5% of all intracranial meningiomas. We report 21 patients with OGMs. Tumors were operated on using three surgical approaches: bifrontal (7 patients), fronto-pterional (11 patients) and fronto-orbital (3 patients). Total tumor removal (Simpson Grade 1) was achieved in 13 patients and Simpson II in 8 patients. Perioperative mortality was 4.76%. The average size of the OGM was 4.3+/-1.1cm. The overall recurrence rate was 19%. We preferred to use the pterional approach, which provides quick access to the tumor with less brain exposure. It also allows complete drainage of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid, providing a good level of brain relaxation during surgery. However, for long, thin tumors, hemostasis can be difficult using this approach.

  10. Plasma interaction with emmissive surface with Debye-scale grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Irina; Burton, Thomas S.; Thompson, Gregory B.; Langendorf, Samuel; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Keidar, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The sheath development over emissive grooved surface in dc discharge plasma controlled by an electron beam is studied in the experiment and in 2D kinetic simulations. Grooved hexagonal boron nitride surfaces with different aspect ratios, designed to mimic the erosion channels, were exposed to an argon plasma. The characteristic size of the grooves (1 mm and 5 mm) is about of the Debye length. The secondary electrons emission from the grooved surfaces is provided by the bombardment with energetic electrons originated from the heated powered cathode. The transition between a developed and a collapsed sheaths near emissive surface takes place with an increase of the beam electron energy. For grooved emissive surfaces, the sheath transition happens at essentially higher voltage compared to the planar one. This phenomenon is analyzed in the terms of the electron energy distribution function.

  11. Characteristics of Multiplexed Grooved Nozzles for High Flow Rate Electrospray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2007-01-01

    The electrospray operated in the cone-jet mode can generate highly charged micro droplets in an almost uniform size at flow rates. Therefore, the multiplexing system which can retain the characteristics of the cone-jet mode is inevitable for the electrospray application. This experiment reports the multiplexed grooved nozzle system with the extractor. The effects of the grooves and the extractor on the performance of the electrospray were evaluated through experiments. Using the grooved nozzle, the stable cone-jet mode can be achieved at the each groove in the grooved mode. Furthermore, the number of nozzles per unit area is increased by the extractor. The multiplexing density is 12 jets per cm 2 at 30 mm distance from the nozzle tip to the ground plate. The multiplexing system for the high flow rate electrospray is realized with the extractor which can diminish the space charge effect without sacrificing characteristics of the cone-jet mode

  12. Bony injuries in trauma patients diagnosed by radiological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, G.; Gorleku, P. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the incidence of bony injuries in trauma patients who had plain radiographs done at the Central Regional Hospital in Cape Coast. This is a retrospective study based on plain radiographs taken by trauma patients who reported to the Central Regional Hospital. The case notes of all patients with a discharge diagnosis of Road Traffic Accident or trauma of all aetiologies that presented to the hospital between January 2005 and December 2011 were retrieved, and those patients that had skeletal radiographic examinations were included in this study. The total number of cases seen was 1,133. The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 72 years. Sixty-nine (6.1%) of the patients were between 1 and 4 years old, with the majority between 20 and 49 years old, constituting 52.3%, with patients 60 years and above at 9.2%. There was statistically significant difference between male and female patients (p=0.001). A total of 912 (80.5%) patients had radiographic examination done out of which only 324 (35.5%) radiographs could be retrieved. There were 106 (32.7%) radiographs with various bony injuries which was statistically significant (p=0.001). Rib fractures represented 19/106 (17.9%) of which 62.5% had multiple rib fractures. Fifty-eight (54.7%) had long bone fractures. Other anatomical sites included the pelvis and the skull. Conclusion: Trauma is a major public health problem in the country, involving mainly the productive age group. Unnecessary exposure to X-rays is common. Inadequate management of trauma patients negatively impacts on the outcome of trauma patients. Trauma prevention is the best way forward.(au)

  13. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Chadrabose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Materials Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years. Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. Results The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months. The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS preoperatively was 48 (35-70. The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95. With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°. The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500, 116°of flexion (1100-1300, and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000. One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. Conclusion We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  14. Double-grooved nanofibre surfaces with enhanced anisotropic hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Meimei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Jin, Xiangyu; Huang, Chen

    2017-11-02

    This study reports a facile method for fabricating double-grooved fibrous surfaces. The primary grooves of the surface are formed by aligned fibres, while the secondary grooves are achieved by oriented nanogrooves on the fibre surface. Investigation into the formation mechanism reveals that the nanogrooves can be readily tailored through adjusting the solvent ratio and relative humidity. With this understanding, a variety of polymers have been successfully electrospun into fibres having the same nanogrooved feature. These fibres show high resemblance to natural hierarchical structures, and thereby endowing the corresponding double-grooved surface with enhanced anisotropic hydrophobicity. A water droplet at a parallel direction to the grooves exhibits a much higher contact angle and a lower roll-off angle than the droplet at a perpendicular direction. The application potential of such anisotropic hydrophobicity has been demonstrated via a fog collection experiment, in which the double-grooved surface can harvest the largest amount of water. Moreover, the fabrication method requires neither post-treatment nor sophisticated equipment, making us anticipate that the double-grooved surface would be competitive in areas where a highly ordered surface, a large surface area and an anisotropic hydrophobicity are preferred.

  15. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Rotating Pumping Flows in Inter-Coil Rotor Cavities and Short Cooling Grooves of a Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tong

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of wall rotating-driven flows is the tendency of fluid with high angular momentum to be flung radially outward. For a generator, the rotor rotating-driven flow, usually referred to as the rotating pumping flow, plays an important role in rotor winding cooling. In this study, three-dimensional numerical analyzes are presented for turbulent pumping flow in the inter-coil rotor cavity and short cooling grooves of a generator. Calculations of the flow field and the mass flux distribution through the grooves were carried out in a sequence of four related cases Under an isothermal condition: (a pumping flow, which is the self-generated flow resulted from the rotor pumping action; (b mixing flow, which is the combination of the ventilating flow and pumping flow, under a constant density condition; (c mixing flow, with density modeled by the ideal gas law; and (d mixing flow, with different pressure differentials applied on the system. The comparisons of the results from these cases can provide useful information regarding the impacts of the ventilating flow, gas density, and system pressure differential on the mass flux distribution in the short cooling grooves. Results show that the pumping effect is strong enough to generate the cooling flow for rotor winding cooling. Therefore, for small- or mid-size generators ventilation fans may be eliminated. It also suggests that increasing the chimney dimension can improve the distribution uniformity of mass flux through the cooling grooves.

  17. Surgical Management of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas | El-Naggar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the bifrontal approach to olfactory groove meningiomas ... in all patients was Grade I meningiomas (World Health Organization grading). ... Bifrontal approach offers excellent exposure, and when combined with modern ...

  18. Interproximal grooving in the Atapuerca-SH hominid dentitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Arsuaga, J L; Pérez, P J

    1997-03-01

    The dental sample recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) Middle Pleistocene cave site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain) includes 296 specimens. Interproximal wear grooves have been observed in 20 maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth belonging to at least five of the 32 individuals identified so far in the SH hypodigm. Interproximal grooving affected only the adults, and at an age between 25 and 40 years. The appearance, morphology, and location pattern of the SH wear grooves are similar to those reported in other fossil hominids and in more recent human populations. Two alternative proposals, the toothpicking and the fiber or sinew processing hypotheses, compete for explaining the formation of this anomalous wear. The characteristics observed in the wear grooves of the SH teeth are compatible only with the habitual probing of interdental spaces by means of hard and inflexible objects. Dietary grit may also have contributed to the abrasion of the root walls during the motion of the dental probes.

  19. Fractures of the proximal humerus involving the intertubercular groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahovuo, J.; Paavolainen, P.; Bjoerkenheim, J.M.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the involvement of the gliding surface of the biceps tendon in fractures of the proximal humerus. Fifteen patients had a fracture of the proximal humerus verified with antero-posterior and axillary radiographs. Tangential radiographs of the intertubercular groove, obtained from the shoulder joint, showed involvement of the intertubercular groove in 13 patients (87%), which could not be shown with other projections. Groove radiographs revealed in 3 patients a dislocation of the fragments of the greater tuberosity large enough to require surgical treatment, but which had not been found using conventional techniques. Therefore, a groove radiograph should be used to precise fractures of the proximal humerus. (orig.)

  20. V-groove plasmonic waveguides fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cuesta, I.; Nielsen, R.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication of integra...... of integrated optical devices composed of metal V grooves. This method represents an improvement with respect to previous works, where the V grooves were fabricated by direct milling of the metal, in terms of robustness and throughput. © 2007 American Vacuum Society......Propagation of channel plasmon-polariton modes in the bottom of a metal V groove has been recently demonstrated. It provides a unique way of manipulating light at nanometer length scale. In this work, we present a method based on nanoimprint lithography that allows parallel fabrication...

  1. Radiographic Study on the Bony Changes of Mandibular Condyle Head in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moo Soon; You, Dong Soo

    1989-01-01

    The author has studied radiographic bony changes of mandibular condyle head in temporomandibular disorder patients using Oblique lateral transcranial projection, Orthopantomography, and Tomography. The bony change types and the frequencies of occurrence and the incidences of bony changes in three different radiographic techniques were examined. The coincidences of body change types between the Oblique lateral transcranial projection and the lateral part of Tomogram, the Orthopantomogram and the medial part of Tomogram were also examined. The results were as follows: 1. The mean age of patients was 31.7 years and under 40 years were 24 patients, women were 27 patients, men were 4 patients. 2. The observable cases of bony changes in all three radiographic techniques were 19 cases (50%) of 38 cases and the observable cases of bony changes in only Tomography were 5 cases (13.2%). 3. The most frequent radiographic bony change type was osteophyte and next orders were flattening, erosion, concavity. 4. The positional incidences of bony changes in Tomogram were 31 cases in lateral part and 27 cases in central part. 5. The coincidence of bony change types between the oblique lateral transcranial projection and the lateral part of Tomogram was 80%, and the coincidence between the Orthopantomogram and the medial part of Tomogram was 76.9%.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C.; Freitas, P.M.C.; Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  3. [Developmental radicular groove as a cause of endodontic failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H; Millet Part, J

    1989-01-01

    A clinical case of apical injury on an upper lateral incisor with endodontical and surgical failures in its treatment is presented. Extraction of the incisor and its study at the stereoscopic microscope showed the existence of a developmental groove running from the cingulum to the end of the root, establishing a communication between the crevice and the apical part of the tooth. Bacterial infection through the groove could provide an explanation for treatment failure.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Tribological Performance of Grooved Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ping

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of the angle and arrangement forms of micro-grooves on the tribological performance of the contact surface, the finite element analysis software was used to simulate the grooved textures with different angles and arrangements. The YLP-20 laser processing system was used to process grooved texture on stainless steel disk surfaces, and the Tribometer (UMT-2 was also used to conduct tribological test under the condition of rotation. The results show that the numerical simulation values are basically consistent with experimental results of grooved textures, and the tribological performance of the friction pairs with textures is also improved. The grooved textures with different angles and arrangement forms have different influence on tribological performance of friction pairs. When the friction velocity is less than 300r/min, the parallel texture with 0° has smaller friction coefficients. While the friction velocity is larger than 300r/min, the parallel texture with 90° has a better ability of reducing friction. Therefore, different grooved textures should be chosen according to operation conditions.

  5. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  6. Formation Mechanisms for Spur and Groove Features on Fringing Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Perron, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Spur and groove systems (SAGs) are ubiquitous morphological features found on fore-reef slopes globally. SAGs consist of parallel, roughly shore-normal ridges of actively growing coral and coralline algae (spurs) separated by offshore-sloping depressions typically carpeted by a veneer of sediment (grooves). Although anecdotal observations and recent statistical analyses have reported correlations between wave exposure and the distribution of SAGs on fore-reef slopes, the physical mechanisms driving SAG formation remain poorly understood. For example, there remains significant debate regarding the importance of coral growth versus bed erosion for SAG formation. Here we investigate a hypothesis that SAG formation is controlled by feedbacks between sediment production and diffusion and coral growth. Using linear stability analysis, we find that sediment production, coral growth, and the feedbacks between them are unable to produce stable periodic structures without a sediment sink. However, if incipient grooves act as conduits for sediment transport offshore, a positive feedback can develop as the groove bed erodes through wave-driven abrasion during offshore transport. Eventually a negative feedback slows groove deepening when the groove bed is armored by sediment, and the groove bed relaxes to a sediment-veneered equilibrium profile analogous to sediment-rich shorefaces. To test this hypothesis, we apply a numerical model that incorporates coral growth and sediment production, sediment diffusion, non-linear wave-driven abrasion, and sediment advection offshore. This model produces the periodic, linear features characteristic of SAG morphology. The relative magnitude of growth, production, diffusion, abrasion, and advection rates affect periodic spacing or wavelength of the modeled SAGs. Finally, we evaluate the ability of the model to replicate geographical variability in SAG characteristics using previously published datasets and reanalysis wave data.

  7. Deconstructing dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Extra-dimensional physics is realized as the low-energy limit of lower-dimensional gauge theories. This 'deconstruction' of dimensions provides a UV completion of higher-dimensional theories, and has been used to investigate the physics of extra-dimensions. This technique has also led to a variety of interesting phenomenological applications, especially a new class of models of electroweak superconductivity, called the 'little Higgs'. (author)

  8. Airway Obstruction and the Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Deformity: Contributions by the Bony Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Michael T; Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed M; Murage, Kariuki; Kula, Katherine S; Tholpady, Sunil; Havlik, Robert J; Flores, Roberto L

    2015-07-01

    Patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) deformities commonly develop nasal airway obstruction, necessitating septoplasty at the time of definitive rhinoplasty. We assessed the contribution of the bony septum to airway obstruction using computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). A 2-year retrospective review of all subjects with unilateral CLP who underwent CBCT imaging (n = 22) and age-matched controls (n = 9) who underwent CT imaging was conducted. Control CT scans were used to determine the segment of nasal septum comprised almost entirely of bone. The CBCT of the nasal airway was assessed using Dolphin software to determine the contribution of the bony septum to septal deviation and airway obstruction. The nasal septum posterior to the midpoint between anterior and posterior nasal spine is comprised of 96% bone. The nasal airway associated with this posterior bony segment was 43.1% (P < 0.001) larger by volume on the non-cleft side in patients with unilateral CLP. The average septal deviation within the posterior bony segment was 5.4 mm, accounting for 74.4% of the maximal deviation within the nasal airway. The average airway stenosis within the posterior bony nasal airway was 0.45 mm (0-2.2 mm). In patients with unilateral CLP, the bony nasal septum can demonstrate significant deviation and airway stenosis. Surgeons should consider a bony septoplasty in their treatment algorithm in unilateral CLP patients who have reached skeletal maturity.

  9. Algodystrophy in children and young adults with isotopic bony hypofixation. A propos of 5 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, P.; Pattin, S.; Eulry, F.; Granier, R.; Gaillard, F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report 5 observations of young adults 3 teen-agers and 2 children suffering from algodystrophy, and in whom isotopic exploration of the skeleton disclosed a clear bony hypofixation during the entire evolution. These observations confirm their 1981 work concerning a young adult suffering from algodystrophy with isotopic bony hypofixation. Recent Canadian and American studies emphasize also the frequency of isotopic hypofixation in children algodystrophy. It seems, therefore, that isotopic bony hypofixation (linked perhaps to a decreased blood flow), is rather specific of algodystrophy in young subjects [fr

  10. Performance optimization of grooved slippers for aero hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation method based on 3-D Navier–Stokes equation and Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE method is presented to analyze the grooved slipper performance of piston pump. The moving domain of grooved slipper is transformed into a fixed reference domain by the ALE method, which makes it convenient to take the effects of rotate speed, body force, temperature, and oil viscosity into account. A geometric model to express the complex structure, which covers the orifice of piston and slipper, vented groove and the oil film, is constructed. Corresponding to different oil film thicknesses calculated in light of hydrostatic equilibrium theory and boundary conditions, a set of simulations is conducted in COMSOL to analyze the pump characteristics and effects of geometry (groove width and radius, orifice size on these characteristics. Furthermore, the mechanics and hydraulics analyses are employed to validate the CFD model, and there is an excellent agreement between simulation and analytical results. The simulation results show that the sealing land radius, orifice size and groove width all dramatically affect the slipper behavior, and an optimum tradeoff among these factors is conducive to optimizing the pump design.

  11. Documentation of roller-bearing effect on butterfly inspired grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sashank; Lang, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly wings are covered with scales in a roof shingle pattern which align together to form grooves. The increase or decrease of laminar friction drag depends on the flow orientation to the scales. Flow in the longitudinal direction to the grooves encounters increased surface area which increases the friction drag. However, in the transverse direction, for low Re laminar flow, a single vortex is formed inside each groove and is predicted to remain stable due to the very low Re of the flow in each cavity. These embedded vortices act as roller bearings to the flow above, such that the fluid from the outer boundary layer does not mix with fluid inside the cavities. This leads to a reduction of skin friction drag when compared to a smooth surface. When the cavity flow Re is increased beyond a critical point, the vortex becomes unstable and the low-momentum fluid in the grooves mixes with the outer boundary layer flow, increasing the drag. The objective of this experiment is to determine the critical Re where the embedded vortex transitions from a stable to an unstable state using DPIV. Subsequently, for steady vortex conditions, a comparison of skin friction drag between the grooved and flat plate can show that the butterfly scaled surface can result in sub-laminar friction drag. The National Science Foundation (Grant No. 1335848).

  12. Design of pellet surface grooves for fission gas plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.J.; Jones, L.R.; Macici, N.; Miller, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the Canada deuterium uranium pressurized heavy water reactor, short (50-cm) Zircaloy-4 clad bundles are fueled on-power. Although internal void volume within the fuel rods is adequate for the present once-through natural uranium cycle, the authors have investigated methods for increasing the internal gas storage volume needed in high-power, high-burnup, experimental ceramic fuels. This present work sought to prove the methodology for design of gas storage volume within the fuel pellets - specifically the use of grooves pressed or machined into the relatively cool pellet/cladding interface. Preanalysis and design of pellet groove shape and volume was accomplished using the TRUMP heat transfer code. Postirradiation examination (PIE) was used to check the initial design and heat transfer assumptions. Fission gas release was found to be higher for the grooved pellet rods than for the comparison rods with hollow or unmodified pellets. This had been expected from the initial TRUMP thermal analyses. The ELESIM fuel modeling code was used to check in-reactor performance, but some modifications were necessary to accommodate the loss of heat transfer surface to the grooves. It was concluded that for plenum design purposes, circumferential pellet grooves could be adequately modeled by the codes TRUMP and ELESIM

  13. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  14. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Chen, H L; Liu, T; Liu, Y H; Liu, Z B; Liu, D H

    2012-01-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  15. Research on performance of upstream pumping mechanical seal with different deep spiral groove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, H. L.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y. H.; Liu, Z. B.; Liu, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    As one new type of mechanical seal, Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal has been widely used in fluid machinery. In this paper, structure of spiral groove is innovatively optimized to improve performance of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with Spiral Groove: keeping the dam zone and the weir zone not changed, changing the bottom shape of spiral groove only, substituting different deep spiral groove for equal deep spiral groove. The simulation on Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with different deep spiral grooves is done using FVM method. According to calculation, the performances of opening force and pressure distribution on seals face are obtained. Five types of spiral grooves are analyzed, namely equal deep spiral groove, circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, circumferential divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove, radial convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove and radial divergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove. This paper works on twenty-five working conditions. The results indicate the performances of circumferential divergent 2-ladder different deep spiral groove are better than the others, with more opening force and better stabilization, while with the same leakage. The outcome provides theoretical support for application of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal with circumferential convergent ladder-like different deep spiral groove.

  16. Atypical olfactory groove meningioma associated with uterine fibromatosis; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of the olfactory groove meningioma with uterine fibrosis is very rare. Our report presents the case of a giant olfactory groove meningioma revealed after a uterine fibroma resection in a 44 years-old female, due to a generalized seizure 10 days after operation. Cranial CT-scan identified the tumor as an olfactory groove meningioma. The tumor was operated with a macroscopically complete resection; the endothermal coagulation of the dura attachment was performed (Simpson II with a good postoperative evolution. Laboratory results showed the presence of receptors for steroid hormones both in meningioma and uterine tumor, and the histopathological examination revealed an atypical meningioma with 17% proliferation markers. Our findings suggest that even though meningiomas are benign tumors and a complete resection usually indicates a good prognosis, the association with uterine fibromatosis and the presence of high percentage of steroid receptors creates a higher risk to relapse, imposing therefore a good monitoring.

  17. Gap and channeled plasmons in tapered grooves: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, C. L. C.; Stenger, Nicolas; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Tapered metallic grooves have been shown to support plasmons - electromagnetically coupled oscillations of free electrons at metal-dielectric interfaces - across a variety of configurations and V-like profiles. Such plasmons may be divided into two categories: gap-surface plasmons (GSPs) that are......Tapered metallic grooves have been shown to support plasmons - electromagnetically coupled oscillations of free electrons at metal-dielectric interfaces - across a variety of configurations and V-like profiles. Such plasmons may be divided into two categories: gap-surface plasmons (GSPs...... platform to explore the fundamental science of plasmon excitations and their interactions. In this Review, we provide a research status update of plasmons in tapered grooves, starting with a presentation of the theory and important features of GSPs and CPPs, and follow with an overview of the broad range...

  18. Arthroscopic Anterior Shoulder Stabilization With Incorporation of a Comminuted Bony Bankart Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Lansdown, Drew; Bernardoni, Eamon D.; Cotter, Eric J.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2017-01-01

    Bony Bankart lesions are a common finding in patients with anterior glenohumeral dislocation. Although there are no defined guidelines, small bony Bankart fractures are typically treated arthroscopically with suture anchors. The 2 main techniques used are double- and single-row suture anchor stabilization, with debate over superiority. Biomechanical studies have shown improved reduction and stabilization with the double-row over the single-row suture anchor technique; however, this has not be...

  19. Guided tissue regeneration for periodontal infra-bony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, I G; Worthington, H V; Giedrys-Leeper, E; Tucker, R J

    2006-04-19

    Conventional treatment of destructive periodontal (gum) disease arrests the disease but does not usually regain the bone support or connective tissue lost in the disease process. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical procedure that specifically aims to regenerate the periodontal tissues when the disease is advanced and could overcome some of the limitations of conventional therapy. To assess the efficacy of GTR in the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects measured against conventional surgery (open flap debridement (OFD)) and factors affecting outcomes. We conducted an electronic search of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to April 2004. Handsearching included Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and bibliographies of all relevant papers and review articles up to April 2004. In addition, we contacted experts/groups/companies involved in surgical research to find other trials or unpublished material or to clarify ambiguous or missing data and posted requests for data on two periodontal electronic discussion groups. Randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 12 months duration comparing guided tissue regeneration (with or without graft materials) with open flap debridement for the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects. Furcation involvements and studies specifically treating aggressive periodontitis were excluded. Screening of possible studies and data extraction was conducted independently. The methodological quality of studies was assessed in duplicate using individual components and agreement determined by Kappa scores. Methodological quality was used in sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the conclusions. The Cochrane Oral Health Group statistical guidelines were followed and the results expressed as mean differences (MD and 95% CI) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR and 95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes calculated using

  20. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter; Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Owens, Catherine M.; Rosendahl, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  1. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L 0 ) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N 0 ) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p 1 ) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N 1 ) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p 2 ) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N 2 ) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  2. Tailoring channeled plasmon polaritons in metallic V-grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Marie, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    of propagating plasmons to optimize the trade-off between lateral confinement and loss [2]. Accordingly, the traits of CPPs in metallic V-grooves suggest their widespread implementation, with applications ranging from ultracompact photonic circuitry [3] to lab-on-a-chip sensing. Current CPP research focuses...

  3. Flow characterization in periodic microchannels containing asymmetric grooves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio-Nesme, A; Delgado, A, E-mail: anuhar.nesme@fau.de [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander Erlangen-Nuremberg University, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Characterization of two-dimensional flows in microchannels with anisotropic periodic grooves is numerically carried out by using the lattice Boltzmann method. Periodically placed microstructures, consisting of novel nozzle-diffuser-like grooves are deliberately designed to introduce a flow-direction dependent resistance. Simulations were conducted for a low-to-moderate Reynolds number in the laminar-transition flow regime. Different channel geometries, defined by the half-angle ϕ of the periodic grooves are considered. The influence of the half-angle on both the flow field and the onset of oscillatory flow regime at different driving body forces is analyzed. At a low Reynolds number, the flow is observed stationary and fully reversible, regardless of the groove geometry. In this regime, higher Reynolds numbers were observed when the geometry acts as a diffuser (negative flow) than as a nozzle (positive flow) for a given driving body force. At sufficiently high Reynolds number the flow turns from a steady state to a time-dependent oscillatory regime through a Hopf bifurcation. Successive flow bifurcations lead the flow structure from a periodic regime to a quasi-chaotic regime with three-dimensional structures. The onset of unsteady flow occurs earlier for positive flows and geometries with small half-angles. For higher driving forces, there is a reduction in the volume flow rate due to the advected material in the transversal direction, causing consequently a decrease in the Reynolds number. (paper)

  4. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Maria A G; Clarke, Eric F; Wallentin, Mikkel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.

  5. Novel scaffold design with multi-grooved PLA fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sangwon; King, Martin W; Gamcsik, Mike P

    2011-01-01

    A novel prototype nonwoven textile structure containing polylactide (PLA) multigrooved fibers has been proposed as a possible scaffold material for superior cell attachment and proliferation. Grooved cross-sectional fibers with larger surface area were obtained by a bi-component spinning system and the complete removal of the sacrificial component was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. These PLA nonwoven scaffolds containing the grooved fibers exhibited enhanced wettability, greater flexibility and tensile properties, and a larger surface area compared to a traditional PLA nonwoven fabric containing round fibers. To evaluate cellular attachment on the two types of PLA nonwoven scaffolds, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured for up to 12 days. It was evident that the initial cellular attachment was superior on the scaffold with grooved fibers, which was confirmed by MTT viability assay (p < 0.01) and SEM analysis. In the future, by modulating the size of the grooves on the fibers, such a scaffold material with a large surface area could serve as an alternative matrix for culturing different types of cells.

  6. Wet Weather Crater Repair Technologies for Grooved and Smooth Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Dean Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory 3909 Halls Ferry Road ...SUBJECT TERMS Crater Concrete Rain and rainfall ADR Grooved pavement Smooth pavement Runoff Runways (Aeronautics) – Maintenance and repair

  7. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A G Witek

    Full Text Available Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.

  8. The complex radicular groove: interdisciplinary management with mineral trioxide aggregate and bone substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmatha, V J; Thakur, Sophia; Shetty, Sheetal; Bali, Praveen Kumar

    2014-11-01

    This article is a case report of the successful interdisciplinary management of a maxillary lateral incisor with a deep palatogingival groove. The tooth presented with severe periodontal destruction owing to the deep extension of the groove up to the root apex. The groove was meticulously diagnosed and treated by endodontic and subsequent periodontal surgery leading to complete resolution of the pathological process.

  9. Numerical investigation of the effects of geometric parameters on transverse motion with slanted-groove micro-mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Seung Joo; Cho, Jae Yong; Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We investigated hydrodynamic phenomena inside several passive microfluidic mixers using a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on particle mesoscopic kinetic equations. Mixing processes were simulated in a Slanted grooved micro-mixer (SGM), a Staggered herringbone grooved micro-mixer (SHM), and a Bi-layered staggered herringbone grooved micro-mixer (BSHM). Then, the effects of six geometric mixer parameters (i.e., groove height to channel height ratio, groove width to groove pitch length ratio, groove pitch to groove height ratio, groove intersection angle, herringbone groove asymmetric ratio and bi-layered groove asymmetric ratio) on mixing were investigated using computed cross-flow velocity and helicity density distributions in the flow cross-section. We demonstrated that helicity density provides sufficient information to analyze micro helical motion within a micro-mixer, allowing for micro-mixer design optimization.

  10. Grooved windows for scintillation crystals and light pipes of high refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinehart, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Scintillation crystals are disclosed which have improved resolution and pulse height. An improved crystal has shallow grooves or spot depressions cut in the window, usually an end surface. Typical grooves are about 1.5 mm wide and about .1 mm deep. The grooves may be either horizontal, generally parallel grooves in spaced apart relationship, or concentric rings in radially spaced apart relationship. A light pipe of high refractive index, such as a crystal of pure sodium iodide, may also be improved with shallow grooves or spot depressions cut in an end surface

  11. Severe bony ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint on one side and contralateral adhesion: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Gon; Choi, Hang Moon; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Bony fusion between the mandibular condyle and skull base involves temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis. This condition might originate from trauma, infection, or systemic disease. TMJ adhesion can develop after synovial damage. Both TMJ ankylosis and adhesion lead to functional impairment and pain. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old female who had bony ankylosis of the right TMJ and adhesion of the left TMJ. She had otitis media in the right ear. A large mass in the right TMJ was observed on computed tomograph. Magnetic resonance image showed a large fused bone mass with normal bone marrow in the right TMJ and flattening of the condyle with a thin disk in the left TMJ. Gap arthroplasty with temporal fascia was performed on the right TMJ, and discectomy, high condylectomy, and coronoidectomy were performed on the left TMJ. During a 2-year follow-up after surgery, the patient had no recurrence

  12. Severe bony ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint on one side and contralateral adhesion: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Young [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gon; Choi, Hang Moon [School of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jung [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Bony fusion between the mandibular condyle and skull base involves temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis. This condition might originate from trauma, infection, or systemic disease. TMJ adhesion can develop after synovial damage. Both TMJ ankylosis and adhesion lead to functional impairment and pain. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old female who had bony ankylosis of the right TMJ and adhesion of the left TMJ. She had otitis media in the right ear. A large mass in the right TMJ was observed on computed tomograph. Magnetic resonance image showed a large fused bone mass with normal bone marrow in the right TMJ and flattening of the condyle with a thin disk in the left TMJ. Gap arthroplasty with temporal fascia was performed on the right TMJ, and discectomy, high condylectomy, and coronoidectomy were performed on the left TMJ. During a 2-year follow-up after surgery, the patient had no recurrence.

  13. Incidence of dehiscence of the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal by CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Dehiscence of the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal (SSCC) is rare, but it has been recognized by otologists since Minor et al first described superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS). In this study, dehiscence of the bony roof of SSCC was incidentally detected in three patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo out of 49 serial patients with vertigo and dizziness by multi-slice computed tomography. Although detection of dehiscence of the SSCC by ultra-high-resolution CT imaging of the temporal bones has been required for a diagnosis of SCDS, this study showed that dehiscence of the bony roof of the SSCC can be an incidental finding and therefore is not specific for SCDS. (author)

  14. Bilateral bony fusion around the supraspinatus muscle inducing muscle hypoplasia and shoulder pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, YeNa; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology, 892, Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 23 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We describe the case of a 30-year-old man who developed chronic bilateral shoulder pain that relapsed and remitted over the course of 1 year. The patient was diagnosed with congenital shoulder fusion anomalies. The right shoulder showed anomalous accessory articulation between the distal third of the clavicle and the acromion along with normal articulation of the shoulder on CT. At the left shoulder, bony fusions were present between the distal portion of the clavicle, the acromion, and the coracoid process, and between the coracoid process, upper portion of the glenoid, and upper body of the scapula, which formed a bony canal and was responsible for hypoplasia of the supraspinatus muscle on CT and MRI. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such congenital shoulder anomalies with extreme bony fusion and is an illustrative example of how imaging may be used to differentiate fusion from other congenital abnormalities of the shoulder to aid diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Patterns of congenital bony spinal deformity and associated neural anomalies on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Trenga, Anthony P.; Singla, Anuj; Feger, Mark A.; Abel, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Congenital malformations of the bony vertebral column are often accompanied by spinal cord anomalies; these observations have been reinforced with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that the incidence of cord anomalies will increase as the number and complexity of bony vertebral abnormalities increases. Methods All patients aged ?13 years (n?=?75) presenting to the pediatric spine clinic from 2003?2013 with congenital bony spinal deformity and both radiograph...

  16. Bony morphology of the hip in professional ballet dancers compared to athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2017-07-01

    To compare hip bony morphology between ballet dancers and a sporting control group and to determine the relationship with hip pain. Thirty-three professional ballet dancers and 33 age- and sex-matched athletes completed questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent clinical testing and 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging to measure acetabular coverage with lateral centre edge angles, femoral head-neck junction concavity with alpha angles at anterior and superior positions, femoral neck-shaft angles, and acetabular version angles. Bony morphological measures fell within normal ranges. Dancers had higher neck-shaft angles (dancers 134.6 ± 4.6°/athletes130.8 ± 4.7°, p = 0.002), lower acetabular version angles (13.5 ± 4.7°/17.1 ± 4.7°, p = 0.003), lower superior alpha angles (38.9 ± 6.9°/46.7 ± 10.6°, p ballet dancers have hip bony morphology that differentiates them from athletes. Hip pain correlated poorly with bony morphology. • Ballet dancers have hip bony morphology that may allow extreme hip motion. • Morphological parameter means fell within normal reference intervals in dancers. • Bony morphology correlates poorly with hip pain. • The risk of hip injury due to abnormal morphology requires prospective studies.

  17. Unified design of sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Lu, Peng

    2010-10-20

    A general design rule of deep-etched subwavelength sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating as a highly efficient polarization-independent or polarization-selective device is studied based on the simplified modal method, which shows that the device structure depends little on the incident wavelength, but mainly on the ratio of groove depth to incident wavelength and the ratio of wavelength to grating period. These two ratios could be used as the design guidelines for wavelength-independent structure from deep ultraviolet to far infrared. The optimized grating profile with a different function as a polarizing beam splitter, a polarization-independent two-port beam splitter, or a polarization-independent grating with high efficiency of -1st order is obtained at a wavelength of 1064 nm, and verified by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The performance of the sinusoidal grating is better than a conventional rectangular one, which could be useful for practical applications.

  18. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially groove and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  19. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially "groove" and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  20. Hydrodynamic simulations of microjetting from shock-loaded grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, C.; de Rességuier, T.; Sollier, A.; Lescoute, E.; Soulard, L.; Loison, D.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with a free surface which has geometrical defects, such as cavities or grooves, may lead to the ejection of micrometric debris at velocities of km/s. This process can be involved in many applications, like pyrotechnics or industrial safety. Recent laser shock experiments reported elsewhere in this conference have provided some insight into jet formation as well as jet tip velocities for various groove angles and shock pressures. Here, we present hydrodynamic simulations of these experiments, in both 2D and 3D geometries, using both finite element method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Numerical results are compared to several theoretical predictions including the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. The role of the elastic-plastic behavior on jet formation is illustrated. Finally, the possibility to simulate the late stage of jet expansion and fragmentation is explored, to evaluate the mass distribution of the ejecta and their ballistic properties, still essentially unknown in the experiments.

  1. Numerical analysis of lateral illumination lightpipes using elliptical grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerrero, Guillermo E.; Viera-González, Perla M.; Martínez-Guerra, Edgar; Ceballos-Herrera, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Lightpipes are used for illumination in applications such as back-lighting or solar cell concentrators due to the high irradiance uniformity, but its optimal design requires several parameters. This work presents a procedure to design a square lightpipe to control the light-extraction on its lateral face using commercial LEDs placed symmetrically in the lightpipe frontal face. We propose the use of grooves using total internal reflection placed successively in the same face of extraction to control the area of emission. The LED area of emission is small compared with the illuminated area, and, as expected, the lateral face total power is attenuated. These grooves reduce the optical elements in the system and can control areas of illumination. A mathematical and numerical analysis are presented to determine the dependencies on the light-extraction.

  2. Condensation and Evaporation Transitions in Deep Capillary Grooves

    OpenAIRE

    Malijevský, A. (Alexandr); Parry, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature $T_w$ condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metas...

  3. Melorheostosis of the hand with complicating bony spur formation and bursal inflammation: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameen, S.; Anderson, S.E.; Nagy, L.; Gerich, U.

    2002-01-01

    A 37-year old woman presented with intolerable pain associated with a slowly growing mass on the dorsum of the right hand. The radiographs were characteristic of melorheostosis involving the third and fourth metacarpals, with a cortical bony projection extending from the base of the third metacarpal eroding slightly into the fourth metacarpal, associated with bursal formation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an inflamed bursal collection adjacent to the spur. This region corresponded to the patient's severe clinical, focal pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in which melorheostosis of the hand has been associated with bony spur formation and complicated by an inflamed bursa. (orig.)

  4. Groove Pancreatitis – A Mimic of Pancreatic and Periampullary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakami R Pradheepkumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Groove Pancreatitis (GP is a rare form of focal chronic pancreatitis involving the pancreatico-duodenal groove (PDG. GP was first described by Becker in 1973. Though, GP has been described so many years ago, it is still unfamiliar among most physicians because of lack of sufficient case studies and clinical similarity of GP to conventional pancreatitis. Imaging based differentiation of GP from other lesions, like pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma is also not possible in all the cases, unless there are typical findings favoring GP. Since, the line of treatment and outcome is totally different in these two conditions, appreciation of the fine differences between these two entities is very significant. Groove pancreatitis is symptomatically treated with medicines and only for patients with continuous and severe symptoms which are not amenable to medical treatment surgical management is considered. Radiological differentiation of GP from pancreatic and periampullary malignancies will help to avoid unnecessary surgery in the initial stages. We report two cases of GP, one of pure and other of segmental form where we found typical imaging features which pointed to the diagnosis of GP with a small discussion about the Computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI appearance of this entity as well as its differential diagnosis.

  5. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade recordable DVDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guilin; Rivera, Felipe; Kanyal, Supriya Singh; Davis, Robert C.; Vanfleet, Richard; Lunt, Barry M.; Shutthanandan, Vaitiyalingam; Linford, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The plastic substrates, reflective layers, dyes, and adhesives of four archival-grade, recordable DVDs and one standard-grade recordable DVD were analyzed to determine their chemical compositions and/or physical dimensions. Chemical analyses by attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray/scanning transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry show that all these DVDs use very similar polycarbonate plastic substrates and acrylate-based adhesives, but different reflective layers and dye write layers. In addition, physical measurements by atomic force microscopy show differences in the DVD groove depth, width, and other dimensions. These chemical and physical analyses may help explain variations in DVD lifetimes and facilitate development of the next-generation archival-grade DVDs.

  6. Multiplying dimensions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    A few weeks ago, I had a vague notion of what TED was, and how it worked, but now I’m a confirmed fan. It was my privilege to host CERN’s first TEDx event last Friday, and I can honestly say that I can’t remember a time when I was exposed to so much brilliance in such a short time.   TEDxCERN was designed to give a platform to science. That’s why we called it Multiplying Dimensions – a nod towards the work we do here, while pointing to the broader importance of science in society. We had talks ranging from the most subtle pondering on the nature of consciousness to an eighteen year old researcher urging us to be patient, and to learn from our mistakes. We had musical interludes that included encounters between the choirs of local schools and will.i.am, between an Israeli pianist and an Iranian percussionist, and between Grand Opera and high humour. And although I opened the event by announcing it as a day off from physics, we had a quite brill...

  7. [Inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect in incomplete cleft palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Ma, Lian

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the inconformity between soft tissue defect and bony defect by observing the cleft extent of palate with complete secondary palate bony cleft in incomplete cleft palate patient. The patients with incomplete cleft palate treated in Hospital of Stomatology Peking University from July 2012 to June 2013 were reviewed, of which 75 cases with complete secondary palate bony cleft were selected in this study. The CT scan and intraoral photograph were taken before operation. The patients were classified as four types according to the extent of soft tissue defect. Type 1: soft tissue defect reached incisive foremen region, Type 2 was hard and soft cleft palate, Type 3 soft cleft palate and Type 4 submucous cleft palate. Type 1 was defined as conformity group (CG). The other three types were defined as inconformity group (ICG) and divided into three subgroups (ICG-I), (ICG-II) and (ICG-III). Fifty-seven patients were in ICG group, and the rate of inconformity was 76% (57/75). The percentage of ICG-I, ICG-II and ICG-III was 47% (27/57), 23% (13/57) and 30% (17/57), respevtively. There are different types of soft tissue deformity with complete secondary palate bony cleft. The inconformity between soft tissue and hard tissue defect exits in 3/4 of isolated cleft palate patients.

