WorldWideScience

Sample records for bont-a activity analysis

  1. Effectiveness of BoNT A in Parkinson's disease upper limb tremor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Fariborz; Bee, Carina; Debicki, Derek; Roberts, Angela C; Bapat, Priya; Jog, Mandar

    2013-09-01

    One the greatest challenges of BoNT A therapy for tremor lies in the complexity and variation of components involved in tremor movement, and the lack of objective measures to determine these components. This 3 month open-label single injection study aims to couple clinician best judgment with kinematics to improve effect of BoNT A (incobotulinumtoxinA) injection in 7 patients with upper limb Parkinson's disease (PD) tremor. Injection was guided with clinical and kinematic assessment of tremor using angular wrist position in 3 degrees of freedom: flexion/extension, pronation/supination, and radial/ulnar deviation. Overall tremor severity and change were measured by linear finger acceleration. Kinematic data from static and functional tasks demonstrate no improvement at one month post-injection, but significant improvement at two and three months. Clinical scales across UPDRS Items 20 (1, 2, 3 months post) and 21 (2 months), and spiral drawings (3 months) showed significant improvement from baseline, while line drawings did not. This study suggests injection of BoNT A as a viable focal management option for upper limb PD tremor. In addition to clinical judgment, objective quantification of tremor dynamics by kinematics may be a feasible assessment and guidance tool which can be used to optimize injection conditions for focal tremor therapy. Kinematic analysis of tremor across a variety of joints in all degrees of movement may provide important insight into tremor dynamics, allowing optimized, targeted focal therapy.

  2. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  3. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeck, J. OP de

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that activation analysis is especially suited to serve as a basis for determining the chemical similarity between samples defined by their trace-element concentration patterns. The general problem of classification and identification is discussed. The nature of possible classification structures and their appropriate clustering strategies is considered. A practical computer method is suggested and its application as well as the graphical representation of classification results are given. The possibility for classification using information theory is mentioned. Classification of chemical elements is discussed and practically realized after Hadamard transformation of the concentration variation patterns in a series of samples. (Sz.N.Z.)

  4. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  5. Charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisach, M.

    1977-01-01

    The techniques of prompt and delayed activation analysis are outlined. Methods using cyclotron beams are suitable for delayed A.A., but prompt methods with relatively low energy beams serve a useful purpose for analysis of thin layers and surfaces. Multi-element analyses with prompt X-rays, generally applicable analysis by backscattering and specific analyses by nuclaer reactions are described [af

  6. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  7. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  8. Photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, C.; Weise, H.P.; Lutz, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book is written to give, in a concentrated form, an overview of the application of photonuclear reactions to activation analysis. Is is intended to accompany the analyst's work in the photon activation analysis laboratory as a practical usable reference. Emphasis is placed upon analytical qualitative and quantitative data which are based upon experimentally obtained results. Therefore, both a source of general information on photon activation analysis and a laboratory manual are combined in this book. The results of the authors' laboratory work and a large amount of literature data are evaluated and presented as completely as possible by the authors. Special knowledge of photonuclear physics is not required; only a very elementary theoretical introduction is given. More detailed information on the physical and mathematical theory should be sought in the special literature which is cited in the relevant chapters. (orig./RB)

  9. Activation analysis in numismatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrandon, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that two nuclear methods permit a non-destructive determination of major, minor and trace elements in three important ''archaeological'' metals: gold, silver, copper and alloys. The first one neutron activation analysis with a 252 Cf neutron source, enables a fast and accurate determination of three important elements of the coin's composition, viz. gold, silver and copper. With the second one, proton activation analysis, trace elements at ppm level in gold, silver and copper metals can be determined. Using these two techniques of activation analysis two important numismatic problems can be studied: the evolution of the fineness; characterization or differentiation by the trace elements of the metal used to mint the coin. Examples of each numismatic problem are also given. (author)

  10. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  11. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taure, I.; Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Latvia began to develop after 1961 when nuclear reactor in Salaspils started to work. It provided a powerful neuron source, which is necessary for this analytical method. In 1963 at Institute of Physics of the Latvian Academy of Sciences the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis was formed. At the first stage of development the main tasks were of theoretical and technical aspects of NAA. Later the NAA was used to solve problems in technology, biology, and medicine. In the beginning of the 80-ties more attention was focussed to the use of NAA in the environmental research. Environmental problems stayed the main task till the closing the nuclear reactor in Salaspils in 1998 that ceased the main the existence of the laboratory and of NAA, this significant and powerful analytical method in Latvia and Baltic in general. (authors)

  12. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  13. Reactor-neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Obrusnik, I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal operations are briefly described for both types of neutron activation analysis, i.e., instrumental and radiochemical, namely sampling and sample preparation, irradiation, measurement, and activity evaluation. Flow charts are shown of both types of neutron activation analysis from the point of view of instrumentation and laboratory equipment requirements. Their benefits and constraints are discussed. A few examples are given illustrating the wide scope of the neutron activation analysis applications in the national economy. (O.K.)

  14. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  15. Application of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    The physical basis and analytical possibilities of neutron activation analysis have been performed. The number of applications in material engineering, geology, cosmology, oncology, criminology, biology, agriculture, environment protection, archaeology, history of art and especially in chemical analysis have been presented. The place of the method among other methods of inorganic quantitative chemical analysis for trace elements determination has been discussed

  16. Activation analysis in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The collected papers are based on the materials of the III All-Union Activation Analysis Meeting. The papers selected deal with the theoretical questions of the activation analysis, its hardware, latest developments in the field of automatic analysis and computer methods employment in the treatment of analytical information. Described are the new techniques for determination of a large number of elements in samples of biological and geological origin. Some results of the use of the activation analysis in various fields of science and technology are provided. The volume reflects the present status of activation analysis techniques in the USSR and might be of interest both for specialists, and for those involved in obtaining and using information on the composition of substances. (auth.)

  17. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-01-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  18. Neutron activation analysis in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolescu, St.

    1985-01-01

    The following basic nuclear facilities are used for neutron activation analysis: a 2000 KW VVR-S Nuclear Reactor, a U-200 Cyclotron, a 30 MeV Betatron, several 14 MeV neutron generators and a king size High Voltage tandem Van de'Graaff accelerator. The main domains of application of the thermal neutron activation analysis are: geology and mining, processing of materials, environment and biology, achaeology. Epithermal neutron activation analysis has been used for determination of uranium and thorium in ores with high Th/U ratios or high rare earth contents. One low energy accelerator, used as 14.1 Mev neutron source, is provided with special equipmen for oxigen and low mass elements determination. An useful alternating way to support fast neutron activation analysis is an accurate theoretical description of the fast neutron induced reactions based on the statistical model (Hauser-Feubach STAPRE code) and the preequilibrium decay geometry dependent model. A gravitational sample changer has been installed at the end of a beam line of the Cyclotron, which enables to perform charged particles activation analysis for protein determination in grains

  19. Gamma activation analysis with microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiderkiewicz, A.; Kierzek, J.; Parus, J.; Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Wolski, W.; Zoltowski, T.

    1989-01-01

    The physical principles of gamma activation analysis, its capabilities as well as its application to analyse polymetallic ores with use of mean power microtron are presented. Limits of detection and determination for above twenty elements occurring in those ores with use of short- and longlived radioisotopes are specified. The work contains conception of construction of race-track microtron with electrons energy adjusted in 10-30 MeV range and with current not less than 20 μA. Besides the development of microtrons, the reason for choosing the race-track construction for gamma activation analysis is given. 69 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman

    2004-01-01

    The paper discussed the utilization of neutron activation analysis in this field. NAA, an analytical technique which analyzing the elements in the sample without any chemical treatment. It is sensitive and accurate. Archaeological objects i.e. ceramics, historical building materials, metals, etc can be analyze with this technique. The analysis results were presented in form of characterization of the artefacts in chemical profiles, which can present the information of the origin of the artefacts as well as it originality. (Author)

  1. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikert, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (1 9 via 16 O( 3 He,p) 18 F, 12 C( 3 He,α) 11 C and 14 N(p,α) 11 C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3 He activation for the determination of oxygen [ 16 O( 3 H,n) 18 F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms 1 H( 7 Li,n) 7 Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (26 9 ) and accuracy using proton activation. 204 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  2. An automated activation analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Denton, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey will be described. (author)

  3. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Denton, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  4. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.; Denton, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day

  5. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  6. Application of nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamonov, E.I.; Khlystova, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the applications of nuclear-activation analysis (NAA) as discussed at the International Conference of 1977. One of the new results in the present-day NAA practices is the growing number of elements detected in samples without using a destructive radiochemical separation. An essential feature in this context is the development of the system automation of control and information NAA operations through the use computers. In biological medicine a multicomponent NAA is employed to determine the concentration of elements in various human organs and objects, in metabolic studies and for diagnostic purposes. In agriculture NAA finds applications in the evaluation of grain protein, analysis of element feed composition, soil and fertilizers. The application of this method to the environmental monitoring is considered with particular reference to the element analysis of water (especially drinking water), air, plant residues. Data are presented for the use of NAA in metallurgy, geology, archaeology and criminal law. Tables are provided to illustrate the uses of NAA in various fields

  7. Neutron activation analysis of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, Baafuo

    2002-06-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied in the multi-element analysis of five soils from three agro-ecological zones in Ghana, using the Single Relative Standardization Method. The analysis was carried out at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) Centre. Concentrations of 34 elements in deciduous forest, forest and Coastal Savanna soils were obtained. Elemental compositions and their levels in the five soils; Oda ,Bekwai, Toje, Akuse and Ankasa series are related to the nature of parent materials and the degree to which these materials have been altered by weathering. The low isotopic abundance, low thermal and epithermal cross-section together with the low sensitivity of 0.07 counts/µg for the 30 Si nuclide with energy 1266KeV made detection of silicon in the five soils impossible. Validation of the analytical technique which was done using a Standard Reference Material SOIL-7 supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency showed a maximum deviation of 23.9%. (au)

  8. Activation analysis in gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear techniques and methods were, are, and will be very important for many fields of science, agriculture, industry, etc. Among other examples one can remember role of the nuclear medicine (radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic methods) or semiconductors (communication, computing, information, etc.) which industrial production has been on initial stage based on activation analysis. One of very illustrative examples is application of nuclear methods in gold industry. This is given by favorable nuclear properties of gold. Uzbekistan is one of the main producers of gold. Open-cast mining and hydro metallurgic extraction (using leaching by cyanide and sorption by ion-exchange resin) is the mostly used technology. The typical gold ores are sulfide and contain elevated concentration of As and Sb. That needs special technology of gold extraction. Importance of gold for Uzbekistan economy is a reason why for many years there are carried out studies concerning to gold production. These studies include also nuclear methods and their results are successfully used in gold industry. The present paper gives a brief overview for period of 25 years. For many reasons most of these studies were not published before completely. Despite some results are obtained decades ago we decided to present the overview as an example how nuclear methods can cover requirements of the whole process. We are trying to sort these studies according to methods and applications

  9. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frana, J.; Obrusnik, I.