  8. Condylar bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a CBCT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis most commonly depends on clinical and radiographic findings. The present study attempted to observe the bony changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients from all age groups. The first-visit clinical records and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 440 TMJs from 220 consecutive TMJ patients were reviewed retrospectively. The most frequent condylar bony change observed was sclerosis (133 joints, 30.2%) followed by surface erosion (129 joints, 29.3%), flattening of the articular surface (112 joints, 25.5%), and deviation in form (58 joints, 13.2%), which included 33 TMJs in a cane-shape, 16 with a lateral or medial pole depression, 6 with posterior condylar surface flattening, and 3 with a bifid-shaped condyle. Fifty-three joints (12.0%) showed hypoplastic condyles but only 1 joint showed hyperplasia. Osteophyte was found in 35 joints (8.0%) and subcortical cyst in 24 joints (5.5%), 5 of which had surface erosion as well. One hundred nineteen joints (27.0%) had only one kind of condylar bony change, 66 joints (15.0%) had two, 52 joints (11.8%) had three, 12 joints (5.0%) had four, and 6 joints (1.4%) had five kinds of condylar bony changes at the same time. Eighty-five (65.9%) of 129 joints with surface erosion had pain recorded at the chief complaint. With more widespread use of CBCT, more specific or detailed guidelines for osteoarthritis are needed.

  9. Condylar bony changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a CBCT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis most commonly depends on clinical and radiographic findings. The present study attempted to observe the bony changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients from all age groups. The first-visit clinical records and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 440 TMJs from 220 consecutive TMJ patients were reviewed retrospectively. The most frequent condylar bony change observed was sclerosis (133 joints, 30.2%) followed by surface erosion (129 joints, 29.3%), flattening of the articular surface (112 joints, 25.5%), and deviation in form (58 joints, 13.2%), which included 33 TMJs in a cane-shape, 16 with a lateral or medial pole depression, 6 with posterior condylar surface flattening, and 3 with a bifid-shaped condyle. Fifty-three joints (12.0%) showed hypoplastic condyles but only 1 joint showed hyperplasia. Osteophyte was found in 35 joints (8.0%) and subcortical cyst in 24 joints (5.5%), 5 of which had surface erosion as well. One hundred nineteen joints (27.0%) had only one kind of condylar bony change, 66 joints (15.0%) had two, 52 joints (11.8%) had three, 12 joints (5.0%) had four, and 6 joints (1.4%) had five kinds of condylar bony changes at the same time. Eighty-five (65.9%) of 129 joints with surface erosion had pain recorded at the chief complaint. With more widespread use of CBCT, more specific or detailed guidelines for osteoarthritis are needed.

  10. A technique for the quantification of the 3D connectivity of thin articulations in bony sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloul, Asmaa; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Whyne, Cari M

    2010-04-19

    The anatomy and development of cranial and facial sutures have been studied in detail using histological sections, 2D radiographs and more recently CT imaging. However, little attention has been paid to evaluating and quantifying the connectivity of these thin cortical bone articulations. More recent technological advances such as micro-CT imaging has the potential to be used to provide quantitative measurements of 3D connectivity in bony articulations. This study presents a new technique for quantifying the connectivity of bony projections inside cranial and facial sutures using a combination of skeletonization, thinning algorithms and 3D intensity mapping. The technique is demonstrated in five sutures through semi-automated analysis and image processing of microCT scans. In the sagittal, coronal and frontozygomatic sutures an average bone connectivity of 6.6-11.6% was found with multiple bony projections providing an interlocking structure between adjacent bones. Much higher bone connectivity was present in the zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticomaxillary sutures (22.7-37.4%) with few bony projections. This method combining microCT scanning and image processing techniques was successfully used to quantify the connectivity of thin bone articulations and allowed detailed assessment of sutural fusion in 3D. The wider application of this technique may allow quantification of connectivity in other structures, in particular fracture healing of long bones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural resources utilization by the Aweer in Boni-lungi and Dodori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to record the utilization of Boni-Lungi and Dodori National Reserves by the Aweer community. Results indicate the procuring of a wide gamut of provisional, regulatory, cultural and supportive services from these reserves by the community ranging from wood forest products utilized in construction to ...

  12. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zaki Kotb

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  13. Comparison of megavoltage position verification for prostate irradiation based on bony anatomy and implanted fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nederveen, Aart J.; Dehnad, Homan; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A. van; Hofman, Pieter; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The patient position during radiotherapy treatment of prostate cancer can be verified with the help of portal images acquired during treatment. In this study we quantify the clinical consequences of the use of image-based verification based on the bony anatomy and the prostate target itself. Patients and methods: We analysed 2025 portal images and 23 computed tomography (CT) scans from 23 patients with prostate cancer. In all patients gold markers were implanted prior to CT scanning. Statistical data for both random and systematic errors were calculated for displacements of bones and markers and we investigated the effectiveness of an off-line correction protocol. Results: Standard deviations for systematic marker displacement are 2.4 mm in the lateral (LR) direction, 4.4 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction and 3.7 mm in the caudal-cranial direction (CC). Application of off-line position verification based on the marker positions results in a shrinkage of the systematic error to well below 1 mm. Position verification based on the bony anatomy reduces the systematic target uncertainty to 50% in the AP direction and in the LR direction. No reduction was observed in the CC direction. For six out of 23 patients we found an increase of the systematic error after application of bony anatomy-based position verification. Conclusions: We show that even if correction based on the bony anatomy is applied, considerable margins have to be set to account for organ motion. Our study highlights that for individual patients the systematic error can increase after application of bony anatomy-based position verification, whereas the population standard deviation will decrease. Off-line target-based position verification effectively reduces the systematic error to well below 1 mm, thus enabling significant margin reduction

  14. First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada’s Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Brochu, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada’s High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early – middle Eocene (∼53–50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada’s easternmost Arctic – Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada’s westernmost Arctic Island – Banks Island, Northwest Territories – they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. Principal Findings We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower – middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Conclusions/Significance These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early – middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  15. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  16. Association between condylar morphology and changes in bony microstructure and subsynovial inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Hauge, Ellen Margrethe; Dalstra, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Association between condylar morphology and changes in bony microstructure and subsynovial inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis. 86. Congress of the European Orthodontic Society, Slovenien, 2010.......Association between condylar morphology and changes in bony microstructure and subsynovial inflammation in experimental temporomandibular joint arthritis. 86. Congress of the European Orthodontic Society, Slovenien, 2010....

  17. CAT & MAUS: A novel system for true dynamic motion measurement of underlying bony structures with compensation for soft tissue movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison; Mellon, Stephen

    2017-09-06

    Optoelectronic motion capture systems are widely employed to measure the movement of human joints. However, there can be a significant discrepancy between the data obtained by a motion capture system (MCS) and the actual movement of underlying bony structures, which is attributed to soft tissue artefact. In this paper, a computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system with an augmented globally optimal registration algorithm is presented to dynamically track the underlying bony structure during movement. The augmented registration part of CAT & MAUS was validated with a high system accuracy of 80%. The Euclidean distance between the marker-based bony landmark and the bony landmark tracked by CAT & MAUS was calculated to quantify the measurement error of an MCS caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. The average Euclidean distance between the target bony landmark measured by each of the CAT & MAUS system and the MCS alone varied from 8.32mm to 16.87mm in gait. This indicates the discrepancy between the MCS measured bony landmark and the actual underlying bony landmark. Moreover, Procrustes analysis was applied to demonstrate that CAT & MAUS reduces the deformation of the body segment shape modeled by markers during motion. The augmented CAT & MAUS system shows its potential to dynamically detect and locate actual underlying bony landmarks, which reduces the MCS measurement error caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of DNA minor groove binding alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Prema; Srinivasan, Ajay; Singh, Sreelekha K; Mascara, Gerard P; Zayitova, Sevara; Sidone, Brian; Fouquerel, Elise; Svilar, David; Sobol, Robert W; Bobola, Michael S; Silber, John R; Gold, Barry

    2013-01-18

    Derivatives of methyl 3-(1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-5-(propylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-ylamino)-3-oxopropane-1-sulfonate (1), a peptide-based DNA minor groove binding methylating agent, were synthesized and characterized. In all cases, the N-terminus was appended with an O-methyl sulfonate ester, while the C-terminus group was varied with nonpolar and polar side chains. In addition, the number of pyrrole rings was varied from 2 (dipeptide) to 3 (tripeptide). The ability of the different analogues to efficiently generate N3-methyladenine was demonstrated as was their selectivity for minor groove (N3-methyladenine) versus major groove (N7-methylguanine) methylation. Induced circular dichroism studies were used to measure the DNA equilibrium binding properties of the stable sulfone analogues; the tripeptide binds with affinity that is >10-fold higher than that of the dipeptide. The toxicities of the compounds were evaluated in alkA/tag glycosylase mutant E. coli and in human WT glioma cells and in cells overexpressing and under-expressing N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase, which excises N3-methyladenine from DNA. The results show that equilibrium binding correlates with the levels of N3-methyladenine produced and cellular toxicity. The toxicity of 1 was inversely related to the expression of MPG in both the bacterial and mammalian cell lines. The enhanced toxicity parallels the reduced activation of PARP and the diminished rate of formation of aldehyde reactive sites observed in the MPG knockdown cells. It is proposed that unrepaired N3-methyladenine is toxic due to its ability to directly block DNA polymerization.

  19. Correcting groove error in gratings ruled on a 500-mm ruling engine using interferometric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiaotao; Yu, Haili; Yu, Hongzhu; Zhang, Shanwen; Li, Xiaotian; Yao, Xuefeng; Qi, Xiangdong; Bayinhedhig; Wan, Qiuhua

    2017-07-20

    Groove error is one of the most important factors affecting grating quality and spectral performance. To reduce groove error, we propose a new ruling-tool carriage system based on aerostatic guideways. We design a new blank carriage system with double piezoelectric actuators. We also propose a completely closed-loop servo-control system with a new optical measurement system that can control the position of the diamond relative to the blank. To evaluate our proposed methods, we produced several gratings, including an echelle grating with 79  grooves/mm, a grating with 768  grooves/mm, and a high-density grating with 6000  grooves/mm. The results show that our methods effectively reduce groove error in ruled gratings.

  20. Sequence specificity and biological consequences of drugs that bind covalently in the minor groove of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, L.H.; Needham-VanDevanter, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    DNA ligands which bind within the minor groove of DNA exhibit varying degrees of sequence selectivity. Factors which contribute to nucleotide sequence recognition by minor groove ligands have been extensively investigated. Electrostatic interactions, ligand and DNA dehydration energies, hydrophobic interactions and steric factors all play significant roles in sequence selectivity in the minor groove. Interestingly, ligand recognition of nucleotide sequence in the minor groove does not involve significant hydrogen bonding. This is in sharp contrast to cellular enzyme and protein recognition of nucleotide sequence, which is achieved in the major groove via specific hydrogen bond formation between individual bases and the ligand. The ability to read nucleotide sequence via hydrogen bonding allows precise binding of proteins to specific DNA sequences. Minor groove ligands examined to date exhibit a much lower sequence specificity, generally binding to a subset of possible sequences, rather than a single sequence. 19 refs., 7 figs

  1. Coronary sinus and atrioventricular groove avulsion after motor vehicle crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous cardiac and pericardial rupture from blunt chest trauma is a highly lethal combination with rarely reported survival. We report of a case of young patient with a right atrioventricular groove injury, pericardial rupture and a unique description of a coronary sinus avulsion following blunt chest trauma. Rapid recognition of this injury is crucial to patient survival, but traditional diagnostic adjuncts such as ultrasound, echocardiography and computed tomography are often unhelpful. Successful repair of these injuries requires high suspicion of injury, early cardiac surgery involvement of and possible even placement of the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass.

  2. Constitutional Syndrome, Ascites and Duodenal Thickening Presenting as Groove Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Frutos Perez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Groove pancreatitis (GP is a very infrequent subtype of chronic pancreatitis affecting the pancreatic-duodenal junction. It usually manifests in middle-aged men with a history of chronic alcoholism, though it has also been described in women and in individuals who do not consume alcohol[1]. Even though the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic alcohol consumption is known to increase the viscosity of the pancreatic juice and exacerbate the inflammatory process[2]. We present a case of GP that posed diagnostic difficulties because it manifested as ascites and duodenal thickening, with pancreatic imaging findings initially normal.

  3. Narrow groove gas metal-arc welding of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The Gas Metal-Arc (GMA) welding process is explained and the equipment used described with an analysis of power supply function and the action of the arc, followed by discussion of general applications and problems. GMA braze welding of beryllium is then described, as is the development of a special high purity filler wire and a narrow deep groove joint design for improved weld strength in beryllium. This joint design and the special wire are applied in making high strength welds in high strength aluminum for special applications. High speed motion pictures of the welding operation are shown to illustrate the talk. (auth)

  4. Combined endodontic-periodontic treatment of a palatal groove: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott A; Koch, Michael A; Deas, David E; Powell, Charles A

    2006-06-01

    The palatal groove is a developmental anomaly that predisposes the tooth involved to a severe periodontal defect. When further complicated by pulp necrosis, these grooves often present a diagnostic and treatment planning challenge that requires an interdisciplinary treatment approach. This case report describes the successful collaborative management of a maxillary lateral incisor with an extensive palatal groove using a combination of nonsurgical endodontic therapy, odontoplasty, and periodontal regenerative techniques.

  5. Management of endodontic-periodontic lesion of a maxillary lateral incisor with palatoradicular groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ramakrishna Vishwas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of palatal radicular grooves are considered to be an important contributing factor to the development of localized periodontitis, as it favored the accumulation and proliferation of bacterial plaque deep into the periodontium. Pulp involvement could result due to the introduction of bacterial toxins through channels that existed between the root canal system and the groove. Early diagnosis, elimination of inflammation and correction of anatomic complications are the key to a favorable outcome for managing palatoradicular groove. Present report describes successful management with an interdisciplinary approach of maxillary lateral incisor with combined endodontic periodontic lesion associated with palatoradicular groove.

  6. Enhanced heat transfer performances of molten salt receiver with spirally grooved pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing; Yu, Tao; Shen, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced heat transfer performances of solar receiver with spirally grooved pipe were theoretically investigated. The physical model of heat absorption process was proposed using the general heat transfer correlation of molten salt in smooth and spirally grooved pipe. According to the calculation results, the convective heat transfer inside the receiver can remarkably enhance the heat absorption process, and the absorption efficiency increased with the flow velocity and groove height, while the wall temperature dropped. As the groove height increased, the heat losses of convection and radiation dropped with the decrease of wall temperature, and the average absorption efficiency of the heat receiver can be increased. Compared with the heat receiver with smooth pipe, the heat absorption efficiency of heat receiver with spirally grooved pipe e/d = 0.0475 can rise for 0.7%, and the maximum bulk fluid temperature can be increased for 31.1 °C. As a conclusion, spirally grooved pipe can be a very effective way for heat absorption enhancement of solar receiver, and it can also increase the operating temperature of molten salt. - Highlights: • Spirally grooved tube is a very effective way for solar receiver enhancement. • Heat absorption model of receiver is proposed with general heat transfer correlation. • Spirally groove tube increases absorption efficiency and reduces wall temperature. • Operating temperature of molten salt remarkably increases with groove height. • Heat absorption performance is promoted for first and second thermodynamics laws

  7. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M; Mullender, B; Druart, J [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W; Beddows, A [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  8. Syncopation affects free body-movement in musical groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witek, Maria A. G.; Popescu, Tudor; Clarke, Eric F

    2016-01-01

    One of the most immediate and overt ways in which people respond to music is by moving their bodies to the beat. However, the extent to which the rhythmic complexity of groove-specifically its syncopation-contributes to how people spontaneously move to music is largely unexplored. Here, we measur...... on the body-part. We demonstrate that while people do not move or synchronise much to rhythms with high syncopation when dancing spontaneously to music, the relationship between rhythmic complexity and synchronisation is less linear than in simple finger-tapping studies.......One of the most immediate and overt ways in which people respond to music is by moving their bodies to the beat. However, the extent to which the rhythmic complexity of groove-specifically its syncopation-contributes to how people spontaneously move to music is largely unexplored. Here, we measured...... free movements in hand and torso while participants listened to drum-breaks with various degrees of syncopation. We found that drum-breaks with medium degrees of syncopation were associated with the same amount of acceleration and synchronisation as low degrees of syncopation. Participants who enjoyed...

  9. Capillary contact angle in a completely wet groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Malijevský, A; Rascón, C

    2014-10-03

    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θ(cap) > 0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  10. Flight trajectory of a rotating golf ball with grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Moonheum; Kim, Jooha; Choi, Haecheon

    2014-11-01

    Dimples are known to reduce drag on a sphere by the amount of 50% as compared to a smooth surface. Despite the advantage of reducing drag, dimples deteriorate the putting accuracy owing to their sharp edges. To minimize this putting error but maintain the same flight distance, we have devised a grooved golf ball (called G ball hereafter) for several years. In this study, we modify the shape and pattern of grooves, and investigate the flow characteristics of the G ball by performing wind-tunnel experiments at the Reynolds numbers of 0 . 5 ×105 - 2 . 5 ×105 and the spin ratios (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of 0 - 0.6 that include the real golf-ball velocity and rotational speed. We measure the drag and lift forces on the rotating G ball and compare them with those of a smooth ball and two well-known dimpled balls. The lift-to-drag ratio of the G ball is much higher than that of a smooth ball and is in between those of the two dimpled balls. The trajectories of flying golf balls are computed. The flight distance of G ball is almost the same as that of one dimpled ball but slightly shorter than that of the other dimpled ball. The fluid-dynamic aspects of these differences will be discussed at the talk. Supported by 2011-0028032, 2014M3C1B1033980.

  11. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.; Mullender, B.; Druart, J. [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W.; Beddows, A. [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  12. Reassessing the Function of Grooves in Mycenaean Tombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Katsari

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Among the Chamber and Tholos Tombs that were built in Greece during the Late Helladic period are some that show a particular feature: a pair of grooves that are carved on the floor of the 'stomion '(a short corridor that leads inside the tomb, leading from the 'dromos '(a long road that leads towards the tomb itself into the chamber. Archaeologists have suggested a number of explanations regarding their function; however, none of these seems entirely plausible. In this article, we offer a different kind of hypothesis mostly based on architectural evidence. We will suggest that, rather than being related to ritual practices, the grooves were mainly used to facilitate the construction of the graves.

  13. Prostate position relative to pelvic bony anatomy based on intraprostatic gold markers and electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Herman, Michael G.; Kruse, Jon J.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the relative positions and motions of the prostate, pelvic bony anatomy, and intraprostatic gold fiducial markers during daily electronic portal localization of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients were treated supine with definitive external radiotherapy according to an on-line target localization protocol using three or four intraprostatic gold fiducial markers and an electronic portal imaging device. Daily pretherapy and through-treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were obtained for each of four treatment fields. The patients' pelvic bony anatomy, intraprostatic gold markers, and a best visual match to the target (i.e., prostate) were identified on simulation digitally reconstructed radiographs and during daily treatment setup and delivery. These data provided quantitative inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion, its position relative to the bony anatomy, and the individual intraprostatic fiducial markers. Treatment planning margins, with and without on-line localization, were subsequently compared. Results: A total of 22,266 data points were obtained from daily pretherapy and through-treatment EPIs. The pretherapy three-dimensional (3D) average displacement of the fiducial markers, as a surrogate for the prostate, was 5.6 mm, which improved to 2.8 mm after use of the localization protocol. The bony anatomy 3D average displacement was 4.4 mm both before and after localization to the prostate (p = 0.46). Along the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) axes, the average prostate displacement improved from 2.5, 3.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively, before localization to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.1 mm after (all p < 0.001). The pretherapy to through-treatment position of the bony landmarks worsened from 1.7 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.001) in the SI axis, remained statistically unchanged at 2.8 mm (p = 0.39) in the AP axis, and improved from 2.0 to 1.2 mm in the RL axis (p < 0.001). There

  14. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sun Young; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; Suh, Sang Gyung; Kim, Dong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  15. X-ray and neutron tomography on the bony inner ear of baleen whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Tobias; Wieder, Frank; Hampe, Oliver; Manke, Ingo; Ritsche, Indira; Fahlke, Julia M.

    2018-01-01

    During their evolution whales and dolphins developed a highly specialized hearing organ for orientation in their deep sea territory covering a broad acoustic spectrum. The internal anatomy of the periotic bone, especially the morphology of the cochlea, has a significant influence on the hearing capability of mammals. The bony and fossilized cochleae of several fossil representatives of extinct baleen whales (e.g., Cetotheriidae) and modern rorquals (Balaenopteridae) and right whales, as well as cochleae of an archaeocete and some land mammals are investigated by X-ray and neutron tomography in order to record morphological changes that may be responsible for the development of low frequency hearing. Differences in the cochlear morphology have been determined by means of morphometric parameters, such as the number of turns, the length of the cochlea, and the curvature of the cochlear canal. In particular, X-ray tomography enables a high resolution display of the bony inner ear.

  16. Bony defect of palate and vomer in submucous cleft palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S; Ma, L; Zhou, X; Sun, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to visualize bony defects of the palate and vomer in submucous cleft palate patients (SMCP) by three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction and to classify the range of bony defects. Forty-eight consecutive non-operated SMCP patients were included. Diagnosis was based on the presence of at least one of three classical signs of SMCP: bifid uvula, a translucent zone in the midline of the soft palate, and a palpable 'V' notch on the posterior border of the bony palate. Patients were imaged using spiral CT. 3D reconstruction models were created of the palate and vomer. The sagittal extent of the bony cleft in SMCP was classified into four types: type I, no V-shaped hard palate cleft (8.3%); type II, cleft involving the partial palate (43.8%); type III, cleft involving the complete palate and extending to the incisive foramen (43.8%); type IV, cleft involving the complete palate and the alveolar bone (4.2%). The extent of the vomer defect was classified into three types: type A, vomer completely fused with the palate (8.3%); type B, vomer partially fused with the palate (43.8%); type C, vomer not fused with the palate up to the incisive foramen (47.9%). Significant variability in hard palate defects in SMCP is the rule rather than the exception. The association of velopharyngeal insufficiency with anatomical malformations may be complex. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of bony trabecular characteristics using bone morphometry and micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Han; Lee, Wan; Lee, Chang Jin; Ji, Jung Hyun; Lee, Byung Do

    2007-01-01

    The research was done to investigate the effectiveness of 2D bony morphometry and microstructure of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) on the osteoporotic bony change. We performed the bone morphometric analysis of proximal femur in ovariectomized rabbits with BMD and micro-CT examination. Twenty-one female (Newzeland, about 16 weeks old, 2.9-3.4 kg) rabbits were used. Three rabbits were sacrificed on the day when experiment began (Basline). The remaining 18 rabbits were divided into two groups. One group was ovariectomized bilaterally (OVX) and the other animals were subjected to sham operation (Sham). Bone specimens were obtained from the right and left femur of sacrificed rabbits. At intervals of 1,2,3,5,6 months respectively, BMD tests were performed on the proximal on the proximal femur by using PIXImus 2 (GE Lunar Co. USA), 2-dimensional bone morphometric analysis by custom computer program and 2D / 3D bone structure analysis by micro-CT (Skyscan1072, Antwerpen, Belgium). Statistical analysis was carried out for the correlation between bone morphometry, micro-CT and BMD. BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N of micro-CT parameters showed higher values in sham group than OVX group. N.Nd/Ar.RI, N.NdNd, N.NdTm, N. TmTm, PmB/Ar.RI, 3-D BoxSlope of 2D morphometric parameters showed higher values in Sham group than OVX group. The micro-CT parameters of Tb.Sp. Tb.N were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several 2D morphometric parameters were statistically significant correlated with BMD respectively. Several parameters of 2D bony morphometry and micro-CT showed effective aspects on the osteoporotic bony change

  18. Valor predicts the thyroid hormones in the evolution the transplant bony marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.A.; Carnot, J.; De Castro, R.; Morera, M.L.; Garcia, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this work you values the valor I predict the thyroid hormones in the bony marrow transplant evolution as factors the metabolisms oxidative and the synthesis albumins. The patients received conditioning treatments to the transplant and in the postoperational. The received radiations were 1000 cGy lateral cube, with blocking lung, to those that were subjected 3 sessions irradiation, they are practiced a transplant marrow allogeneic

  19. Radiographic detection of artificial intra-bony defects in the edentulous area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, N; Jacobs, R; Coucke, W; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    2009-03-01

    Since intra-bony pathologies might jeopardize implant outcome, their preoperative detection is crucial. In sixteen human cadaver bloc sections from upper and lower jaws, artificial defects with progressively increasing size (n=7) have been created. From each respective defect, analogue and digital intra-oral radiographs were taken, the latter processed via a periodontal filter and afterwards presented in black-white as well as in colour, resulting in three sets of 7 images per bloc section. Eight observers were asked to diagnosis an eventual defect on randomly presented radiographs, and at another occasion to rank each set based on the defect size. The clinicians were only able to identify a defect, when the junctional area was involved, except for bony pieces with a very homogeneous structure. For longitudinal evaluation of healing bone (e.g. after tooth extraction), colour digital images can be recommended. These observations indicate that intra-oral radiographs are not always reliable for the detection of any intra-bony defect.

  20. Reliability of the Bony Anatomy in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Baier, Kurt; Guenther, Iris; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Sauer, Otto; Vordermark, Dirk; Flentje, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the position of brain metastases remains stable between planning and treatment in cranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with 20 brain metastases were treated with single-fraction (17 lesions) or hypofractionated (3 lesions) image-guided SRT. Median time interval between planning and treatment was 8 days. Before treatment a cone-beam CT (CBCT) and a conventional CT after application of i.v. contrast were acquired. Setup errors using automatic bone registration (CBCT) and manual soft-tissue registration of the brain metastases (conventional CT) were compared. Results: Tumor size was not significantly different between planning and treatment. The three-dimensional setup error (mean ± SD) was 4.0 ± 2.1 mm and 3.5 ± 2.2 mm according to the bony anatomy and the lesion itself, respectively. A highly significant correlation between automatic bone match and soft-tissue registration was seen in all three directions (r ≥ 0.88). The three-dimensional distance between the isocenter according to bone match and soft-tissue registration was 1.7 ± 0.7 mm, maximum 2.8 mm. Treatment of intracranial pressure with steroids did not influence the position of the lesion relative to the bony anatomy. Conclusion: With a time interval of approximately 1 week between planning and treatment, the bony anatomy of the skull proved to be an excellent surrogate for the target position in image-guided SRT

  1. Temporal lobe sulcal pattern and the bony impressions in the middle cranial fossa: the case of the el Sidrón (Spain) neandertal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Peña-Melián, Angel; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Correspondence between temporal lobe sulcal pattern and bony impressions on the middle cranial fossae (MCF) was analyzed. MCF bone remains (SD-359, SD-315, and SD-1219) from the El Sidrón (Spain) neandertal site are analyzed in this context. Direct comparison of the soft and hard tissues from the same individual was studied by means of: 1) dissection of two human heads; 2) optic (white light) surface scans; 3) computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the same head. The inferior temporal sulcus and gyrus are the features most strongly influencing MCF bone surface. The Superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal and fusiform gyri also leave imprints. Temporal lobe form differs between Homo sapiens and neandertals. A wider and larger post-arcuate fossa (posterior limit of Brodmann area 20 and the anterior portion of area 37) is present in modern humans as compared to neandertals. However other traits of the MCF surface are similar in these two large-brained human groups. A conspicuous variation is appreciated in the more vertical location of the inferior temporal gyrus in H. sapiens. In parallel, structures of the lower surface of the temporal lobe are more sagittally orientated. Grooves accommodating the fusiform and the lower temporal sulci become grossly parallel to the temporal squama. These differences can be understood within the context of a supero-lateral deployment of the lobe in H. sapiens, a pattern previously identified (Bastir et al., Nat Commun 2 (2011) 588-595). Regarding dural sinus pattern, a higher incidence of petrosquamous sinus is detected in neandertal samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Observations on the bony bridging of the jugular foramen in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Y

    1986-02-01

    The anatomical nature and pattern of incidence of bony bridging of the jugular foramen was investigated using 64 fetal crania aged nine months to term and 222 adult crania of Japanese. In addition, the region of the jugular foramen of an adult cadaver was carefully dissected in order to clarify the relationship between the cranial nerves passing through the jugular foramen and the intrajugular processes of the jugular foramen. The general conclusions concerning the anatomical nature of the bony bridging of the jugular foramen were as follows. (1) The intrajugular process of the temporal bone is situated posterior to the triangular depression (as described in Gray's Anatomy) of the petrous part. (2) The bony bridging of the jugular foramen is established by the contact of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone with the bony process of the occipital bone projecting either from just above the hypoglossal canal (Type I) or from posterior to the hypoglossal canal (Type III). (3) If both the processes of the occipital bone reach the intrajugular process of the temporal bone simultaneously, the jugular foramen is divided into three compartments. (4) In the case of Type I bridging, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, while the posterolateral compartment gives passage to the vagus nerve, the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein. (5) In the case of Type II bridging, the anteromedial compartment contains the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. (6) When tripartite division of the jugular foramen occurs, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the middle compartment contains the vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. Concerning the pattern of incidence of jugular foramen bridging in the Japanese fetal and adult cranial series, this is similar to that of the bony

  3. Treatment of combined endodontic: periodontic lesion by sealing of palato-radicular groove using biodentine

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Mayuri; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Palatoradicular groove is a developmental anomaly which is predominantly found in maxillary lateral incisors. It provides a susceptible alcove for the progression of localised periodontal inflammation which can further cause pulpal involvement. This case report describes the successful treatment of a large periodontic - endodontic lesion usingnon surgical endodontic therapy and biodentine for the sealing of the palatoradicular groove.

  4. Treatment of combined endodontic: periodontic lesion by sealing of palato-radicular groove using biodentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Mayuri; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan

    2014-11-01

    Palatoradicular groove is a developmental anomaly which is predominantly found in maxillary lateral incisors. It provides a susceptible alcove for the progression of localised periodontal inflammation which can further cause pulpal involvement. This case report describes the successful treatment of a large periodontic - endodontic lesion usingnon surgical endodontic therapy and biodentine for the sealing of the palatoradicular groove.

  5. Grooved floor system for cattle housing: ammonia emission reduction and good slip resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierstra, D.; Braam, C.R.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the slip resistance of solid floors in dairy cow houses and to achieve the ammonia emission reduction prescribed by the Dutch government, precast concrete floors with grooves and a dung scraper were investigated. The grooves parallel to the alley had 160 mm center-to-center spacing and

  6. Solving the N-Queens Problem with GROOVE - Towards a Compendium of Best Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Eduardo; Rensink, Arend; Hermann, F.; Sauer, S.

    We present a detailed solution to the N-queens puzzle using GROOVE, a graph transformation tool especially designed for state space exploration and analysis. While GROOVE has been freely available for more than a decade and has attracted a reasonable number of users, it is safe to say that only a

  7. Effect of Cylinder Liner Oil Grooves Shape on Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine's Piston Ring Friction Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheldin A. Mohamad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The dimensions, area densities, and geometry of macroscale surface textures may affect the performance of hydrodynamic lubrication interface. Reported in this paper are the investigations of the effect of surface textures bottom shapes on the friction forces between piston ring and cylinder liner for two-stroke marine diesel engine, using numerically generated textures and average Reynolds equation. These textures are on the cylinder liner surface in the form of circumferential oil grooves with different aspect ratios and different area densities. The hydrodynamic pressure distribution is also calculated using Reynolds boundary condition. The results revealed that the bottom shape could positively affect the friction between moving surfaces, as it could provide a microwedge or microstep bearing that tends to enhance the lubrication condition between piston ring and cylinder liner.

  8. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-xian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a type of hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove. A high-permittivity nanowire was placed in the metal channel covered with a dielectric film of lower permittivity. Deeper sub-wavelength confinement and much longer propagation distance were achieved in comparison with conventional channel plasmonic waveguides. The overall performance was improved as compared with the conventional hybrid plasmonic structure based on a flat metal surface. Finite element analysis showed that both the mode propagation and field profile can be adjusted by changing the nanowire radius and film thickness. Some benefits, such as a reduced scattering loss caused by the surface roughness, are also expected owing to the unique mode profile. The proposed approach has potential for application in high-level photonic integration.

  9. From old alkylating agents to new minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyo, Stéphane; Montaudon, Danièle; Pourquier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Alkylating agents represent the oldest class of anticancer agents with the approval of mechloretamine by the FDA in 1949. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in the treatment of specific malignancies, sometimes representing the unique option for the treatment of refractory tumors. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents, with a particular focus on the latest generations of compounds that specifically target the minor groove of the DNA. These naturally occurring derivatives have a unique mechanism of action that explains the recent regain of interest in developing new classes of alkylating agents that could be used in combination with other anticancer drugs to enhance tumor response in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dispersion characteristics of planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Miaomiao; Li, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of getting the dispersion relations in planar grating with arbitrary grooves for terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation is investigated analytically. The continuous profile of the groove is approximately replaced by a series of rectangular steps. By making use of field matches method and the continuity of transverse admittance, the universal dispersion equation for grating with arbitrarily shaped grooves is derived. By solving the dispersion equation in presence of electron beam, the growth rate is obtained directly and the dependence on beam parameters is analyzed. Comparisons of the dispersion characteristics among some special groove shapes have been made by numerical calculation. The results show that the rectangular-step approximation method provides a novel approach to obtain the universal dispersion relation for grating with arbitrary grooves for Smith-Purcell radiation

  11. Treatment of a Developmental Groove and Supernumerary Root Using Guided Tissue Regeneration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alizadeh Tabari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The radicular groove is a developmental groove which is usually found on the palatal or lateral aspects of the maxillary incisor teeth. The present case is a maxillary lateral incisor with a small second root and a deep radicular groove. The developmental groove caused a combined periodontal-endodontic lesion. Methods. Case was managed using a combined treatment procedure involving nonsurgical root canal therapy and surgical periodontal treatment. After completion of root canal treatment, guided tissue regeneration (GTR was carried out using decalcified freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA and a bioabsorbable collagenous membrane. Tooth also was splinted for two months. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The periapical radiolucency disappeared and probing depth did not exceed 3 mm. Conclusion. Combined treatment procedure involving nonsurgical root canal therapy and surgical periodontal regenerative treatment can be a predictable technique in treating combined endodontic-periodontal lesions caused by radicular groove.

  12. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  13. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  14. Effects of groove shape of notch on the flow characteristics of spool valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yi; Yin, Chen-Bo; Li, Xing-Dong; Zhou, Wei-jin; Yuan, Feng-feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow characteristics of notches are studied using CFD simulation and experiment. • Test data is fitted by least square method to analyze discharge coefficient. • The stable value of discharge coefficient is deduced. • Effects of groove shape on steady flow force and throttling stiffness are performed. • The groove shape has significant effects on the flow characteristics. - Abstract: The grooves of notches of hydraulic spool valves are usually designed into various shapes for their desired flow characteristics. The aim of this paper is to clarify the effects of the groove shape on the flow characteristics through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The RNG k–ε turbulence model is used to simulate the pressure distributions of the flow fields inside three notches with their corresponding typical structural grooves in order to analyze the changes of restricted locations along with the openings and, furthermore, to calculate the flow areas of the notches. The accuracy of the employed model is demonstrated by comparing the computational results with the experimental data. Additionally, the flow rate vs. pressure drop data obtained from the experiment is fitted by least square method. On this basis, the discharge coefficient as a function of groove geometry, flow condition, fitting coefficients and its stable value is deduced, proving to be quite consistent with the experimental result. Thanks to the jet flow angles estimated by CFD simulation, the steady flow forces are calculated, which show good agreement with the experimental results except for some small differences. Finally, the throttling stiffness of the three notches is investigated, with that of divergent U-shape groove falls between spheroid-shape groove and triangle-shape groove. Similar results are found for steady flow force. The results indicate that the groove shape has significant effects on the flow characteristics (flow area, discharge

  15. Champagne Groove Lipectomy: A Safe Technique to Contour the Upper Abdomen in Abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ron; Nguyen, Jonathan; Chowdhry, Saeed; Tutela, John Paul; Kelishadi, Sean; Yonick, David; Choo, Joshua; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Combined liposuction and abdominoplasty, or lipoabdominoplasty, is particularly helpful in sculpting a more aesthetically pleasing abdominal contour, particularly in the supraumbilical midline groove. This groove, coined the "champagne groove" by one of our patients, is a frequently sought-after attribute by patients. However, liposuction adds time and cost to an already costly abdominoplasty. We sought to create this groove without the addition of liposuction, utilizing what we call a champagne groove lipectomy. This study reports on our champagne groove lipectomy technique and compares our complication rates with those reported in the literature for standard abdominoplasty techniques. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a single surgeon's experience at our institution over a 6-year period (2007-2012). A total of 74 patients undergoing consecutive abdominoplasty were studied, all female nonsmokers. Two groups were recognized: 64 of 74 patients underwent abdominoplasty, partial belt lipectomy, and champagne groove lipectomy, while 10 of 74 patients underwent fleur-de-lis abdominoplasty without champagne groove lipectomy. Results: Overall, 10 of 74 patients (13.5%) suffered some type of complication, which compares favorably with reported rates in the literature. The majority of complications were related to delayed wound healing or superficial wound dehiscence. Among those patients who underwent champagne groove lipectomy, complications occurred in 6 of 64 patients (9.3%), versus 4 of 10 (40%) patients undergoing fleur-de-lis abdominoplasty. Conclusions: Champagne groove lipectomy is a cost-effective alternative to lipoabdominoplasty for achieving an aesthetically pleasing upper midline abdominal contour, with complication rates comparing favorably with those reported in the literature.

  16. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong; Peng, Pai

    2015-01-01

    . The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a

  17. Computed tomographic features of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve in pediatric patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Tatsuo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diameters of the various bony canals of the inner ear in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and establish criteria for detecting hypoplasia of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve. Measurements obtained in 118 patients without inner ear malformations among 160 patients with unilateral SNHL were analyzed. The diameters of the internal auditory canal and the bony canals of the cochlear, vestibular, and facial nerves were measured on transverse or coronal computed tomographic images. Mean values (±standard deviation (SD)) were compared between the affected and unaffected ears, and statistical analysis was done. The diameter of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve was significantly smaller in affected ears than in unaffected ears (P<0.01). The affected ears could be divided into groups with (72 ears) and without (46 ears) bony canal stenosis. Most (60%) of the patients with unilateral SNHL showed a significant difference in the diameters of the bony canals of the cochlear nerve between the affected and unaffected sides; moreover, the mean value was significantly smaller in affected ears. The diameter of <1.7 mm on transverse images or <1.8 mm on coronal images suggests hypoplasia. (author)

  18. Determination of Tongue and Groove parameters for multileaf collimators; Determinaco de parametros de Tongue and Groove de colimadores de multilaminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aluisio; Almeida, Carlos E. de, E-mail: alu_neto@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas; Nguyen, Bihn [Prowess Inc., Concord, CA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The Tongue and Groove effect (TandG) is characterized by an additional attenuation between adjacent and opposing leaves on multileaf collimators (MLCs) in adjacent or complementary fields. This is a typical situation in of intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments. The aim of this study was to measure the width and transmission of TandG effect for two commercial MLCs: Varian Millennium 120 (6 MV and 16 MV beams) and BrainLab m3 (only for 6 MV). The methodology used was based on the creation of MLC shapes that emphasizes TandG effect, the irradiation of these fields on radiochromic film and the sensitometric evaluation of the films in order to determine the TandG width and transmission. The results for TandG width for studied MLCs were 2.5, 1.8 and 2 mm, respectively, whit transmission TandG values of 87, 90 and 85%. (author)

  19. Bony vibration stimulation test combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Can discography be replaced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Kurunlahti, M; Vanharanta, H

    1997-04-01

    The results of two noninvasive methods, magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration test, were compared with discographic pain provocation findings. To evaluate whether the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and vibration pain provocation tests could be used to replace discography in low back pain diagnostics. Magnetic resonance imaging gives a wealth of visual information on anatomic changes of the spine with often unknown clinical significance. Discographic examination of the spine is still the only widely accepted diagnostic method that can relate the pathoanatomic changes to the patient's clinical pain. Internal anular rupture has been shown to be one of the sources of back pain. The bony vibration test of the spinal processes has been shown correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular rupture. The three lowest lumbar discs of 33 patients with back pain were examined by means of magnetic resonance imaging and a bony vibration stimulation test, and the results were compared with those from computed tomography-discography. In cases of intradiscal magnetic resonance imaging findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.50 compared with the discographic pain provocation test. If the patients with previous back surgery were excluded, the specificity was 0.75. In the cases of total anular rupture, the sensitivity was 0.50, and the specificity was 0.33. The combination of the two noninvasive methods, vibration stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging, gives more information on the origin of the back pain than magnetic resonance imaging alone. The pathoanatomic changes seen in magnetic resonance imaging can be correlated with the patient's disorder more reliably using the vibration provocation test in the cases of partial anular ruptures. The use of discography can be limited mostly to cases with total anular ruptures detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

  20. Bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible as a sequelae of noma: A rare case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadi, Shivanand B.; Awasthi, Ujjwala Rastogi; Mody, Bharat M.; Suma, Gundareddy N.; Garg, Shruti [Dept. of Medicine and Radiology, ITS Center for Dental Studies and Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Noma is a gangrenous disease of the orofacial region that leads to severe facial tissue destruction and is a significant cause of death among children. With the advent of modern antibiotics and improved nutrition, children with noma may survive into adulthood, but must face the challenge of undergoing repair of the sequelae of noma. This report describes a case of bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible in a 28-year-old female patient, which was a sequelae of a childhood case of noma.