    1992-05-01

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  11. Proceedings of national seminar neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Muhayatun Santoso; Budi Haryanto; Khatarina Oginawati

    2010-11-01

    Proceedings of national seminar neutron activation analysis in 2010 with the theme of the Role of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Field of Environment, Health and Industry. The seminar was organized by Indonesians Neutron Activation Analysis and BATAN Forum. These proceedings contain the result of environmental research in BATAN, universities and institutions associated with the application on neutron activation analysis technique. The purpose of these proceedings was as a useful source of information to spur research and development of activation analysis applications in various fields for the Indonesian welfare. There are 40 articles. (PPIKSN).

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0-standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation concentrates on the improvement of the standardisation method and the characterisation of the neutron field as well as on the improvement of the statistical control on neutron activation analysis. Main achievements in 2000 are reported

  13. Quality assurance techniques for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and techniques of quality assurance are applied to the measurement method of activation analysis. Quality assurance is defined to include quality control and quality assessment. Plans for quality assurance include consideration of: personnel; facilities; analytical design; sampling and sample preparation; the measurement process; standards; and documentation. Activation analysis concerns include: irradiation; chemical separation; counting/detection; data collection, and analysis; and calibration. Types of standards discussed include calibration materials and quality assessment materials

  14. Conference on instrumental activation analysis - IAA 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especialy on neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods. (J.P.)

  15. Phospholipase A2(PLA2) Regulates Neuroexocytosis to Counteract Botulinum Toxin A (BONT/A) Poisoning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xieping; Ishida, Hiroshi; Ray, Prabhati

    2003-01-01

    ...) release is associated with acetylcholine (ACh) release and BoNT/A inhibits both. We report the effect of PLA2 over expression on inhibition of ACh exocytosis due to BoNT/A light chain (LC) in PC12 cells...

  16. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Combretum molle and Pericopsis laxiflora. Kossi-Kuma Agbalevon Koevi, Vinsoun Millogo, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou, Abdou Sarr, Georges Anicet Ouedraogo, Emmanuel Bassene ...

  17. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The conference heard 23 papers dealing with the application of activation analysis in environmental control, the preparation of calibration standards, gamma spectroscopy, data processing and with the control of the purity of radiopharmaceuticals. (J.P.)

  18. Photon activation analysis on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Heller, W.; Kupsch, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to the planned construction of a new microtron, first investigations on raw materials for the aerated concrete production have been done to clear up the possibilities of photon activation analysis (PAA). Irradiations have been partly carried out on linear accelerators with a self-developed moveable activation equipment. PAA results of qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis are described. The detection of chlorine is important for studying the oversalting processes in buildings. (author)

  19. Forensic neutron activation analysis - the Japanese scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Tohru.

    1986-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis/FNAA/ in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences /e.g.,paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks/ and drug sample differenciation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis-comparative (NAAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A software system for the reduction of comparative neutron activation analysis data is presented. Libraries are constructed to contain the elemental composition and isotopic nuclear data of an unlimited number of standards. Ratios to unknown sample data are performed by standard calibrations. Interfering peak corrections, second-order activation-product corrections, and deconvolution of multiplets are applied automatically. Passive gamma-energy analysis can be performed with the same software. 3 figures

  1. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  2. Building an applied activation analysis centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, J.; Kasparec, I.; Masek, J.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements are defined and all available background material is reported and discussed for the building up of a centre of applied activation analysis in Czechoslovakia. A detailed analysis of potential users and the centre's envisaged availability is also presented as part of the submitted study. A brief economic analysis is annexed. The study covers the situation up to the end of 1972. (J.K.)

  3. Application of activated carbon to radiochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Sadao; Watari, Kazuo; Kaneko, Katsumi.

    1990-01-01

    With increasing understanding of physiochemical properties of activated carbons, the use of activated carbons has recently received much attention in the field of radiochemical analysis. In this paper, adsorption phenomena especially for inorganic ions are reviewed. Kinds of activated carbons are briefly given. Surface properties of activated carbons and ionic adsorption properties are referred to according to the physical or chemical properties. Adsorption is discussed in terms of the following ions: (1) inorganic ions and inorganic compounds; (2) metal complex ions; and (3) complexes including organic ligand. (N.K.) 95 refs

  4. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  5. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  6. Radioactivity analysis in niobium activation foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    The motivation for this study was to measure and analyze the activity of six (6) niobium (Nb) foils (the x-rays from an internal transition in Nb-93m) and apply this information with previously obtained activation foil data. The niobium data was used to determine the epithermal to MeV range for the neutron spectrum and fluence. The foil activation data was re-evaluated in a spectrum analysis code (STAY`SL) to provide new estimates of the exposure at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF). The activity of the niobium foils was measured and analyzed at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) under the direction of Professor William Miller. The spectrum analysis was performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) by Professor Gary Mueller.

  7. Activation analysis in food analytics Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Bogancs, J.; Mihalyi, E.

    1979-01-01

    The composition of dried tomato products was examined by activation analysis. The following elements were determined: K, Na, Cl, Br, Mn, Au, Cu, Zn, Sb, As. The deviation of parallel measurements was < 2% in the case of Na, K, Cl, and < 10% in the case of Cu, Zn, Mn and Br. However, the deviation in cases of As, Sb and Au determinations exceeded 50%. The composition of a standard biological sample was also determined, and the results of activation analysis were in good agreement with literature data. (L.E.)

  8. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  9. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2000-01-01

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  10. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis of high purity metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, O.I.; Poznyak, V.L.; Stepanov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of neutron-activation analysis of high-purity bismuth, lead, mercury and cadmium with the content of certain impurity elements at the level of 10 -6 -10 -11 mass% were developed. The suggested methods of radiochemical isolation of impurities from irradiated bismuth and lead differ from previously known ones in a higher quickness and lower labour consumption. The combination of vacuum distillation of mercury and cadmium (preconcentrating of impurities) and additional radiochemical separation provides possibility to carry out neutron activation analysis of representative samples of mercury and cadmium

  12. Analysis of active piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang CUI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing piezoelectric traps are designed for a narrow frequency range of vibration, but the surrounding environment has a very wide frequency range, and the frequency may also be subject to change, causing the problem of difficult to achieve energy capture or capture inefficiency. In order to solve problem, a new T-type piezoelectric cantilever is proposed as a capture energy structure in the paper. To begin with the aspects of structural design and circuit design, the static analysis, modal analysis and resonance analysis of the structure are carried out and the natural frequency and excitation frequency of the device are analyzed. The design and calculation of the power consumption and the loss of the components of the circuit are analyzed by the simulation and verification of the active capture energy circuit, and the active and passive techniques are compared and analyzed, the simulation of the active capture circuit is verified by analyzing the power consumption of the circuit and the maximum power obtained by the active technology is 5 times of that of the passive technology. And then the voltage-controlled active boundary control method can be used for interface circuit design, taking the initiative to use each piezoelectric transduction cycle triggered by the electrical boundary conditions to effectively increase the input piezoelectric pump energy, and then increase output power. The way of utilizing the active trapping of piezoelectric materials is innovated, which has a positive effect on the development of piezoelectric traps.

  13. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  14. Development of neutron activation analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liyu

    1987-10-01

    The software for quantitative neutron activation analysis was developed to run under the MS/DOS operating system. The programmes of the IBM/SPAN include: spectra file transfer from and to a Canberra Series 35 multichannel analyzer, spectrum evaluation routines, calibration subprogrammes, and quantitative analysis. The programmes for spectrum analysis include fitting routine for separation of multiple lines by reproducing the peak shape with a combination of Gaussian and exponential terms. The programmes were tested on an IBM/AT-compatible computer. The programmes and the sources are available costfree for the IAEA projects of Technical Cooperation. 7 refs, 3 figs

  15. Special Quality Control Features of Activation Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 87, - (2002), s. 47 ISSN 0003-018X. [Transactions of the American Nuclear Society. Washington, D.C., 17.01.2002-21.01.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : quality control * activation analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  16. Computer-automated neutron activation analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. 5 references

  17. Analysis of franchising activity in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Naychuk-Khrushch, Marta; Ploska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The present situation of franchising activity in Ukraine, based on comparative analysis of statistic dates has been analyzed. The key problems of it have been synthesized. The main practical tools of identified problems in franchising sphere have been delineated as a result of the research.

  18. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, J.

    1988-06-01

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  19. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  20. Analysis through neutronic activation of soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present job they report the results obtained of the analysis by neutronic activation of 30 chemical elements, in 35 representative samples of soils of 17 zones of the western region of Cuba , affected by an epidemic of epidemic neuropathy. (author) [es

  1. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k 0 -standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  2. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  3. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  4. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  6. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Ki Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Jee, Kwang Yong; Jung, Woo Sik; Sohn, Se Chul; Yeo, In Heong; Han, Sun Ho

    1988-12-01

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  7. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marcel Neves

    Full Text Available In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and recurrence plots (RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.

  8. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research are: (1) to develop and implement the k0 standardisation method for neutron activation analysis in close collaboration with scientific partners; (2) to exploit fully the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers; (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements in 1997 related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  9. An investigation of automated activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuykendall, William E. Jr.; Wainerdi, Richard E.

    1962-01-01

    A study has been made of the possibility of applying computer techniques to the resolution of data from the complex gamma-ray spectra obtained in non-destructive activation analysis. The primary objective has been to use computer data-handling techniques to allow the existing analytical method to be used for rapid, routine, sensitive and economical elemental analyses. The necessary conditions for the satisfactory application of automated activation analysis have been evaluated and a computer programme has been completed which will process the data from samples containing a large number of different elements. To illustrate the speed of the handling sequence, the data from a sample containing four component elements can be processed in a matter of minutes, with the speed of processing limited primarily by the speed of the output printer. (author) [fr

  10. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  11. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, S.

    1983-01-01

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  12. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  13. Research reactor operations for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tv'ehlov, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA Special Manual devoted to quality control during neutron activation analysis (NAA) on research and test reactors is discussed. Three parts of the publication involve presentation of common rules for performance of NAA, quantitative and qualitative analyses, statistic and systematic errors, safety regulations and radioactive waste management. Besides, the publication contains practical manual for the performance of NAA, and examples of different NAA regulating registration forms are presented [ru

  14. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  15. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  16. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez H, V.

    1997-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  18. Evaluation of nuclear reactor based activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Kucera, J.

    1977-09-01

    A survey is presented of the basic types of activation analysis applied in environmental control. Reactor neutron activation analysis is described (including the reactor as a neutron source, sample activation in the reactor, methodology of neutron activation analysis, sample transport into the reactor and sample packaging after irradiation, instrumental activation analysis with radiochemical separation, data measurement and evaluation, sampling and sample preparation). Sources of environmental contamination with trace elements, sampling and sample analysis by neutron activation are described. The analysis is described of soils, waters and biological materials. Methods are shown of evaluating neutron activation analysis results and of their interpretation for purposes of environmental control. (J.B.)