  1. A Bony Landmark 'RAI Triangle' to Prevent 'Misplaced and Misdirected' Medial Cut in SSRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj; Khaji, Shahanavaj I

    2011-03-01

    'Rai triangle', a new anatomic landmark on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible which when identified and taken into consideration, may have a definite advantage. This is especially in terms of performing the medial horizontal cut which is an important and integral part of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy so as to avoid a bad split. The objective of this article is to propose an easily identifiable bony land mark, which is closely related to lingula of mandible that may ease the procedure of osteotomy and avoid bad splits.

  2. Effect of groove on socket welds under the condition of vibration fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Junjie; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Lianyong

    2013-01-01

    Root failures of socket welds in small bore piping caused by vibration mainly occur at nuclear power plants (NPPs). It was observed that at higher stress level failures tended to originate at the toe while for the case of lower stress failures tended to occur at the root. The groove can increase the penetration depth (PD) of root, which is beneficial to the fatigue life. The effect of groove was also investigated by finite element method (FEM). The simulation results show that groove can decline the stress distribution, stress triaxiality and maximum principal plastic strain in the weld root, and the 5 mm groove suffering σ max (the highest stress of root failure) is almost same as no groove subjecting to σ f (fatigue limit). The test results show that the socket weld with groove can increase the natural frequency and damping of specimen, which make the system more difficult to vibrate. Moreover, the groove can also improve the fatigue property of specimen which do not exist the root failure even under high cycle fatigue (HCF)

  3. The MLC tongue-and-groove effect on IMRT dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States). E-mail: jun@reyes.stanford.edu; Pawlicki, Todd; Chen Yan; Li Jinsheng; Jiang, Steve B.; Ma, C.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions for a Varian MLC. We have compared the dose distributions calculated using the intensity maps with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Our results showed that, for one intensity-modulated treatment field, the maximum tongue-and-groove effect could be up to 10% of the maximum dose in the dose distributions. For an IMRT treatment with multiple gantry angles ({>=} 5), the difference between the dose distributions with and without the tongue-and-groove effect was hardly visible, less than 1.6% for the two typical clinical cases studied. After considering the patient setup errors, the dose distributions were smoothed with reduced and insignificant differences between plans with and without the tongue-and-groove effect. Therefore, for a multiple-field IMRT plan ({>=} 5), the tongue-and-groove effect on the IMRT dose distributions will be generally clinically insignificant due to the smearing effect of individual fields. The tongue-and-groove effect on an IMRT plan with small number of fields (<5) will vary depending on the number of fields in a plan (coplanar or non-coplanar), the MLC leaf sequences and the patient setup uncertainty, and may be significant (>5% of maximum dose) in some cases, especially when the patient setup uncertainty is small ({<=} 2 mm). (author)

  4. Microcirculation within Grooved Substrates regulates Cell Positioning and Cell Docking inside Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbachi, Amir; Shrivastava, Shamit; Cioffi, Margherita; Chung, Bong Geun; Moretti, Matteo; Demirci, Utkan; Yliperttula, Marjo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Immobilization of cells inside microfluidic devices is a promising approach for enabling studies related to drug screening and cell biology. Despite extensive studies in using grooved substrates for immobilizing cells inside channels, a systematic study of the effects of various parameters that influence cell docking and retention within grooved substrates has not been performed. We demonstrate using computational simulations that the fluid dynamic environment within microgrooves significantly varies with groove width, generating micro-circulation areas in smaller microgrooves. Wall shear stress simulation predicted that shear stresses were in opposite direction in smaller grooves (25 and 50 μm wide) in comparison to those in wider grooves (75 and 100 μm wide). To validate the simulations, cells were seeded within microfluidic devices, where microgrooves of different widths were aligned perpendicularly to the direction of the flow. Experimental results showed that, as predicted, the inversion of the local direction of shear stress within the smaller grooves resulted in alignment of cells on two opposite sides of the grooves under the same flow conditions. Also, the amplitude of shear stress within microgrooved channels significantly influenced cell retainment in the channels. Therefore, our studies suggest that microscale shear stresses greatly influence cellular docking, immobilization, and retention in fluidic systems and should be considered for the design of cell-based microdevices. PMID:18432345

  5. A stereological approach for measuring the groove angles of intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwinner, B.; Borgard, J.-M.; Dumonteil, E.; Zoia, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The ICG morphology has been characterized in 3D by X-ray μ-tomography. • The measurement of the angles of the IGC groove on 2D cross sections induces a bias. • A methodology is proposed to estimate the true value of the IGC groove angles in 3D. - Abstract: Non-sensitized austenitic stainless steels can be prone to intergranular corrosion when they are in contact with an oxidizing medium like nitric acid. Intergranular corrosion is characterized by the formation of grooves along the grain boundaries. The angle of these grooves is a key parameter, which directly informs of the intergranular corrosion kinetics. Most of the time, the angles of the grooves are experimentally measured on 2-dimensional cross sections of the corroded samples. This study discusses the relationship between the groove angle measured on 2-dimensional sections and the true groove angle in 3-dimensional space. This approach could also be easily extended to the study of crack angle in the domains of corrosion-fatigue, stress corrosion cracking or mechanical fracture.

  6. Investigation of enhanced condensation heat transfer outside vertical titanium circularly-grooved tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaorigetu; Huang Weitang; Lv Xiangbo; Liu Feng

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of enhanced condensation heat transfer had been conducted on the outside vertical Titanium circularly-grooved tube. The experimental result indicates that the Titanium circularly-grooved tube is fairly efficient in enhancing the heat transfer. Within the experimental scope, the total heat transfer coefficient of the optimum circularly-grooved tube is 1.12 to 1.36 times of that of the Titanium smooth tube. Through regression analysis on the experimental data, the experimental correlations for the inside heat transfer coefficient, the condensation heat transfer coefficient on film condensation and the friction coefficient were achieved. (authors)

  7. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Joseph J.; Block, John J.; Kan, J.H.; Hannah, Gene A.

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture. (orig.)

  8. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  9. Palaeobiology of Hyaenodon exiguus (Hyaenodonta, Mammalia) based on morphometric analysis of the bony labyrinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Nagel, Doris; Gunnell, Gregg; Weber, Gerhard W; Kriwet, Jürgen; Morlo, Michael; Bastl, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    Species of the extinct genus Hyaenodon were among the largest carnivorous mammals from the Late Eocene through Early Miocene in North America, Europe and Asia. The origin, phylogeny and palaeobiology of Hyaenodonta are still ambiguous. Most previous studies focused on teeth and dental function in these highly adapted species, which might be influenced by convergent morphologies. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth in vertebrates is generally quite conservative and, additionally, was used in functional-morphological studies. This study provides the first anatomical description of the bony labyrinth of the extinct European species Hyaenodon exiguus in comparison to selected extant carnivoran taxa discussed from a functional-morphological perspective. Hyaenodon exiguus may have occupied a hyaena-like dietary niche with a semi-arboreal lifestyle, based on the relative height, width and length of the semicircular canals of the inner ear. However, this contradicts previous functional-morphological studies focusing on the diameter of the canals, which presumably represent the signal of locomotion mode. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  10. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs.

  11. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs

  12. Selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, bony orbit anatomy, and ocular histology in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Gomes Junior, Deusdete C; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Curvelo, Victor P; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Pinna, Melissa H; Meneses, Íris D S; Filho, Emanoel F M; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for diagnostic ophthalmic tests in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) as well as to describe the most relevant features of the bony orbital anatomy and ocular histology. Twenty healthy animals, free living in a forest reserve, that were captured for clinical evaluation as part of a health survey were evaluated. Schirmer tear test-1 (STT1), conjunctival microbiota, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival cytology, anatomy of the bony orbit, and ocular histology were studied. Mean ± SD STT1 and IOP values were 18.8 ± 4.7 mm and 11.4 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly higher in adult (4-8 years) animals (P = 0.04). Bacterial growth was present in 100% of the samples, with a prevalence for Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. The conjunctival cytology revealed predominance of columnar epithelial cells with mild pigmentation. The sambar deer orbit is completely encompassed by bone. The ocular histology was very similar to most mammalians. The findings in this study will be useful in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in Rusa unicolor. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Following the canyon to reach and remove olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefini, Roberto; Zenga, Francesco; Giacomo, Esposito; Bolzoni, Andrea; Tartara, Fulvio; Spena, Giannantonio; Ambrosi, Claudia; Fontanella, Marco M

    2017-04-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) represent approximately 10% of all intracranial meningiomas. They arise in the olfactory fossa, a variable depression delimited by the lateral lamella and perpendicular plate. The cribriform plate with the lateral lamella and ethmoidal and orbital roof could be viewed as a 'canyon' with the frontal sinus as the main entrance. Between January 2000 and December 2013, 32 consecutive patients underwent removal of OGMs through this 'canyon' at the Department of Neurosurgery of Brescia and Turin. Complete removal was achieved in all patients with this trans-frontal sinus subcranial approach (Simpson grade I; mean lesion volume, 46.6 cm3). Five patients (15.6%) experienced nasal CSF leakage, treated with external lumbar drain positioning for 4 days and resolved in all cases but one, which was re-operated. Two patients (6.2%) during the CSF leakage experienced meningitis at day 7 after surgery, both successfully treated by intravenous antibiotic therapy. After one month, one patient developed hydrocephalus, treated with a ventricular peritoneal shunt. In one patient, traction on the OGM caused bleeding of the callosomarginal artery, which was coagulated with superior frontal gyrus ischemia without neurological consequences. Glasgow Outcome Scale Score at 6 months was V in 29 patients, IV in one patient, and I in two patients. Advantages with this approach may include easy and early control of blood supply from its insertion in the skull base, minimal frontal lobe retraction, preservation of the frontal veins draining to the sagittal sinus, and a satisfactory aesthetic outcome.

  14. Traction suture modification to tongue-in-groove caudal septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indeyeva, Y A; Lee, T S; Gordin, E; Chan, D; Ducic, Y

    2018-02-01

    Caudal septal deviation leads to unfavorable esthetic as well as functional effects on the nasal airway. A modification to the tongue-in-groove (TIG) technique to correct these caudal septal deformities is described. With placement of a temporary suspension suture to the caudal septum, manual traction is applied, assuring that the caudal septum remains in the midline position while it is being secured with multiple through-and-through, trans-columellar and trans-septal sutures. From 2003 to 2016, 148 patients underwent endonasal septoplasty using this modified technique, with excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes and a revision rate of 1.4%. This modified TIG technique replaces the periosteal suture that secures the caudal septum to the midline nasal crest in the original TIG technique. This simplifies the procedure and minimizes the risk of securing the caudal septum off-midline when used in endonasal septoplasty. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Condensation and evaporation transitions in deep capillary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O

    2014-01-01

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard–Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature T w condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metastability of the condensation being well described by the complementary Kelvin equation. In contrast above T w both phase transitions are continuous and their critical singularities are determined. In addition we show that for the evaporation transition above T w there is an elegant mapping, or covariance, with the complete wetting transition occurring at a planar wall. Our numerical DFT studies are complemented by analytical slab model calculations which explain how the asymmetry between condensation and evaporation arises out of the combination of long-ranged forces and substrate geometry. (paper)

  16. Condensation and evaporation transitions in deep capillary grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O

    2014-09-03

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature Tw condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metastability of the condensation being well described by the complementary Kelvin equation. In contrast above Tw both phase transitions are continuous and their critical singularities are determined. In addition we show that for the evaporation transition above Tw there is an elegant mapping, or covariance, with the complete wetting transition occurring at a planar wall. Our numerical DFT studies are complemented by analytical slab model calculations which explain how the asymmetry between condensation and evaporation arises out of the combination of long-ranged forces and substrate geometry.

  17. Characterisation of a grooved heat pipe with an anodised surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A. Brusly; Ram Kumar, A. M.; Ramachandran, K.; Pillai, B. C.; Senthil Kumar, C.; Sharifpur, Mohsen; Meyer, Josua P.

    2017-03-01

    A grooved heat pipe (GHP) is an important device for managing heat in space applications such as satellites and space stations, as it works efficiently in the absence of gravity. Apart from the above application, axial GHPs are used in many applications, such as electronic cooling units for temperature control and permafrost cooling. Improving the performance of GHPs is essential for better cooling and thermal management. In the present study, the effect of anodization on the heat transfer characteristics of a GHP is studied with R600a as a working fluid. In addition, the effects of fill ratio, inclination angle and heat inputs on the heat transfer performance of a GHP are studied. Furthermore, the effect of heat flux on dimensional numbers, such as the Webber, Bond, Kutateladze and condensation numbers, are studied. The inclination angle, heat input and fill ratio of GHPs are varied in the range of 0°-90°, 25-250 W and 10-70 % respectively. It is found that the above parameters have a significant effect on the performance of a GHP. Due to the anodisation, the maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator is 39 % for a 90° inclination at a heat flux of 11 kW/m2. The reported performance enhancement of a GHP may be due to the large numbers of nucleation sites created by the anodisation process and enhancement in the capillary force due to the coating.

  18. Repair of pars defects by segmental transverse wiring for athletes with symptomatic spondylolysis: relationship between bony union and postoperative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Akira; Miyamoto, Kei; Sadamasu, Aya; Nozawa, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Fushimi, Kazunari; Hosoe, Hideo; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2012-04-20

    Retrospective study of surgery for spondylolysis patients. To assess clinical outcome of bony union using multislice computed tomography after segmental wiring fixation. How bony union affects surgical outcome of spondylolysis repair is unclear. Forty-four athletes with symptomatic spondylolysis (33 men and 11 women; mean age, 24.2 ± 5.4 years) who underwent segmental wiring fixation were evaluated retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 85 ± 17 months. The level of spondylolysis was L5 in 42 cases, and both L4 and L5 in 2 cases, giving a total of 46 operative levels of vertebrae. Bony union using axial and sagittal reconstruction images of computed tomography, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for back pain, and complications were reviewed. State of bony union was classified as bilateral union, unilateral union, or nonunion. The total score and the improvement ratio of the JOA score were compared among the 3 groups. Bilateral bony union was obtained in 29 cases (31 of 46 vertebrae, 67.4%). Six cases (13%) showed unilateral union, and 9 cases (19.6%) showed nonunion. JOA score increased significantly after surgery in all groups, average improvement rate was 78.9% in the bilateral group, 63.6% in the unilateral group, and 29.8% in the nonunion group; differences among the 3 groups were significant (P spondylolysis repair.

  19. Patterns of congenital bony spinal deformity and associated neural anomalies on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenga, Anthony P; Singla, Anuj; Feger, Mark A; Abel, Mark F

    2016-08-01

    Congenital malformations of the bony vertebral column are often accompanied by spinal cord anomalies; these observations have been reinforced with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that the incidence of cord anomalies will increase as the number and complexity of bony vertebral abnormalities increases. All patients aged ≤13 years (n = 75) presenting to the pediatric spine clinic from 2003-2013 with congenital bony spinal deformity and both radiographs and MRI were analyzed retrospectively for bone and neural pathology. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare groups for categorical dependent variables. Independent t tests were used for continuous dependent variables. Significance was set at p formation had a higher incidence of cord anomalies (73 %) than failures of formation (50 %) or segmentation (45 %) alone (p = 0.065). Deformities in the sacrococcygeal area had the highest rate of spinal cord anomalies (13 of 15 patients, 87 %). In 35 cases (47 %), MRI revealed additional bony anomalies that were not seen on the radiographs. As the number of bony malformations increased, we found a higher incidence of cord anomalies. Clinicians should have increased suspicion of spinal cord pathology in the presence of mixed failures of segmentation and formation.

  20. Palatal radicular groove: Clinical implications of early diagnosis and surgical sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Corrêa-Faria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal radicular groove is a discreet alteration in tooth morphology, characterized by an invagination that begins near the cingulum of the tooth and moves in an apical direction. Clinically, palatal radicular groove may be associated with periodontal and/or endodontic problems. This paper describes a clinical case of a young patient with palatal radicular groove with no signs of periodontal disease or endodontic impairment. An early diagnosis was made and treatment consisted of surgical sealing of the defect. After a 2-year period, reexaminations demonstrated adequate hygiene, maintenance of tooth vitality and periodontal health. The early diagnosis and sealing of the groove observed surgically made the root surface smooth, avoiding subgingival bacterial plaque buildup, and preventing possible periodontal and/or pulp impairment stemming from the defect.

  1. Tunable THz notch filter with a single groove inside parallel-plate waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Su; Jeon, Tae-In

    2012-12-31

    A single groove in a parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) has been applied to a tunable terahertz (THz) notch filter with a transverse-electromagnetic (TEM) mode. When the air gap between the metal plates of the PPWG is controlled from 60 to 240 μm using a motor controlled translation stage or a piezo-actuator, the resonant frequency of the notch filter is changed from 1.75 up to 0.62 THz, respectively. Therefore, the measured tunable sensitivity of the notch filter increases to 6.28 GHz/μm. The measured resonant frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the calculation using an effective groove depth. Using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, we also demonstrate that the sensitivity of a THz microfluidic sensor can be increased via a small air gap, a narrow groove width, and a deep groove depth.

  2. Grooving of grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon: Effect on solar cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimassi, W.; Bouaicha, M.; Nouri, H.; Boujmil, M.F.; Ben Nasrallah, S.; Bessais, B.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of grooving of grain boundaries (GB) in multicrystalline silicon using chemical etching in HF/HNO 3 solutions. The grain boundaries were grooved in order to reduce the area of these highly recombining regions. Using optimized conditions, grooved GBs enable deep phosphorus diffusion and deep metallic contacts. As a result, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), and the I-V characteristics under the dark and AM1.5 illumination were improved. It was also observed a reduction of the GB recombination velocity, which was deduced from light-beam-induced-current (LBIC) measurements. Such grooving in multicrystalline silicon enables passivation of GB-related defects. These results are discussed and compared to solar cells based on untreated multicrystalline silicon wafers

  3. Groove Pancreatitis with Biliary and Duodenal Stricture: An Unusual Cause of Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gravito-Soares

    2016-05-01

    Discussion: Groove pancreatitis is a benign cause of obstructive jaundice, whose main differential diagnosis is duodenal or pancreatic neoplasia. When this condition causes duodenal or biliary stricture, surgical treatment can be necessary.

  4. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with concrete pavements which were finished with a random transverse grooved surface texture (ODOT specification...

  5. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. 'Tongue-and-groove' effect in intensity modulated radiotherapy with static multileaf collimator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, W; Kung, J; Dai, J

    2004-01-01

    The 'tongue-and-groove problem' in step-and-shoot delivery of intensity modulated radiotherapy is investigated. A 'tongue-and-groove' index (TGI) is introduced to quantify the 'tongue-and-groove' effect in step-and-shoot delivery. Four different types of leaf sequencing methods are compared. The sliding window method and the reducing level method use the same number of field segments to deliver the same intensity map, but the TGI is much less for the reducing level method. The leaf synchronization method of Van Santvoort and Heijmen fails in step-and-shoot delivery, but a new method inspired by the method of Van Santvoort and Heijmen is shown to eliminate 'tongue-and-groove' underdosage completely

  7. U-shaped micro-groove fiber based on femtosecond laser processing for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui; Ma, Li-li; Su, Fu-fang; Shi, Meng

    2018-05-01

    A novel optical fiber sensor with a U-shaped micro-groove structure ablated by femtosecond laser on single-mode fiber for measuring air relative humidity (RH) is reported in this paper. In order to improve the accuracy of sensor, a graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite film is coated on the surface of micro-groove structure. In the U-shaped micro-groove structure, the remaining core and micro-cavity in the micro-groove make up two major optical propagation paths, forming a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The sensor has a good linear response within the RH range of 30%—85%, and the maximum sensitivity can reach 0.638 1 nm/%RH. The effect of temperature on the overall performance of the humidity sensor is also investigated. As a new type of all-fiber device, the sensor shows excellent sensitivity and stability.

  8. Determinig the Shape Coefficient A of Groove on the Pen for the Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křístek, Ivo; Havlík, Jiří; Mosler, Václav; Daniš, Igor

    2017-12-01

    This article focuses on creating a diagram for determining the shape coefficient α for a tongue groove on the shaft. Experimental determination of curve diagrams by comparing diagrams and monograms used using FEM calculations.

  9. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  10. Large eddy simulation of the subcritical flow over a V grooved circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo-García, A.; Gutiérrez-Torres, C. del C.; Jiménez-Bernal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared numerically the turbulent flow over a smooth circular cylinder and a V grooved cylinder in the subcritical regime. • Turbulence intensities in both streamwise and normal direction suffered attenuations. • The swirls structures on grooves peaks seemed to have a cyclic behavior. • The evolution of the flow inside grooves showed that swirls structures located in peaks suffered elongations in the normal direction. • The secondary vortex structures formed in the grooved cylinder near wake were smaller in comparison of the smooth cylinder flow. - Abstract: In this paper, a comparative numerical study of the subcritical flow over a smooth cylinder and a cylinder with V grooves (Re = 140,000) is presented. The implemented technique was the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), which according to Kolmogorov's theory, resolves directly the most energetic largest eddies and models the smallest and considered universal high frequency ones. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations were solved using the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT V.12.1, which applied the finite volume method (FVM) to discretize these equations in their unsteady and incompressible forms. The grid densities were 2.6 million cells and 13.5 million cells for the smooth and V grooved cylinder, respectively. Both meshes were composed of structured hexahedral cells and close to the wall of the cylinders, additional refinements were employed in order to obtain y +<5 values. All cases were simulated during at least 15 vortex shedding cycles with the aim of obtaining significant statistical data. Results: showed that for both cases (smooth and V grooved cylinder flow), the numerical code was capable of reproducing the most important physical quantities of the subcritical regime. Velocity distribution and turbulence intensity in the flow direction suffered a slight attenuation along the wake, as a consequence of grooves perturbation, which also caused an increase in the pressure coefficient

  11. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade recordable DVDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Guilin; Rivera, Felipe; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Davis, Robert C.; Vanfleet, Richard; Lunt, Barry M.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The plastic substrates, reflective layers, dyes, and adhesives of four archival-grade DVDs and one standard-grade recordable DVD were analyzed to determine their chemical compositions and/or physical dimensions. Chemical analyses by ATR-FTIR, ToF-SIMS, XPS, EDX/STEM, and RBS show that all these DVDs use very similar polycarbonate plastic substrates and acrylate-based adhesives, but different reflective layers and dye write layers. In addition, physical measurements by AFM show differences in the DVD groove depth, width, and other dimensions. These chemical and physical analyses may help explain variations in DVD lifetimes and facilitate development of the next generation of archival-grade DVDs.

  12. Dimension of chaotic attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.

  13. Schwann cell interactions with polymer films are affected by groove geometry and film hydrophilicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasseri, S A; Downes, S; Terenghi, G

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable polymer scaffold made of a polycaprolactone/polylactic acid (PCL/PLA) film. Surface properties such as topography and chemistry have a vital influence on cell–material interactions. Surface modifications of PCL/PLA films were performed using topographical cues and UV–ozone treatment to improve Schwann cell organisation and behaviour. Schwann cell attachment, alignment and proliferation were evaluated on the grooved UV–ozone treated and non-treated films. Solvent casting of the polymer solution on patterned silicon substrates resulted in films with different groove shapes: V (V), sloped (SL) and square (SQ) shapes. Pitted films, with no grooves, were prepared as a negative control. The UV–ozone treatment was performed to increase hydrophilicity. The process specifications for UV–ozone treatment were evaluated and 5 min radiation time and 6 cm distance to the UV source were suggested as the optimal practise. When cultured on grooved films, Schwann cells elongated on the V and SL shape grooves without crossing over, and grew in the direction of the grooves. However, there was less elongation with more crossing over on the SQ shape grooves. The maximum cell length (511 μm) was observed on the treated V-grooved films. The cells cultured on pitted UV–ozone treated surfaces showed random arrangements with no increase in length. We have demonstrated that the synergic effects of physical cues combined with UV–ozone treatment have the potential to enhance Schwann cell morphology and alignment. (paper)

  14. Management of endodontic-periodontic lesion of a maxillary lateral incisor with palatoradicular groove

    OpenAIRE

    Jayshree Ramakrishna Vishwas; Shoeb Yakub Shaikh; Varsha H. Tambe; Fareedi Mukram Ali; Mohammed Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Presence of palatal radicular grooves are considered to be an important contributing factor to the development of localized periodontitis, as it favored the accumulation and proliferation of bacterial plaque deep into the periodontium. Pulp involvement could result due to the introduction of bacterial toxins through channels that existed between the root canal system and the groove. Early diagnosis, elimination of inflammation and correction of anatomic complications are the key to a favorabl...

  15. Optimal Tempo for Groove: Its Relation to Directions of Body Movement and Japanese nori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etani, Takahide; Marui, Atsushi; Kawase, Satoshi; Keller, Peter E

    2018-01-01

    The tendency for groove-based music to induce body movements has been linked to multiple acoustical factors. However, it is unclear how or whether tempo affects groove, although tempo significantly affects other aspects of music perception. To address this issue, the present study investigated effects of tempo, specific rhythmic organizations of patterns, and syncopation on groove and the induction of the sensation of wanting to move. We focused on the directions of body movement in particular by taking into account nori , which is an indigenous Japanese musical term used not only synonymously with groove, but also as a spatial metaphor indicating vertical or horizontal movement directions. Thus, the present study explored how groove was felt and defined, as well as how musical factors induced the sensation of wanting to move in cross-cultural context. A listening experiment was conducted using drum breaks as stimuli. Stimuli consisted of various rhythm patterns at six tempi from 60 to 200 BPM. The main findings are that: (1) an optimal tempo for groove existed for drum breaks at around 100-120 BPM, (2) an optimal tempo existed for the sensation of wanting to move the body in specific directions (i.e., back-and-forth and side-to-side), (3) groove and nori shared a similar concept of wanting to move but differed on several points (i.e., association with sense of pulse and fast tempo). Overall, the present study suggests that there is an optimal tempo for body movement related to groove. This finding has implications for the use of music or rhythmic stimuli to induce smooth motion in rehabilitation, therapy, or dance.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the grooving corrosion resistance of ERW pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Lee, Jae Young; Lim, Soo Hyun; Park, Ji Hwan; Seo, Bo Min; Kim, Seon Hwa

    2002-01-01

    The v-sharp grooving corrosion of ERW(electrical resistance welding) steel pipes limited their wide application in the industry in spite of their high productivity and efficiency. The grooving corrosion is caused mainly by the different microstructures between the matrix and weld that is formed during the rapid heating and cooling cycle in welding. By this localized corrosion reaction of pipes, it evolves economic problems such as the early damage of industrial facilities and pipe lines of apartment, and water pollution. Even though the diminishing of sulfur content is most effective to decrease the susceptibility of grooving corrosion, it requires costly process. In this study, improvement of grooving corrosion resistance was pursuited by post weld heat treatment in the temperature range between 650 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C. Also, the effect of heat input in the welding was investigated. By employing chromnoamperometry and potentiodynamic experiment, the corrosion rate and grooving corrosion index(α) were obtained. It was found that heat treatment could improve the grooving corrosion resistance. Among them, the heat treated at 900 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C had excellent grooving corrosion resistance. The index of heat treated specimen at 900 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C were 1.0, 1.2, respectively, which are almost immune to the grooving corrosion. Potential difference after the heat treatment, between base and weld metal was decreased considerably. While the as-received one measured 61∼71 mV, that of the 900 .deg. C heat treated steel pipe measured only 10mV. The results were explained and discussed

  17. Optimal Tempo for Groove: Its Relation to Directions of Body Movement and Japanese nori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Etani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The tendency for groove-based music to induce body movements has been linked to multiple acoustical factors. However, it is unclear how or whether tempo affects groove, although tempo significantly affects other aspects of music perception. To address this issue, the present study investigated effects of tempo, specific rhythmic organizations of patterns, and syncopation on groove and the induction of the sensation of wanting to move. We focused on the directions of body movement in particular by taking into account nori, which is an indigenous Japanese musical term used not only synonymously with groove, but also as a spatial metaphor indicating vertical or horizontal movement directions. Thus, the present study explored how groove was felt and defined, as well as how musical factors induced the sensation of wanting to move in cross-cultural context. A listening experiment was conducted using drum breaks as stimuli. Stimuli consisted of various rhythm patterns at six tempi from 60 to 200 BPM. The main findings are that: (1 an optimal tempo for groove existed for drum breaks at around 100–120 BPM, (2 an optimal tempo existed for the sensation of wanting to move the body in specific directions (i.e., back-and-forth and side-to-side, (3 groove and nori shared a similar concept of wanting to move but differed on several points (i.e., association with sense of pulse and fast tempo. Overall, the present study suggests that there is an optimal tempo for body movement related to groove. This finding has implications for the use of music or rhythmic stimuli to induce smooth motion in rehabilitation, therapy, or dance.

  18. The use of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove indices based on joint size in lower limb evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlic, Peter Wilhelm; Runer, Armin; Dirisamer, Florian; Balcarek, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Biedermann, Rainer; Liebensteiner, Michael Christian

    2018-05-01

    The correlation between tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG) and joint size, taking into account several different parameters of knee joint size as well as lower limb dimensions, is evaluated in order to assess whether TT-TG indices should be used in instead of absolute TT-TG values. This study comprised a retrospective analysis of knee CT scans, including 36 cases with patellofemoral instability (PFI) and 30 controls. Besides TT-TG, five measures of knee joint size were evaluated in axial CT slices: medio-lateral femur width, antero-posterior lateral condylar height, medio-lateral width of the tibia, width of the patella and the proximal-distal joint size (TT-TE). Furthermore, the length of the femur, the tibia and the total leg length were measured in the CT scanogram. Correlation analysis of TT-TG and the other parameters was done by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. In the PFI group lateral condylar height (r = 0.370), tibia width (r = 0.406) and patella width (r = 0.366) showed significant moderate correlations (p joint size or between TT-TG and measures of lower limb length. Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance correlates with several parameters of knee joint size and leg length in patients with patellofemoral instability. Application of indices determining TT-TG as a ratio of joint size could be helpful in establishing the indication for medial transfer of the tibial tuberosity in patients with PFI. Level III.

  19. Grooved surface topography alters matrix-metalloproteinase production by human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydone, Alistair S; Dominic Meek, R M; Dalby, Matthew J; Berry, Catherine C; McNamara, Laura E

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is an essential physiological process in which matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a key role. Manipulating the manner in which cells produce MMPs and ECMs may enable the creation of a desired tissue type, i.e. effect repair, or the prevention of tissue invasion (e.g. metastasis). The aim of this project was to determine if culturing fibroblasts on grooved topography altered collagen deposition or MMP production. Human fibroblasts were seeded on planar or grooved polycaprolactone substrates (grooves were 12.5 μm wide with varying depths of 240 nm, 540 nm or 2300 nm). Cell behaviour and collagen production were studied using fluorescence microscopy and the spent culture medium was assessed using gel zymography to detect MMPs. Total collagen deposition was high on the 240 nm deep grooves, but decreased as the groove depth increased, i.e. as cell contact guidance decreased. There was an increase in gelatinase on the 2300 nm deep grooved topography and there was a difference in the temporal expression of MMP-3 observed on the planar surface compared to the 540 nm and 2300 nm topographies. These results show that topography can alter collagen and MMP production. A fuller understanding of these processes may permit the design of surfaces tailored to tissue regeneration e.g. tendon repair.

  20. Cold test of deep groove plarizer for 170 GHz ECCD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, M.; Ookouti, K.; Sazawa, S.; Yuasa, S.; Takei, N.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Imai, T.

    2001-01-01

    The single deep groove mirror was proposed as a new concept polarizer instead of the conventional two mirror polarizers for producing ordinary (or extraordinary) wave with high mode purity at an arbitrary injection angle in electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) experiments. The estimated mode purity of O and X waves on the plasma surface is expected to be higher than about 93% for reasonable ECCD experimental conditions. The three types of deep groove mirrors, which are the rectangular groove mirror and the non-rectangular one, are manufactured and tested at the frequency range from 140 GHz to 170 GHz and the power level of 30 mW. The groove parameters are the period of 0.9-1 mm, the ridge width of 0.45-0.5 mm, and the groove depth of 1.98 mm, which is deeper than a wavelength at 170 GHz. The measured results of deep groove polarizers agree with the theoretical predictions, qualitatively. Those prove the feasibility of a single mirror polarizer for ECCD system

  1. Structure of a Pheromone Receptor-Associated Mhc Molecule With An Open And Empty Groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Huey-Tubman, K.E.; Dulac, C.; Bjorkman, P.J.; /Caltech /Harvard U.

    2006-10-06

    Neurons in the murine vomeronasal organ (VNO) express a family of class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins (M10s) that interact with the V2R class of VNO receptors. This interaction may play a direct role in the detection of pheromonal cues that initiate reproductive and territorial behaviors. The crystal structure of M10.5, an M10 family member, is similar to that of classical MHC molecules. However, the M10.5 counterpart of the MHC peptide-binding groove is open and unoccupied, revealing the first structure of an empty class I MHC molecule. Similar to empty MHC molecules, but unlike peptide-filled MHC proteins and non-peptide-binding MHC homologs, M10.5 is thermally unstable, suggesting that its groove is normally occupied. However, M10.5 does not bind endogenous peptides when expressed in mammalian cells or when offered a mixture of class I-binding peptides. The F pocket side of the M10.5 groove is open, suggesting that ligands larger than 8-10-mer class I-binding peptides could fit by extending out of the groove. Moreover, variable residues point up from the groove helices, rather than toward the groove as in classical MHC structures. These data suggest that M10s are unlikely to provide specific recognition of class I MHC-binding peptides, but are consistent with binding to other ligands, including proteins such as the V2Rs.

  2. Structure of a pheromone receptor-associated MHC molecule with an open and empty groove.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the murine vomeronasal organ (VNO express a family of class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins (M10s that interact with the V2R class of VNO receptors. This interaction may play a direct role in the detection of pheromonal cues that initiate reproductive and territorial behaviors. The crystal structure of M10.5, an M10 family member, is similar to that of classical MHC molecules. However, the M10.5 counterpart of the MHC peptide-binding groove is open and unoccupied, revealing the first structure of an empty class I MHC molecule. Similar to empty MHC molecules, but unlike peptide-filled MHC proteins and non-peptide-binding MHC homologs, M10.5 is thermally unstable, suggesting that its groove is normally occupied. However, M10.5 does not bind endogenous peptides when expressed in mammalian cells or when offered a mixture of class I-binding peptides. The F pocket side of the M10.5 groove is open, suggesting that ligands larger than 8-10-mer class I-binding peptides could fit by extending out of the groove. Moreover, variable residues point up from the groove helices, rather than toward the groove as in classical MHC structures. These data suggest that M10s are unlikely to provide specific recognition of class I MHC-binding peptides, but are consistent with binding to other ligands, including proteins such as the V2Rs.

  3. Grooved surface topography alters matrix-metalloproteinase production by human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydone, Alistair S; Dominic Meek, R M [Department of Orthopaedics, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF (United Kingdom); Dalby, Matthew J; Berry, Catherine C; McNamara, Laura E, E-mail: alibrydone@gmail.com [Centre for Cell Engineering, Joseph Black Building, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is an essential physiological process in which matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a key role. Manipulating the manner in which cells produce MMPs and ECMs may enable the creation of a desired tissue type, i.e. effect repair, or the prevention of tissue invasion (e.g. metastasis). The aim of this project was to determine if culturing fibroblasts on grooved topography altered collagen deposition or MMP production. Human fibroblasts were seeded on planar or grooved polycaprolactone substrates (grooves were 12.5 {mu}m wide with varying depths of 240 nm, 540 nm or 2300 nm). Cell behaviour and collagen production were studied using fluorescence microscopy and the spent culture medium was assessed using gel zymography to detect MMPs. Total collagen deposition was high on the 240 nm deep grooves, but decreased as the groove depth increased, i.e. as cell contact guidance decreased. There was an increase in gelatinase on the 2300 nm deep grooved topography and there was a difference in the temporal expression of MMP-3 observed on the planar surface compared to the 540 nm and 2300 nm topographies. These results show that topography can alter collagen and MMP production. A fuller understanding of these processes may permit the design of surfaces tailored to tissue regeneration e.g. tendon repair.

  4. Modified Kelvin Equations for Capillary Condensation in Narrow and Wide Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the location and order of capillary condensation transitions occurring in deep grooves of width L and depth D . For walls that are completely wet by liquid (contact angle θ =0 ) the transition is continuous and its location is not sensitive to the depth of the groove. However, for walls that are partially wet by liquid, where the transition is first order, we show that the pressure at which it occurs is determined by a modified Kelvin equation characterized by an edge contact angle θE describing the shape of the meniscus formed at the top of the groove. The dependence of θE on the groove depth D relies, in turn, on whether corner menisci are formed at the bottom of the groove in the low density gaslike phase. While for macroscopically wide grooves these are always present when θ condensation transition is different depending on whether the contact angle is greater or less than a universal value θ*≈31 °. Our arguments are supported by detailed microscopic density functional theory calculations that show that the modified Kelvin equation remains highly accurate even when L and D are of the order of tens of molecular diameters.

  5. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Patricia A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  6. Measurement of sheath thickness by lining out grooves in the Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Wu Zhiwen; Ning Zhongxi; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Using grooves created along the axial direction of the discharge channel, a method for measuring sheath thickness in Hall-type stationary plasma thrusters has been developed. By distorting the wall surface using these grooves, it is possible to numerically study the effect of the wall surface on the sheath and near wall conductivity. Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the electron temperature variation with different groove depths. The electron dynamic process in the plasma is described by a test particle method with the electron randomly entering the sheath from the discharge channel and being reflected back. Numerical results show that the reflected electron temperature is hardly affected by the wall surface if the groove depth is much less than the sheath thickness. On the other hand, the reflected electron temperature increases if the groove depth is much greater than the sheath thickness. The reflected electron temperature has a sharp jump when the depth of groove is on the order of the sheath thickness. The simulation is repeated with different sheath thicknesses and the results are the same. Therefore, a diagnosis mean of the sheath thickness can be developed based on the method. Also the simulation results are in accord with the experimental data. Besides, the measurement method may be applicable to other plasma device with similar orthogonal steady state electrical and magnetic fields

  7. Cycle time improvement for plastic injection moulding process by sub groove modification in conformal cooling channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Wahab, M. S.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Raus, A. A.; Ahmed, Aqeel

    2017-09-01

    Mould designers have been struggling for the improvement of the cooling system performance, despite the fact that the cooling system complexity is physically limited by the fabrication capability of the conventional tooling methods. However, the growth of Solid Free Form Technology (SFF) allow the mould designer to develop more than just a regular conformal cooling channel. Numerous researchers demonstrate that conformal cooling channel was tremendously given significant result in the improvement of productivity and quality in the plastic injection moulding process. This paper presents the research work that applies the passive enhancement method in square shape cooling channel to enhance the efficiency of cooling performance by adding the sub groove to the cooling channel itself. Previous design that uses square shape cooling channel was improved by adding various numbers of sub groove to meet the best sub groove design that able reduced the cooling time. The effect of sub groove design on cooling time was investigated by Autodesk Modlflow Insight software. The simulation results showed that the various sub groove designs give different values to ejection time. The Design 7 showed the lowest value of ejection time with 24.3% increment. The addition of sub groove significantly increased a coolant velocity and a rate of heat transfer from molten plastic to coolant.