  19. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  20. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252 Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  1. Optimization of time characteristics in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, L.G.; Umaraliev, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The activation analysis temporal characteristics optimization methods developed at present are aimed at determination of optimal values of the three important parameters - irradiation time, cooling time and measurement time. In the performed works, especially in [1-5] the activation analysis processes are described, the optimal values of optimization parameters are obtained from equations solved, and the computational results are given for these parameters for a number of elements. However, the equations presented in [2] were inaccurate, did not allow one to have optimization parameters results for one element content calculations, and it did not take into account background dependence of time. Therefore, we proposed modified equations to determine the optimal temporal parameters and iteration processes for the solution of these equations. It is well-known that the activity of studied sample during measurements does not change significantly, i.e. measurement time is much shorter than the half-life, thus the processes taking place can be described by the Poisson probability distribution, and in general case one can apply binomial distribution. The equation and iteration processes use in this research describe both probability distributions. Expectedly, the cooling time iteration expressions obtained for one element analysis case are similar for the both distribution types, as the optimised time values occurred to be of the same order as half-life values, whereas the cooling time, as we observed, depends on the ratio of the studied sample's peak value to the background peak, and can be significantly larger than the half-life value. This pattern is general, and can be derived from the optimized time expressions, which is supported by the experimental data on short-living isotopes [3,4]. For the isotopes with large half-lives, up to years, like cobalt-60, the cooling time values given in the above mentioned works are equal to months which, apparently

  2. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  3. Optimization of instrumental activation analysis conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.; Gavrilas-Guinn, M.

    1993-01-01

    In instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work, a good commonsense rule of thumb is that the opium conditions for the measurement of any induced activity, in a multi-element sample matrix, are an irradiation time, a decay time, and a counting time each approximately equal to the half-life of the radionuclide (if feasible). The INAA Advance Computer Program (APCP) was used to test this rule on ten reference materials. For the 280 radionuclide/material combinations traced through all 14 APCP condition sets, the rule predicted the best set for 67% of them, was off by one set for 31% of them, and was only off by two sets of 2% of them. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  4. Neutron activation analysis of airborne inorganic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerdoegh, M.; Kalman, L.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the radioactive and non-radioactive pollution of the air in the environment of the atomic reactor WWR-S of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Accordingly the investigations were carried out by two ways: the samples were analysed partly without previous irradiation and partly by neutron activation analysis. The use of several filter papers was studied and the most suitable filter paper (Whatman No. 41) was chosen for this investigation. The quantitative determination of more than twenty elements has been performed. First the natural activity of the aerosol samples taken periodically was measured and subsequently they have been analysed after irradiation in the atomic reactor for 1 minute, 1 hour, and 50 hours, respectively. A 45 cm 3 Ge/Li detector/ Nuclear Diodes/ was used in connection with a 1024 channel analyzer /type NTA-512B/. The analyses were made nondestructively, and the gamma-spectra were evaluated by computer. (K.A.)

  5. Neutron activation analysis at Texas Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, J.; Hossain, T.; Gnade, B.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis provides the high sensitivity required for detection of dopants and adventitious impurities in polycrystalline silicon, pulled crystals, and processed wafers. Reactor produced isotopes such as 199 Au provide sufficient sensitivity to study gettering mechanisms at levels equivalent to those of adventitious impurities in processed silicon. Detection of neutron-induced alpha particle radiation provides a quantitative basis for determining the depth distribution of B in Si. Each method plays a synergistic role in the chemical, physical, and electrical characterization of semiconductor silicon. (author)

  6. Toxicological applications of neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Dale, I.M.; Smith, H.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal neutron-activation analysis is recognised as a useful tool for trace element studies in toxicology. This paper describes some recent applications of the technique to three elements when ingested by people in excess of normal intake Two of the elements (copper and chromium) are essential to life and one (bromine) is as yet unclassified. Three deaths were investiagted and trace element levels compared with normal levels from healthy subjects in the same geographical area who had died as a result of violence. (author)

  7. Detector systems for imaging neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewaraja, Y.K.; Fleming, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of two imaging detector systems for the new technique of Imaging Neutron Activation Analysis (Imaging NAA). The first system is based on secondary electron imaging, and the second employs a position sensitive charged particle detector for direct localization of beta particles. The secondary electron imaging system has demonstrated a position resolution of 20 μm. The position sensitive beta detector has the potential for higher efficiencies with resolution being a trade off. Results presented show the feasibility of the two imaging methods for different applications of Imaging NAA

  8. Activation analysis for food chemistry Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.; Gundorin, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The nondestructive determination of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and P content of animal tissues was reported. The IBR-30 (Dubna) reactor was used as the thermal neutron source for all the (n,ν) reactions needed for the analyses (tabulated), and as the source of fast neutrons for the (n,α) reaction of the P determination, too. Results and errors of the analyses (5-15%) were discussed comparing the reproducibility of the methods in case of different animal tissues, liver, bones, blood, etc. The nondestructive neutron activation multielemental analysis for food chemistry can be recommended in the case of a large scale monitoring program of food samples. (Sz.J.)

  9. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ground water samples from Patiala city have been analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis and for seven chemical parameters using standard techniques. It was found that alkali and alkaline earth metals have high concentrations in all samples whereas the concentrations of toxic metals are low in the majority of samples. However, chromium and cadmium concentrations are higher in ground water taken from the industrial belt of the city. This indicates that the overall level of pollution is low, but that some measures are still needed to inhibit various industries from polluting the ground water. (author)

  10. System analysis of vehicle active safety problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of the road transport safety affects the vital interests of the most of the population and is characterized by a global level of significance. The system analysis of problem of creation of competitive active vehicle safety systems is presented as an interrelated complex of tasks of multi-criterion optimization and dynamic stabilization of the state variables of a controlled object. Solving them requires generation of all possible variants of technical solutions within the software and hardware domains and synthesis of the control, which is close to optimum. For implementing the task of the system analysis the Zwicky “morphological box” method is used. Creation of comprehensive active safety systems involves solution of the problem of preventing typical collisions. For solving it, a structured set of collisions is introduced with its elements being generated also using the Zwicky “morphological box” method. The obstacle speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the controlled object and the unpredictable changes in its movement direction due to certain faults, the road surface condition and the control errors are taken as structure variables that characterize the conditions of collisions. The conditions for preventing typical collisions are presented as inequalities for physical variables that define the state vector of the object and its dynamic limits.