  8. The bony labyrinth of the middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins represent early members of the Neandertal clade and provide an opportunity to compare the data with the later in time Neandertals, as well as Pleistocene and recent humans more broadly. The Atapuerca (SH) hominins do not differ from the Neandertals in any of the variables related to the absolute and relative sizes and shape of the semicircular canals. Indeed, the entire Neandertal clade seems to be characterized by a derived pattern of canal proportions, including a relatively small posterior canal and a relatively large lateral canal. In contrast, one of the most distinctive features observed in Neandertals, the low placement of the posterior canal (i.e., high sagittal labyrinthine index), is generally not present in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins. This low placement is considered a derived feature in Neandertals and is correlated with a more vertical orientation of the ampullar line (LSCm  PPp), and third part of the facial canal (LSCm < FC3). Some variation is present within the Atapuerca (SH) sample, however, with a few individuals approaching the Neandertal condition more closely. In addition, the cochlear shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins is low, indicating a reduction in the height of the cochlea. Although the phylogenetic polarity of this feature is less clear, the low shape index in the Atapuerca (SH) hominins may be a derived feature. Regardless, cochlear height subsequently increased in Neandertals. In contrast to previous suggestions, the expanded data in the present study indicate no difference across the genus Homo in the angle of inclination of the cochlear basal turn (COs < LSCm). Principal components analysis largely confirms these observations. While not

  9. Biomechanical Comparison of Arthroscopic Single- and Double-Row Repair Techniques for Acute Bony Bankart Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, Ulrich J; Smith, Sean D; Todd, Jocelyn N; Coatney, Garrett A; Wijdicks, Coen A; Millett, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Single- and double-row arthroscopic reconstruction techniques for acute bony Bankart lesions have been described in the literature. The double-row fixation technique would provide superior reduction and stability of a simulated bony Bankart lesion at time zero in a cadaveric model compared with the single-row technique. Controlled laboratory study. Testing was performed on 14 matched pairs of glenoids with simulated bony Bankart fractures with a defect width of 25% of the glenoid diameter. Half of the fractures were repaired with a double-row technique, while the contralateral glenoids were repaired with a single-row technique. The quality of fracture reduction was measured with a coordinate measuring machine. To determine the biomechanical stability of the repairs, specimens were preconditioned with 10 sinusoidal cycles between 5 and 25 N at 0.1 Hz and then pulled to failure in the anteromedial direction at a rate of 5 mm/min. Loads at 1 mm and 2 mm of fracture displacement were determined. The double-row technique required significantly higher forces to achieve fracture displacements of 1 mm (mean, 60.6 N; range, 39.0-93.3 N; P = .001) and 2 mm (mean, 94.4 N; range, 43.4-151.2 N; P = .004) than the single-row technique (1 mm: mean, 30.2 N; range, 14.0-54.1 N and 2 mm: mean, 63.7 N; range, 26.6-118.8 N). Significantly reduced fracture displacement was seen after double-row repair for both the unloaded condition (mean, 1.1 mm; range, 0.3-2.4 mm; P = .005) and in response to a 10-N anterior force applied to the defect (mean, 1.6 mm; range, 0.5-2.7 mm; P = .001) compared with single-row repair (unloaded: mean, 2.1 mm; range, 1.3-3.4 mm and loaded: mean, 3.4 mm; range, 1.9-4.7 mm). The double-row fixation technique resulted in improved fracture reduction and superior stability at time zero in this cadaveric model. This information may influence the surgical technique used to treat large osseous Bankart fractures and the postoperative rehabilitation protocols

  10. Dimensions of Creative Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined evaluative reasoning taking place during expert ‘design critiques’. We focused on key dimensions of creative evaluation (originality, functionality and aesthetics) and ways in which these dimensions impact reasoning strategies and suggestions offered by experts for how the student could...... continue. Each dimension was associated with a specific underpinning ‘logic’ determining how these dimensions were evaluated in practice. Our analysis clarified how these dimensions triggered reasoning strategies such as running mental simulations or making design suggestions, ranging from ‘go...

  11. More dimensions: Less entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Lindley, D.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    For a cosmological model with d noncompact and D compact spatial dimensions and symmetry R 1 x S/sup d/ x S/sup D/, we calculate the entropy produced in d dimensions due to the compactification of D dimensions and show it too small to be of cosmological interest. Although insufficient entropy is produced in the model we study, the contraction of extra dimensions does lead to entropy production. We discuss modifications of our assumptions, including changing our condition for decoupling of the extra dimensions, which may lead to a large entropy production and change our conclusions

  12. Preservation of olfaction in surgery of olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo-Youl; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, In-Young

    2013-08-01

    Olfaction is commonly considered as secondary among the sensory functions, perhaps reflecting a lack of interest in sparing olfaction after surgery for the olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). However, considering the repercussions of olfaction for the quality of life, the assessment of post-operative olfaction should be necessary. We retrospectively reviewed the olfactory outcome in patients with OGM and investigated the factors associated with sparing the post-operative olfaction. Between 1993 and 2012, 40 patients with OGM underwent surgical resection and estimated the olfactory function using the Korean version of "Sniffin'Sticks" test (KVSS). Variable factors, such as tumor size, degree of preoperative edema, tumor consistency, preoperative olfactory function, surgical approaches, patient's age, and gender were analyzed with attention to the post-operative olfactory function. Anatomical and functional preservation of olfactory structures were achieved in 26 patients (65%) and 22 patients (55%), respectively. Among the variable factors, size of tumor was significant related to the preservation of post-operative olfaction. (78.6% in size4 cm, p=0.035). Sparing the olfaction was significantly better in patients without preoperative olfactory dysfunction (84.6%) compared with ones with preoperative olfactory dysfunction (40.7%, p=0.016). The frontolateral approach achieved much more excellent post-operative olfactory function (71.4%) than the bifrontal approach (36.8%, p=0.032). If the tumor was smaller than 4 cm and the patients did not present olfactory dysfunction preoperatively, the possibility of sparing the post-operative olfaction was high. Among the variable surgical approaches, frontolateral route may be preferable sparing the post-operative olfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical, radiological, surgical, and pathological determinants of olfactory groove schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sadayandi Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Olfactory groove schwannomas (OGS are rare anterior cranial fossa base tumors with only 41 cases reported in literature. Olfactory ensheathing cell schwannoma (OECS has similar clinico-radiological features as OGS, but a different cell of origin. In recent years, there is growing interest in OECS as more cases are being reported. Aims: The objective was to study the clinico-radiological features of OGS and define the histological differentiation from OECS. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical, radiological, surgical and histopathological picture of all cases of OGS managed in our institute. Immuno histochemical studies were performed in these tumors for differentiating from OECS. A comprehensive review of articles published until date describing the operative treatment was done. Results: All three cases had presented with seizures, two had anosmia and papilledema. Gross-total resection was achieved in all our patients. One patient expired in the postoperative period due to septicemia. Positive expression to newer immuno histochemical biomarker CD57 (Leu7, with negative staining to smooth muscle α-actin (SMA was helpful in confirming the diagnosis of OGS and differentiating it from OECS in all our cases. Conclusions: OECS, though rare has to be differentiated from OGS using immuno histochemistry. Gross-total resection of OGS with preservation of olfactory function is often possible and curative. Although these tumors are commonly treated with microsurgical skull base approaches, an endoscopic endonasal approach can be considered in some cases, with repair using mucoperiosteal pedicled flap to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leak.

  14. Effects of platelet-rich fibrin on healing of intra-bony defects treated with anorganic bovine bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Yasemin; Uraz, Ahu; Taner, I Levent; Çulhaoğlu, Rana

    2017-01-26

    Anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABBM) is extensively used in the treatment of intra-bony defects. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a new-generation platelet concentrate with a simplified technique. Although certain studies have reported the use of PRF in the treatment of intra-bony defects, to date, none of them have evaluated its additive effects with ABBM. Therefore, a randomised, split-mouth clinical trial was conducted to compare healing of intra-bony defects treated with an ABBM-PRF combination with healing of those treated with ABBM alone. By using a split-mouth design, 15 paired intra-bony defects were randomly treated with either ABBM alone (control group) or ABBM-PRF combination (test group). Following clinical parameters and radiographical measurements were recorded at baseline and 6 months after treatment: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment level (CAL), vertical bone loss, depth of defect and defect angle. Preoperative clinical and radiographical measurements were similar for the test and control groups. Statistically significant reductions in GI, PD, CAL, vertical bone loss, depth of intra-bony defect and widening of defect angle were detected after treatment in both groups. With respect to inter-group analysis, gain in CAL was significantly greater in the test group than in the control group, whereas no inter-group differences were observed in any other parameter. The results of this study indicate that both therapies are effective in the treatment of intra-bony defects.

  15. A tomographic study of positional and bony changes in the temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Kim Min Suk; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the evaluation of prognosis of temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery. For this study, 20 patients (40 TMJ) who undergone orthognathic surgery were examined. Preoperative and postoperative tomograms of TMJ were taken. And the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to postoperative periods. The obtained results were as follows : 1. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in joint spaces in each group and between groups (P<0.05). 2. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative ratio of joint spaces (P<0.05).3. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in the range of motion of condylar head (P<0.05). 4. The bony changes of condylar head were observed in 14 (35%) condyles (6 erosion, 2 flattening, 5 double contour, 1 osteophyte).

  16. A tomographic study of positional and bony changes in the temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Kim Min Suk; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonpook National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the evaluation of prognosis of temporomandibular joint following orthognathic surgery. For this study, 20 patients (40 TMJ) who undergone orthognathic surgery were examined. Preoperative and postoperative tomograms of TMJ were taken. And the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to postoperative periods. The obtained results were as follows : 1. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in joint spaces in each group and between groups (P<0.05). 2. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative ratio of joint spaces (P<0.05).3. There were no significant differences between preoperative and postoperative changes in the range of motion of condylar head (P<0.05). 4. The bony changes of condylar head were observed in 14 (35%) condyles (6 erosion, 2 flattening, 5 double contour, 1 osteophyte).

  17. Bony changes in cows affected with chronic fluorine poisoning caused by industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasarov, E; Tatarov, B; Dimitrov, G; Kantschev, L; Kovatschev, K

    1972-01-01

    Cows affected with chronic fluorine poisoning were thoroughly examined and the findings ff clinical, anatomical-pathological, x-ray, chemical and histological examinations are reported with particular reference to changes of skeletal bones. The most significant bony changes were periosteal hyperostosis on metacarpal and metatarsal bones, local resorption of the compact substance which appeared to have a sponge-like pattern, and a destructive process in the areas surrounding Havers' and Volkmann's canals. Changes of the trabecular pattern were observed in the spongy substance of the above mentioned bones. Trabeculae showed signs of atrophy - they were thinned or coarsely thickened - and their contours were well contrasted. Regularly shaped osteons were not frequently found in the spongy substance. Marked narrowing of the medullary canal was seen.

  18. Endoscopic Modified Medial Maxillectomy for Fungal Ball of the Hypoplastic Maxillary Sinus With Bony Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ikushima, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Daiki; Shimizu, Yuichi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jun; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Katori, Yukio; Ohyama, Kenji

    2018-05-01

    Sinus fungal ball is defined as noninvasive chronic rhino-sinusitis with a clump of mold in the paranasal sinuses, typically affecting the maxillary sinus. Fairly good outcomes of endoscopic surgery have been reported where the ball is removed through the antrostomy. However, the affected sinus tends to have a smaller cavity and thicker bony walls. As such, it is often challenging to maintain a window size that is sufficient to control possible recurrence. The endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy procedure was applied to a 61-year old and a 70-year old female patient with maxillary sinus fungal ball. Using this method, we created a much larger inferior meatal antrostomy without difficulty. The window provided us with an endoscopic view of the whole sinus and complete eradication of the lesion. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy is useful as a surgical procedure for maxillary sinus fungal ball and should be considered for better outcomes.

  19. Reconstruction of bony facial contour deficiencies with polymethylmethacrylate implants: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy C. C. Abdo Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial trauma can be considered one of the most serious aggressions found in the medical centers due to the emotional consequences and the possibility of deformity. In craniofacial surgery, the use of autologous bone is still the first choice for reconstructing bony defects or irregularities. When there is a shortage of donor bone or a patient refuses an intracranial operation, alloplastic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA can be used. The PMMA prosthesis can be pre-fabricated, bringing advantages such as reduction of surgical time, easy technical handling and good esthetic results. This paper describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with PMMA implants in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient.

  20. The bony crescent sign - a new sign of facial nerve schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, A.; Fagan, P.

    1992-01-01

    Schwannomas are relatively uncommon intracranial tumours. They most commonly involve the acoustic nerve followed in frequency by the trigeminal nerve. Other cranial nerves are rarely involved. Facial nerve schwannomas occurring within the petrous temporal bone are very rare. Their diagnosis may be missed prospectively even when appropriate computerized tomography (CT) scans are performed. Even in retrospect the site of abnormality may be difficult to identify, especially if there is an associated middle ear mass such as a cholesteatoma. In the 4 cases presented the facial nerve schwannoma was seen on high resolution CT as a soft tissue mass bounded anteriorly by a thin rim of bone. This bony crescent sign is a previously undescribed feature of facial nerve schwannoma which appears to be strongly indicative of the presence of this tumour. Recognition of this sign makes these tumours arising in the region of the geniculate ganglion easy to diagnose prospectively. 12 refs., 6 figs

  1. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2016-09-01

    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

  2. Myelotoxicity of Samarium Sm153 lexidronam in patients with painful bony metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ghachem, T.; Mhiri, A.; Slim, I.; Bahloul, A.; Yeddes, I.; Elbez, I.; Meddeb, I.; Ben Slimene, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: the management of bone pain includes analgesia, radiation, hormones, radiofrequency (RF) ablation, chemotherapy, and surgery. Bone pain palliation therapy with radiopharmaceuticals is a cost-effective systemic therapy to relieve pain from skeletal metastases with a consequent decrease in morbidity and an improvement in quality of life. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of myelotoxicity of samarium lexidronam (Sm 153 ) in patients with painful bony metastasis. Methods: we reviewed 116 patients aged from 14 to 87 years old, 91 males (78%) and 25 females (22%), having received 1 to 4 treatments of Sm 153 (37 MBq/kg) for painful bony metastases from different primitive tumors: 67 cases of prostate cancer (57.7%), 22 cases of breast cancer (18.9%), 10 cases of pulmonary cancer (8.6%) and others in 14.6% of cases. Clinical follow-up was available for 159 treatments, consisting on blood count each week over at least two months, in order to evaluate myelotoxicity according to WHO classification. Results: no patients had grade 4 toxicity after its cures. A grade 2-3 myelotoxicity was observed after 52 treatments (34%) during the second week and after 50 treatments (32.6%) during the fourth week with a satisfactory reversibility. At 10 weeks of treatment, myelotoxicity was reclassified from 0 to 2 for 139 cures (90,8%). Moreover, we found that prior treatment with radiotherapy or chemotherapy did not affect the rates of myelotoxicity. Conclusion: multiple treatments with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had no significant effect on myelotoxicity. Patients with bone predominant metastatic disease may survive for extended periods of time and may safely be treated with multiple modalities of therapy. (authors)

  3. A clinico-radiologic study of bony remodeling of the fractured condyles in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Shin; Park, Chang Seo

    1995-01-01

    Bony remodeling pattern of condyle fractures in children are different from in adult for growing of condyle, also might affect treatment and prognosis of the condyle fracture. Subjects of this clinical and radiologic study were 26 temporomandibular joints diagnosed as condyle fracture in 23 patients under 15 years old age, They were treated with conservative method at Dental Hospital of Yonsei University from Jan., 1986 to Oct., 1994. Bony remodeling related with fracture pattern was evaluated. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female in patients with condyle fracture was 1 : 0.9 and the difference of sex ratio was not noted. Comparing with preschool-age group and school-age group, age frequency was higher in preschool-age group (83%). 2. Fallen down (54%) was the most frequent cause of condyle fractures. Traffic accident and slip down were followed. 3. The most common clinical sign of condyle fractures was tenderness to palpation (19 cases). Mouth opening limitation (17 cases), swelling (7 cases), malocclusion (3 cases) were next in order. 4. According to sites of condyle fractures, unilateral fractures were in 20 patients and bilateral fractures in 3 patients, therefore total 23 patients-26 cases of condyle fracture were observed. According to fracture distribution, condyle fractures were in 10 patients (44%). Condyle fractures with symphysis fracture (9 patients, 39%), condyle fractures with ascending ramus fracture (2 patients, 9%), condyle fracture with mandibular body fracture (1 patient, 4%), and condyle fractures with mandibular angle fracture (1 patient, 4%) were followed. 5. In displacement pattern of fractured fragment of mandibular condyle, displacement (17 cases, 66%) was most common. Dislocation (5 cases, 19%) and deviation (4 cases, 15%) were next in order. 6. During the observation period of fractured condyles, remodeling patterns of fracture sites related with articular fossa were observed with usual congealer shape in 23

  4. Human bony labyrinth is an indicator of population history and dispersal from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Marcia S; Koesbardiati, Toetik; Weissmann, John David; Milella, Marco; Reyna-Blanco, Carlos S; Suwa, Gen; Kondo, Osamu; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Tim D; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2018-04-17

    The dispersal of modern humans from Africa is now well documented with genetic data that track population history, as well as gene flow between populations. Phenetic skeletal data, such as cranial and pelvic morphologies, also exhibit a dispersal-from-Africa signal, which, however, tends to be blurred by the effects of local adaptation and in vivo phenotypic plasticity, and that is often deteriorated by postmortem damage to skeletal remains. These complexities raise the question of which skeletal structures most effectively track neutral population history. The cavity system of the inner ear (the so-called bony labyrinth) is a good candidate structure for such analyses. It is already fully formed by birth, which minimizes postnatal phenotypic plasticity, and it is generally well preserved in archaeological samples. Here we use morphometric data of the bony labyrinth to show that it is a surprisingly good marker of the global dispersal of modern humans from Africa. Labyrinthine morphology tracks genetic distances and geography in accordance with an isolation-by-distance model with dispersal from Africa. Our data further indicate that the neutral-like pattern of variation is compatible with stabilizing selection on labyrinth morphology. Given the increasingly important role of the petrous bone for ancient DNA recovery from archaeological specimens, we encourage researchers to acquire 3D morphological data of the inner ear structures before any invasive sampling. Such data will constitute an important archive of phenotypic variation in present and past populations, and will permit individual-based genotype-phenotype comparisons. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. A clinico-radiologic study of bony remodeling of the fractured condyles in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Shin; Park, Chang Seo [Department of Dentistry, The Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    Bony remodeling pattern of condyle fractures in children are different from in adult for growing of condyle, also might affect treatment and prognosis of the condyle fracture. Subjects of this clinical and radiologic study were 26 temporomandibular joints diagnosed as condyle fracture in 23 patients under 15 years old age, They were treated with conservative method at Dental Hospital of Yonsei University from Jan., 1986 to Oct., 1994. Bony remodeling related with fracture pattern was evaluated. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The ratio of male to female in patients with condyle fracture was 1 : 0.9 and the difference of sex ratio was not noted. Comparing with preschool-age group and school-age group, age frequency was higher in preschool-age group (83%). 2. Fallen down (54%) was the most frequent cause of condyle fractures. Traffic accident and slip down were followed. 3. The most common clinical sign of condyle fractures was tenderness to palpation (19 cases). Mouth opening limitation (17 cases), swelling (7 cases), malocclusion (3 cases) were next in order. 4. According to sites of condyle fractures, unilateral fractures were in 20 patients and bilateral fractures in 3 patients, therefore total 23 patients-26 cases of condyle fracture were observed. According to fracture distribution, condyle fractures were in 10 patients (44%). Condyle fractures with symphysis fracture (9 patients, 39%), condyle fractures with ascending ramus fracture (2 patients, 9%), condyle fracture with mandibular body fracture (1 patient, 4%), and condyle fractures with mandibular angle fracture (1 patient, 4%) were followed. 5. In displacement pattern of fractured fragment of mandibular condyle, displacement (17 cases, 66%) was most common. Dislocation (5 cases, 19%) and deviation (4 cases, 15%) were next in order. 6. During the observation period of fractured condyles, remodeling patterns of fracture sites related with articular fossa were observed with usual congealer shape in 23

  6. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral bony outgrowth in a Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualalou, Y; Azaroual, M F; Zaoui, F; Chbicheb, S; Berrada, S

    2014-11-01

    Oral bony outgrowths (OBOs) are localized bony protuberances that arise from the cortical plate. Various types of OBOs have been described, the precise designation of which depends on anatomic location such as torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, buccal exostosis, or palatal exostosis. We had for aim to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of OBOs in a Moroccan population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 15 and June 30, 2011 at the Rabat-Salé teaching hospital dental consultation and treatment center, in Morocco. Three hundred and fifty-three patients (160 female and 193 male patients), 11 to 82 years of age, were examined clinically and radiologically to determine the presence of OBO. Twenty-four patients (6.8%) presented with OBOs. The prevalence for exostosis, torus mandibularis, torus palatinus, and associated OBOs was 3.1%, 2%, 0.8%, and 0.9% respectively. There was a significant difference (P=0,01) between the average age for patients presenting with OBO (43.2±12 years of age) and the average age for patients without any OBO (36.5±16 years of age). The prevalence of OBOs in female patients (7.3%) was higher than in male patients (6.3%) but the difference was not significant (P=0.439). Patients with occlusal parafunctional activity presented with significantly more OBO (P=0.016). The reported prevalence of OBO is extremely variable, according to age, gender, and ethnic group. The occurrence of OBO could be triggered by genetic factors associated with environmental factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-08-06

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates' conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water-land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods' enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  8. The impact of postoperative supraclavicular radiotherapy on tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis in esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Pudong; Lu Jinchen; Mei Zeru; Zhu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors of tracheoesophageal groove lymph node (TEGLN) metastasis in postoperative esophageal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1996 to December 1997, 101 postoperative cervical and thoracic esophageal carcinoma patients proved absence from tracheoesophageal groove lymph node (TEGIAN) metastasis before and after operation by physical examination and computer tomography examination were entered into this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment of supraclavicular region: no prophylactic radiotherapy (group A-, 30 patients); prophylactic radiotherapy with local dose < 45 Gy (Group B-, 71 patients); and prophylactic radiotherapy with local dose ≥45 Gy (Group C-, 19 patients). Radiotherapy was delivered by cobalt- 60 or 6 MV X-ray with the prescribed dose normalized to the point of tracheoesophageal groove, i. e, 5 cm in depth. The tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis after treatment was observed. Results: The incidence of tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis was 20% (6/30), 9.6% (5/71) and 0% (0/19) in groups A, B and C. Univariate analysis showed that there was significant difference of TEGLN metastasis between groups A and C only (P=0.039), but higher dose to supraclavicular region tended to lower the incidence of TEGLN metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that only prophylactic radiotherapy to the supraclavicular region was independent prognostic factor for TEGLN metastasis (P=0.037). Gender, primary tumor site and pathological stage had no significant impact on TEGLN metastasis. Conclusions: Postoperative prophylactic supraclavicular region irradiation can lower the incidence of tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis in esophageal carcinoma. Radiotherapy dose should not be less than 45 Gy and should be routinely normalized to a point 5 cm deep in the tracheoesophageal groove. (authors)

  9. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  10. Relaxing to Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Extra dimensions of space might be present in our universe. If so, we want to know 'How do dimensions hide?' and 'Why are three dimensions special?' I'll give potential answers to both these questions in the context of localized gravity. Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00. Talk is broadcasted in Council Chamber

  11. The Modal Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giluano Torrengo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Space and time are two obvious candidates as dimensions of reality. Yet, are they the only two dimensions of reality? Famously, David Lewis maintained the doctrine of ―modal realism‖, the thesis that possible worlds exist and are entities as concrete as the actual world that we live in. In this paper, I will explore the idea that modality can be construed as a dimension along with space and time. However, although Lewis‘ modal realism is the main source of inspiration for this construal of modality, I will argue that something else is required for having a modal dimension.

  12. Immediate Single-Tooth Implant Placement in Bony Defects in the Esthetic Zone : A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    Background: This study aims to assess, with regard to marginal bone level (MBL), whether the outcome of immediate implant placement in bony defects in the esthetic zone was non-inferior to delayed implant placement after 1 year. Methods: Forty patients with a failing tooth in the esthetic zone and a

  13. What musicians do to induce the sensation of groove in simple and complex melodies, and how listeners perceive it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eMadison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groove is the experience of wanting to move when hearing music, such as snapping fingers or tapping feet. This is a central aspect of much music, in particular of music intended for dancing. While previous research has found considerable consistency in ratings of groove across individuals, it remains unclear how groove is induced, that is, what are the physical properties of the acoustic signal that differ between more and less groove-inducing versions. Here, we examined this issue with a performance experiment, in which 4 musicians performed 6 simple and 6 complex melodies in two conditions with the intention of minimizing and maximizing groove. Analyses of rhythmical and temporal properties from the performances demonstrated some general effects. For example, more groove was associated with more notes on faster metrical levels and syncopation, and less groove was associated with deadpan timing and destruction of the regular pulse. We did not observe that deviations from the metrical grid (i.e. micro-timing were a predictor of groove. A listener experiment confirmed that the musicians’ manipulations had the intended effects on the experience of groove. A Brunswikian lens model was applied, which estimates the performer-perceiver communication across the two experiments. It showed that the communication achievement for simple melodies was 0.62, and that the matching of performers’ and listeners’ use of 9 rhythmical cues was 0.83. For complex melodies with an already high level of groove, the corresponding values were 0.39 and 0.34, showing that it was much more difficult to take out groove from musical structures designed to induce groove.

  14. Transverse grooved artefacts from southwestern Asia and northern Eurasia: Common traits and the reconstruction of function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Usacheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transverse grooved artefacts (TGA appeared as a new cultural element in Mesolithic-Proto-Neolithic sites in southwestern Asia. We know of similar artefacts from northern Africa. Hundreds of TGA have also been found in northern Eurasia. Some common traits were found in specimens from far apart territories, such as the non-abrasive heat-resistant nature of the raw materials, specificity of fragmentation without any signs of physical impact, the standard size of the grooves, association with a specific type of landscape, the similar economic level of the societies with which the items are associated, and use-wear marks in the grooves. Based on these regularities we can speak of a single main function for these artefacts which support the earlier reconstruction of R.L. and R.S. Solecki, suggesting that grooved stones were used for straightening cane and reed shafts under heating. Other evidence and traces that have been identified on the surface of TGA outside the groove could be associated with a variety of additional functions.

  15. Development of an equine groove model to induce metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis: a pilot study on 6 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maninchedda, Ugo; Lepage, Olivier M; Gangl, Monika; Hilairet, Sandrine; Remandet, Bernard; Meot, Francoise; Penarier, Geraldine; Segard, Emilie; Cortez, Pierre; Jorgensen, Christian; Steinberg, Régis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an equine metacarpophalangeal joint model that induces osteoarthritis that is not primarily mediated by instability or inflammation. The study involved six Standardbred horses. Standardized cartilage surface damage or "grooves" were created arthroscopically on the distal dorsal aspect of the lateral and medial metacarpal condyles of a randomly chosen limb. The contralateral limb was sham operated. After 2 weeks of stall rest, horses were trotted 30 minutes every other day for 8 weeks, then evaluated for lameness and radiographed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for cytology and biomarkers. At 10 weeks post-surgery, horses were euthanized for macroscopic and histologic joint evaluation. Arthroscopic grooving allowed precise and identical damage to the cartilage of all animals. Under the controlled exercise regime, this osteoarthritis groove model displayed significant radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic degenerative and reactive changes. Histology demonstrated consistent surgically induced grooves limited to non-calcified cartilage and accompanied by secondary adjacent cartilage lesions, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage matrix softening, fissuring, mild subchondral bone inflammation, edema, and osteoblastic margination. Synovial fluid biochemistry and cytology demonstrated significantly elevated total protein without an increase in prostaglandin E2, neutrophils, or chondrocytes. This equine metacarpophalangeal groove model demonstrated that standardized non-calcified cartilage damage accompanied by exercise triggered altered osteochondral morphology and cartilage degeneration with minimal or inefficient repair and little inflammatory response. This model, if validated, would allow for assessment of disease processes and the effects of therapy.

  16. Development of an equine groove model to induce metacarpophalangeal osteoarthritis: a pilot study on 6 horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Maninchedda

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop an equine metacarpophalangeal joint model that induces osteoarthritis that is not primarily mediated by instability or inflammation. The study involved six Standardbred horses. Standardized cartilage surface damage or "grooves" were created arthroscopically on the distal dorsal aspect of the lateral and medial metacarpal condyles of a randomly chosen limb. The contralateral limb was sham operated. After 2 weeks of stall rest, horses were trotted 30 minutes every other day for 8 weeks, then evaluated for lameness and radiographed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for cytology and biomarkers. At 10 weeks post-surgery, horses were euthanized for macroscopic and histologic joint evaluation. Arthroscopic grooving allowed precise and identical damage to the cartilage of all animals. Under the controlled exercise regime, this osteoarthritis groove model displayed significant radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic degenerative and reactive changes. Histology demonstrated consistent surgically induced grooves limited to non-calcified cartilage and accompanied by secondary adjacent cartilage lesions, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage matrix softening, fissuring, mild subchondral bone inflammation, edema, and osteoblastic margination. Synovial fluid biochemistry and cytology demonstrated significantly elevated total protein without an increase in prostaglandin E2, neutrophils, or chondrocytes. This equine metacarpophalangeal groove model demonstrated that standardized non-calcified cartilage damage accompanied by exercise triggered altered osteochondral morphology and cartilage degeneration with minimal or inefficient repair and little inflammatory response. This model, if validated, would allow for assessment of disease processes and the effects of therapy.

  17. A test for the minimum scale of grooving on the Amatrice and Norcia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K.; Brodsky, E. E.; Billi, A.

    2017-12-01

    As stress builds up along a fault, elastic strain energy builds until it cannot be accommodated by small-scale ductile deformation and then the fault brittlely fails. This brittle failure is associated with the grooving process that causes slickensides along fault planes. Therefore the scale at which slickensides disappear could be geological evidence of earthquake nucleation. Past studies found the minimum scale of grooving, however the studied fault surfaces were not exposed by recent earthquakes. These measurements could have been a product of chemical or mechanical weathering. On August 24th and October 30th of 2016, MW 6.0 and 6.5 earthquakes shook central Italy. The earthquakes caused decimeter to meter scale fault scarps along the Mt. Vettoretto Fault. Here, we analyze samples of a scarp using white light interferometry in order to determine if the minimum scale of grooving is present. Results suggest that grooving begins around 100 μm for these samples, which is consistent with previous findings of faults without any direct evidence of earthquakes. The measurement is also consistent with typical values of the frictional weakening distance Dc, which also is associated with a transition between ductile and brittle behavior. The measurements show that the minimum scale of grooving is a useful measure of the behavior of faults.

  18. Thermal performance comparison of oscillating heat pipes with and without helical micro-grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jian; Li, Xiaojun; Xu, Qian; Wang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation to compare the thermal performance of three closed loop oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) with and without internal helical microgrooves at vertical and horizontal orientations. All of these OHPs were made from copper tubes and have three turns with lengths of 70, 230 and 110 mm at the evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections, respectively. Deionized water was used as the working fluid at a volumetric filling ratio of 50%. The internal diameters (IDs) of two smooth-tube OHPs are 4.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively, and the internal diameter of micro-grooved OHP without groove structures is about 4.5 mm. Experimental results demonstrated that the addition of groove structures make the OHP remarkably outperform smooth-tube OHPs in both effective thermal conductivity and thermal resistance. The thermal resistance of vertically-oriented micro-grooved OHP could be lowered to 0.057 °C/W associated with an effective thermal conductivity of 6.1 × 104 W/ (m·K) at the input heat flux of 3.8 × 104 W/m2. Compared to smooth-tube OHPs, preliminary mechanism analysis reveals that local heat transfer coefficients both at the heating and cooling sections of micro-grooved OHP could be significantly improved. Moreover, enhanced liquid backflow to the evaporator due to microgroove-induced capillarity is also responsible for the OHP performance enhancement.

  19. Study of mastoid canals and grooves in north karnataka human skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadimani, Gavishiddappa Andanappa; Bagoji, Ishwar Basavantappa

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the frequency of mastoid canals and grooves in north Karnataka dry human skulls. 100 dry human skulls of unknown age and sex from the department of Anatomy were selected and observed for the present study. The mastoid regions of dry skulls were observed for the presence of mastoid canals and grooves, if any. A metallic wire was passed through the canal for its confirmation and then the length was measured. The Mastoid canals were present in 53% of the total 100 skulls observed either bilaterally or unilaterally. Mastoid grooves were present in 18% of the total skulls (100) observed. Double mastoid canal was found in 01% of total skull studied and both Mastoid canals & Mastoid grooves together were present in 02% of the total skulls (100) observed. The knowledge of mastoid canals and grooves is very important for otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons. Because they contain an arterial branch of occipital artery with its accompanying vein which is liable to injury resulting into severe bleeding.

  20. Research on fatigue behavior and residual stress of large-scale cruciform welding joint with groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Yu; Liu, Yong; Gao, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The fatigue behavior of the large-scale cruciform welding joint with groove was studied. • The longitudinal residual stress of the large-scale cruciform welding joint was tested by contour method. • The fatigue fracture mechanism of the large-scale cruciform welding joint with groove was analyzed. - Abstract: Fatigue fracture behavior of the 30 mm thick Q460C-Z steel cruciform welded joint with groove was investigated. The fatigue test results indicated that fatigue strength of 30 mm thick Q460C-Z steel cruciform welded joint with groove can reach fatigue level of 80 MPa (FAT80). Fatigue crack source of the failure specimen initiated from weld toe. Meanwhile, the microcrack was also found in the fusion zones of the fatigue failure specimen, which was caused by weld quality and weld metal integrity resulting from the multi-pass welds. Two-dimensional map of the longitudinal residual stress of 30 mm thick Q460C-Z steel cruciform welded joint with groove was obtained by using the contour method. The stress nephogram of Two-dimensional map indicated that longitudinal residual stress in the welding center is the largest

  1. Comparison of carina-based versus bony anatomy-based registration for setup verification in esophageal cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiels, Mélanie; Jin, Peng; van Gurp, Christianne H; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Alderliesten, Tanja; Hulshof, Maarten C C M

    2018-03-21

    To investigate the feasibility and geometric accuracy of carina-based registration for CBCT-guided setup verification in esophageal cancer IGRT, compared with current practice bony anatomy-based registration. Included were 24 esophageal cancer patients with 65 implanted fiducial markers, visible on planning CTs and follow-up CBCTs. All available CBCT scans (n = 236) were rigidly registered to the planning CT with respect to the bony anatomy and the carina. Target coverage was visually inspected and marker position variation was quantified relative to both registration approaches; the variation of systematic (Σ) and random errors (σ) was estimated. Automatic carina-based registration was feasible in 94.9% of the CBCT scans, with an adequate target coverage in 91.1% compared to 100% after bony anatomy-based registration. Overall, Σ (σ) in the LR/CC/AP direction was 2.9(2.4)/4.1(2.4)/2.2(1.8) mm using the bony anatomy registration compared to 3.3(3.0)/3.6(2.6)/3.9(3.1) mm for the carina. Mid-thoracic placed markers showed a non-significant but smaller Σ in CC and AP direction when using the carina-based registration. Compared with a bony anatomy-based registration, carina-based registration for esophageal cancer IGRT results in inadequate target coverage in 8.9% of cases. Furthermore, large Σ and σ, requiring larger anisotropic margins, were seen after carina-based registration. Only for tumors entirely confined to the mid-thoracic region the carina-based registration might be slightly favorable.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  3. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  4. User Experience Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from the obser...

  5. Dimensions des stabulations 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika; Schneider, Claudia; Schürmann, Stefan; Spengler Neff, Anet; Werne, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Les «Dimensions des stabulations» contiennent toutes les dimensions pour les stabulations et les parcours pour la production animale en agriculture biologique. Cette liste sert d’instrument de planification pour les éleveurs, d’outil de travail pour la vulgarisation et d’ouvrage de référence pour le contrôle bio.

  6. CT of the canine lumbosacral spine in extension - flexion rotation; part I: bony window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, W.; Werner, G.

    2002-01-01

    The canine lumbosacral spine is examined radiographically in extended and flexed lateral position as well as ventrodorsally. Superimposition of bones hinders exact evaluation of the lumbosacral intervertebral foramen in case of cauda equina syndrome, especially when degenerative changes overlap. CT or MRI are more and more indicated to get reliable findings because myelography is not always of diagnostic value. For this study twelve dogs (7 German Shepherd dogs, 4 Cross-breds, and 1 Rottweiler) of different age and sex were taken which had been referred for CT examination of the lumbosacral area. Plain radiographs did not show abnormalities. The anaesthetized dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency with the legs firstly extended and secondly flexed according to flexion-extension radiography. Slice thickness was 2 mm, the CT images were evaluated in both bony and soft tissue windows. Bony window easily showed vertebral bodies, vertebral canal, pedicles, vertebral laminae, and articular processes of L7 and S1. Median height of the vertebral canal did not change during extension or flexion at the level of L7 and the sacrum. Height and width of the intervertebral foramen and width of the interarcual foramen changed markedly from extension to flexion. Lateral recessus of the vertebral canal always could be observed as ventrolateral widening. In sagittal CT scans of the lumbosacral specimen of a normal German Shepherd dog cranial articular processes of the sacrum were detected to be responsible for maximum height or width of the intervertebral foramen. Evolving from the lateral recessus the intervertebral foramen was initially oval-shaped and got rounded and narrowed by the cranial articular process of the sacrum. Position and shape of the cranial articular processes of the sacrum were evaluated. Surface of the cranial articular processes of S1 were found even with articular spaces congruent, but some also appeared slightly concave or convex where incongruity of the

  7. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....

  8. Ancient schwannoma at the olfactory groove mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Schwannomas are benign slow-growing nerve sheath tumors, which can develop in any peripheral or central nerve that contains Schwann cells. Schwannomas located near the olfactory groove are extremely rare and radiological diagnosis can be difficult. Moreover, ancient schwannoma is an uncommon variant, and radiologic findings are rarely reported. Herein, we reported a surgically confirmed case of ancient schwannoma at the olfactory groove in a 44-year-old woman presenting with headache and visual disturbance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid and cystic extra-axial mass located in the subfrontal area mimicking an olfactory groove meningioma. Histopathologic diagnosis of ancient schwannoma was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for S100, CD56, vimentin, and other markers. Furthermore, we described the clinical manifestations, MRI characteristics, and histopathologic findings of the case, and presented a review of related literature.

  9. Polarizing beam splitter of deep-etched triangular-groove fused-silica gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiangjun; Zhou, Changhe; Feng, Jijun; Wang, Bo

    2008-07-15

    We investigated the use of a deep-etched fused-silica grating with triangular-shaped grooves as a highly efficient polarizing beam splitter (PBS). A triangular-groove PBS grating is designed at a wavelength of 1550 nm to be used in optical communication. When it is illuminated in Littrow mounting, the transmitted TE- and TM-polarized waves are mainly diffracted in the minus-first and zeroth orders, respectively. The design condition is based on the average differences of the grating mode indices, which is verified by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The designed PBS grating is highly efficient over the C+L band range for both TE and TM polarizations (>97.68%). It is shown that such a triangular-groove PBS grating can exhibit a higher diffraction efficiency, a larger extinction ratio, and less reflection loss than the binary-phase fused-silica PBS grating.