  11. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1985-01-01

    The main characteristics of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA),relevant for environmental research and monitoring, was reviewed and discussed-sensitivity, suitable for detection of many toxic elements, the low risks of contamination of element loss, lack of matrix effects, lack of light element interference except for 24 Na, capability for multi-element determination, comparatively low costs. A detailed description of the IRI analysis system for routine INAA is given. The system is based on the single comparator method of standartization to take full advantage of multi-element without preparation and use the trace element standards. Zinc was used as mono element standard, the element concentrations are calculated on the basis of 65 Zn and 69m Zn-activities. The irradiations were carried out in a thermal neutron flux of 1.10 13 n/cm 2 .s. The gamma spectra is converted into element concentrations using a set of dedicated software, performing the following functions: spectrum analysis and interpretation, comparison and combination of the intermediate results from different decay times, generation of the final report, bookkeeping of the results obtained. The main applications of the INAA system mentioned are: identification of sources of heavy metal air pollution using air filters or biological indicators such as mosses, lichens, toe-nails, bird feathers, molusks and waterplants; and study of the uptake and translocation of heavy element in plants. Special attention was paid to mathematical techniques for a reliable interpretation of the element concentration patterns observed in sets of lichen samples. Future developments in INAA in environmental science are briefly mentioned

  12. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  13. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K 0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  14. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Souka, S.; Sanad, W.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  15. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovsky, L.; Soliman, K.

    1999-01-01

    Food samples were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons. The average ratios of thermal to epithermal activity were determined for 80 Br, 49 Ca, 38 Cl, 60m Co, 42 K, 27 Mg, 56 Mn, 24 Na, and 86m Rb. They were equal to 2.1, 26, 24, 6.6, 19, 16, 11, 23 and 1.9, respectively. Then, 57 food samples were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis for Br and Rb. The concentrations (in ppm) of Br and Rb were in asparagus (2) 2.3, 11.5; beets (3) 0.5, 0.8; beef (3) 1.7, 3.6; cabbage (5) 0.5, 10.8; carrot (3) 0.2, 3.7; chicken (3) 0.6, 4.4; chocolate (7) 11.1, 18.7; egg (3) 0.9, 1.9; french bean (3) 0.3, 1.0; goose (2) 1.3, 9.3; lettuce (2) 0.9, 1.7; pork (1) 1.5, 4.4; potato (7) 1.0, 1.2; sausage (3) 4.8, 3.5; spinach (3) 3.6, 4.0; strawberry jam (3) 0.4, 1.4; tomato (1) 13.5, 14.6; turkey (3) 1.2, 4.9. respectively. The number of samples and analyzed is indicated in parentheses. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis: recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of major to trace elemental concentrations in diverse matrices. NAA is associated with high analytical sensitivities and low detection limits (ppm to ppb) due to utilization of high neutron flux from research reactors and high efficiency high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Elemental concentrations are determined either by conventional NAA using relative method or by single comparator method of NAA (k 0 -NAA). Since 1994, Radiochemistry Division is actively engaged in developments and applications of k 0 -based NAA and Prompt Gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods for compositional characterization of materials, in addition to conventional instrumental NAA (INAA) and chemical NAA (CNAA) methods for total as well as speciation studies. The article briefly summarizes developments of k 0 based method of NAA using an external single comparator (k 0 -NAA) and an internal monostandard (lM-NAA) and PGNAA and their applications to small as well as large size samples. The article also briefly highlights the application of INAA and chemical NAA (CNAA) for speciation studies of arsenic and iodine in environmental and food samples respectively and bioaccesibility of selenium in food samples and trace elements wheatgrass samples

  17. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  18. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  19. Quality assurance in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1984-01-01

    As a potential reference method, neutron activation analysis does not have to rely on other reference materials to ascertain the quality of analytical results. The fundamental characteristics of the method with the clear separation between irradiation, processing, and counting makes possible the estimation of uncertainties of individual results from a priori assumptions. Such estimates of the standard deviation from a series of independent sources of variation are compared with the a posteriori variability of replicate determinations in order to ascertain that the analytical method is in a state of statistical control. This Analysis of Precision tests the absence of unknown errors by means of a statistic T, which is closely approximated by a chi-square distribution. In this manner an evaluation is made of a commercially available computer program for peak evaluation in γ-spectrometry, as well as of other factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the counting process. An attempt is also made to determine sampling constants of one gram or less in a candidate biological reference material

  20. Neutron activation analysis of limestone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.; Van Zelst, L.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental composition of samples from limestone objects were determined by neutron activation analysis to investigate whether this technique can be used to distinguish between objects made of limestone from different sources. Samples weighing between 0.2-2 grams were obtained by drilling from a series of ancient Egyptian and medieval Spanish objects. Analysis was performed on aliquots varying in weight from 40-100 milligrams. The following elements were determined quantitatively: Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf, Th, Ta, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Zn. The data on Egyptian limestones indicate that, because of the inhomogeneous nature of the stone, 0.2-2 gram samples may not be representative of an entire object. Nevertheless, multivariate statistical methods produced a clear distinction between objects originating from the Luxor area (ancient Thebes) and objects found north of Luxor. The Spanish limestone studied appeared to be more homogeneous. Samples from stylistically related objects have similar elemental compositions while relative large differences were observed between objects having no relationship other than the common provenance of medieval Spain. (orig.) [de

  1. Analysis of Brazilian snake venoms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Rogero, J.R.; Cruz, M.C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of Brazilian snake venoms from the species: Bothrops jararacussu, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararaca. Concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn have been determined in lyophilized venoms by using short and long irradiations in the IEA-RI nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 to 10 13 n · cm -2 · s -1 . The reference materials NIST Bovine Liver 1577 and IUPAC Bowen's Kale were also analyzed simultaneously with the venoms to evaluate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The concentrations of the elements found in snake venoms from different species were compared. The Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms presented high concentration of Se but low concentrations of Zn when these results are compared with those obtained from genera Bothrops venoms. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  2. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  3. [Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: activity based costing (ABC analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Kastratović, Dragana A; Vučović, Dragan S; Milaković, Branko D; Miličić, Biljana R

    2011-01-01

    Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC) analysis. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment.) of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, "each cost object (service or unit)" of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  4. Activation analysis in Europe: present and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.; Hoste, J.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the present-day European contribution to activation analysis, covering neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Attention is paid to the available irradiation facilities, in particular nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and Van de Graaff accelerators, and linear electron accelerators. Mention is made of progress in fundamental fields, but the attention is especially focussed on practical applications: environmental, geochemical/cosmochemical, biological/medical, and high-purity materials. Eventually, the role of activation analysis in research projects of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and in the Reference Materials program of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is emphasized

  5. A study on neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.B.; Hong, K.B.; Lee, K.Y.

    1983-01-01

    In determining the contents of impurity elements in reactor materials using neutron activation analysis, methods for preconcentration and radiochemical separation have been studied. Before applying neutron irradiation boron impurity has been preconcentrated by a cation exchange separation method. After neutron irradiation the radiochemical separation method for the determination of 27 elements is based on a group separation using ion-exchange resin and mineral exchanger. The method has employed minerals acid or organic mixture of the acid, excluding hydrofluoric acid, as the media and common glass wares as the apparatus. This separation method was applied to the reactor materials such as copper alloy and zirconium alloy. The single comparator method was used for determining the content of each element separated radiochemically and the analytical results gave the statistical and systematic errors of less than 10% and 6.1% respectively. A prompt gamma-ray measurement method has been used for determining the content of the preconcentrated boron and the analytical results gave the statistical and systematic errors of 5.4% and 3.3 %, respectively. (Author)

  6. Pottery from Petra. A neutron activation analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnr, K.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a PHd thesis on the pottery excavated in Petra between 1958 and 1964, using neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis is a very sensitive method for detecting trace elements in various materials, and it thus can differentiate between clay sources in the pottery. One of the aims of the excavations was to establish the local, Nabataean, pottery types. The thesis contains chapters on: historical background, samples of Petra excavations, neutron activation analysis, and the data analysis.

  7. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    camphor and phenolic compounds. There is no significant difference between the radical scavenging activities of the two essential oils. Keywords: S. verticillata, S. suffruticosa, essential oil, antioxidant activity, GC-MS, HPLC activity. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index ...

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the elemental analysis of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrbish, Y.S.; Abugassa, I.O.; Benfaid, N.; Bashir, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cement is widely used as a construction material in Libya. Production plants introduce certain contaminants to the environment. The dust from such plants is carried away to neighbouring areas. This dust contains a substantial amount of contaminants depending on the origin of clays used in the production. In this study, a survey of elemental concentration of clay and cement was carried out to assess the environmental impact of such plants, especially those that are situated near residential and agricultural areas. Cement and clay samples, imported and locally produced, were analyzed. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was utilized to determine the elemental concentration of As, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Elevated concentrations of U and Th were found in a number of cement samples. The two nuclides are part of an elaborate decay scheme producing a range of radioactive elements, which emit alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation. With 40 K, they could give elevated levels of background radiation in buildings resulting in higher exposure doses. This could pose a health hazard and a detrimental effect on the well being of residents, especially in poor ventillated buildings. Also, cement is the main component for constructing underground reservoirs for collecting rainwater for drinking in private residences, so some harmful elements could leach into water. This is the first comprehensive survey of commercial cement brands and clays used in Libya. These results are intended to build a database for trace element concentrations using INAA. (author)

  9. An active matter analysis of intracellular Active Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Kejia; Bae, Sung Chul; Granick, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Tens of thousands of fluorescence-based trajectories at nm resolution have been analyzed, regarding active transport along microtubules in living cells. The following picture emerges. Directed motion to pre-determined locations is certainly an attractive idea, but cannot be pre-programmed as to do so would sacrifice adaptability. The polarity of microtubules is inadequate to identify these directions in cells, and no other mechanism is currently known. We conclude that molecular motors carry cargo through disordered intracellular microtubule networks in a statistical way, with loud cellular ``noise'' both in directionality and speed. Programmed random walks describe how local 1D active transport traverses crowded cellular space efficiently, rapidly, minimizing the energy waste that would result from redundant activity. The mechanism of statistical regulation is not yet understood, however.

  10. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  11. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  12. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  13. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  14. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract presented significant activity against clinical fungal isolates, Microsporum gypseum and Trychophyton mentagrophytes. The hexane and ethyl acetate extract of Cucumis aculeatus leaves were active against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, whereas the dichloromethane extract of Erythrina excelsa had ...

  15. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  16. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  17. Activation analysis of coal with the help of a microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodnom, N.; Gehrbish, Sh.