  10. Comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Results of a comparative evaluation of three heat transfer enhancement strategies for forced convection cooling of a parallel plate channel populated with heated blocks, representing electronic components mounted on printed circuit boards, are reported. Heat transfer in the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel, is compared with that for the basic grooved channel, and the same geometry enhanced by cylinders and vanes placed above the downstream edge of each heated block. In addition to conventional heat transfer and pressure drop measurements, holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in the self-sustained oscillatory flow. The locations of increased heat transfer within one channel periodicity depend on the enhancement technique applied, and were identified by analyzing the unsteady temperature distributions visualized by holographic interferometry. This approach allowed gaining insight into the mechanisms responsible for heat transfer enhancement. Experiments were conducted at moderate flow velocities in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Reynolds numbers were varied in the range Re = 200-6500, corresponding to flow velocities from 0.076 to 2.36 m/s. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1050 and 1320 for the basic grooved channel, and around Re = 350 and 450 for the grooved channels equipped with cylinders and vanes, respectively. At Reynolds numbers above the onset of oscillations and in the transitional flow regime, heat transfer rates in the investigated grooved channels exceeded the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. Heat transfer in the grooved channels enhanced with cylinders and vanes showed an increase by a factor of 1.2-1.8 and 1.5-3.5, respectively, when compared to data obtained for the basic grooved channel; however, the accompanying pressure drop penalties

  11. Cervical spinal cord, root, and bony spine injuries: a closed claims analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley J; Palecek, John P; Posner, Karen L; Traynelis, Vincent C; Lee, Lorri A; Sawin, Paul D; Tredway, Trent L; Todd, Michael M; Domino, Karen B

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cervical cord, root, and bony spine claims in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims database to formulate hypotheses regarding mechanisms of injury. All general anesthesia claims (1970-2007) in the Closed Claims database were searched to identify cervical injuries. Three independent teams, each consisting of an anesthesiologist and neurosurgeon, used a standardized review form to extract data from claim summaries and judge probable contributors to injury. Cervical injury claims (n = 48; mean ± SD age 47 ± 15 yr; 73% male) comprised less than 1% of all general anesthesia claims. When compared with other general anesthesia claims (19%), cervical injury claims were more often permanent and disabling (69%; P cervical stenosis) were often present, cord injuries usually occurred in the absence of traumatic injury (81%) or cervical spine instability (76%). Cord injury occurred with cervical spine (65%) and noncervical spine (35%) procedures. Twenty-four percent of cord injuries were associated with the sitting position. Probable contributors to cord injury included anatomic abnormalities (81%), direct surgical complications (24% [38%, cervical spine procedures]), preprocedural symptomatic cord injury (19%), intraoperative head/neck position (19%), and airway management (11%). Most cervical cord injuries occurred in the absence of traumatic injury, instability, and airway difficulties. Cervical spine procedures and/or sitting procedures appear to predominate. In the absence of instability, cervical spondylosis was the most common factor associated with cord injury.

  12. Automated bony region identification using artificial neural networks: reliability and validation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassman, Esther E.; Kallemeyn, Nicole A.; DeVries, Nicole A.; Shivanna, Kiran H. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA (United States); The University of Iowa, Center for Computer-Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); Powell, Stephanie M. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA (United States); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, The University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Magnotta, Vincent A. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA (United States); The University of Iowa, Center for Computer-Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, The University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ramme, Austin J. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, The University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Adams, Brian D. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA (United States); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States); Grosland, Nicole M. [The University of Iowa, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA (United States); University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States); The University of Iowa, Center for Computer-Aided Design, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The objective was to develop tools for automating the identification of bony structures, to assess the reliability of this technique against manual raters, and to validate the resulting regions of interest against physical surface scans obtained from the same specimen. Artificial intelligence-based algorithms have been used for image segmentation, specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). For this study, an ANN was created and trained to identify the phalanges of the human hand. The relative overlap between the ANN and a manual tracer was 0.87, 0.82, and 0.76, for the proximal, middle, and distal index phalanx bones respectively. Compared with the physical surface scans, the ANN-generated surface representations differed on average by 0.35 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.40 mm for the proximal, middle, and distal phalanges respectively. Furthermore, the ANN proved to segment the structures in less than one-tenth of the time required by a manual rater. The ANN has proven to be a reliable and valid means of segmenting the phalanx bones from CT images. Employing automated methods such as the ANN for segmentation, eliminates the likelihood of rater drift and inter-rater variability. Automated methods also decrease the amount of time and manual effort required to extract the data of interest, thereby making the feasibility of patient-specific modeling a reality. (orig.)

  13. Automated bony region identification using artificial neural networks: reliability and validation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassman, Esther E.; Kallemeyn, Nicole A.; DeVries, Nicole A.; Shivanna, Kiran H.; Powell, Stephanie M.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ramme, Austin J.; Adams, Brian D.; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to develop tools for automating the identification of bony structures, to assess the reliability of this technique against manual raters, and to validate the resulting regions of interest against physical surface scans obtained from the same specimen. Artificial intelligence-based algorithms have been used for image segmentation, specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). For this study, an ANN was created and trained to identify the phalanges of the human hand. The relative overlap between the ANN and a manual tracer was 0.87, 0.82, and 0.76, for the proximal, middle, and distal index phalanx bones respectively. Compared with the physical surface scans, the ANN-generated surface representations differed on average by 0.35 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.40 mm for the proximal, middle, and distal phalanges respectively. Furthermore, the ANN proved to segment the structures in less than one-tenth of the time required by a manual rater. The ANN has proven to be a reliable and valid means of segmenting the phalanx bones from CT images. Employing automated methods such as the ANN for segmentation, eliminates the likelihood of rater drift and inter-rater variability. Automated methods also decrease the amount of time and manual effort required to extract the data of interest, thereby making the feasibility of patient-specific modeling a reality. (orig.)

  14. Primary bony non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedrak Mark F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-Hodgkin lymphoma primarily originating from the bone is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bone lymphoma presenting with progressive cord compression from an origin in the cervical spine. Herein, we discuss the unusual location in this case, the presenting symptoms, and the management of this disease. Case presentation We report on a 23-year-old Caucasian-American man who presented with two months of night sweats, fatigue, parasthesias, and progressive weakness that had progressed to near quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging demonstrated significant cord compression seen primarily at C7. Surgical management, with corpectomy and dorsal segmental fusion, in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, halted the progression of the primary disease and preserved neurological function. Histological analysis demonstrated an aggressive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Conclusion Isolated primary bony lymphoma of the spine is exceedingly rare. As in our case, the initial symptoms may be the result of progressive cervical cord compression. Anterior corpectomy with posterolateral decompression and fusion succeeded in preventing progressive neurologic decline and maintaining quality of life. The reader should be aware of the unique presentation of this disease and that surgical management is a successful treatment strategy.

  15. Orbital Tumors Excision without Bony Marginotomy under Local and General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Goldberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To present our experience of removing middle to deep orbital tumors using a combination of minimally invasive soft tissue approaches, sometimes under local anesthesia. Methods. In this retrospective case series, 30 patients (13 males and 17 females underwent tumor removal through eyelid crease (17 eyes, conjunctival (nine eyes, lateral canthal (two eyes, and transcaruncular (two eyes approaches. All tumors were located in the posterior half of the orbit. Six cases were removed under monitored anesthesia care with local block, and 24 were under general anesthesia. Results. The median (range age and follow-up duration were 48.5 (31–87 years old and 24.5 (4–375 weeks, respectively. Visual acuity and ocular motility showed improvement or no significant change in all but one patient at the latest followup. Confirmed pathologies revealed cavernous hemangioma (15 cases, pleomorphic adenoma (5 cases, solitary fibrous tumor (4 cases, neurofibroma (2 cases, schwannoma (2 cases, and orbital varix (1 case. None of the patients experienced recurrence. Conclusions. Creating a bony marginotomy increases intraoperative exposure of the deep orbit but adds substantial time and morbidity. Benign orbital tumors can often be removed safely through small soft-tissue incisions, without bone removal and under local anesthesia.

  16. Disk in a groove with friction: An analysis of static equilibrium and indeterminacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donolato, Cesare

    2018-05-01

    This note studies the statics of a rigid disk placed in a V-shaped groove with frictional walls and subjected to gravity and a torque. The two-dimensional equilibrium problem is formulated in terms of the angles that contact forces form with the normal to the walls. This approach leads to a single trigonometric equation in two variables whose domain is determined by Coulomb's law of friction. The properties of solutions (existence, uniqueness, or indeterminacy) as functions of groove angle, friction coefficient and applied torque are derived by a simple geometric representation. The results modify some of the conclusions by other authors on the same problem.

  17. Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimization for Surface Roughness in Cylindrically Grinding Process Using Helically Grooved Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaydaş, Ulaş; Çelik, Mahmut

    The present work is focused on the optimization of process parameters in cylindrical surface grinding of AISI 1050 steel with grooved wheels. Response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) techniques were merged to optimize the input variable parameters of grinding. The revolution speed of workpiece, depth of cut and number of grooves on the wheel were changed to explore their experimental effects on the surface roughness of machined bars. The mathematical models were established between the input parameters and response by using RSM. Then, the developed RSM model was used as objective functions on GA to optimize the process parameters.

  18. Efficient Excitation of Channel Plasmons in Tailored, UV-Lithography-Defined V-Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron L. C.; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the highly efficient (>50%) conversion of freely propagating light to channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) in gold V-groove waveguides using compact 1.6 μm long waveguide-termination coupling mirrors. Our straightforward fabrication process, involving UV-lithography and crystallographic...... silicon etching, forms the coupling mirrors innately and ensures exceptional-quality, wafer-scale device production. We tailor the V-shaped profiles by thermal silicon oxidation in order to shift initially wedge-located modes downward into the V-grooves, resulting in well-confined CPPs suitable...

  19. Numerical Calculation for Whirling Motion of a Centrifugal Blood Pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemaru, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Whirling motion of a pump impeller was calculated for the centrifugal blood pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings to get a criterion for the instability of impeller whirling motion. The motion of the centrifugal blood pump impeller was calculated based on a spring damping model, and unsteady flow in the pump was computed using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX. Also the whirling motion of rotating impeller was measured using two displacement sensors fixed to the blood pump casing. The numerical calculations were done for the blood pump impeller with conical spiral groove bearings, and impeller whirling motion was evaluated.

  20. Liquid phase solvent bonding of plastic microfluidic devices assisted by retention grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Alwin M D; Sadri, Amir; Young, Edmond W K

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel method for achieving consistent liquid phase solvent bonding of plastic microfluidic devices via the use of retention grooves at the bonding interface. The grooves are patterned during the regular microfabrication process, and can be placed at the periphery of a device, or surrounding microfluidic features with open ports, where they effectively mitigate solvent evaporation, and thus substantially reduce poor bond coverage. This method is broadly applicable to a variety of plastics and solvents, and produces devices with high bond quality (i.e., coverage, strength, and microfeature fidelity) that are suitable for studies in physics, chemistry, and cell biology at the microscale.

  1. Bifurcation analysis of an aerodynamic journal bearing system considering the effect of stationary herringbone grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the bifurcation and nonlinear behavior of an aerodynamic journal bearing system taking into account the effect of stationary herringbone grooves. A finite difference method based on the successive over relation approach is employed to solve the Reynolds' equation. The analysis reveals a complex dynamical behavior comprising periodic and quasi-periodic responses of the rotor center. The dynamic behavior of the bearing system varies with changes in the bearing number and rotor mass. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of aerodynamic grooved journal bearing systems

  2. High Excitation Efficiency of Channel Plasmon Polaritons in Tailored, UV-Lithography-Defined V-Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Thilsted, Anil Haraksingh; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate >50% conversion of light to V-groove channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) via compact waveguide-termination mirrors. Devices are fabricated using UV-lithography and crystallographic silicon etching. The V-shape is tailored by thermal oxidation to support confined CPPs.......We demonstrate >50% conversion of light to V-groove channel plasmon-polaritons (CPPs) via compact waveguide-termination mirrors. Devices are fabricated using UV-lithography and crystallographic silicon etching. The V-shape is tailored by thermal oxidation to support confined CPPs....

  3. The fourth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Rucker, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    ""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else

  4. Dimension from covariance matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  5. Observations on the effects of grooved surfaces on the interfacial torque in highly loaded rolling and sliding tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janakiraman, Shravan; Klit, Peder; Jensen, Niels Steenfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Some efforts have been undertaken to study the effects of grooved surfaces on the interfacial film thickness and torque between two contacting non-conformal surfaces under heavy loads. Transverse grooves of micrometer scale depth were engraved on polished, flat ring surfaces using established ind...

  6. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations...

  7. Escaping in extra dimensions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Recent progress in the formulation of fundamental theories for a Universe with more than 4 dimensions will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be given to theories predicting the existence of extra dimensions at distance scales within the reach of current or forthcoming experiments. The phenomenological implications of these theories, ranging from detectable deviations from Newton's law at sub-millimeter scales, to phenomena of cosmological and astrophysical interest, as well as to high-energy laboratory experiments, will be discussed.

  8. Gender Dimensions Framework Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a presentation of the The Gender Dimensions Framework (GDF). The GDF was developed to provide guidance to USAID staff and partner organizations for working with USAID projects looking at promoting equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains. The GDF contemplates four dimensions: access to and control over key productive assets (tangible and intangible); beliefs and perceptions; practices and participation, and legal frameworks. CCRA-7 (Gendered Knowledge)

  9. Binding to the DNA Minor Groove by Heterocyclic Dications: From AT Specific Monomers to GC Recognition with Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjunda, Rupesh; Wilson, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Compounds that bind in the DNA minor groove have provided critical information on DNA molecular recognition, they have found extensive uses in biotechnology and they are providing clinically useful drugs against diseases as diverse as cancer and sleeping sickness. This review focuses on the development of clinically useful heterocyclic diamidine minor groove binders. These compounds have shown us that the classical model for minor groove binding in AT DNA sequences must be expanded in several ways: compounds with nonstandard shapes can bind strongly to the groove, water can be directly incorporated into the minor groove complex in an interfacial interaction, and the compounds can form cooperative stacked dimers to recognize GC and mixed AT/GC base pair sequences. PMID:23255206

  10. Does bony hip morphology affect the outcome of treatment for patients with adductor-related groin pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Nyvold, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor-related groin pain and bony morphology such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia can coexist clinically. A previous randomised controlled trial in which athletes with adductor-related groin pain underwent either passive treatment (PT) or active treatment (AT......) showed good results in the AT group. The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate if radiological signs of FAI or hip dysplasia seem to affect the clinical outcome, initially and at 8-12 years of follow-up. METHODS: 47 patients (80%) were available for follow-up. The clinical result......, there was no significant difference in the distribution of Tönnis grades between hips that had an unchanged or improved outcome compared with hips that had a worse outcome over time (p=0.145). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found that bony hip morphology related to FAI or dysplasia prevents successful outcome...

  11. Saying Hello World with GROOVE - A Solution to the TTC 2011 Instructive Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Ghamarian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a solution to the Hello World case study of TTC 2011 using GROOVE. We provide and explain the grammar that we used to solve the case study. Every requested question of the case study was solved by a single rule application.

  12. Saying Hello World with GROOVE - A Solution to the TTC 2011 Instructive Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamarian, A.H.; de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; van Gorp, Pieter; Mazanek, Steffen; Rose, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a solution to the Hello World case study using GROOVE. We provide and explain the grammar that we used to solve the case study. Every requested question of the case study was solved by a single rule application.

  13. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  14. Two 1 : 1 binding modes for distamycin in the minor groove of d(GGCCAATTGG)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uytterhoeven, K.; Šponer, Jiří; Van Meervelt, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 12 (2002), s. 2868-2877 ISSN 0014-2956 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A016 Keywords : distamycin * drug-DNA complex * minor groove binder Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2002

  15. Erosion of a grooved surface caused by impact of particle-laden flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sohyun; Yang, Eunjin; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-11-01

    Solid erosion can be a life-limiting process for mechanical elements in erosive environments, thus it is of practical importance in many industries such as construction, mining, and coal conversion. Erosion caused by particle-laden flow occurs through diverse mechanisms, such as cutting, plastic deformation, brittle fracture, fatigue and melting, depending on particle velocity, total particle mass and impingement angle. Among a variety of attempts to lessen erosion, here we investigate the effectiveness of millimeter-sized grooves on the surface. By experimentally measuring the erosion rates of smooth and triangular-grooved surfaces under various impingement angles, we find that erosion can be significantly reduced within a finite range of impingement angles. We show that such erosion resistance is attributed to the swirls of air within grooves and the differences in erosive strength of normal and slanted impact. In particular, erosion is mitigated when we increase the effective area under normal impact causing plastic deformation and fracture while decreasing the area under slanted impact that cuts the surface to a large degree. Our quantitative model for the erosion rate of grooved surfaces considering the foregoing effects agrees with the measurement results.

  16. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Srijit; Sahni, Sartaj; Palta, Jatinder; Ranka, Sanjay; Li, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  17. Torque scaling in small-gap Taylor-Couette flow with smooth or grooved wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bihai; Ji, Zengqi; Lou, Zhengkun; Qian, Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The torque in the Taylor-Couette flow for radius ratios η ≥0.97 , with smooth or grooved wall static outer cylinders, is studied experimentally, with the Reynolds number of the inner cylinder reaching up to Rei=2 ×105 , corresponding to the Taylor number up to Ta =5 ×1010 . The grooves are perpendicular to the mean flow, and similar to the structure of a submersible motor stator. It is found that the dimensionless torque G , at a given Rei and η , is significantly greater for grooved cases than smooth cases. We compare our experimental torques for the smooth cases to the fit proposed by Wendt [F. Wendt, Ing.-Arch. 4, 577 (1993), 10.1007/BF02084936] and the fit proposed by Bilgen and Boulos [E. Bilgen and R. Boulos, J Fluids Eng. 95, 122 (1973), 10.1115/1.3446944], which shows both fits are outside their range for small gaps. Furthermore, an additional dimensionless torque (angular velocity flux) N uω in the smooth cases exhibits an effective scaling of N uω˜T a0.39 in the ultimate regime, which occurs at a lower Taylor number, Ta ≈3.5 ×107 , than the well-explored η =0.714 case (at Ta ≈3 ×108 ). The same effective scaling exponent, 0.39, is also evident in the grooved cases, but for η =0.97 and 0.985, there is a peak before this exponent appears.

  18. Effect of longitudinal grooves of the scallop surface on aerodynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hun; Choi, Hae Cheon

    2008-01-01

    Some of the scallops like Amesium balloti have an excellent level-swimming ability, i.e. they can swim about 20m by single level swimming with a maximum swimming velocity of about 1.6m/s in the sea. On the other hand, some species like Patinopecten yessoensis have longitudinal grooves on the upper and lower surfaces and others do not. Therefore, in the present study, we measure the lift and drag forces on a real scallop model (Patinopecten yessoensis) in a wind tunnel. Experiments are performed at the Reynolds number of 75,000 based on the maximum chord length, which is within the swimming condition of real scallop (Re=30,000∼300,000). To see the effect of longitudinal grooves, we measure the aerodynamic forces on a scallop model by removing the grooves. With the grooves, the lift force increases at low angles of attack (α<10 .deg.). The drag force increases slightly at all the attack angles considered. The lift-to-drag ratio is increased by about 10% at α<10 .deg.

  19. Role of minor groove width and hydration pattern on amsacrine interaction with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Jangir

    Full Text Available Amsacrine is an anilinoacridine derivative anticancer drug, used to treat a wide variety of malignancies. In cells, amsacrine poisons topoisomerase 2 by stabilizing DNA-drug-enzyme ternary complex. Presence of amsacrine increases the steady-state concentration of these ternary complexes which in turn hampers DNA replication and results in subsequent cell death. Due to reversible binding and rapid slip-out of amsacrine from DNA duplex, structural data is not available on amsacrine-DNA complexes. In the present work, we designed five oligonucleotide duplexes, differing in their minor groove widths and hydration pattern, and examined their binding with amsacrine using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Complexes of amsacrine with calf thymus DNA were also evaluated for a comparison. Our results demonstrate for the first time that amsacrine is not a simple intercalator; rather mixed type of DNA binding (intercalation and minor groove takes place between amsacrine and DNA. Further, this binding is highly sensitive towards the geometries and hydration patterns of different minor grooves present in the DNA. This study shows that ligand binding to DNA could be very sensitive to DNA base composition and DNA groove structures. Results demonstrated here could have implication for understanding cytotoxic mechanism of aminoacridine based anticancer drugs and provide directions to modify these drugs for better efficacy and few side-effects.

  20. Nanoscale Plasmonic V-Groove Waveguides for the Interrogation of Single Fluorescent Bacterial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Bar-David, Jonathan; Smith, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the interrogation of an individual Escherichia coli cell using a nanoscale plasmonic V-groove waveguide. Several different configurations were studied. The first involved the excitation of the cell in a liquid environment because it flows on top of the waveguide...

  1. Formation of grooves during the breakdown of a coal block by a water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlovskii, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A description is given of a method of coal excavation which provides for the initial formation of a grooved slit along the width of the opening equal in height to the diameter of the sinkhole. The formation of a groove in the coal block and the excavation of coal by water jets using the grooved crater method are illustrated in diagrams. Data are given on changes in the performance of the hydraulic jet in coal excavation in relation to the distance between the nozzle and the face and at given pressures in front of the nozzle. Functional relationships were mathematically constructed for the performance of the water jet in dimensionless coordinates. Data are also given on the comparative performance of a water jet when coal is excavated by the grooved funnel method and by hydraulic fracturing. The analytical computations indicate that the hydraulic fracturing of a coal block by water jets is economical with respect to the consumption of electric power and the unit rate of coal extraction, in addition to being a safe method. 4 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Optimal leaf sequencing with elimination of tongue-and-groove underdosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, Srijit [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sahni, Sartaj [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Palta, Jatinder [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ranka, Sanjay [Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The individual leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) have a tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design to minimize leakage radiation between adjacent leaves. This design element has a drawback in that it creates areas of underdosages in intensity-modulated photon beams unless a leaf trajectory is specifically designed such that for any two adjacent leaf pairs, the direct exposure under the tongue-and-groove is equal to the lower of the direct exposures of the leaf pairs. In this work, we present a systematic study of the optimization of a leaf sequencing algorithm for segmental multileaf collimator beam delivery that completely eliminates areas of underdosages due to tongue-and-groove or stepped-edge design of the MLC. Simultaneous elimination of tongue-and-groove effect and leaf interdigitation is also studied. This is an extension of our previous work (Kamath et al 2003a Phys. Med. Biol. 48 307) in which we described a leaf sequencing algorithm that is optimal for monitor unit (MU) efficiency under most common leaf movement constraints that include minimum leaf separation. Compared to our previously published algorithm (without constraints), the new algorithms increase the number of sub-fields by approximately 21% and 25%, respectively, but are optimal in MU efficiency for unidirectional schedules. (note)

  3. Ledges and grooves at γ/γ′ interfaces of single crystal superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parsa, A. B.; Wollgramm, P.; Buck, H.; Kostka, A.; Somsen, C.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Eggeler, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, MAY (2015), s. 105-117 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ni-base single crystal superalloys * γ/γ′ interfaces * Interface dislocations * Rafting * Grooves Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 5.058, year: 2015

  4. Does Loading Influence the Severity of Cartilage Degeneration in the Canine Groove-Model of OA?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra; Intema, Femke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Lafeber, Floris; Mastbergen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Many animal models are used to study osteoarthritis (OA). In these models the role of joint loading in the development of CA is not fully understood. We studied the effect of loading on the development of CIA in the canine Groove-model. In ten female beagle dogs OA was induced in one knee according

  5. Research on Grooved Concrete Pavement Based on the Durability of Its Anti-Skid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to investigate the anti-skid performance of concrete pavement and to attempt to enhance its durability by two different methods: using a longitudinally-transversely grooved (LT form, and using a self-developed composite curing agent containing paraffin and Na2SiO3 as the main ingredients. The friction coefficient (μ was measured by self-developed equipment to evaluate the anti-skid performance of samples with three different groove forms (LT, longitudinally grooved (L, and transversely grooved (T. Abrasion tests were then carried out to evaluate the durability of the anti-skid performance. The results indicated that anti-skid performance of LT samples was approximately 46.2% greater than that of T samples, but its durability was not as significant as that of T samples. However, the resistance to abrasion could be improved by using the aforementioned curing agent. Comparisons were carried out between samples sprayed the curing agent and control samples without any curing agent under standard conditions. It was found that the application of the curing agent increased the anti-skid durability of concrete by 35.4%~47.8%, proving it to be a useful and promising technique.

  6. Biomimetic "Cactus Spine" with Hierarchical Groove Structure for Efficient Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Wu, Juntao; Gong, Guangming; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A biomimetic "cactus spine" with hierarchical groove structure is designed and fabricated using simple electrospinning. This novel artificial cactus spine possesses excellent fog collection and water transportation ability. A model cactus equipped with artificial spines also shows a great water storage capacity. The results can be helpful in the development of water collectors and may make a contribution to the world water crisis.

  7. Study of Mastoid Canals and Grooves in North Karnataka Human Skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Hadimani, Gavishiddappa Andanappa; Bagoji, Ishwar Basavantappa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to observe the frequency of mastoid canals and grooves in north Karnataka dry human skulls. 100 dry human skulls of unknown age and sex from the department of Anatomy were selected and observed for the present study.

  8. Mg2+ in the major groove modulates B-DNA structure and dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Guéroult

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of Mg(2+ bound to the DNA major groove on DNA structure and dynamics. The analysis of a comprehensive dataset of B-DNA crystallographic structures shows that divalent cations are preferentially located in the DNA major groove where they interact with successive bases of (A/GpG and the phosphate group of 5'-CpA or TpG. Based on this knowledge, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a DNA oligomer without or with Mg(2+ close to an ApG step. These simulations showed that the hydrated Mg(2+ forms a stable intra-strand cross-link between the two purines in solution. ApG generates an electrostatic potential in the major groove that is particularly attractive for cations; its intrinsic conformation is well-adapted to the formation of water-mediated hydrogen bonds with Mg(2+. The binding of Mg(2+ modulates the behavior of the 5'-neighboring step by increasing the BII (ε-ζ>0° population of its phosphate group. Additional electrostatic interactions between the 5'-phosphate group and Mg(2+ strengthen both the DNA-cation binding and the BII character of the 5'-step. Cation binding in the major groove may therefore locally influence the DNA conformational landscape, suggesting a possible avenue for better understanding how strong DNA distortions can be stabilized in protein-DNA complexes.

  9. Concerning the etiology of bony bridges along the sides of the terminal phalanx of the great toe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1987-06-01

    Besides in acromegaly bony bridges at the terminal phalanx of the great toe occur in one third of cases with peripheral signs of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, systemic diseases as rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis with chronic inflammation of the interphalangeal joint of the great toe respectively extraarticular osseous changes in the terminal phalanx of the great toe do not influence the development of such bridges.

  10. [Clinical application of transport distraction osteogenesis arthroplasty in the treatment of temporomandibular joint bony ankylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cheng; Wang, Xing; Yi, Biao; Li, Zi-li; Wang, Xiao-xia

    2013-03-12

    To explore the clinical application of transport distraction osteogenesis arthroplasty (TDOAP) in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis. From December 1999 to December 2011, a total of 73 patients (89 sides of TMJ) underwent TDOAP were included. There were 39 males and 34 females with a mean age of 19.6 years (range: 3 - 60). Among them, 27 patients were recurrence cases and 30 cases were accompanied with micrognathia and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The mean preoperative degree of mouth opening was 6.6 mm (range: 1 - 20). After a release of ankylosis, a transport disc was performed and fixed to ramus with a distractor. Distraction began at Days 4 - 8 postoperation. The distraction rhythm and rate were 0.25 mm four times daily. Distraction stopped when planning distance was achieved. And a distractor was maintained in place for 3-6 months after completion of distraction and then removed. Active postoperative training of mouth opening was implemented. The mean distance of distraction was 15.3 mm (range: 12 - 23). The range of mouth opening of 65 patients increased to normal and bone formation in gaps were perfect. The mean follow-up period was 44.8 months (range: 18 - 102). Eight cases were recurrent. And 1/37 over 15 years old and 7/36 under 15 years old had recurrence. TDOAP is an effective treatment for TMJ ankylosis. A pediatric patient, especially recurrent, should be operated after adolescence to decrease recurrence. Micrognathia and OSAHS should be also considered during the treatment of ankylosis.

  11. 18F-FDG PET demonstrates previously unvisualised bony metastases in a lung cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 59-year-old male, presented to his local doctor with the trivial complaint of a persistent dry cough. On clinical examination he was found to have an enlarged right supraclavicular lymph node. He was investigated with chest X-ray, Computerised Tomography (CT) and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) of the palpable node CT showed a right lung mass, bulky hilar, mediastinal, supraclavicular and cervical lymph nodes FNAC was inconclusive due to an insufficient tissue sample, but suggestive of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Hence excisional node biopsy was required which revealed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Subsequent CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis for staging revealed no distant involvement. Therefore radical radiotherapy was planned to treat the locally advanced disease. Prior to treatment a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan was organised by his specialist as a baseline study to monitor therapy progress. Non-Attenuation corrected images of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were obtained 40 minutes post administration of 394 MBq 18 F-FDG, on a Siemens 951/3IR PET scanner. The images were reconstructed using both Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and Ordered Subsets-Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithms. The images revealed extensive metastases particularly in the spine and pelvis, besides the known locally advanced thoracic disease A 99m Tc MDP bone scan and plain film radiographs aimed at confirming bony metastases were negative, even though the bone scan noted a slight focus in the right fourth rib. The appearance suggested trauma, but a solitary bone metastasis could not be ruled out MRI of the spine confirmed the PET scan findings. Mr RD was to have curative radical radiotherapy, but after the PET results, it was decided to treat him palliatively. The value of 18 F-FDG PET in staging some cancers such as NSCLC is widely accepted, in this case it was pivotal in altering the patient's management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New

  12. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-26

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  13. Accurate 3D reconstruction of bony surfaces using ultrasonic synthetic aperture techniques for robotic knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William; Rowe, Philip; Pierce, Stephen Gareth

    2017-06-01

    Robotically guided knee arthroplasty systems generally require an individualized, preoperative 3D model of the knee joint. This is typically measured using Computed Tomography (CT) which provides the required accuracy for preoperative surgical intervention planning. Ultrasound imaging presents an attractive alternative to CT, allowing for reductions in cost and the elimination of doses of ionizing radiation, whilst maintaining the accuracy of the 3D model reconstruction of the joint. Traditional phased array ultrasound imaging methods, however, are susceptible to poor resolution and signal to noise ratios (SNR). Alleviating these weaknesses by offering superior focusing power, synthetic aperture methods have been investigated extensively within ultrasonic non-destructive testing. Despite this, they have yet to be fully exploited in medical imaging. In this paper, the ability of a robotic deployed ultrasound imaging system based on synthetic aperture methods to accurately reconstruct bony surfaces is investigated. Employing the Total Focussing Method (TFM) and the Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT), two samples were imaged which were representative of the bones of the knee joint: a human-shaped, composite distal femur and a bovine distal femur. Data were captured using a 5MHz, 128 element 1D phased array, which was manipulated around the samples using a robotic positioning system. Three dimensional surface reconstructions were then produced and compared with reference models measured using a precision laser scanner. Mean errors of 0.82mm and 0.88mm were obtained for the composite and bovine samples, respectively, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the approach to deliver the sub-millimetre accuracy required for the application. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Bony Nasolacrimal Canal by Automated Segmentation of Computed Tomography Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jañez-Garcia

    Full Text Available To apply a fully automated method to quantify the 3D structure of the bony nasolacrimal canal (NLC from CT scans whereby the size and main morphometric characteristics of the canal can be determined.Cross-sectional study.36 eyes of 18 healthy individuals.Using software designed to detect the boundaries of the NLC on CT images, 36 NLC reconstructions were prepared. These reconstructions were then used to calculate NLC volume. The NLC axis in each case was determined according to a polygonal model and to 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomials. From these models, NLC sectional areas and length were determined. For each variable, descriptive statistics and normality tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk were established.Time for segmentation, NLC volume, axis, sectional areas and length.Mean processing time was around 30 seconds for segmenting each canal. All the variables generated were normally distributed. Measurements obtained using the four models polygonal, 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree polynomial, respectively, were: mean canal length 14.74, 14.3, 14.80, and 15.03 mm; mean sectional area 15.15, 11.77, 11.43, and 11.56 mm2; minimum sectional area 8.69, 7.62, 7.40, and 7.19 mm2; and mean depth of minimum sectional area (craniocaudal 7.85, 7.71, 8.19, and 8.08 mm.The method proposed automatically reconstructs the NLC on CT scans. Using these reconstructions, morphometric measurements can be calculated from NLC axis estimates based on polygonal and 2nd, 3rd and 4th polynomial models.

  15. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Constance Franz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived, which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  16. TR-PIV measurement of the wake behind a grooved cylinder at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying Zheng; Shi, Liu Liu; Yu, Jun

    2011-04-01

    A comparative study of the wakes behind cylinders with grooved and smooth surfaces was performed with a view to understand the wake characteristics associated with the adult Saguaro cacti. A low-speed recirculation water channel was established for the experiment; the Reynolds number, based on the free-stream velocity and cylinder diameter (D), was kept at ReD=1500. State-of-the-art time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) was employed to measure a total of 20 480 realizations of the wake field at a frame rate of 250 Hz, enabling a comprehensive view of the time- and phase-averaged wake pattern. In comparison to the wake behind the smooth cylinder, the length of the recirculation zone behind the grooved cylinder was extended by nearly 18.2%, yet the longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensity was considerably weakened. A global view of the peaked spectrum of the longitudinal velocity component revealed that the intermediate region for the grooved cylinder, which approximately corresponds to the transition region where the shear layer vortices interact, merge and shed before the formation of the Karman-like vortex street, was much wider than that for the smooth one. The unsteady events near St=0.3-0.4 were detected in the intermediate region behind the grooved cylinder, but no such events were found in the smooth cylinder system. Although the formation of the Karman-like vortex street was delayed by about 0.6D downstream for the grooved cylinder, no prominent difference in the vortex street region was found in the far wake for both cylinders. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method was used extensively to decompose the vector and swirling strength fields, which gave a close-up view of the vortices in the near wake. The first two POD modes of the swirling strength clarified the spatio-temporal characteristics of the shear layer vortices behind the grooved cylinder. The small-scale vortices superimposed on the shear layers behind the grooved cylinder

  17. A variational principle for the Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Cutler, Colleen D.

    1994-01-01

    Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)......Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)...

  18. Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M

    2015-08-26

    Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.

  19. New dimensions new hopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Utpal

    2001-05-01

    We live in a four dimensional world. But the idea of unification of fundamental interactions lead us to higher dimensional theories. Recently a new theory with extra dimensions has emerged where only gravity propagates in the extra dimension and all other interactions are confined to only four dimensions. This theory gives us many new hopes. In earlier theories unification of strong, weak and the electromagnetic forces was possible at around 10 16 GeV in a grand unified theory (GUT) and it could get unified with gravity at around the Planck scale of 10 19 GeV. With this new idea it is possible to bring down all unification scales within the reach of the new generation accelerators, i.e., around 10 4 GeV. (author)

  20. Dimension of linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...

  1. Pellet dimension checker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A pellet dimension checker was developed for use in making nuclear-fuel pellets. This checker eliminates operator handling of the pellet but permits remote-monitoring of the operation, and is thus suitable for mass production of green fuel pellets particularly in reprocessing plants handling irradiated uranium or plutonium. It comprises a rotatable arm for transferring a pellet from a conveyor to several dimensional measuring stations and back to the conveyor if the dimensions of the pellet are within predetermined limits. If the pellet is not within the limits, the arm removes the pellet from the process stream. (DN)

  2. Physics of extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I

    2006-01-01

    Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range

  3. Fractal dimension of cantori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Bak, P.

    1986-01-01

    At a critical point the golden-mean Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory of Chirikov's standard map breaks up into a fractal orbit called a cantorus. The transition describes a pinning of the incommensurate phase of the Frenkel-Kontorowa model. We find that the fractal dimension of the cantorus is D = 0 and that the transition from the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory with dimension D = 1 to the cantorus is governed by an exponent ν = 0.98. . . and a universal scaling function. It is argued that the exponent is equal to that of the Lyapunov exponent

  4. Getting into the GROOVE: How Building Effective Education Partnerships and Promoting Authentic Student Research through the Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration (GROOVE) Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Heesemann, M.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation outlines the pilot year of Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration or GROOVE, a hands-on learning program created collaboratively with education partners Ocean Networks Canada and St. Margaret's School (Victoria, BC, Canada). The program features student-led activities, authentic student experiences, clearly outlined learning outcomes, teacher and student self-assessment tools, and curriculum-aligned content. Presented through the lens of STEM, students build a modified Seaperch ROV and explore and research thematic scientific concepts such as buoyancy, electronic circuitry, and deep-sea exploration. Further, students learn engineering skills such as isotropic scaling, soldering, and assembly as they build their ROV. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories and the ever-expanding network of community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. GROOVE, Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration, is ONC's newest educational program and is related to their foundational program K-12 Ocean Sense educational program. This presentation will share our experiences developing, refining, and assessing our efforts to implement GROOVE using a train-the-trainer model aimed at formal and informal K-12 educators. We will highlight lessons learned from multiple perspectives (students, participants, developers, and mentors) with the intent of informing future education and outreach initiatives.

  5. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  6. Study on the Correlation Between Dynamical Behavior and Friction/Wear Mechanism Under the Effect of Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z. Y.; Mo, J. L.; Wang, D. W.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, M. H.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the interfacial friction and wear and vibration characteristics are studied by sliding a chromium bearing steel ball (AISI 52100) over both multi-grooved and single-grooved forged steel disks (20CrMnMo) at low and high rotating speeds in order to reveal the effect mechanism of groove-textured surface on tribological behaviors. The results show that the grooves modify the contact state of the ball and the disk at the contact interface. This consequently causes variations in the normal displacement, normal force, and friction force signals. The changes in these three signals become more pronounced with increasing groove width at a low speed. The collision behavior between the ball and the groove increase the amplitude of vibration acceleration at a high speed. The test results suggest that grooves with appropriate widths could trap wear debris on the ball surface while avoiding a strong collision between the disk and the ball, resulting in an improvement in the wear states.

  7. Trial design and manufacture of double spiral grooved vacuum pump; Double neji mizoshiki shinku pump no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M.; Sawada, T.; Sugiyama, W. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of Mining; Watanabe, M.

    1997-04-25

    A spiral grooved vacuum pump and a compound molecular pump (the combination of a spiral grooved pump and a turbomolecular pump) are widely used in the thin-film industry for processes such as semiconductor production. Pumping performance is high at pressures below 1 000 Pa and low at pressures above 1000 Pa when the clearance between rotor and stator is on the order of 0.1 mm, which is the practical value for industrial use. The double spiral grooved vacuum pump is thought to have better pumping performance at such high pressures than the conventional spiral grooved vacuum pump. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of use of the double spiral grooved vacuum pump at pressures above 1000 Pa. A double spiral grooved vacuum pump with a rotor of 150 mm diameter and 190 mm length has been designed and manufactured. Its pumping performance has been tested by experiments. The test results show the improvement in the performance at pressures above 1000 Pa compared to the conventional spiral grooved vacuum pump. 2 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Classifying and Standardizing Panfacial Trauma With a New Bony Facial Trauma Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Garrett G A; Fishero, Brian A; Park, Stephen S; Sochor, Mark; Heltzel, Sara B; Christophel, J Jared

    2017-01-01

    The practice of facial trauma surgery would benefit from a useful quantitative scale that measures the extent of injury. To develop a facial trauma scale that incorporates only reducible fractures and is able to be reliably communicated to health care professionals. A cadaveric tissue study was conducted from October 1 to 3, 2014. Ten cadaveric heads were subjected to various degrees of facial trauma by dropping a fixed mass onto each head. The heads were then imaged with fine-cut computed tomography. A Bony Facial Trauma Scale (BFTS) for grading facial trauma was developed based only on clinically relevant (reducible) fractures. The traumatized cadaveric heads were then scored using this scale as well as 3 existing scoring systems. Regression analysis was used to determine correlation between degree of incursion of the fixed mass on the cadaveric heads and trauma severity as rated by the scoring systems. Statistical analysis was performed to determine correlation of the scores obtained using the BFTS with those of the 3 existing scoring systems. Scores obtained using the BFTS were not correlated with dentition (95% CI, -0.087 to 1.053; P = .08; measured as absolute number of teeth) or age of the cadaveric donor (95% CI, -0.068 to 0.944; P = .08). Facial trauma scores. Among all 10 cadaveric specimens (9 male donors and 1 female donor; age range, 41-87 years; mean age, 57.2 years), the facial trauma scores obtained using the BFTS correlated with depth of penetration of the mass into the face (odds ratio, 4.071; 95% CI, 1.676-6.448) P = .007) when controlling for presence of dentition and age. The BFTS scores also correlated with scores obtained using 3 existing facial trauma models (Facial Fracture Severity Scale, rs = 0.920; Craniofacial Disruption Score, rs = 0.945; and ZS Score, rs = 0.902; P trauma scales. Scores obtained using the BFTS were not correlated with dentition (odds ratio, .482; 95% CI, -0.087 to 1.053; P = .08; measured

  9. [Bony injuries of the thoracic cage in multiple trauma : Incidence, concomitant injuries, course and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Drost, S; Oppel, P; Grupp, S; Krinner, S; Langenbach, A; Lefering, R; Mauerer, A

    2016-12-01

    Thoracic trauma is considered to be responsible for 25 % of fatalities in multiple trauma and is a frequent injury with an incidence of 50 %. In addition to organ injuries, severe injuries to the bony parts of the thorax also occur and these injuries are described very differently mostly based on single center data. The focus of this study was on a holistic presentation of the prevalence and the incidence of thoracic trauma in patients with multiple trauma from the data of the large collective of the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) with the objective of an analysis of concomitant injuries, therapy options and outcome parameters. A retrospective analysis was carried out based on the data set of the TR-DGU from the years 2009-2013. Inclusion criteria were an injury severity scale (ISS) score ≥ 16 and primary admission to a trauma center but isolated craniocerebral injury was an exclusion criterium. Patients were separated into two groups: those with rib fractures (RF) and those with flail chest (FC). A total of 21,741 patients met the inclusion criteria including 10,474 (48.2 %) suffering from either RF or FC. The mean age was 49.8 ± 19.9 years in the RF group and 54.1 ± 18.2 years in the FC group. Approximately 25 % were female in both groups, 98.1 % were blunt force injuries and the median ISS was 28.0 ± 11.2 in RF and 35.1 ± 14.2 in FC. Shock, insertion of a chest tube, (multi) organ failure and fatality rates were significantly higher in the FC group as were concomitant thoracic injuries, such as pneumothorax and hemothorax. Sternal fractures without rib fractures were less common (3.8 %) than concomitant in the RF (10.1 %) and FC (14 %) groups, as were concomitant fractures of the clavicle and the scapula. Out of all patients 32.6 % showed fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, 26.5 % without rib fractures, 36.6-38.6 % with rib fractures or monolateral FC and 48.6 % concomitant to bilateral FC. Thoracotomy was carried

  10. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  11. Extra Dimensions of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…

  12. Dimension theory and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 167, April 15 (2014), s. 31-35 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cohen real * infinite dimension * calibrated ideal Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864114001151

  13. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, Ashraf A.; Wendel, Mark W.; Felde, David K.; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The

  14. Quantum spill-out in few-nanometer metal gaps: Effect on gap plasmons and reflectance from ultrasharp groove arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2018-01-01

    Plasmons in ultranarrow metal gaps are highly sensitive to the electron density profile at the metal surfaces. Using a quantum mechanical approach and assuming local response, we study the effects of electron spill-out on gap plasmons and reflectance from ultrasharp metal grooves.We demonstrate...... the reflectance from arrays of ultrasharp metal grooves. These findings are explained in terms of enhanced gap plasmon absorption taking place inside the gap 1–2 °A from the walls and delocalization near the groove bottom. Reflectance calculations taking spill-out into account are shown to be in much better...

  15. Krull dimension in modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Lucero-Bryan, J.; van Mill, J.

    2017-01-01

    We develop the theory of Krull dimension for S4-algebras and Heyting algebras. This leads to the concept of modal Krull dimension for topological spaces. We compare modal Krull dimension to other well-known dimension functions, and show that it can detect differences between topological spaces that

  16. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.

    2015-06-22

    We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.

  17. Performance of an inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anburaj, P.; Kalidasa, Murugavel K.; Samuel Hansen, R.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the experimental performance of a new type inclined solar still with rectangular grooves and ridges in absorber plate. The still was fabricated and tested for various inclination angles of 25, 30 and 35 facing south with absorber plate. Performances of the still were compared with different wick materials (Black cotton cloth, Jute cloth, and Waste cotton pieces) on the absorber plate. The effect of placing porous material (Clay pot) and energy storing material (Mild steel pieces) in the grooves were studied. The results demonstrate that 30 inclination is optimum which yielded 3.77 L/day production. Compared to different wick materials, black cotton cloth helps to achieve maximum productivity of 4.21 L/day. The addition of permeable materials and energy absorbing materials also enhances the distillate output to 4.27 L/day. (authors)

  18. Palato-gingival groove: An innocuous culprit for endo-perio lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafeza Sultana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This case report represents the clinical management of tooth with palato-gingival groove in a right maxillary lateral incisor with endo-perio lesion leading to dento-alveolar abscess and sinus tract. The right maxillary lateral incisor was examined clinico-radiographically. On clinical examination, the offending tooth revealed localized swelling and an intraoral draining sinus pointing on the labial gingiva without any evidence of caries, discoloration and trauma. The palatal surface of lateral incisor showed a groove with mild calculus embedded in it. The radiographic examination revealed periapical radiolucency. This case provides an evidence of morphological defect of tooth. Complete clinical and radiological examination and adequate knowledge of such morphological/ developmental defects of teeth are necessary for recognition and identification especially because of their diagnostic complexity and further consequences. 

  19. Propagation of Channel Plasmons at the Visible Regime in Aluminum V-Groove Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotan, Oren; Smith, Cameron; Bar-David, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V-grooves are ......Aluminum plasmonics is emerging as a promising platform in particular for the ultraviolet-blue spectral band. We present the experimental results of propagating channel plasmon-polaritons (CPP) waves in aluminum coated V-shaped waveguides at the short visible wavelength regime. The V......-grooves are fabricated by a process involving UV-photolithography, crystallographic silicon etching, and metal deposition. Polarization measurements of coupling demonstrate a preference to the TM-aligned mode, as predicted in simulations....

  20. Influence of structural parameters of deep groove ball bearings on vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangwei; Wu, Rui; Xia, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Taking 6201 bearing as the research object, a dynamic model of 4 degrees of freedom is established to solve the vibration characteristics such as the displacement, velocity and acceleration of deep groove ball bearings by MATLAB and Runge-Kutta method. By calculating the theoretical value of the frequency of the rolling element passing through the outer ring and the simulation value of the model, it can be known that the theoretical calculation value and the simulation value have good consistency. By the experiments, the measured values and simulation values are consistent. Using the mathematical model, the effect of structural parameters on vibration is obtained. The method in the paper is testified to be feasible and the results can be used as references for the design, manufacturing and testing of deep groove ball bearings.

  1. Research on Degeneration Model of Neural Network for Deep Groove Ball Bearing Based on Feature Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the pitting fault of deep groove ball bearing during service, this paper uses the vibration signal of five different states of deep groove ball bearing and extracts the relevant features, then uses a neural network to model the degradation for identifying and classifying the fault type. By comparing the effects of training samples with different capacities through performance indexes such as the accuracy and convergence speed, it is proven that an increase in the sample size can improve the performance of the model. Based on the polynomial fitting principle and Pearson correlation coefficient, fusion features based on the skewness index are proposed, and the performance improvement of the model after incorporating the fusion features is also validated. A comparison of the performance of the support vector machine (SVM model and the neural network model on this dataset is given. The research shows that neural networks have more potential for complex and high-volume datasets.

  2. Nanoscale Plasmonic V-Groove Waveguides for the Interrogation of Single Fluorescent Bacterial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Oren; Bar-David, Jonathan; Smith, Cameron L C; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Kristensen, Anders; Levy, Uriel

    2017-09-13

    We experimentally demonstrate the interrogation of an individual Escherichia coli cell using a nanoscale plasmonic V-groove waveguide. Several different configurations were studied. The first involved the excitation of the cell in a liquid environment because it flows on top of the waveguide nanocoupler, while the obtained fluorescence is coupled into the waveguide and collected at the other nanocoupler. The other two configurations involved the positioning of the bacterium within the nanoscale waveguide and its excitation in a dry environment either directly from the top or through waveguide modes. This is achieved by taking advantage of the waveguide properties not only for light guiding but also as a mechanical tool for trapping the bacteria within the V-grooves. The obtained results are supported by a set of numerical simulations, shedding more light on the mechanism of excitation. This demonstration paves the way for the construction of an efficient bioplasmonic chip for diverse cell-based sensing applications.

  3. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  4. Aptamer sensor for cocaine using minor groove binder based energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinwen; Ellis, Amanda V; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2012-03-16

    We report on an optical aptamer sensor for cocaine detection. The cocaine sensitive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled aptamer underwent a conformational change from a partial single-stranded DNA with a short hairpin to a double-stranded T-junction in the presence of the target. The DNA minor groove binder Hoechst 33342 selectively bound to the double-stranded T-junction, bringing the dye within the Förster radius of FITC, and therefore initiating minor groove binder based energy transfer (MBET), and reporting on the presence of cocaine. The sensor showed a detection limit of 0.2 μM. The sensor was also implemented on a carboxy-functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface by covalently immobilizing DNA aptamers. The ability of surface-bound cocaine detection is crucial for the development of microfluidic sensors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tube with helical grooving for a heat exchanger and its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This claim broadly concerns heat transfer tubes for heat exchangers of the kind described in the main patent specification and, in particular, a heat transfer tube and a process for manufacturing it. This tube includes a strip of metal, the opposite sides of which extend to form a certain number of longitudinal grooves of specific profile and height. This strip is helically wound and the lateral edges are joined butt to butt so as to be leak tight to fluids [fr

  6. Highly efficient absorption of visible and near infrared light in convex gold and nickel grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Beermann, Jonas; Søndergaard, Thomas

    The realization of nonresonant light absorption with nanostructured metal surfaces by making practical use of nanofocusing optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides, is of one of the most fascinating and fundamental phenomena in plasmonics [1,2]. We recently realized broadband light absorption...... in gold via adiabatic nanofocusing of gap surface plasmon modes in well-defined geometries of ultra-sharp convex grooves and being excited by scattering off subwavelength-sized wedges [3]....

  7. Effects of Gas Rarefaction on Dynamic Characteristics of Micro Spiral-Grooved Thrust Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ren; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Qing

    2012-01-01

    The effects of gas-rarefaction on dynamic characteristics of micro spiral-grooved-thrust-bearing are studied. The Reynolds equation is modified by the first order slip model, and the corresponding perturbation equations are then obtained on the basis of the linear small perturbation method. In the converted spiral-curve-coordinates system, the finite-volume-method (FVM) is employed to discrete the surface domain of micro bearing. The results show, compared with the continuum-flow model, that ...

  8. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium). Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  9. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Qiu

    Full Text Available Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium. Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  10. Cultural dimensions of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  11. Dimensions of Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to present a pedagogical approach to openness. The paper develops a framework for understanding the pedagogical opportunities of openness in education. Based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and sociocultural learning theory, the paper defines openness in education...... as a matter of engaging educational activities in sociocultural practices of a surrounding society. Openness is not only a matter of opening up the existing, but of developing new educational practices that interact with society. The paper outlines three pedagogical dimensions of openness: transparency...... practices. Openness as joint engagement in the world aims at establishing interdependent collaborative relationships between educational institutions and external practices. To achieve these dimensions of openness, educational activities need to change and move beyond the course as the main format...

  12. SU-E-J-33: Comparison Between Soft Tissue Alignment and Bony Alignment for Pancreatic Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Y; Crane, C; Krishnan, S; Das, P; Koay, E; Beddar, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose An IGRT modality for pancreatic cancer treatment with dose escalation at our institution is in-room daily CT imaging. The purpose of this study is to assess the difference between soft tissue alignment and bony alignment for pancreatic tumor localization. Methods Eighteen patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent IMRT treatment with an inspiration breath-hold technique between July 2012 and February 2015 are included in this study. Prior to each treatment, a CT scan was acquired. The CT image guidance started with auto-alignment to either the bony anatomy (vertebral bodies) or fiducials (for the six patients with the stent in/near the tumor) and then, when necessary, manual adjustments were made based on soft tissue alignment using clinical software (CT-Assisted Targeting system). The difference between soft tissue alignment and bony/fiducial alignment was evaluated. Results Of all 380 treatments, manual adjustment was made in 225 treatments, ranging from 11% (3 treatments out of 28) to 96% (27 treatments out of 28) per patient. The mean of the difference between soft tissue alignment and bony/fiducial alignment per patient ranged from −3.6 to 0.3 mm, −1.5 to 2.8 mm, and −3.3 to 3.4 mm in the AP, SI, and RL directions, respectively. The maximum difference over all treatments was −9.5, −14.6, and −14.6 mm in the AP, SI, and RL directions, respectively. Conclusion About 60% of the time, manual adjustment based on soft tissue alignment was required. The extent of manual adjustment was usually small but varied significantly from patient to patient. The ultimate goal of the IGRT modality using daily CT imaging is not to fully cover the target but to spare organs-at-risk as much as possible to avoid them moving into higher dose gradients than accepted in the treatment plan. To this end, manual adjustment based on soft tissue alignment is critically important.

  13. A biomechanical analysis of a single-row suture anchor fixation of a large bony bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyskin, Evgeny; Marzo, John M; Howard, Craig; Ehrensberger, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether a single-row suture anchor repair of a bony Bankart lesion comprising 19% of the glenoid length restores peak translational force and glenoid depth compared with the intact shoulder. Nine thawed adult cadaveric shoulders were dissected and mounted in 45° of abduction and 30° of external rotation. A bony Bankart lesion was simulated with an anterior longitudinal osteotomy, parallel to the superoinferior axis of the glenoid, equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length. The humeral head was displaced 10 mm anteriorly at a speed of 2 mm/s with a 50-N compressive load applied. Testing was performed with the glenoid intact, a simulated lesion, and the lesion repaired with 3 single-row suture anchors. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) peak translational force and glenoid depth were reported. The Friedman test and post hoc comparisons with the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for between-group analyses. Peak translational force decreased after osteotomy (13.7 N; IQR, 9.6 to 15.5 N; P = .01) and increased after the repair (18.3 N; IQR, 18.3 to 20.6 N; P = .01) compared with the intact shoulder (23.7 N; IQR, 16.4 to 29.9 N). Glenoid depth significantly decreased after the osteotomy (0.2 mm; IQR, -0.6 to 0.7 mm) compared with baseline (1.7 mm; IQR, 1.3 to 2.0 mm; P = .01) and increased after repair (0.8 mm; IQR, 0.1 to 1.0 mm; P = .03) compared with the osteotomized shoulder. The glenoid depth of the repair was less than the baseline value (P = .01). Repair of an anterior bony Bankart lesion equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length with 3 suture anchors restored the peak translational force needed to anteriorly displace the humerus relative to the glenoid; however, this technique failed to restore the natural glenoid depth in a laboratory setting. Our findings describe the inability of a single-row suture anchor repair to provide anatomic fixation of the bony Bankart lesion equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length

  14. Arthroscopic Suture Anchor Fixation of Bony Bankart Lesions: Clinical Outcome, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results, and Return to Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Johannes E; Feucht, Matthias J; Bangoj, Robert; Martetschläger, Frank; Wörtler, Klaus; Seppel, Gernot; Aboalata, Mohamed; Tischer, Thomas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Vogt, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome, return to sporting activity, and postoperative articular cartilage and bony morphology of shoulders that underwent arthroscopic suture anchor repair of bony Bankart lesions. The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were anterior glenoid rim fractures after traumatic shoulder instability that were treated with arthroscopic suture anchor repair. Patients were surveyed by a questionnaire including sport-specific outcome, Rowe score, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, and Oxford Instability Score. Three-tesla magnetic resonance imaging could be performed in 30 patients to assess osseous integration, glenoid reconstruction, and signs of osteoarthritis. From November 1999 to April 2010, 81 patients underwent an anterior bony Bankart repair in our department (50 arthroscopic suture anchor repairs, 5 arthroscopic screw fixations, and 26 open repairs). The 55 arthroscopic repairs comprised a consecutive cohort of patients treated by a single surgeon. Of the 50 patients in the suture anchor group, 45 (90%) were available for evaluation. At 82 ± 31 months postoperatively, the mean Rowe score was 85.9 ± 20.5 points, the mean Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index score was 89.4% ± 14.7%, and the mean Oxford Instability Score was 13.6 ± 5.4 points. Compared with the contralateral shoulder, all scores showed a significantly reduced outcome (P sporting activity after surgery. The number of sports disciplines (P < .001), duration (P = .005), level (P = .02), and risk category (P = .013) showed a significant reduction compared with the pretrauma condition. However, only 19% of patients reported that shoulder complaints were the reason for the reduction in activity. Nonunion occurred in 16.6%, with a higher frequency in patients with chronic lesions (P = .031). Anatomic reduction was achieved in 72%, the medial step-off in patients with nonanatomic reduction averaged 1.8 ± 0.9 mm, and the

  15. SU-E-J-94: Positioning Errors Resulting From Using Bony Anatomy Alignment for Treating SBRT Lung Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, C; Ding, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify patient setups errors based on bony anatomy registration rather than 3D tumor alignment for SBRT lung treatments. Method: A retrospective study was performed for patients treated with lung SBRT and imaged with kV cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) image-guidance. Daily CBCT images were registered to treatment planning CTs based on bony anatomy alignment and then inter-fraction tumor movement was evaluated by comparing shift in the tumor center in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions. The PTV V100% was evaluated for each patient based on the average daily tumor displacement to assess the impact of the positioning error on the target coverage when the registrations were based on bony anatomy. Of the 35 patients studied, 15 were free-breathing treatments, 10 used abdominal compression with a stereotactic body frame, and the remaining 10 were performed with BodyFIX vacuum bags. Results: For free-breathing treatments, the range of tumor displacement error is between 1–6 mm in the medial-lateral, 1–13 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 1–7 mm in the superior-inferior directions. These positioning errors lead to 6–22% underdose coverage for PTV - V100% . Patients treated with abdominal compression immobilization showed positional errors of 0–4mm mediallaterally, 0–3mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% underdose ranging between 6–17%. For patients immobilized with the vacuum bags, the positional errors were found to be 0–1 mm medial-laterally, 0–1mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% under dose ranging between 5–6% only. Conclusion: It is necessary to align the tumor target by using 3D image guidance to ensure adequate tumor coverage before performing SBRT lung treatments. The BodyFIX vacuum bag immobilization method has the least positioning errors among the three methods studied when bony anatomy is used for

  16. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  17. Physics in few dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1981-03-01

    This article is a qualitative account of some aspects of physics in few dimensions, and its relationship to nonlinear field theories. After a survey of materials and some of the models that have been used to describe them, the various methods of solution are compared and contrasted. The roles of exact results, operator representations and the renormalization group transformation are described, and a uniform picture of the behavior of low-dimensional systems is presented

  18. Grooved stone tools from Calabria region (Italy: Archaeological evidence and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Larocca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 19th century the Calabria region in southern Italy has been known for an abundance of grooved stone axes and hammers used during late prehistory. These artefacts are characterized by a wide and often pronounced groove in the middle of the implement, thought to have aided securing the head to a wooden haft. Their widespread presence is known both in prehistoric archaeological literature and in the archaeological collections of various regional and extra-regional museums. At first, scholars did not relate these tools to the rich Calabrian ore deposits and to possible ancient mining activities; they were regarded simply as a variant of ground lithic industry of Neolithic tradition. However, between 1997 and 2012, about 50 tools were discovered in the prehistoric mine of Grotta della Monaca in northern Calabria where there are outcrops of copper and iron ore. This allowed us to recognize their specific mining value and to consider them as a sort of “guide fossil” for the identification of ancient mining districts. This paper presents the results of a study involving over 150 tools from the entire region, effectively demonstrating an almost perfect co-occurrence of grooved axes and hammers with areas rich in mineral resources, especially metalliferous ores.

  19. Effective slip for Stokes flow between two grooved walls with an arbitrary phase shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Chiu-On, E-mail: cong@hku.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-04-15

    This work aims to determine how the effective slip length for a wall-bounded flow may depend on, among other geometrical parameters, the phase shift between patterns on the two walls. An analytical model is developed for Stokes flow through a channel bounded by walls patterned with a regular array of rectangular ribs and grooves, where the patterns on the two walls can be misaligned by any phase shift. This study incorporates several previous studies as limiting or special cases. It is shown that the phase shift can have qualitatively different effects on the flow rate and effective slip length, depending on the flow direction. In a narrow channel, increasing the phase shift may mildly decrease the flow rate and effective slip length for flow parallel to the grooves, but can dramatically increase the flow rate and effective slip length for flow transverse to the grooves. It is found that unless the channel height is much larger than the period of the wall pattern, the effect due to wall confinement has to be taken into account on evaluating the effective slip lengths. (paper)

  20. Design and experimental study of a micro-groove grinding wheel with spray cooling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chaofeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of grinding fluid supply has a crucial impact on grinding quality and efficiency in high speed grinding. In order to improve the cooling and lubrication, through in-depth research of self-inhaling internal cooling method and intermittent grinding mechanism, a new spray cooling method used in high speed grinding is proposed. By referring to the structure of bowl-shaped dispersion disk, the grinding wheel matrix with atomization ability is designed; through studying heat transfer of droplet collision and the influence of micro-groove on the boiling heat transfer, grinding segment with micro-groove is designed to enhance the heat flux of coolant and achieve maximum heat transfer between droplets and grinding contact zone. High-speed grinding experiments on GH4169 with the developed grinding wheel are carried out. The results show that with the micro-groove grinding wheel just 5.4% of pump outlet flow rate and 0.5% of spindle energy is needed to reduce the grinding temperature to 200 °C, which means the developed grinding wheel makes cooling high efficient and low energy consuming.

  1. Minor-Groove Binding Drugs: Where Is the Second Hoechst 33258 Molecule?

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H.

    2013-05-16

    Hoechst 33258 binds with high affinity into the minor groove of AT-rich sequences of double-helical DNA. Despite extensive studies of this and analogous DNA binding molecules, there still remains uncertainty concerning the interactions when multiple ligand molecules are accommodated within close distance. Albeit not of direct concern for most biomedical applications, which are at low drug concentrations, interaction studies for higher drug binding are important as they can give fundamental insight into binding mechanisms and specificity, including drug self-stacking interactions that can provide base-sequence specificity. Using circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), we examine the binding of Hoechst 33258 to three oligonucleotide duplexes containing AT regions of different lengths: [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]2 (A2T2), [d(CGCAAATTTGCG)]2 (A3T 3), and [d(CGAAAATTTTCG)]2 (A4T4). We find similar binding geometries in the minor groove for all oligonucleotides when the ligand-to-duplex ratio is less than 1:1. At higher ratios, a second ligand can be accommodated in the minor groove of A4T4 but not A2T2 or A3T3. We conclude that the binding of the second Hoechst to A4T4 is not cooperative and that the molecules are sitting with a small separation apart, one after the other, and not in a sandwich structure as previously proposed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Minor-Groove Binding Drugs: Where Is the Second Hoechst 33258 Molecule?

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H.; Wu, Lisha; Billeter, Martin; Lincoln, Per; Nordé n, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hoechst 33258 binds with high affinity into the minor groove of AT-rich sequences of double-helical DNA. Despite extensive studies of this and analogous DNA binding molecules, there still remains uncertainty concerning the interactions when multiple ligand molecules are accommodated within close distance. Albeit not of direct concern for most biomedical applications, which are at low drug concentrations, interaction studies for higher drug binding are important as they can give fundamental insight into binding mechanisms and specificity, including drug self-stacking interactions that can provide base-sequence specificity. Using circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), we examine the binding of Hoechst 33258 to three oligonucleotide duplexes containing AT regions of different lengths: [d(CGCGAATTCGCG)]2 (A2T2), [d(CGCAAATTTGCG)]2 (A3T 3), and [d(CGAAAATTTTCG)]2 (A4T4). We find similar binding geometries in the minor groove for all oligonucleotides when the ligand-to-duplex ratio is less than 1:1. At higher ratios, a second ligand can be accommodated in the minor groove of A4T4 but not A2T2 or A3T3. We conclude that the binding of the second Hoechst to A4T4 is not cooperative and that the molecules are sitting with a small separation apart, one after the other, and not in a sandwich structure as previously proposed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. The Origin of Nanoscopic Grooving on Vesicle Walls in Submarine Basaltic Glass: Implications for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. French

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic networks of nanoscopic grooves measuring 50–75 nm wide by <50 nm deep occur on the walls of vesicles in the glassy margins of mid-ocean ridge pillow basalts worldwide. Until now, their exact origin and significance have remained unclear. Here we document examples of such grooved patterns on vesicle walls in rocks from beneath the North Atlantic Ocean, and give a fluid mechanical explanation for how they formed. According to this model, individual nanogrooves represent frozen viscous fingers of magmatic fluid that were injected into a thin spheroidal shell of hot glass surrounding each vesicle. The driving mechanism for this process is provided by previous numerical predictions of tangential tensile stress around some vesicles in glassy rocks upon cooling through the glass transition. The self-assembling nature of the dendritic nanogrooves, their small size, and overall complexity in form, are interesting from the standpoint of exploring new applications in the field of nanotechnology. Replicating such structures in the laboratory would compete with state-of-the-art nanolithography techniques, both in terms of pattern complexity and size, which would be useful in the fabrication of a variety of grooved nanodevices. Dendritic nanogrooving in SiO2 glass might be employed in the manufacturing of integrated circuits.

  4. Experimental study of thermal performance of heat pipe with axial trapezoidal grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jeong Se; Lee, Woon

    2003-01-01

    Analysis and experiment are performed to investigate the thermal performance of a heat pipe with axial grooves. The heat pipe was designed in a 6.5 mm I.D., 17 axial trapezoidal grooves, 1000 mm long tube of aluminium, and ammonia as working fluid. A mathematical equations for heat pipe with axial grooves is formulated to obtain the capillary limitation on heat transport rate in a steady state. As a result, heat transport factor of heat pipe has the maximum at the operating temperature of 293K in 0m elevation. As the elevation of heat pipe increases, the heat transport factor of the heat pipe is reduced markedly, comparing with that of horizontal elevation of the heat pipe. It may be considered that such behavior of heat pipe is caused by the working fluid swarmed back to the condenser port due to gravity force and supercooled by a coolant of heat exchanger. Analytical results of heat transport factor are in a good agreement with those of experiment

  5. Regenerated collagen fibers with grooved surface texture: Physicochemical characterization and cytocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Chen; Jin, Xiangyu

    2016-01-01

    A novel type of protein fibers, regenerated collagen fibers (RC) from cattle skin, was prepared through wet-spinning. Due to the combined effect of solvent exchange and subsequent drawing process, the fibers were found to have a grooved surface texture. The grooves provided not only ordered topographical cues, but also increased surface area. Protein content of the RC fibers was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ninhydrin color reaction. The fibers could be readily fabricated into nonwovens or other textiles, owning to their comparable physical properties to other commercialized fibers. Cell growth behavior on RC nonwovens suggested both early adhesion and prompt proliferation. The high moisture regain, good processability, along with the excellent cytocompatibility indicated that the RC fibers and nonwovens developed in this study might offer a good candidate for biomedical and healthcare applications. - Highlights: • Wet-spun regenerated collagen fibers having aligned surface grooves • Comparable physiochemical properties to commercialized fibers • Readily processed into nonwovens • Excellent cytocompatibility with prompt cell adhesion and proliferation

  6. Regenerated collagen fibers with grooved surface texture: Physicochemical characterization and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wu, Tong [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Wei [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Huang, Chen, E-mail: hc@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Jin, Xiangyu [Engineering Research Center of Technical Textiles, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-01-01

    A novel type of protein fibers, regenerated collagen fibers (RC) from cattle skin, was prepared through wet-spinning. Due to the combined effect of solvent exchange and subsequent drawing process, the fibers were found to have a grooved surface texture. The grooves provided not only ordered topographical cues, but also increased surface area. Protein content of the RC fibers was confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ninhydrin color reaction. The fibers could be readily fabricated into nonwovens or other textiles, owning to their comparable physical properties to other commercialized fibers. Cell growth behavior on RC nonwovens suggested both early adhesion and prompt proliferation. The high moisture regain, good processability, along with the excellent cytocompatibility indicated that the RC fibers and nonwovens developed in this study might offer a good candidate for biomedical and healthcare applications. - Highlights: • Wet-spun regenerated collagen fibers having aligned surface grooves • Comparable physiochemical properties to commercialized fibers • Readily processed into nonwovens • Excellent cytocompatibility with prompt cell adhesion and proliferation.

  7. Electrophoresis in ice surface grooves for probing protein affinity to a specific plane of ice crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagawa, Arinori; Okada, Yusuke; Okada, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    Channel-like grooves are formed on the surface of frozen aqueous sucrose. They are filled with a freeze concentrated solution (FCS) and act as an efficient size-tunable separation field for micro and nanoparticles. The width of the channel can be easily varied by changing the temperature. Because the channel width decreases with decreasing temperature, particles become immobilized due to physical interference from the ice wall when the temperature reaches a threshold point specific to the particle size. Surface modification of particles can add a factor of chemical interaction between the particles and ice walls. In this study, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs) are anchored on 1µm-polystyrene (PS) particles, and their behavior in the surface grooves on the ice is studied. The threshold temperature is an effective criterion for evaluating chemical interactions between particles and ice walls. The AFP binding on 1µm PS particles lowers the threshold temperature by 2.5°C, indicating interactions between AFPs on the PS particles and the ice wall. Because the AFPs studied here show selectivity towards the prism plane, it is critical that the prism plane of the ice crystal is in contact with the FCS in the surface grooves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflation from extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest (1) in the possibility that the universe could have more than four dimensions. Aside from any light this may shed on problems in particle physics, if true it would undoubtedly have important implications for early cosmology. A rather speculative but very appealing possibility suggested by D. Sahdev and by E. Alvarez and B. Gavela is that the gravitational collapse of extra spatial dimensions could drive an inflation of ordinary space. This kind of inflationary cosmology would be quite different from the inflationary cosmologies now so intensively studied which are supposed to result from changes in vacuum energy during phase transitions in the early universe. In our work we examine the physics of these Kaluza-Klein inflationary cosmologies and come to three main conclusions. (1) It is desirable to have many extra dimensions, many being of order forty or fifty. (2) For models which give a realistically large inflation almost all of this inflation occurs in a period when quantum gravity is certainly important. This means that Einstein's equations cannot be used to calculate the details of this inflationary period. (3) Under plausible assumptions one may argue from the second law of thermodynamics that given appropriate initial conditions a large inflation will occur even when details of the inflationary phase cannot be calculated classically

  9. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-21

    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of anode groove pitch to ion beam focusibility on spherical plasma focus diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanari, K [Oyama National College of Technology (Japan). Department of Electrical Engineering; Jiang, W; Masugata, K; Yatsui, K [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Laboratory of Beam Technology

    1997-12-31

    A new PIC simulation code was developed to evaluate the effect of anode plasma nonuniformity on LIB focusibility. The plasma nonuniformity was modelled by inducing anode grooves in the code. In the experimental conditions, groove pitch about 2.2 mm and groove width of 1.0 mm, the simulation results are in a good agreement with the observed data. At a groove pitch of 2.4 mm, the local divergence was very small, although the focal length was very long. It was inferred that the focusibility of SPFD will be determined by the z-deflection angle rather than the local divergence angle. Modification of the anode curvature may be advantageous to get a higher power density on the focal point. (author). 6 figs., 3 refs.

  11. Effect of groove design on mechanical and metallurgical properties of quenched and tempered low alloy abrasion resistant steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Varun; Shahi, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of weld groove design on Q and T steel welded joints is investigated. • Groove design influences heat dissipation characteristics of welded joints. • Double-V groove joint possesses maximum yield strength and UTS. • C-groove joint possesses highest impact energy, both at room temperature and 0 °C. • A wide variation in microhardness exists across different zone of the weldments. - Abstract: Experimental investigations were carried out to study the influence of three different groove designs on mechanical and metallurgical properties of 15 mm thick Q and T (quenched and tempered) steel welded joints. Welding heat input variation corresponding to each joint configuration was kept to a minimal such that the objective of investigating, exclusively, the effect of varied weld volume on the mechanical and metallurgical performance of these joints could be accomplished. Mechanical performance of these joints was evaluated by subjecting them to transverse tensile testing, and Charpy V-notch impact testing of the weld zones at room temperature and 0 °C. The results of this study reveal that among all types of groove formations used for welding, double-V groove joint possessed maximum YS (yield strength) and UTS (ultimate tensile strength), besides maximum strength ratio (YS/UTS) that was followed by U-groove joint and C-groove joint, respectively. However, weld zone tested individually, for the cover as well as the root pass of the C-groove joint possessed highest CVN (Charpy V-notch) values, both at room temperature and 0 °C. Extensive microhardness studies of these weldments showed a wide variation in the microhardness values of the weld zone and the HAZ (heat affected zone). It was concluded that each groove formation/design exerted a significant influence on the heat dissipation characteristics of these joints, which is evident from different morphological features as revealed through optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic

  12. Photolithography of thick photoresist coating in anisotropically etched V-grooves for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Khomtchenko, Elena; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2009-01-01

    Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in anisotropically etched v-grooves is investigated. The photoresist coverage is compared with and without soft baking. Two-step exposure is applied for a complete exposure and minimizing the resolution loss.......Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in anisotropically etched v-grooves is investigated. The photoresist coverage is compared with and without soft baking. Two-step exposure is applied for a complete exposure and minimizing the resolution loss....

  13. Successful surgical management of palatogingival groove using platelet-rich fibrin and guided tissue regeneration: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatogingival groove also known as radicularlingual groove is a developmental anomaly involving the lingual surface of the maxillary incisors. They are inconspicuous, funnel-shaped, extend for varying distances on root surface and occur due to infolding of the hertwigs epithelial root sheath. This encourages adherence of microorganisms and plaque to levels significant for pathological changes resulting in endodontic and periodontal lesions. The variations in anatomy of the tooth as a cause of pulp necrosis in teeth of anterior maxillary segment should be considered by the clinician when other etiological factors are ruled out. Recognition of palatogingival groove is critical, especially because of its diagnostic complexity and the problems that may arise if it is not properly interpreted and treated. Regeneration is a new emerging approach in endodontics. Choukroun et al. were among the pioneers for using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF to improve bone healing. PRF is rich in platelet cytokines and growth factors. Numerous techniques have been used to eliminate or seal the groove and regenerate endodontic and periodontal tissues. In this case report of two cases, a novel combination therapy involving ultrasonics, blend of PRF with bone graft, guided tissue regeneration membrane was used in the treatment of a palatogingival groove with an endoperio lesion to ensure arrest of disease progression and promote regeneration. The groove was cleaned and prepared ultrasonically and sealed with a bioactive dentin substitute.

  14. Daily online bony correction is required for prostate patients without fiducial markers or soft-tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M L; Vial, P; Wiltshire, K L; Bell, L J; Blome, S; Kerestes, Z; Morgan, G W; O'Driscoll, D; Shakespeare, T P; Eade, T N

    2011-09-01

    To compare online position verification strategies with offline correction protocols for patients undergoing definitive prostate radiotherapy. We analysed 50 patients with implanted fiducial markers undergoing curative prostate radiation treatment, all of whom underwent daily kilovoltage imaging using an on-board imager. For each treatment, patients were set-up initially with skin tattoos and in-room lasers. Orthogonal on-board imager images were acquired and the couch shift to match both bony anatomy and the fiducial markers recorded. The set-up error using skin tattoos and offline bone correction was compared with online bone correction. The fiducial markers were used as the reference. Data from 1923 fractions were analysed. The systematic error was ≤1 mm for all protocols. The average random error was 2-3mm for online bony correction and 3-5mm for skin tattoos or offline-bone. Online-bone showed a significant improvement compared with offline-bone in the number of patients with >5mm set-up errors for >10% (P20% (Pmarkers or daily soft-tissue imaging. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the bony remodelling of two synthetic biomaterials: aragonite 55% and aragonite 55% with active substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudadesse, H; Derrien, A C; Martin, S; Lucas-Girot, A; Cathelineau, G

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the in vivo behaviour of pure aragonite and vectabone, which is an association of aragonite and an active substance such as gentamicin, was studied to highlight the kinetic resorption of these two biomaterials with 55% of porosity destined for the filling or replacement of bony defects. The synthesis conditions and parameters we used permit us to obtain a biomaterial without a sintering stage. These conditions allow introducing of active substances at the first stage of the elaboration. In this work, the gentamycin antibiotic was associated with calcium carbonate (aragonite 55% with gentamycin) to deliver this active substance on the surgical site for local treatment. The tricalcium phosphate biomaterial was used as the control because of its high biocompatibility. The bony remodelling of these three biomaterials was studied by in vivo experiments. This study was ensured with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The resorption kinetic was elaborated and comparisons of the remodelling biomaterials CaCO 3 55% and CaCO 3 55% with gentamicin (vectabone) and tricalcium phosphate were carried out. The obtained results show that, 6 months after implantation, the mineral composition of vectabone and tricalcium phosphate becomes close to that of young bone. Twelve months after implantation, it becomes similar to that of mature bone

  16. [Christian dimension of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, K

    1999-01-01

    Human existence is marked by imperfection, whose expression--among other things--is suffering. The problem of answering the question about the meaning of suffering for human life in its entirety is of great significance in philosophy and theology. In the Old Testament it meant God's punishment for the evil done by man. In Christianity this bleak notion of suffering has found a new dimension--suffering is creative, redemptive in character; it enables a man to surpass his limits. The understanding of suffering and its sense has a profound meaning in building a suitable attitude of a sick person towards his own weakness.

  17. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  18. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  19. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  20. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  1. 1. Dimensions of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)

  2. Influence of rotational setup error on tumor shift in bony anatomy matching measured with pulmonary point registration in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Nishiyama, Kinji; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Tsujii, Katsutomo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between the patient rotational error measured with pulmonary point registration and tumor shift after bony anatomy matching in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer. Twenty-six patients with lung cancer who underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy were the subjects. On 104 cone-beam computed tomography measurements performed prior to radiation delivery, rotational setup errors were measured with point registration using pulmonary structures. Translational registration using bony anatomy matching was done and the three-dimensional vector of tumor displacement was measured retrospectively. Correlation among the three-dimensional vector and rotational error and vertebra-tumor distance was investigated quantitatively. The median and maximum rotational errors of the roll, pitch and yaw were 0.8, 0.9 and 0.5, and 6.0, 4.5 and 2.5, respectively. Bony anatomy matching resulted in a 0.2-1.6 cm three-dimensional vector of tumor shift. The shift became larger as the vertebra-tumor distance increased. Multiple regression analysis for the three-dimensional vector indicated that in the case of bony anatomy matching, tumor shifts of 5 and 10 mm were expected for vertebra-tumor distances of 4.46 and 14.1 cm, respectively. Using pulmonary point registration, it was found that the rotational setup error influences the tumor shift. Bony anatomy matching is not appropriate for hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy with a tight margin. (author)

  3. The origin of Phobos grooves from ejecta launched from impact craters on Mars: Tests of the hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of the martian moon Phobos is characterized by parallel and intersecting grooves that bear resemblance to secondary crater chains observed on planetary surfaces. Murray (2011) has hypothesized that the main groove-forming process on Phobos is the intersection of Phobos with ejecta from primary impact events on Mars to produce chains of secondary craters. The hypothesis infers a pattern of parallel jets of ejecta, either fluidized or solidified, that break into equally-spaced fragments and disperse uniformly along-trajectory during the flight from Mars to Phobos. At the moment of impact with Phobos the dispersed fragments emplace secondary craters that are aligned along strike corresponding to the flight pattern of ejecta along trajectory. The aspects of the characteristics of grooves on Phobos cited by this hypothesis that might be explained by secondary ejecta include: their observed linearity, parallelism, planar alignment, pitted nature, change in character along strike, and a "zone of avoidance" where ejecta from Mars is predicted not to impact (Murray, 2011). To test the hypothesis we plot precise Keplerian orbits for ejecta from Mars (elliptical and hyperbolic with periapsis located below the surface of Mars). From these trajectories we: (1) set the fragment dispersion limits of ejecta patterns required to emplace the more typically well-organized parallel grooves observed in returned images from Phobos; (2) plot ranges of the ejecta flight durations from Mars to Phobos and map regions of exposure; (3) utilize the same exposure map to observe trajectory-defined ejecta exposure shadows; (4) observe hemispheric exposure in response to shorter and longer durations of ejecta flight; (5) assess the viability of ejecta emplacing the large family of grooves covering most of the northern hemisphere of Phobos; and (6) plot the arrival of parallel lines of ejecta emplacing chains of craters at oblique incident angles. We also assess the bulk volume of

  4. Study on morphology of high-aspect-ratio grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Pan, An; Li, Cunxia; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied morphologies of silicon grooves fabricated by laser irradiation and wet etching. • We found nano-ripple structures formed on the groove sidewall. • Formations of nano-ripples were due to the formation of standing wave and nanoplanes. • Remaining debris on the groove bottom was removed by KOH etching. - Abstract: Morphologies of high-aspect-ratio silicon grooves fabricated by using femtosecond laser irradiation and selective chemical etching of hydrofluoric acid (HF) were studied. Oxygen was deeply doped into silicon under femtosecond laser irradiation in air, and then the oxygen-doped regions were removed by HF etching to form high-aspect-ratio grooves. After HF etching, periodic nano-ripples which were induced in silicon by femtosecond laser were observed on the groove sidewalls. The ripple orientation was perpendicular or parallel to the laser propagation direction (z direction), which depended on the relative direction between the laser polarization direction and the scanning direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations perpendicular to z direction could be attributed to the standing wave generated by the interference of the incident light and the reflected light in z direction. The formation of nano-ripples with orientations parallel to z direction could be attributed to the formation of self-organized periodic nanoplanes (bulk nanogratings) induced by femtosecond laser inside silicon. Materials in the tail portion of laser-induced oxygen doping (LIOD) regions were difficult to be etched by HF solution due to low oxygen concentration. The specimen was etched further in KOH solution to remove remaining materials in LIOD regions and all-silicon grooves were fabricated

  5. In and out of the minor groove: interaction of an AT-rich DNA with the drug CD27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta-Reyes, Francisco J. [Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dardonville, Christophe [Instituto de Química Médica, IQM–CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Koning, Harry P. de; Natto, Manal [University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Subirana, Juan A.; Campos, J. Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.campos@upc.edu [Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    New features of an antiprotozoal DNA minor-groove binding drug, which acts as a cross-linking agent, are presented. It also fills the minor groove of DNA completely and prevents the access of proteins. These features are also expected for other minor-groove binding drugs when associated with suitable DNA targets. The DNA of several pathogens is very rich in AT base pairs. Typical examples include the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the causative agents of trichomoniasis and trypanosomiases. This fact has prompted studies of drugs which interact with the minor groove of DNA, some of which are used in medical practice. Previous studies have been performed almost exclusively with the AATT sequence. New features should be uncovered through the study of different DNA sequences. In this paper, the crystal structure of the complex of the DNA duplex d(AAAATTTT){sub 2} with the dicationic drug 4, 4′-bis(imidazolinylamino)diphenylamine (CD27) is presented. The drug binds to the minor groove of DNA as expected, but it shows two new features that have not previously been described: (i) the drugs protrude from the DNA and interact with neighbouring molecules, so that they may act as cross-linking agents, and (ii) the drugs completely cover the whole minor groove of DNA and displace bound water. Thus, they may prevent the access to DNA of proteins such as AT-hook proteins. These features are also expected for other minor-groove binding drugs when associated with all-AT DNA. These findings allow a better understanding of this family of compounds and will help in the development of new, more effective drugs. New data on the biological interaction of CD27 with the causative agent of trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis, are also reported.

  6. The Effect of Shoe Sole Tread Groove Depth on the Gait Parameters during Walking on Dry and Slippery Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ziaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of slipping accidents requires provision of adequate friction through the use of suitable combinations of footwear and underfoot surfaces. Shoe sole tread groove is one of the important factors on friction coefficient during walking. Objective: To measure the effect of different shoe sole tread groove depths and different surfaces on the required quotient of friction (Q, heel strike velocity and occurrence time of ground reaction forces (GRF in stance phase during walking on slippery and dry surfaces. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 22 healthy men were studied under different conditions. The studied independent variables were shoe groove depths (included 1, 2.5 and 5 mm and type of walking surface (dry and slippery. Biomechanical gait analysis was carried out with 396 single steps. Data were collected by motion analysis system and two force platform. Results: The occurrence time of GRF was significantly faster on dry surface than slippery surface (p<0.01. Q was significantly lower on slippery surface and with groove depths of 1 and 2.5 mm. The highest value of Q was observed with the deepest groove depth of 5 mm. Heel strike velocity did not differ significantly in the 6 conditions tested. Conclusion: Tread groove depth is a significant factor affecting the Q at the shoes-surface interface on dry and slippery floors. It seems that deeper groove is more appropriate for maintaining the stability during walking. The walking surface affects the occurrence time of GRF; the force components occur sooner on the dry than slippery surface.

  7. In and out of the minor groove: interaction of an AT-rich DNA with the drug CD27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Reyes, Francisco J.; Dardonville, Christophe; Koning, Harry P. de; Natto, Manal; Subirana, Juan A.; Campos, J. Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    New features of an antiprotozoal DNA minor-groove binding drug, which acts as a cross-linking agent, are presented. It also fills the minor groove of DNA completely and prevents the access of proteins. These features are also expected for other minor-groove binding drugs when associated with suitable DNA targets. The DNA of several pathogens is very rich in AT base pairs. Typical examples include the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the causative agents of trichomoniasis and trypanosomiases. This fact has prompted studies of drugs which interact with the minor groove of DNA, some of which are used in medical practice. Previous studies have been performed almost exclusively with the AATT sequence. New features should be uncovered through the study of different DNA sequences. In this paper, the crystal structure of the complex of the DNA duplex d(AAAATTTT) 2 with the dicationic drug 4, 4′-bis(imidazolinylamino)diphenylamine (CD27) is presented. The drug binds to the minor groove of DNA as expected, but it shows two new features that have not previously been described: (i) the drugs protrude from the DNA and interact with neighbouring molecules, so that they may act as cross-linking agents, and (ii) the drugs completely cover the whole minor groove of DNA and displace bound water. Thus, they may prevent the access to DNA of proteins such as AT-hook proteins. These features are also expected for other minor-groove binding drugs when associated with all-AT DNA. These findings allow a better understanding of this family of compounds and will help in the development of new, more effective drugs. New data on the biological interaction of CD27 with the causative agent of trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis, are also reported

  8. Flowing to four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe; Rubakov, Valery

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a model with four-dimensional brane-localized Higgs type potential of a six dimensional scalar field satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition on the boundary of a transverse two-dimensional compact space. The regularization of the localized couplings generates classical renormalization group running. A tachyonic mass parameter grows in the infrared, in analogy with the QCD gauge coupling in four dimensions. We find a phase transition at a critical value of the bare mass parameter such that the running mass parameter becomes large in the infrared precisely at the compactification scale. Below the critical coupling, the theory is in symmetric phase, whereas above it spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. Close to the phase transition point there is a very light mode in the spectrum. The massive Kaluza-Klein spectrum at the critical coupling becomes independent of the UV cutoff

  9. Dimensions of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Georg Simmel is the seminal author on trust within sociology, but though inspired by Simmel, subsequent studies of intersubjective trust have failed to address Simmel’s suggestion that trust is as differentiated as the social relations of which it is part. Rather, trust has been studied within...... limited sets of exchange or work relations. This article revisits Simmel’s concept of trust as social form in order to investigate this differentiation. From an interview study, the differentiation and limits of trust are analysed within different types of social relations. Trust is found to vary greatly...... in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...

  10. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  11. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  12. Correlation dimension of financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chun-Xiao

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, correlation dimension is applied to financial data analysis. We calculate the correlation dimensions of some real market data and find that the dimensions are significantly smaller than those of the simulation data based on geometric Brownian motion. Based on the analysis of the Chinese and US stock market data, the main results are as follows. First, by calculating three data sets for the Chinese and US market, we find that large market volatility leads to a significant decrease in the dimensions. Second, based on 5-min stock price data, we find that the Chinese market dimension is significantly larger than the US market; this shows a significant difference between the two markets for high frequency data. Third, we randomly extract stocks from a stock set and calculate the correlation dimensions, and find that the average value of these dimensions is close to the dimension of the original set. In addition, we analyse the intuitional meaning of the relevant dimensions used in this paper, which are directly related to the average degree of the financial threshold network. The dimension measures the speed of the average degree that varies with the threshold value. A smaller dimension means that the rate of change is slower.

  13. Modern Microsurgical Resection of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas by Classical Bicoronal Subfrontal Approach without Orbital Osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Ghulam; Rehman, Lal; Bokhari, Irum; Rizvi, Syed Raza Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The olfactory groove meningioma has always been surgically challenging. The common microscopic surgical procedures exercised involve modification of pterional or sub-frontal approaches with or without orbital osteotomies. However, we believe that orbital osteotomies are not mandatory to achieve gross total resection. Hence, this study was performed to evaluate the surgical outcomes of olfactory groove meningioma with bicoronal sub frontal approach but without orbital osteotomies. The study was performed by reviewing the medical charts, neuroimaging data, and follow-up data of 19 patients who were treated micro surgically for olfactory groove meningioma without orbital osteotomies in our department. Mean overall follow up period of our study was 5 years. Statistical analysis was done by means of IBM SPSS Software version 19. Nineteen patients (1 male and 18 female patients, with an age range of 35-67 years; average age of patients' 51±7.5 years) of OGM were managed in our department. All patients were evaluated by MRI Brain with and without Gadolinium, CTA, CT Scan both axial and Coronal sequences. Most common symptom reported was head ache (80%), others include; urinary incontinence (26%), seizures (78%), decreased visual acuity (79%), papilledema (74%), personality changes (68%) and olfactory loss was reported in 57% of the patients. Post-operative complications include; CSF accumulation (5%), hematoma at tumor bed (10%), skin infection (5%) and mild post-operative brain edema (26%). Mortality rate was 5%. During 5 years of follow-up, we recorded one recurrence which was after 26 months and successfully removed in reoperation. Bi-coronal sub frontal approach appears to be an excellent technique for Olfactory Meningioma removal as practiced by most neurosurgeons. Nevertheless, it is not mandatory to carry out orbital osteotomy to acquire optimal surgical outcome as is advocated by some Authors.

  14. Olfactory groove meningioma: discussion of clinical presentation and surgical outcomes following excision via the subcranial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jon-Paul; Hecht, Sarah L; Gebarski, Stephen S; Lin, Erin M; Sullivan, Stephen E; Marentette, Lawrence J

    2011-11-01

    To describe surgical outcomes and radiographic features of olfactory groove meningiomas treated by excision through the subcranial approach. Special emphasis is placed on paranasal sinus and orbit involvement. Retrospective review of a series of patients. Nineteen patients underwent excision of olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) via the transglabellar/subcranial approach between December 1995 and November 2009. Nine patients had previously undergone prior resection at outside institutions, and four had prior radiotherapy in addition to a prior excision. Transglabellar/subcranial surgical approach to the anterior skull base was performed. Tumor histology included three World Health Organization (WHO) grade III lesions, one WHO grade II lesion, and 15 WHO grade I lesions. Fourteen patients had evidence of extension into the paranasal sinuses, with the ethmoid sinus being most commonly involved. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean overall and disease-free survival were 121.45 months and 93.03 months, respectively. The mean follow-up interval was 41.0 months, and at the time of data analysis three patients had recurrent tumors. Seven (36.8%) patients experienced a major complication in the perioperative period; there were no perioperative mortalities. Orbit invasion was observed in four patients, with optic nerve impingement in 11 patients. Of these, three patients had long-term diplopia. No patients experienced worsening of preoperative visual acuity. Olfactory groove meningiomas demonstrate a propensity to spread into the paranasal sinuses, particularly in recurrent cases. Given a tendency for infiltrative recurrence along the skull base, this disease represents an important area of collaboration between neurosurgery and otolaryngology. The subcranial approach offers excellent surgical access for excision, particularly for recurrences that involve the paranasal sinuses and optic apparatus. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society

  15. Micro-CT evaluation of root and canal morphology of mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschetti, Emanuele; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de, E-mail: sousanet@forp.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto (UNAERP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil). Departmento de Endodontia

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentin thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm{sup 3}, 58.51 mm{sup 2}, and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentin thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal. (author)

  16. Micro-CT evaluation of root and canal morphology of mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschetti, Emanuele; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Saquy, Paulo Cesar; Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião de; Silva-Sousa, Yara Terezinha Correa; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentin thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm 3 , 58.51 mm 2 , and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentin thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal. (author)

  17. Study of a Tricarbide Grooved Ring Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Emrich, Bill; Tucker, Dennis; Barnes, Marvin; Donders, Nicolas; Benensky, Kelsa

    2018-01-01

    Deep space exploration, especially that of Mars, is on the horizon as the next big challenge for space exploration. Nuclear propulsion, through which high thrust and efficiency can be achieved, is a promising option for decreasing the cost and logistics of such a mission. Work on nuclear thermal engines goes back to the days of the NERVA program. Currently, nuclear thermal propulsion is under development again in various forms to provide a superior propulsion system for deep space exploration. The authors have been working to develop a concept nuclear thermal engine that uses a grooved ring fuel element as an alternative to the traditional hexagonal rod design. The authors are also studying the use of carbide fuels. The concept was developed in order to increase surface area and heat transfer to the propellant. The use of carbides would also raise the operating temperature of the reactor. It is hoped that this could lead to a higher thrust to weight nuclear thermal engine. This paper describes the modeling of neutronics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics of this alternative nuclear fuel element geometry. Fabrication experiments of grooved rings from carbide refractory metals are also presented along with material characterization and interactions with a hot hydrogen environment. Results of experiments and associated analysis are discussed. The authors demonstrated success in reaching desired densities with some success in material distribution and reaching a solid solution. Future work is needed to improve distribution of material, minimize oxidation during the milling process, and define a fabrication process that will serve for constructing grooved ring fuel rods for large system tests.

  18. Place of the brachytherapy in the therapeutic strategy of rhabdomyosarcomas of the nasogenian groove of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton-Callu, C.; Haie-Meder, C.; Oberlin, O.; Delapierre, M.; Gerbaulet, A.

    2000-01-01

    The brachytherapy in the treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas of the nasogenian groove has to be discussed when it exists a residual tumor after an initial chemotherapy and leads to good results, in term of local control. An advantage of the brachytherapy in comparison with external irradiation, in the treatment of children tumors, is the small size of the treated volume, that allows to decrease the aftereffects incidence. The brachytherapy comes in the frame of a therapeutic needing a multidisciplinary approach and a cooperation between surgeons, brachy-therapists and onco-pediatricians. (N.C.)

  19. The morphology of synovial grooves (Fossae synoviales) in joints of cattle of different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, K. M.; Heje, N. I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1993-01-01

    The joint cartilage of the head of the radius, the metacarpal bone, the tibial cochlea, the proximal trochlea of the talus and the metatarsal bone of 26 cattle in the age groups fetuses, 0 days, 2-5 weeks, 2-5 months, 7-13 months, 2-3.5 years, and 5-7 years were examined macroscopically...... animals aged from 3 weeks to 13 months dyschondroplastic (osteochondrotic) lesions were observed in the joint cartilage both inside and outside the groove areas on one or more joint surfaces....

  20. Design, fabrication, and dynamic testing of a V-groove radiator mechanical development unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, S. Walter; Bard, Steven

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and dynamic testing of a V-groove radiator development unit. The intended goal was to survive the dynamic environment of the Mars Observer mission. The development unit was designed to achieve a temperature of 80 K with a heat load of about 80 milliwatts. An analysis was performed to predict the thermal performance of the development unit. The radiator with a mass mockup of a Gamma Ray Spectrometer detector, the most massive of the candidate Mars Observer instrument detectors (1.7 Kg), passed vibration and acoustic testing to the Mars Observer requirements in effect at that time.

  1. Modelling, design and analysis of liquid crystal waveguides in preferentially etched silicon grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Bob; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fully consistent theoretical framework for liquid crystal (LC) channel waveguides that have been experimentally demonstrated in previous publications. We revise the optical design of the LC waveguides in silicon grooves and implement here a vectorial, fully consistent model of the LC waveguide electro-optical behaviour, based on the finite element method. The numerical investigation shows that LC waveguides demonstrate properties of propagation control and switching. They switch on and off with a low applied voltage. We discuss the major design parameters of the device and the effect of loss-inducing control electrodes.

  2. A carapace-like bony 'body tube' in an early triassic marine reptile and the onset of marine tetrapod predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-hong; Motani, Ryosuke; Cheng, Long; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Parahupehsuchus longus is a new species of marine reptile from the Lower Triassic of Yuan'an County, Hubei Province, China. It is unique among vertebrates for having a body wall that is completely surrounded by a bony tube, about 50 cm long and 6.5 cm deep, comprising overlapping ribs and gastralia. This tube and bony ossicles on the back are best interpreted as anti-predatory features, suggesting that there was predation pressure upon marine tetrapods in the Early Triassic. There is at least one sauropterygian that is sufficiently large to feed on Parahupehsuchus in the Nanzhang-Yuan'an fauna, together with six more species of potential prey marine reptiles with various degrees of body protection. Modern predators of marine tetrapods belong to the highest trophic levels in the marine ecosystem but such predators did not always exist through geologic time. The indication of marine-tetrapod feeding in the Nanzhang-Yuan'an fauna suggests that such a trophic level emerged for the first time in the Early Triassic. The recovery from the end-Permian extinction probably proceeded faster than traditionally thought for marine predators. Parahupehsuchus has superficially turtle-like features, namely expanded ribs without intercostal space, very short transverse processes, and a dorsal outgrowth from the neural spine. However, these features are structurally different from their turtle counterparts. Phylogeny suggests that they are convergent with the condition in turtles, which has a fundamentally different body plan that involves the folding of the body wall. Expanded ribs without intercostal space evolved at least twice and probably even more among reptiles.

  3. Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the continental bony fish assemblage from the early late cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Tong, Haiyan; Läng, Emilie; Tabouelle, Jérôme; Vullo, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The mid-Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from south-eastern Morocco is one of the most diversified continental vertebrate assemblages of this time worldwide. The bony fish component (coelacanths, lungfishes and ray-finned fishes) is represented by relatively complete specimens and, mostly, by fragmentary elements scattered along 250 kilometres of outcrops. Here we revisit the bony fish assemblage by studying both isolated remains collected during several fieldtrips and more complete material kept in public collections. The assemblage comprises several lungfish taxa, with the first mention of the occurrence of Arganodus tiguidiensis, and possibly two mawsoniid coelacanths. A large bichir cf. Bawitius, is recorded and corresponds to cranial elements initially referred to 'Stromerichthys' from coeval deposits in Egypt. The ginglymodians were diversified with a large 'Lepidotes' plus two obaichthyids and a gar. We confirm here that this gar belongs to a genus distinctive from Recent gars, contrary to what was suggested recently. Teleosteans comprise a poorly known ichthyodectiform, a notopterid, a probable osteoglossomorph and a large tselfatiiform, whose cranial anatomy is detailed. The body size and trophic level for each taxon are estimated on the basis of comparison with extant closely related taxa. We plotted the average body size versus average trophic level for the Kem Kem assemblage, together with extant marine and freshwater assemblages. The Kem Kem assemblage is characterized by taxa of proportionally large body size, and by a higher average trophic level than the trophic level of the extant compared freshwater ecosystems, but lower than for the extant marine ecosystems. These results should be regarded with caution because they rest on a reconstructed assemblage known mostly by fragmentary remains. They reinforce, however, the ecological oddities already noticed for this mid-Cretaceous vertebrate ecosystem in North Africa.

  4. A carapace-like bony 'body tube' in an early triassic marine reptile and the onset of marine tetrapod predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hong Chen

    Full Text Available Parahupehsuchus longus is a new species of marine reptile from the Lower Triassic of Yuan'an County, Hubei Province, China. It is unique among vertebrates for having a body wall that is completely surrounded by a bony tube, about 50 cm long and 6.5 cm deep, comprising overlapping ribs and gastralia. This tube and bony ossicles on the back are best interpreted as anti-predatory features, suggesting that there was predation pressure upon marine tetrapods in the Early Triassic. There is at least one sauropterygian that is sufficiently large to feed on Parahupehsuchus in the Nanzhang-Yuan'an fauna, together with six more species of potential prey marine reptiles with various degrees of body protection. Modern predators of marine tetrapods belong to the highest trophic levels in the marine ecosystem but such predators did not always exist through geologic time. The indication of marine-tetrapod feeding in the Nanzhang-Yuan'an fauna suggests that such a trophic level emerged for the first time in the Early Triassic. The recovery from the end-Permian extinction probably proceeded faster than traditionally thought for marine predators. Parahupehsuchus has superficially turtle-like features, namely expanded ribs without intercostal space, very short transverse processes, and a dorsal outgrowth from the neural spine. However, these features are structurally different from their turtle counterparts. Phylogeny suggests that they are convergent with the condition in turtles, which has a fundamentally different body plan that involves the folding of the body wall. Expanded ribs without intercostal space evolved at least twice and probably even more among reptiles.

  5. Differential Deformability of the DNA Minor Groove and Altered BI/BII Backbone Conformational Equilibrium by the Monovalent Ions Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ via Water-Mediated Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the differential impact of the monovalent cations Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ on DNA conformational properties. These were identified from variations in the calculated solution-state X-ray DNA spectra as a function of the ion type in the solvation buffer in MD simulations using our recently developed polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator. Changes in the DNA structure were found to mainly involve variations in the minor groove width. Because minor groove dimensions vary significantly in protein-DNA complexes and have been shown to play a critical role in both specific and nonspecific DNA readout, understanding the origins of the observed differential DNA modulation by the first-group monovalent ions is of great biological importance. In the present study we show that the primary microscopic mechanism for the phenomenon is the formation of the water-mediated hydrogen bonds between solvated cations located inside the minor groove and simultaneously to two DNA strands, a process whose intensity and impact on DNA structure depends on both the type of the ion and DNA sequence. Additionally, it is shown that formation of such ion-DNA hydrogen bond complexes appreciably modulates the conformation of the backbone by increasing the population of the BII substate. Notably, the differential impact of the ions on DNA conformational behavior is only predicted by the Drude polarizable model for DNA, with virtually no effect observed from MD simulations utilizing the additive CHARMM36 model. Analysis of dipole moments of the water shows the Drude SWM4 model to possess high sensitivity to changes in the local environment, which indicates the important role of electronic polarization in the salt-dependent conformational properties. This also suggests that inclusion of polarization effects is required to model even relatively simple biological systems such as DNA in various ionic solutions. PMID:26575937

  6. In Vitro Retentive Effect of Groove, Sandblasting, and Cement Type on Stainless Steel Crowns in Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sidhant; Shashibhushan, K K; Bharath, K P; Poornima, P; Reddy, V V Subba

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of placing vertical grooves, sandblasting, and luting cements on the retention of stainless steel crowns (SSCs). Eighty extracted primary molars were mounted in acrylic blocks. Specimens were divided into Group 1 (RelyX U200) and Group 2 (Smart Cem2). Teeth in each group were further subdivided into Subgroup A (no vertical grooves and no sandblasting), Subgroup B (vertical grooves), Subgroup C (sandblasting of crowns), and Subgroup D (vertical grooves and sandblasting of crowns). After cementation, SSCs were pulled off using a universal testing machine. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analyses. In Groups 1 and 2, the highest retentive strengths were found in Subgroup D (1,124 and 783 kPa, respectively), followed by Subgroup C (1,066 and 748 kPa, respectively), Subgroup A (762 and 356 kPa, respectively), and Subgroup B (743 and 314 kPa, respectively). Retentive strength in Group one was significantly higher than in Group two; Subgroups A and B were significantly lower than C and D. RelyX U200 showed higher retentive strength than Smart Cem2. Sandblasting increased the retention strength, whereas a vertical groove had no significant effect on retention.

  7. Evaluation of J-groove weld residual stress and crack growth rate of PWSCC in reactor pressure vessel closure head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Hyuk; Ryu, Tae Young; Park, Seung Hyun; Won, Min Gu; Kang, Seok Jun; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sung Ho [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Over the last decade, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been frequently found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications. Especially, PWSCC has occurred in long-term operated PWRs. As this phenomenon leads to serious accidents, we must be beforehand with the anticipated problems. A typical PWR consists of J-groove welded components such as reactor pressure vessel closure head and nozzles. Reactor pressure vessel closure head is made of SA508 and it is covered by cladding. Alloy 600 is used for nozzles. And J-groove weld is conducted with alloy 82/182. Different material properties of these metals lead to residual stress and PWSCC consequentially. In this study, J-groove weld residual stress was investigated by a three-dimensional finite element analysis with an actual asymmetric J-groove weld model and process of construction. Also crack growth rate of PWSCC was evaluated from cracks applied on the penetration nozzles. Based on these two values, one cannot only improve the structural integrity of PWR, but also explain PWSCC behavior such that high residual stress at the J-groove weld area causes crack initiation and propagation through the surface of nozzles. In addition, crack behavior was predicted at the various points around the nozzle.

  8. Evaluation of J-groove weld residual stress and crack growth rate of PWSCC in reactor pressure vessel closure head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Hyuk; Ryu, Tae Young; Park, Seung Hyun; Won, Min Gu; Kang, Seok Jun; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae Boong; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been frequently found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications. Especially, PWSCC has occurred in long-term operated PWRs. As this phenomenon leads to serious accidents, we must be beforehand with the anticipated problems. A typical PWR consists of J-groove welded components such as reactor pressure vessel closure head and nozzles. Reactor pressure vessel closure head is made of SA508 and it is covered by cladding. Alloy 600 is used for nozzles. And J-groove weld is conducted with alloy 82/182. Different material properties of these metals lead to residual stress and PWSCC consequentially. In this study, J-groove weld residual stress was investigated by a three-dimensional finite element analysis with an actual asymmetric J-groove weld model and process of construction. Also crack growth rate of PWSCC was evaluated from cracks applied on the penetration nozzles. Based on these two values, one cannot only improve the structural integrity of PWR, but also explain PWSCC behavior such that high residual stress at the J-groove weld area causes crack initiation and propagation through the surface of nozzles. In addition, crack behavior was predicted at the various points around the nozzle.

  9. Characterization of thermoset and thermoplastic polyurethane pads, and molded and non-optimized machined grooving methods for oxide chemical mechanical planarization applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampurno, Yasa; Borucki, Leonard; Zhuang, Yun; Misra, Sudhanshu; Holland, Karey; Boning, Duane; Philipossian, Ara

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically studies the effect of pad material, grooving method and grooving pattern on interlayer dielectric chemical mechanical planarization. The tested polishing pads consist of thermoplastic and thermoset polyurethanes synthesized using two different processes. Grooves created using a molding technique are compared with grooves formed by mechanical cutting. The concentric groove design is also compared with the logarithmic positive spiral positive grooving design. Experimental data collected include removal rate, coefficient of friction, shear force variance, pad temperature and dynamic mechanical analyzer measurements. Scanning electron microscope images are used to correlate grooving methods with coefficient of friction and shear force variance measurements. Results show that all of the pads polish wafers in boundary lubrication mode with unique friction coefficient, shear force variance and pad temperature characteristics. Simulations using a two-step removal rate mechanism are performed to estimate the chemical and mechanical rate constants. The analysis indicates that the thermoplastic pad is more mechanically controlled than the thermoset pad and that molded grooving induces a more mechanically controlled process than non-optimized machined grooving

  10. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rességuier, T.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P.

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates.

  11. Chaotic Behaviour Investigation of a Front Opposed-Hemispherical Spiral-Grooved Air Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, spiral-grooved air bearing systems have attracted much attention and are especially useful in precision instruments and machines with spindles that rotate at high speed. Load support can be multidirectional and this type of bearing can also be very rigid. Studies show that some of the design problems encountered are dynamic and include critical speed, nonlinearity, gas film pressure, unbalanced rotors, and even poor design, all of which can result in the generation of chaotic aperiodic motion and instability under certain conditions. Such irregular motion on a large scale can cause severe damage to a machine or instrument. Therefore, understanding the conditions under which aperiodic behaviour and vibration arise is crucial for prevention. In this study, numerical analysis, including the Finite Difference and Differential Transformation Methods, is used to study these effects in detail in a front opposed-hemispherical spiral-grooved air bearing system. It was found that different rotor masses and bearing number could cause undesirable behaviour including periodic, subperiodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motion. The results obtained in this study can be used as a basis for future bearing system design and the prevention of instability.

  12. Technology and function of grooved abraders in the early Neolithic of northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hamon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Found sporadically in late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic contexts, grooved abraders are among the most common tools found in Linear Pottery and Villeneuve-Saint-Germain settlements in north-western Europe (5,100-4,700 BCE. This paper presents an overview of the technical and functional characteristics of these tools in early Neolithic domestic contexts. Despite different blank morphologies and sizes, these tools tend to be relatively small in size and are generally not shaped. They are characterized by the use of a very specific raw material: low cohesive and generally ferruginous sandstones, chosen because their abrasiveness is enhanced through use. A classification of the different types of grooves is proposed, based on their shape, depth, section and localization. These characteristics are combined with use-wear analysis in order to propose a number of functional interpretations. Far from the widespread hypothesis that these tools functioned as shaft straighteners, we argue on the basis of the use-wear analysis and archaeological associations of items that these tools were primarily involved in the manufacture of bone and lithic tools, as well as of schist and limestone personal ornaments. They are evidence of the generalization and diversification of polishing and abrading techniques in the technical system of the first Neolithic populations. As such, they contribute to defining a whole new technical paradigm and are an essential element in any definition of the Neolithic.

  13. Generalized Stability Analysis of Capillary Flow in Slender V-Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas; Troian, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Spontaneous capillary flow, an especially rapid process in slender open microchannels resembling V-grooves, is of significant importance to many applications requiring passive robust flow control. Many types of biomedical devices for point-of-care use in developing countries are being designed around this principle. Important fundamental work by Romero and Yost (1996) and Weislogel (1996) elucidated the behavior of Newtonian films in slender V-grooves driven to flow by the streamwise change in capillary pressure due to the change in radius of curvature of the circular arc describing the interface of wetting or non-wetting fluids. Self-similar solutions describing Washburn type dynamics were found but other solutions are possible. Here we extend the Romero and Yost model to include a variety of inlet and outlet boundary conditions and examine the transient growth and generalized stability of perturbations to steady state and self-similar flows. Although most cases examined for wetting fluids exhibit robust stability against small perturbations, some exceptions reveal unstable flow. In total, these results support decades of experimental work which has found this method of flow control to be especially reliable, robust and self-healing. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the 2016 NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory President's and Director's Fund as well as a 2017 NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  14. Configurational entropy change of netropsin and distamycin upon DNA minor-groove binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Baron, Riccardo; Oostenbrink, Chris; Koller, Joze; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2006-08-15

    Binding of a small molecule to a macromolecular target reduces its conformational freedom, resulting in a negative entropy change that opposes the binding. The goal of this study is to estimate the configurational entropy change of two minor-groove-binding ligands, netropsin and distamycin, upon binding to the DNA duplex d(CGCGAAAAACGCG).d(CGCGTTTTTCGCG). Configurational entropy upper bounds based on 10-ns molecular dynamics simulations of netropsin and distamycin in solution and in complex with DNA in solution were estimated using the covariance matrix of atom-positional fluctuations. The results suggest that netropsin and distamycin lose a significant amount of configurational entropy upon binding to the DNA minor groove. The estimated changes in configurational entropy for netropsin and distamycin are -127 J K(-1) mol(-1) and -104 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. Estimates of the configurational entropy contributions of parts of the ligands are presented, showing that the loss of configurational entropy is comparatively more pronounced for the flexible tails than for the relatively rigid central body.

  15. Reduction of absorption loss in multicrystalline silicon via combination of mechanical grooving and porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Mohamed, Seifeddine Belhadj; Dimassi, Wissem; Gaidi, Mounir; Ezzaouia, Hatem; Bessais, Brahim [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2011-03-15

    Surface texturing of silicon wafer is a key step to enhance light absorption and to improve the solar cell performances. While alkaline-texturing of single crystalline silicon wafers was well established, no efficient chemical solution has been successfully developed for multicrystalline silicon wafers. Thus, the use of alternative new methods for effective texturization of multicrystalline silicon is worth to be investigated. One of the promising texturing techniques of multicrystalline silicon wafers is the use of mechanical grooves. However, most often, physical damages occur during mechanical grooves of the wafer surface, which in turn require an additional step of wet processing-removal damage. Electrochemical surface treatment seems to be an adequate solution for removing mechanical damage throughout porous silicon formation. The topography of untreated and porous silicon-treated mechanically textured surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result of the electrochemical surface treatment, the total reflectivity drops to about 5% in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range and the effective minority carrier diffusion length enhances from 190 {mu}m to about 230 {mu}m (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Grooves to tubes: evolution of the venom delivery system in a Late Triassic "reptile"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Heckert, Andrew B.; Sues, Hans-Dieter

    2010-12-01

    Venom delivery systems occur in a wide range of extant and fossil vertebrates and are primarily based on oral adaptations. Teeth range from unmodified (Komodo dragons) to highly specialized fangs similar to hypodermic needles (protero- and solenoglyphous snakes). Developmental biologists have documented evidence for an infolding pathway of fang evolution, where the groove folds over to create the more derived condition. However, the oldest known members of venomous clades retain the same condition as their extant relatives, resulting in no fossil evidence for the transition. Based on a comparison of previously known specimens with newly discovered teeth from North Carolina, we describe a new species of the Late Triassic archosauriform Uatchitodon and provide detailed analyses that provide evidence for both venom conduction and document a complete structural series from shallow grooves to fully enclosed tubular canals. While known only from teeth, Uatchitodon is highly diagnostic in possessing compound serrations and for having two venom canals on each tooth in the dentition. Further, although not a snake, Uatchitodon sheds light on the evolutionary trajectory of venom delivery systems in amniotes and provide solid evidence for venom conduction in archosaur-line diapsids.

  17. Large critical current density improvement in Bi-2212 wires through the groove-rolling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagoli, A; Bernini, C; Braccini, V; Romano, G; Putti, M; Chaud, X; Debray, F

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in Bi-2212 superconductor round wire for high magnetic field use despite the fact that an increase of the critical current is still needed to boost its successful use in such applications. Recent studies have demonstrated that the main obstacle to current flow, especially in long wires, is the residual porosity inside these powder-in-tube processed conductors that develops from bubble agglomeration when the Bi-2212 melts. In this work we tried to overcome this issue affecting the wire densification by changing the deformation process. Here we show the effects of groove rolling versus the drawing process on the critical current density J C and on the microstructure. In particular, groove-rolled multifilamentary wires show a J C increased by a factor of about 3 with respect to drawn wires prepared with the same Bi-2212 powder and architecture. We think that this approach in the deformation process is able to produce the required improvements both because the superconducting properties are enhanced and because it makes the fabrication process faster and cheaper. (paper)

  18. Outcomes After Conservative, Endoscopic, and Surgical Treatment of Groove Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kager, Liesbeth M; Lekkerkerker, Selma J; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Delhaye, Myriam; Fockens, Paul; Boermeester, Marja A; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Besselink, Marc G

    2017-09-01

    Groove pancreatitis (GP) is a focal form of chronic pancreatitis affecting the paraduodenal groove area, for which consensus on diagnosis and management is lacking. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine patient characteristics and imaging features of GP and to evaluate clinical outcomes after treatment. Eight studies were included reporting on 335 GP patients with a median age of 47 years (range, 34 to 64 y), with 90% male, 87% smokers, and 87% alcohol consumption, and 47 months (range, 15 to 122 mo) of follow-up. Most patients presented with abdominal pain (91%) and/or weight loss (78%). Imaging frequently showed cystic lesions (91%) and duodenal stenosis (60%).Final treatment was conservative (eg, pain medication) in 29% of patients. Endoscopic treatment (eg, pseudocyst drainage) was applied in 19% of patients-34% of these patients were subsequently referred for surgery. Overall, 59% of patients were treated surgically (eg, pancreatoduodenectomy). Complete symptom relief was observed in 50% of patients who were treated conservatively, 57% who underwent endoscopic treatment, and 79% who underwent surgery. GP is associated with male gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The vast majority of patients presents with abdominal pain and with cystic lesions on imaging. Although surgical treatment seems to be the most effective, both conservative and endoscopic treatment are successful in about half of patients. A stepwise treatment algorithm starting with the least invasive treatment options seems advisable.

  19. High strain rate mechanical response of buttress-grooved tensile specimens which have undergone environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.

    1976-07-01

    The purpose of the corrosion compatibility program was to identify the effect of corrosion on the mechanical performance of the buttress-grooved section of the 105-mm penetrator, a section which must sustain a load during launch. It is important that the environment not deteriorate the mechanical integrity of these grooves during long-term storage. Both coated and uncoated test specimens which simulate both geometrical shape and residual stress patterns were exposed to corrosive environments of moist air, distilled water, and salt water. Some of these tests also incorporated the galvanic coupling caused by the aluminum sabot. After exposure to the corrosive environments, the specimens were pulled on a high strain rate tensile machine which simulated launch conditions. Results show that the galvanic coupling due to the aluminum sabot caused no deterioration of mechanical properties. Results do indicate that the coating applied caused a significant reduction in the fracture load. There was a dichotomy in the results as affected by the environment. Uncoated test specimens showed no change in fracture load with increasing severity of corrosion environment, whereas the coated specimens indicated a trend of decreasing load-bearing ability with increasing corrosion

  20. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rességuier, T. de; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P.

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates

  1. Treatment of an intrabony osseous lesion associated with a palatoradicular groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Suchetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various root developmental anomalies like palatoradicular groove (PRG have been associated with worsening of periodontal condition. The aim of the present case report is to describe the regenerative surgical treatment of periodontal and osseous lesion associated with the subgingival extension of PRG. A 23-year-old female patient reported with pain in upper incisor teeth region. On clinical and radiological examination, a deep endosseous defect was found distal to maxillary right lateral incisor that was etiologically associated with the presence of a PRG. Treatment procedures consisted of: Regenerative periodontal therapy using Guided tissue regeneration (GTR and hydroxyapatite (HA bone graft and 2 flattening of the radicular portion of the palatal groove. The clinical examination at 1 year revealed shallow residual probing depth (3 mm and no increase in gingival recession. The radiographic examination showed reduction in the radiolucency suggesting bone fill. A PRG may serve as a pathway for the development of a periodontal osseous defect. The combination of GTR and HA may be clinically and radiographically efficacious in the treatment of such a defect.

  2. Acute radial nerve entrapment at the spiral groove: detection by DTI-based neurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jengojan, Suren; Breitenseher, Julia; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuro- and Musculosceletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Kovar, Florian [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Trauma-Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the potential of three-tesla diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography to detect changes of the radial (RN) and median (MN) nerves during transient upper arm compression by a silicon ring tourniquet. Axial T2-weighted and DTI sequences (b = 700 s/mm{sup 2}, 16 gradient encoding directions) of 13 healthy volunteers were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the MN and RN were measured at the spiral groove and further visualized in 3D by deterministic tractography (thresholds: FA =.15, angle change = 27 ). Local/lesional RN FA values increased (p = 0.001) and ADC values decreased (p = 0.02) during a 20-min upper arm compression, whereas no significant FA (p = 0.49) or ADC (p = 0.73) changes of the MN were detected. There were no T2-w nerve signal changes or alterations of nerve trajectories in 3D. Acute nerve compression of the RN leads to changes of its three-tesla DTI metrics. Peripheral nerve DTI provides non-invasive insights into the ''selective'' vulnerability of the RN at the spiral groove. (orig.)

  3. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rességuier, T. de, E-mail: resseguier@ensma.fr [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346, CNRS, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 ave. Clément Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-01-28

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates.

  4. [Lymphogranuloma venereum: new serovariant L2b and old "groove sign"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavaissière, M; Nougué, J

    2013-08-01

    An ongoing lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreak has been reported in several European countries since 2003, related to a new variant L2b. This serovar appears to affect men who have sex with men (MSM), most of them being co-infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The secondary stage of LGV may involve lymph nodes and the inguinal form has sometimes been described on each side of the inguinal ligament thus named the "groove sign". We report the case of LGV serovariant L2b acquired by an heterosexual intercourse in an HIV seronegative patient who presented with an inguinal lymph node and a "groove sign". This is an uncommon but suggestive sign of LGV and we suggest that the clinical presentation of L2b LGV might not be so different than other variants and than the 20th century authors' description. Such a new Chlamydia trachomatis variant may circulate in other populations than MSM in Europe and clinical awareness must prevail.

  5. The "sign of groove", a new cutaneous sign of internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old young male with multiple heterosexual contacts presented with bilateral inguinal bubo and the classical "sign of groove". A diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV was made and a three-week course of doxycycline was given. Lack of response prompted us to investigate further. A biopsy of the bubo was consistent with non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL. Immunohistochemistry of the lymph node done at the Regional Cancer Center (RCC, Trivandrum, confirmed the diagnosis as NHL of diffuse large B-cell type. The second patient, a 32-year-old male with two unprotected heterosexual contacts presented with a left-sided inguinal bubo of six weeks duration. An empirical course of doxycycline was given even though investigations did not reveal any STI. Lack of response prompted us to do a lymph node biopsy, which was consistent with NHL, which later with immunohistochemistry was confirmed as NHL, diffuse large cell type. We are reporting here that the "sign of groove" is not specific for LGV as thought earlier, but can occur in NHL also.

  6. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  7. Preheating with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate preheating in a higher-dimensional generalized Kaluza-Klein theory with a quadratic inflaton potential V(/φ) = /frac12 m 2 /φ 2 including metric perturbations explicitly. The system we consider is the multi-field model where there exists a dilaton field /σ which corresponds to the scale of compactifications and another scalar field /χ coupled to inflaton with the interaction frac12 g 2 /φ 2 /χ 2 +/g-tilde 2 /φ 3 /χ. In the case of g-tilde=0, we find that the perturbation of dilaton does not undergo parametric amplification while the χ field fluctuation can be enhanced in the usual manner by parametric resonance. In the presence of the /g-tilde 2 /φ 3 /χ coupling, the dilaton fluctuation in sub-Hubble scales is modestly amplified by the growth of metric perturbations for the large coupling g-tilde. In super-Hubble scales, the enhancement of the dilaton fluctuation as well as metric perturbations is weak, taking into account the backreaction effect of created /χ particles. We argue that not only is it possible to predict the ordinary inflationary spectrum in large scales but extra dimensions can be held static during preheating in our scenario. (author)

  8. Large-eddy simulation of flow over a grooved cylinder up to transcritical Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.

    2017-11-27

    We report wall-resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow over a grooved cylinder up to the transcritical regime. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is embedded in a general fourth-order finite-difference code discretization on a curvilinear mesh. In the present study grooves are equally distributed around the circumference of the cylinder, each of sinusoidal shape with height , invariant in the spanwise direction. Based on the two parameters, and the Reynolds number where is the free-stream velocity, the diameter of the cylinder and the kinematic viscosity, two main sets of simulations are described. The first set varies from to while fixing . We study the flow deviation from the smooth-cylinder case, with emphasis on several important statistics such as the length of the mean-flow recirculation bubble , the pressure coefficient , the skin-friction coefficient and the non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter . It is found that, with increasing at fixed , some properties of the mean flow behave somewhat similarly to changes in the smooth-cylinder flow when is increased. This includes shrinking and nearly constant minimum pressure coefficient. In contrast, while the non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter remains nearly constant for the front part of the smooth cylinder flow, shows an oscillatory variation for the grooved-cylinder case. The second main set of LES varies from to with fixed . It is found that this range spans the subcritical and supercritical regimes and reaches the beginning of the transcritical flow regime. Mean-flow properties are diagnosed and compared with available experimental data including and the drag coefficient . The timewise variation of the lift and drag coefficients are also studied to elucidate the transition among three regimes. Instantaneous images of the surface, skin-friction vector field and also of the three-dimensional Q-criterion field are utilized to further understand the dynamics of the near-surface flow

  9. Extra dimensions and color confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleitez, V

    1995-04-01

    An extension of the ordinary four dimensional Minkowski space by introducing additional dimensions which have their own Lorentz transformation is considered. Particles can transform in a different way under each Lorentz group. It is shown that only quark interactions are slightly modified and that color confinement automatic since these degrees of freedom run only in the extra dimensions. No compactification of the extra dimensions is needed. (author). 4 refs.

  10. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tubes: Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the annular flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozu, S; Honda, H

    2000-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the condensation heat transfer coefficient in a horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the authors, a laminar film condensation model in the annular flow regime is proposed. The model assumes that all the condensate flow occurs through the grooves. The condensate film is segmented into thin and thick film regions. In the thin film region formed on the fin surface, the condensate is assumed to be drained by the combined surface tension and vapor shear forces. In the thick film region formed in the groove, on the other hand, the condensate is assumed to be driven by the vapor shear force. The present and previous local heat transfer data including four fluids (CFC11, HCFC22, HCFC123, and HFCl34a) and three microfin tubes are found to agree with the present predictions to a mean absolute deviation of 15.1%.

  11. The effects of linear accelerations on the maximum heat transfer capacity of micro pipes with triangular grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokouhmand, H.; Kahrobaian, A.; Tabandeh, N.; Jalilvand, A.

    2002-01-01

    Micro heat pipes are widely used for the thermal control of spacecraft and their electronic components. In this paper the influence of linear accelerations in micro grooves has been studied. A mathematical model for predicating the minimum meniscus radius and the maximum heat transport in triangular groove under the influence of linear acceleration is presented and method for determining the theoretical minimum meniscus radius is developed. It is shown that both, the direction and the magnitude of the acceleration have a great effect upon heat transfer capability of micro heat pipes. The analysis presented here provides a mechanism where by the groove geometry can be optimized with respect to the length of the heat pipe and direction and magnitude of linear acceleration

  12. Effect of nitrogen-doped graphene nanofluid on the thermal performance of the grooved copper heat pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Azizian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Thermal performance of a grooved heat pipe using aqueous nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids was analysed. This study in particular focused on the effect of varying NDG nanosheets concentrations, heat pipe inclination angles and input heating powers. The results indicated that the inclination...... observed for NDG nanofluid with concentration of 0.06wt%, inclination angle of θ=90° and a heating power of 120W in comparison to DI-water under the exact same condition. Additionally, the surface temperature distribution was decreased by employing NDG nanosheets, which can in return increase the thermal...... performance of a grooved heat pipe. The present investigation indicated that the thermal performance of the grooved heat pipe can be improved significantly by using NDG nanofluids....

  13. A monofunctional platinum complex coordinated to a rhodium metalloinsertor selectively binds mismatched DNA in the minor groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Alyson G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-10-05

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a bimetallic complex derived from a new family of potent and selective metalloinsertors containing an unusual Rh-O axial coordination. This complex incorporates a monofunctional platinum center containing only one labile site for coordination to DNA, rather than two, and coordinates DNA nonclassically through adduct formation in the minor groove. This conjugate displays bifunctional, interdependent binding of mismatched DNA via metalloinsertion at a mismatch as well as covalent platinum binding. DNA sequencing experiments revealed that the preferred site of platinum coordination is not the traditional N7-guanine site in the major groove, but rather N3-adenine in the minor groove. The complex also displays enhanced cytotoxicity in mismatch repair-deficient and mismatch repair-proficient human colorectal carcinoma cell lines compared to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin, and it triggers cell death via an apoptotic pathway, rather than the necrotic pathway induced by rhodium metalloinsertors.

  14. The research of morphological variations and sexual dimorphism of primary grooves on the medial side of brain hemispheres in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological studies of the various parts of the brain show certain morphological and morphometric differences in correlation with sex, so-called sexual dimorphism of the brain. Our research has been done on the cerebral hemispheres, taken from cadavers of both sexes and different age without pathological processes in the brain. The sample comprised 26 male brains and 16 female brains. We studied three primary grooves (sulcus cinguli, sulcus parietooccipitalis and sulcus calcarinus of the medial surface of the human cerebral hemispheres. We conducted morphological typology of grooves and morphometric measurements of primary brain grooves length in relation to sex and side of hemisphere. The results showed a statistically significant sex difference in the cingulate sulcus length (p0,05. Determined morphometric sexual dimorphism in cingulate sulcus length is significant because it implies the correlation between morphology and function of the explored areas of the cerebral cortex.

  15. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  16. Binding to the minor groove of the double-strand, tau protein prevents DNA from damage by peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan; Qu, Mei-Hua; Wang, Xing-Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wang, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ying; Hua, Qian; He, Rong-Qiao

    2008-07-02

    Tau, an important microtubule associated protein, has been found to bind to DNA, and to be localized in the nuclei of both neurons and some non-neuronal cells. Here, using electrophoretic mobility shifting assay (EMSA) in the presence of DNA with different chain-lengths, we observed that tau protein favored binding to a 13 bp or a longer polynucleotide. The results from atomic force microscopy also showed that tau protein preferred a 13 bp polynucleotide to a 12 bp or shorter polynucleotide. In a competitive assay, a minor groove binder distamycin A was able to replace the bound tau from the DNA double helix, indicating that tau protein binds to the minor groove. Tau protein was able to protect the double-strand from digestion in the presence of DNase I that was bound to the minor groove. On the other hand, a major groove binder methyl green as a negative competitor exhibited little effect on the retardation of tau-DNA complex in EMSA. This further indicates the DNA minor groove as the binding site for tau protein. EMSA with truncated tau proteins showed that both the proline-rich domain (PRD) and the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) contributed to the interaction with DNA; that is to say, both PRD and MTBD bound to the minor groove of DNA and bent the double-strand, as observed by electron microscopy. To investigate whether tau protein is able to prevent DNA from the impairment by hydroxyl free radical, the chemiluminescence emitted by the phen-Cu/H(2)O(2)/ascorbate was measured. The emission intensity of the luminescence was markedly decreased when tau protein was present, suggesting a significant protection of DNA from the damage in the presence of hydroxyl free radical.

  17. Enhancement of fluorescence quenching and exciplex formation in DNA major groove by double incorporation of modified fluorescent deoxyuridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Makiko; Oguma, Kazuhiro; Saito, Yoshio; Saito, Isao

    2012-06-15

    5-(1-Naphthalenylethynyl)-2'-deoxyuridine ((N)U) and 5-[(4-cyano-1-naphthalenyl)ethynyl]-2'-deoxyuridine ((CN)U) were synthesized and incorporated into oligodeoxynucleotides. Fluorescence emissions of modified duplexes containing double (N)U were efficiently quenched depending upon the sequence pattern of the naphthalenes in DNA major groove, as compared to the duplex possessing single (N)U. When one of the naphthalene moieties has a cyano substituent, the exciplex emission from the chromophores in DNA major groove was observed at longer wavelength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Saliency of social comparison dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, H.

    2007-01-01

    The present article discusses a theory of the saliency of social comparison dimensions and presents the results of an experiment about the effects of two different experimental situations on the saliency of exterior, task-related and socio-emotional dimensions. Saliency was operationalized with a

  19. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub- ... strongly coupled heterotic theory with one large dimension is described by a weakly ..... one additional U(1) factor corresponding to an extra 'U(1)' D-brane is ...

  20. The Hidden Dimensions of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bruce

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art program for preschool children that includes four social dimensions of art in order to heighten aesthetic perception, improve artistic creativity, and nurture self-esteem. The social dimensions are children having power, children acting on norms legitimate in their own eyes, children functioning "nonestrangedly," and children…

  1. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  2. Allergy to fish collagen: Thermostability of collagen and IgE reactivity of patients' sera with extracts of 11 species of bony and cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kuriyama, Takuma; Nakagawara, Ryoko; Aihara, Michiko; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    Parvalbumin was identified as a major fish allergen, and has been well investigated. Collagen was identified as a second allergen; however, its allergenic properties remain uncharacterized. Although fish is an important staple in coastal countries, its thermostability is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the thermostability of fish collagen as an allergen. Meat of seven bony and four cartilaginous fishes was heated at various temperatures and times, and extracts were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, IgE-ELISA, and SPTs. Collagen was dissolved from heated meat of Pacific mackerel into a crude extract. Collagen in the extracts was degraded at a high heating load-140 °C (10 min) or 100 °C (320 min). However, ELISA revealed the IgE reactivities of patients' sera with the extracts were unchanged even after heating the samples. Patients strongly reacted to extract proteins of other bony fish, which were detected by patients' IgE even after heating at 100 °C (320 min). In contrast, reactivities of the extracts of cartilaginous fish were lower than those of bony fish. SPTs in one patient revealed that all bony and cartilaginous fish extracts prepared from heated meat elicited allergic reactions. The IgE reactivity of patients' sera to fish collagen in extracts was retained even when fish meat was treated by a high heating load. As for the fish collagen, the IgE reactivities to cartilaginous fish were lower than that to bony fish. Reducing IgE reactivity to fish meat using heat is difficult, and other modalities will be required to produce hypoallergenic fish meat. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An introduction to extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lorenzana, Abdel

    2005-01-01

    Models that involve extra dimensions have introduced completely new ways of looking up on old problems in theoretical physics. The aim of the present notes is to provide a brief introduction to the many uses that extra dimensions have found over the last few years, mainly following an effective field theory point of view. Most parts of the discussion are devoted to models with flat extra dimensions, covering both theoretical and phenomenological aspects. We also discuss some of the new ideas for model building where extra dimensions may play a role, including symmetry breaking by diverse new and old mechanisms. Some interesting applications of these ideas are discussed over the notes, including models for neutrino masses and proton stability. The last part of this review addresses some aspects of warped extra dimensions, and graviton localization

  4. Ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) with reference to the apical groove and flagellar apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwataki, Mitsunori; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2010-01-01

    The external and internal ultrastructure of the harmful unarmored dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef has been examined with special reference to the apical groove and three-dimensional structure of the flagellar apparatus. The apical groove is U-shaped and connected to the anterior...

  5. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vaisman, Michelle [Yale University; Li, Qiang [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Lau, Kei May [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    2017-08-31

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  6. Origin of DNA-Induced Circular Dichroism in a Minor-Groove Binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgaard List, Nanna; Knoops, Jérémie; Rubio-Magnieto, Jenifer; Idé, Julien; Beljonne, David; Norman, Patrick; Surin, Mathieu; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-10-25

    Induced circular dichroism (ICD) of DNA-binding ligands is well known to be strongly influenced by the specific mode of binding, but the relative importance of the possible mechanisms has remained undetermined. With a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, CD response calculations, and experiments on an AT-sequence, we show that the ICD of minor-groove-bound 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) originates from an intricate interplay between the chiral imprint of DNA, off-resonant excitonic coupling to nucleobases, charge-transfer, and resonant excitonic coupling between DAPIs. The significant contributions from charge-transfer and the chiral imprint to the ICD demonstrate the inadequacy of a standard Frenkel exciton theory of the DAPI-DNA interactions.

  7. Unexpected DNA affinity and sequence selectivity through core rigidity in guanidinium-based minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Padraic S; McKeever, Caitriona; Rodriguez, Fernando; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W David; Rozas, Isabel

    2014-09-25

    In this paper we report the design and biophysical evaluation of novel rigid-core symmetric and asymmetric dicationic DNA binders containing 9H-fluorene and 9,10-dihydroanthracene cores as well as the synthesis of one of these fluorene derivatives. First, the affinity toward particular DNA sequences of these compounds and flexible core derivatives was evaluated by means of surface plasmon resonance and thermal denaturation experiments finding that the position of the cations significantly influence the binding strength. Then their affinity and mode of binding were further studied by performing circular dichroism and UV studies and the results obtained were rationalized by means of DFT calculations. We found that the fluorene derivatives prepared have the ability to bind to the minor groove of certain DNA sequences and intercalate to others, whereas the dihydroanthracene compounds bind via intercalation to all the DNA sequences studied here.

  8. Limitations of the endonasal endoscopic approach in treating olfactory groove meningiomas. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sathwik Raviraj; Ruiz-Treviño, Armando S; Omay, Sacit Bulent; Almeida, Joao Paulo; Liang, Buqing; Chen, Yu-Ning; Singh, Harminder; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2017-10-01

    To review current management strategies for olfactory groove meningioma (OGM)s and the recent literature comparing endoscopic endonasal (EEA) with traditional transcranial (TCA) approaches. A PubMed search of the recent literature (2011-2016) was performed to examine outcomes following EEA and TCA for OGM. The extent of resection, visual outcome, postoperative complications and recurrence rates were analyzed using percentages and proportions, the Fischer exact test and the Student's t-test using Graphpad PRISM 7.0Aa (San Diego, CA) software. There were 444 patients in the TCA group with a mean diameter of 4.61 (±1.17) cm and 101 patients in the EEA group with a mean diameter of 3.55 (± 0.58) cm (p = 0.0589). GTR was achieved in 90.9% (404/444) in the TCA group and 70.2% (71/101) in the EEA group (p OGMs.

  9. Mechanical grooving of oxidized porous silicon to reduce the reflectivity of monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarroug, A.; Dimassi, W.; Ouertani, R.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre des Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    In this work, we are interested to use oxidized porous silicon (ox-PS) as a mask. So, we display the creating of a rough surface which enhances the absorption of incident light by solar cells and reduces the reflectivity of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). It clearly can be seen that the mechanical grooving enables us to elaborate the texturing of monocrystalline silicon wafer. Results demonstrated that the application of a PS layer followed by a thermal treatment under O2 ambient easily gives us an oxide layer of uniform size which can vary from a nanometer to about ten microns. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigations of the PS layer illustrates the possibility to realize oxide layer as a mask for porous silicon. We found also that this simple and low cost method decreases the total reflectivity (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Unidirectional interference in use of nondominant hand during concurrent Grooved Pegboard and random number generation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe

    2008-06-01

    The interference effect between Grooved Pegboard task with either hand and the executive task of cued verbal random number generation was investigated. 24 normal right-handed subjects performed each task under separate (single-task) and concurrent (dual-task) conditions. Articulatory suppression was required as an additional secondary task during pegboard performance. Analysis indicated an unambiguous distinction between the two hands. Comparisons of single-task and dual-task conditions showed an asymmetrical pattern of unidirectional interference with no practice effects during pegboard performance. Concurrent performance with nondominant hand but not the dominant hand of random number generation performance became continuously slower. There was no effect of divided attention on pegboard performance. Findings support the idea that the nondominant hand on the pegboard and random number tasks draw from the same processing resources but that for the executive aspect random number generation is more sensitive to changes in allocation of attentional resources.

  11. Combined endodontic therapy and periapical surgery with MTA and bone graft in treating palatogingival groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mudit; Vashisth, Pallavi; Arora, Rachita; Dwivedi, Swati

    2013-04-18

    A 37-year-old male patient reported to our department with chief complaint of pain and pus discharge from the labial marginal gingiva in the maxillary right lateral incisor region since last 4 months. Clinically, the tooth was hypersensitive to percussion and palpation but failed to respond to pulp sensitivity testing. After periodontal probing, a palatal groove was observed which started at the cingulum and travelled apically and laterally, associated with a pocket depth of 8 mm. Occlusal radiograph showed circumscribed radiolucency measuring 5 mm×7 mm in diameter at the apex of the tooth. A clinical diagnosis of chronic apical abscess was established. The case was treated with a combination of mineral trioxide aggregate and bone graft. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the tooth showed progressive healing without sinus track and sulcular bleeding.

  12. Imidazopyridine/Pyrrole and hydroxybenzimidazole/pyrrole pairs for DNA minor groove recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneberg, Dorte; Dervan, Peter B

    2003-05-14

    The DNA binding properties of fused heterocycles imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ip) and hydroxybenzimidazole (Hz) paired with pyrrole (Py) in eight-ring hairpin polyamides are reported. The recognition profile of Ip/Py and Hz/Py pairs were compared to the five-membered ring pairs Im/Py and Hp/Py on a DNA restriction fragment at four 6-base pair recognition sites which vary at a single position 5'-TGTNTA-3', where N = G, C, T, A. The Ip/Py pair distinguishes G.C from C.G, T.A, and A.T, and the Hz/Py pair distinguishes T.A from A.T, G.C, and C.G, affording a new set of heterocycle pairs to target the four Watson-Crick base pairs in the minor groove of DNA.

  13. Effects of Gas Rarefaction on Dynamic Characteristics of Micro Spiral-Grooved Thrust Bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The effects of gas-rarefaction on dynamic characteristics of micro spiral-grooved-thrust-bearing are studied. The Reynolds equation is modified by the first order slip model, and the corresponding perturbation equations are then obtained on the basis of the linear small perturbation method. In the converted spiral-curve-coordinates system, the finite-volume-method (FVM) is employed to discrete the surface domain of micro bearing. The results show, compared with the continuum-flow model, that under the slip-flow regime, the decrease in the pressure and stiffness become obvious with the increasing of the compressibility number. Moreover, with the decrease of the relative gas-film-thickness, the deviations of dynamic coefficients between slip-flow-model and continuum-flow-model are increasing.

  14. Effect of Rake Angle During Machining of Micro Grooves on Electroless Nickel Plated Die Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaur Rahman, K.M.; Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the performance of two single crystal diamond tools with different rake angle (0 0 and -15 0 ) during micro grooving on electroless nickel plated die materials. It was found that the 0 0 rake diamond tool has superior performance compared to the -15 0 rake angle tool. The negative rake tool experienced very high thrust force, and severe chipping on the flank face was evident after a short cutting distance of 3.13 km. On the other hand, the 0 0 rake tool machined satisfactorily up to 50 km without any significant tool wear. While machining with the -15 0 rake tool, significant change in surface roughness with spindle speed was observed compared to the 0 0 rake tool. With increasing infeed rate variation in surface roughness was evident only with the -15 0 rake tool. Steep change in roughness with machining distance was also observed while machining with the negative rake tool. (authors)

  15. Prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for the circumferential-groove pump seal using CFD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ha, Tae Woong [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The circumferential-groove seal is commonly used in various turbopumps to reduce leakage. The main goal of this paper is to develop the method of three-dimensional CFD analysis for determining leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of the circumferential-groovepump seal. A relative coordinate system was defined for steady-state simulation to calculate the velocity and pressure distributions of the seal clearance at each rotor whirl speed. Instead of setting the inlet and outlet pressures as the boundary conditions in the three dimensional CFD analysis, as it is more commonly done, we used the inlet velocity and outlet pressure obtained from a preliminary two dimensional CFD analysis. For prediction leakage, the presented analysis shows improvement from the bulk-flow model analysis. For the prediction of rotordynamic coefficients of K, k and C, the presented analysis provides results in closer agreement with the experimental values than those of the bulk-flow model analysis at several rotor speeds.

  16. Surgical management with intentional replantation on a tooth with palato-radicular groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Forero-López

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A palato-radicular groove (PRG is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed.

  17. Analysis of behavior of focusing error signals generated by astigmatic method when a focused spot moves beyond the radius of a land-groove-type optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.

  18. Alleviation of spike stall in axial compressors utilizing grooved casing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taghavi-Zenouz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with application of grooved type casing treatment for suppression of spike stall in an isolated axial compressor rotor blade row. The continuous grooved casing treatment covering the whole compressor circumference is of 1.8 mm in depth and located between 90% and 108% chord of the blade tip as measured from leading edge. The method of investigation is based on time-accurate three-dimensional full annulus numerical simulations for cases with and without casing treatment. Discretization of the Navier–Stokes equations has been carried out based on an upwind second-order scheme and k-ω-SST (Shear Stress Transport turbulence modeling has been used for estimation of eddy viscosity. Time-dependent flow structure results for the smooth casing reveal that there are two criteria for spike stall inception known as leading edge spillage and trailing edge backflow, which occur at specific mass flow rates in near-stall conditions. In this case, two dominant stall cells of different sizes could be observed. The larger one is caused by the spike stall covering roughly two blade passages in the circumferential direction and about 25% span in the radial direction. Spike stall disturbances are accompanied by lower frequencies and higher amplitudes of the pressure signals. Casing treatment causes flow blockages to reduce due to alleviation of backflow regions, which in turn reduces the total pressure loss and increases the axial velocity in the blade tip gap region, as well as tip leakage flow fluctuation at higher frequencies and lower amplitudes. Eventually, it can be concluded that the casing treatment of the stepped tip gap type could increase the stall margin of the compressor. This fact is basically due to retarding the movement of the interface region between incoming and tip leakage flows towards the rotor leading edge plane and suppressing the reversed flow around the blade trailing edge.

  19. Groove Pancreatitis, a Masquerading Yet Distinct Clinicopathological Entity: Analysis of Risk Factors and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Veeral M; Skeans, Jacob M; Muscarella, Peter; Walker, Jon P; Sklaw, Brett C; Cronley, Kevin M; El-Dika, Samer; Swanson, Benjamin; Hinton, Alice; Conwell, Darwin L; Krishna, Somashekar G

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to delineate predictive factors differentiating groove pancreatitis (GP) from other lesions involving the head of the pancreas (HOP). A case-control study of patients older than 10 years was performed comparing patients with GP to those with other surgically resected HOP lesions. Thirteen patients with GP (mean ± SD age, 51.9 ± 10.5 years; 11 males [84.6%]), all with a history of smoking (mean, 37.54 ± 17.8 pack-years), were identified. Twelve patients (92.3%) had a history of heavy alcohol drinking (heavy alcohol [EtOH]). The mean lesion size was 2.6 ± 1.1 cm, and the CA 19-9 was elevated (>37 IU/mL) in 5 patients (45.5%). The most common histopathologic condition was duodenal wall cyst with myofibroblastic proliferation and changes of chronic pancreatitis in the HOP.Univariate analysis revealed decreasing age, male sex, weight loss, nausea/vomiting, heavy EtOH, smoking, and a history of chronic pancreatitis were predictive of GP. A multivariate analysis among smokers demonstrated that weight loss (P = 0.006; odds ratio, 11.96; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-70.2), and heavy EtOH (P pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 183), weight loss and heavy EtOH remained predictive of GP. Groove pancreatitis in the HOP is associated with a history of heavy EtOH and weight loss. In the absence of these symptoms, it is essential to rule out a malignant lesion.

  20. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission. Axially-grooved heat pipe: accelerated life test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The results through SIG/Galileo contract close-out of accelerated life testing performed from June 1978 to June 1979 on axially-grooved, copper/water heat pipes are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the expected lifetime of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes. The heat pipe failure rate, due to either a leak or a build-up of non-condensible gas, was determined. The secondary objective of the test was to determine the effects of time and temperature on the thermal performance parameters relevant to long-term (> 50,000 h) operation on a space power generator. The results showed that the gas generation rate appears to be constant with time after an initial sharp rise although there are indications that it drops to approximately zero beyond approx. 2000 h. During the life test, the following pipe-hours were accumulated: 159,000 at 125 0 C, 54,000 at 165 0 C, 48,000 at 185 0 C, and 8500 at 225 0 C. Heated hours per pipe ranged from 1000 to 7500 with an average of 4720. Applying calculated acceleration factors yields the equivalent of 930,000 pipe-h at 125 0 C. Including the accelerated hours on vendor tested pipes raises this number to 1,430,000 pipe-hours at 125 0 C. It was concluded that, for a heat pipe temperature of 125 0 C and a mission time of 50,000 h, the demonstrated heat pipe reliability is between 80% (based on 159,000 actual pipe-h at 125 0 C) and 98% (based on 1,430,000 accelerated pipe-h at 125 0 C). Measurements indicate some degradation of heat transfer with time, but no detectable degradation of heat transport

  1. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  2. Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni, E-mail: amelino@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Brighenti, Francesco [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Bologna and Sez. Bologna INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gubitosi, Giulia [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Santos, Grasiele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-04-10

    Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of “dynamical dimensional reduction” which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the “spectral dimension”, which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the “thermal dimension” which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.

  3. Influence of side-groove root radius on the ductile fracture toughness of miniature C(T) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.

    2009-05-15

    The use of miniature C(T) specimens, MC(T), for fracture toughness measurements in the upper shelf regime has been investigated at SCK-CEN since 2004, in the framework of the Electrabel/Tractebel SCK-CEN Convention (now General Framework Agreement SUEZ-SCK-CEN). This geometry has been used and validated on both unirradiated (2004-05) and irradiated (2006) materials, mainly reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. While side-grooved MC(T) specimens have shown in all conditions a systematically lower tearing resistance and ductile crack initiation toughness as compared to standard-size 1TC(T) samples, the only plain-sided MC(T) specimen tested in 2005 exhibited very high ductile fracture toughness, thus pointing at a strong influence of side-grooving on the upper shelf properties of MC(T) specimens. This study investigates the influence of side-grooving on the initiation toughness and tearing resistance of MC(T) specimens, as a function of the root radius of the side-groove (ranging from 0.1 to 1 mm) and in comparison with plain-sided MC(T) and reference 1TC(T) samples. The material used is the well characterized DIN 22NiMoCr37 RPV steel, which had been used in the European project which generated the famous EURO fracture toughness data set.

  4. The role of the sliding direction against a grooved channel texture on tool steel: An experimental study on tactile friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Rodriguez Urribarri, A.; Morales Hurtado, M.; Zeng, X.; Heide, E. van der

    2015-01-01

    To control tactile friction, that is the friction between fingertip and counter-body, the role of surface texture is required to be unveiled and defined. In this research, an experimental approach is used based on measuring tactile friction for directional texture (grooved channel) with varying

  5. In-situ inspection of grooves in reactor tube sheet using a remotely operated cast impression taking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Utmost importance is given to the in-service inspection of critical components of a reactor to ensure its reliable performance during the reactor operation. This paper describes a cast taking device using cold setting resin to take impression of the grooves being made in the tube sheet for sparger tube installation in pressurised heavy water reactor. (author)

  6. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts. [o ring seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirusso, E.

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter rotating shafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 to 327 C (203 to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines.

  7. Design analysis of a self-acting spiral-groove ring seal for counter-rotating shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirusso, E.

    1983-01-01

    A self-acting spiral groove inter-shaft ring seal of nominal 16.33 cm (6.43 in.) diameter for sealing fan bleed air between counter-rotating hafts in advanced turbofan engines was analyzed. The analysis focused on the lift force characteristics of the spiral grooves. A NASA Lewis developed computer program for predicting the performance of gas lubricated face seals was used to optimize the spiral groove geometry to produce maximum lift force. Load capacity curves (lift force as function of film thickness) were generated for four advanced turbofan engine operating conditions at relative seal speeds ranging from 17,850 to 29,800 rpm, sealed air pressures from 6 to 42 N/sq cm (9 to 60 psi) absolute and temperatures from 95 deg to 327 C (203 deg to 620 F). The relative seal sliding speed range was 152 to 255 m/sec (500 to 836 ft/sec). The analysis showed that the spiral grooves are capable of producing sufficient lift force such that the ring seal will operate in a noncontacting mode over the operating range of typical advanced turbofan engines.

  8. Sequence-specific high mobility group box factors recognize 10-12-base pair minor groove motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beest, M; Dooijes, D; van De Wetering, M

    2000-01-01

    Sequence-specific high mobility group (HMG) box factors bind and bend DNA via interactions in the minor groove. Three-dimensional NMR analyses have provided the structural basis for this interaction. The cognate HMG domain DNA motif is generally believed to span 6-8 bases. However, alignment...

  9. Endodontic and periodontal management of a severely affected maxillary lateral incisor having combined mucosal fenestration and palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal fenestrations, wherein the tooth root apices are clinically discernible in the oral cavity subsequent to loss of overlying alveolar bone and mucosa, are rare pathologic entities. Palato gingival grooves- anatomic aberrations are also infrequent occurrences that notoriously predispose to periodontal pathologies of varying extent. Both conditions independently are known to popularly affect maxillary lateral incisors. Coexistent fenestration defect and palato gingival groove in the same tooth is extremely rare and undoubtedly is a perfect combination to precipitate severe endodontic-periodontal consequences. In this report, a 34-year-old patient presented to the dental department with complaint of esthetics in relation to exposed root of right maxillary lateral incisor. On closer inspection, a palato gingival groove in addition to fenestration defect was evident on the root surface along with a periodontal pocket of >5 mm. An interdisciplinary treatment was instituted which included endodontic treatment followed by root end resection, osseous bone graft placement and guided tissue regeneration procedures for repair of mucosal fenestration defect. Debridement of the palatal pocket, with saucerization of the groove and restoration with glass ionomer cement were simultaneously employed to correct the palatal defect.

  10. Nail findings in patients with psoriatic arthritis: A cross-sectional study with special reference to transverse grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenke, Yukari; Ohara, Yuri; Kobayashi, Daiki; Arai, Satoru; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Okada, Masato; Eto, Hikaru

    2017-11-01

    Patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) commonly present with nail manifestations; however, little is known about these manifestations. This study investigated whether nail findings can be used to discriminate between PsA and psoriasis without arthritis. We performed a retrospective analysis of 118 patients with PsA and 974 patients with psoriasis without arthritis who visited St. Luke's International Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between July 2003 and February 2015. Patients with PsA were classified according to the Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis criteria. Skin lesion severity was assessed by using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, and 9 types of nail findings were investigated. The incidence of nail involvement in patients with PsA was 67.6%. Female sex, presence of transverse grooves, onycholysis, and splinter hemorrhages were significantly related to PsA, with transverse grooves demonstrating the strongest association (odds ratio, 5.01; 95% confidence interval, 2.31-10.8; P transverse grooves was strongly related to both distal interphalangeal arthritis and enthesitis. The PsA population was relatively small. Nail findings enabled us to distinguish patients with PsA from those without arthritis. The presence of transverse grooves is significantly associated with PsA and may be associated with distal interphalangeal arthritis and enthesitis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo Mission: copper/water axially-grooved heat pipe topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the major accomplishments for the development, fabrication, and testing of axially-grooved copper/water heat pipes for Selenide Isotopic Generator (SIG) applications. The early development consisted of chemical, physical, and analytical studies to define an axially-grooved tube geometry that could be successfully fabricated and provide the desired long term (up to seven years) performance is presented. Heat pipe fabrication procedures, measured performance and accelerated life testing of heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 conducted at B and K Engineering are discussed. S/N AL-5 was the first axially-grooved copper/water heat pipe that was fabricated with the new internal coating process for cupric oxide (CuO) and the cleaning and water preparation methods developed by Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Heat pipe S/N LT-57 was fabricated along with sixty other axially-grooved heat pipes allocated for life testing at Teledyne Energy Systems. As of June 25, 1979, heat pipes S/Ns AL-5 and LT-57 have been accelerated life tested for 13,310 and 6,292 respectively, at a nominal operating temperature of 225 0 C without any signs of thermal performance degradation

  12. Structural and mechanical behaviour of severe plastically deformed high purity aluminium sheets processed by constrained groove pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar, S.S.; Raghu, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High purity aluminium sheets constrained groove pressed up to plastic strain of 5.8. • Microstructural evolution studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction profile analysis. • Ultrafine grained structure with grain size ∼900 nm achieved in sheets. • Yield strength increased by 5.3 times and tensile strength doubled after first pass. • Enhanced deformation homogeneity seen with increased accumulated plastic strain. - Abstract: High purity aluminium sheets (∼99.9%) are subjected to intense plastic straining by constrained groove pressing method successfully up to 5 passes thereby imparting an effective plastic strain of 5.8. Transmission electron microscopy studies of constrained groove pressed sheets divulged significant grain refinement and the average grain sizes obtained after five pass is estimated to be ∼0.9 μm. In addition to that, microstructural evolution of constrained groove pressed sheets is characterized by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis employing Williamson–Hall method and the results obtained fairly concur with electron microscopy findings. The tensile behaviour evolution with increased straining indicates substantial improvement of yield strength by ∼5.3 times from 17 MPa to 90 MPa during first pass corroborated to grain refinement observed. Marginal increase in strengths is noticed during second pass followed by minor drop in strengths attributed to predominance of dislocation recovery is noticed in subsequent passes. Quantitative assessment of degree of deformation homogeneity using microhardness profiles reveal relatively better strain homogeneity at higher number of passes

  13. Performance Study of Photovoltaic-Thermal (Pv/T) Solar Collector with ·-Grooved Absorber Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jin, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar collector has been designed, built and its performance has been studied. The advantage of the collector is that it can generate electricity and heat simultaneously. Photovoltaic module SHARP NE-80E2EA with maximum output power of 80 W was used to generate electricity. The module also acts as heat absorber of the collector. Single pass ·-groove collector made of aluminium sheet with 0.7 mm thickness has been used to collect heat generated. Study was conducted under a designed halogen lamps solar simulator with intensities set at 386 ± 8 Wm -2 and 817 ± 8 Wm -2 . The speed of air passing through the collector was set between (69.6 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s to (695.8 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s. The objective of the study is to compare the performance of PV/T collector with and without ·-groove absorber. The study found that the PV/T collector with ·-groove absorber plate has higher efficiency than the PV/T without ·-groove absorber. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are also increased when radiation intensity and speed of air increase. (author)

  14. Simultaneous minimization of leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect for segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianrong; Que, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to simultaneously minimize the leaf travel distance and the tongue-and-groove effect for IMRT leaf sequences to be delivered in segmental mode. The basic idea is to add a large enough number of openings through cutting or splitting existing openings for those leaf pairs with openings fewer than the number of segments so that all leaf pairs have the same number of openings. The cutting positions are optimally determined with a simulated annealing technique called adaptive simulated annealing. The optimization goal is set to minimize the weighted summation of the leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect. Its performance was evaluated with 19 beams from three clinical cases; one brain, one head-and-neck and one prostate case. The results show that it can reduce the leaf travel distance and (or) tongue-and-groove effect; the reduction of the leaf travel distance reaches its maximum of about 50% when minimized alone; the reduction of the tongue-and-groove reaches its maximum of about 70% when minimized alone. The maximum reduction in the leaf travel distance translates to a 1 to 2 min reduction in treatment delivery time per fraction, depending on leaf speed. If the method is implemented clinically, it could result in significant savings in treatment delivery time, and also result in significant reduction in the wear-and-tear of MLC mechanics

  15. Influence of groove size and reinforcements addition on mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Baridula, Ravinder; Ibrahim, Abdullah Bin; Yahya, Che Ku Mohammad Faizal Bin Che Ku; Kulkarni, Ratnakar; Varma Ramaraju, Ramgopal

    2018-03-01

    The butt joints fabricated by friction stir welding were found to have more strength than the joints obtained by conventional joining process. The important outcome of this process is the successful fabrication of surface composites with improved properties. Thus in order to further enhance the strength of the dissimilar alloy joints the reinforcements can be deposited in to the aluminium matrix during the process of friction stir welding. In the present study the multi-walled carbon nanotubes were embedded in to the groove by varying the width during joining of dissimilar alloys AA2024 and AA7075. Four widths were selected with constant depth and optimum process parameters were selected to fabricate the sound welded joints. The results show that the mechanical properties of the fabricated butt joints were influenced by the size of the groove, due to variation in the deposition of reinforcement in the stir zone. The microstructural study and identification of the elements of the welded joints show that the reinforcements deposition is influenced by the size of the groove. It has also been observed that the groove with minimum width is more effective than higher width. The mechanical properties are found to be improved due to the pinning of grain boundaries.

  16. A clinical study on the efficacy of hydroxyapatite - Bioactive glass composite granules in the management of periodontal bony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Debnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In periodontal regeneration, several alloplastic materials are being used with a goal to reconstruct new osseous tissue in the infrabony defect sites. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyapatite-bioactive glass (HA:BG composite granules in the management of periodontal bony defects. Materials and Methods: A randomized control study was conducted. Subjects with infrabony defects were divided into three groups. Test Group 1 (n = 10: Defect site was treated with HA:BG, with a biodegradable membrane. Test Group 2 (n = 10: Defect site was treated with HAP, with a biodegradable membrane. Control group (n = 10: Defect site was treated with open flap debridement with a biodegradable membrane Results: The healing of defects was uneventful and free of any biological complications. The gain in clinical attachment level, reduction of probing pocket depth, and defect fill were statistically significant in all three groups. TG1 sites showed significant defect fill than TG2 and CG sites. Conclusion: The performance of HA:BG was better compared to HAP and open flap debridement for the reconstruction of infrabony defects.

  17. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P; Xie, J; Cheng, J; Wu, K K

    2014-01-01

    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25–80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface. (paper)

  18. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Xie, J.; Cheng, J.; Wu, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25-80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface.

  19. Cephalomteric changes in airway dimensions with twin block therapy in growing Class II patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Santhana Krishnan; Thomas, Ashwin Varghese; Nethravathy, Ramya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Myofunctional appliances are commonly used for correction of skeletal Class II malrelationship. These appliances influence craniofacial and nasopharyngeal dimensions. Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate changes in airway with twin block therapy. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric assessment of airway was done in 25 growing children in the age group of 11-13 years with Class II skeletal pattern. All the patients were treated with twin block appliance. Pre and post treatment lateral cephalograms were taken to evaluate the changes in different airway and craniofacial dimensions during the treatment period. The average treatment duration was 14.5 months. Results: Airway: A significant increase was observed in upper and lower pharyngeal width and area of bony nasopharynx. Craniofacial dimension: There was a significant increase in effective mandibular length, ramal length and mandibular plane angle. There was an increase in SNB angle, which resulted in decreased ANB angle. Conclusion: There was a definite improvement in airway dimension following twin block therapy PMID:23946570

  20. FONT DISCRIMINATIO USING FRACTAL DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mozaffari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the related problems of OCR systems is discrimination of fonts in machine printed document images. This task improves performance of general OCR systems. Proposed methods in this paper are based on various fractal dimensions for font discrimination. First, some predefined fractal dimensions were combined with directional methods to enhance font differentiation. Then, a novel fractal dimension was introduced in this paper for the first time. Our feature extraction methods which consider font recognition as texture identification are independent of document content. Experimental results on different pages written by several font types show that fractal geometry can overcome the complexities of font recognition problem.