    1989-01-01

    Activation analysis techniques using microtron bremsstrahlung and photoneutrons have been developed for the multielemental analysis of coal. Analysis data for coals from 17 mines of Mongolia are presented. The chlorine content of coal and the distribution of elements in coal burning products are determined. Control experiments were performed at the reactors IBR-2 and ARGUS. The results of the gamma activation analysis are compared with neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses data. It is shown that the microtron irradiation techniques employed provide a satisfactory multielemental basis for the analysis of coal. (author)

  18. Analysis of ESCO Activities Using Country Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Okay, Nesrin; Akman, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are private sector instruments that offer energy-/emission-improvement (energy saving, energy efficiency, energy conservation, emission reduction) projects in the developed and in some developing countries. Literature reveals that energy-/emission-improvements of countries may be related to their innovation- and R&D-activity levels. In this work, we use a literature data on the activities and the sectors targeted by ESCOs in 38 countries, summarized in terms o...

  19. [Analysis of activated cells in apical granuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, I; Radics, T; Szakáll, S; Kiss, C

    1999-12-01

    The ratio and in situ distribution of CD3+ T-lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, CD14+ macrophages, CD56+ natural killer cells and CD25+ activated T-lymphocytes and CD68+ activated macrophages were determined in 20 chronic peripical granulomas by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies. CD3+ T-lymphocytes made up about 50% of the mononuclear cells. CD14+ macrophages were distributed all over the area but their proportion was much less that that of the T-lymphocytes. CD56+ natural killer cells made up a small proportion of the cells. The major proportion of the T-lymphocytes and macrophages were in activated stage within the lesion.

  20. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  1. International conference activation analysis and its applications (ICAAA): abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    International conference on the Activation Analysis and its Applications was hold in Beijing of China on October 15-19, 1990. It was organized and co-sponsored by Division of Activation Analysis and Radioanalysis, National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Nuclear Society, etc.. 159 pieces of Articles in the field were received in the conference, from many countries

  2. Physical Activity and Risk of Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaete, N.V.H.; Wolter, P.; Verhoef, G.E.G.; Kollen, B.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Schepers, L.; Gosselink, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity has a protective effect on some types of cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to explore the literature on the association between physical activity and risk of lymphoma. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for cohort and case-control studies examining

  3. Physical Activity and Risk of Lymphoma : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaete, Nele V. H.; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Kwakkel, Gert; Schepers, Leen; Gosselink, Rik

    Background: Physical activity has a protective effect on some types of cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to explore the literature on the association between physical activity and risk of lymphoma. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for cohort and case-control studies examining

  4. Studies in heavy ion activation analysis Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Ojo, J.F.; Schweikert, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of 7 MeV 6 Li + for heavy ion activation analysis was investigated. A survey of reactions, involving targets of lithium through oxygen inclusive, were studied for production of β + radioactivation products with half-lives of 10 1 -10 5 seconds. Specific activities for all reactions under the experimental conditions are reported and their use for analysis is assessed. (author)

  5. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2000-08-01

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis

  6. Nuclear activation analysis work at Analytical Chemistry Division: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy; Ghosh, M.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear activation analysis using neutron and charged particles is used routinely for analysis and research at Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Neutron activation analysis at ACD, BARC, Mumbai, India has been pursued since late fifties using Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva and Critical facility Research reactors, 239 Pu-Be neutron source and neutron generator. Instrumental, Radiochemical, Chemical and Derivative neutron activation analysis approaches are adopted depending on the analyte and the matrix. Large sample neutron activation analysis as well as k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis is also used. Charged particle activation analysis at ACD, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata started in late eighties and is being used for industrial applications and research. Proton, alpha, deuteron and heavy ion beams from 224 cm room temperature Variable Energy Cyclotron are used for determination of trace elements, measurement of excitation function, thin layer activation and preparation of endohedral fullerenes encapsulated with radioactive isotopes. Analytical Chemistry Division regularly participates in Inter and Intra laboratory comparison exercises conducted by various organizations including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results invariably include values obtained by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  7. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2000-08-01

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  8. Monte Carlo method in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majerle, M.; Krasa, A.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.; Adam, J.; Peetermans, S.; Slama, O.; Stegajlov, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation detectors are a useful technique for the neutron flux measurements in spallation experiments. The study of the usefulness and the accuracy of this method at similar experiments was performed with the help of Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA

  9. PROJECT ACTIVITY ANALYSIS WITHOUT THE NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Munapo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new procedure for analysing and managing activity sequences in projects. The new procedure determines critical activities, critical path, start times, free floats, crash limits, and other useful information without the use of the network model. Even though network models have been successfully used in project management so far, there are weaknesses associated with the use. A network is not easy to generate, and dummies that are usually associated with it make the network diagram complex – and dummy activities have no meaning in the original project management problem. The network model for projects can be avoided while still obtaining all the useful information that is required for project management. What are required are the activities, their accurate durations, and their predecessors.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing beskryf ’n nuwerwetse metode vir die ontleding en bestuur van die sekwensiële aktiwiteite van projekte. Die voorgestelde metode bepaal kritiese aktiwiteite, die kritieke pad, aanvangstye, speling, verhasing, en ander groothede sonder die gebruik van ’n netwerkmodel. Die metode funksioneer bevredigend in die praktyk, en omseil die administratiewe rompslomp van die tradisionele netwerkmodelle.

  10. ESAA environment for seismic activity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuyu; Hao Bailin.

    1994-09-01

    ESAA is an X-window based, graphical and interactive, software system for analyzing seismic activity, using the earthquake catalogues of a given region as input. Basic design idea and structure of this system, as well as the progress in its implementation are reported. (author). 12 refs

  11. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  12. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Active Shape Model is proposed targeting growth modelling by applying Partial Least Squares regression in decomposing the Procrustes tangent space. Shape centroid size is applied as dependent variable but the method generalizes to handle other, both uni- and multivariate, effects probing for high...... covariation wrt. shape variation....

  13. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detarium senegalense JF Gmelin (Caesalpiniaceae), commonly known as tallow tree, is used traditionally for the treatment of bronchitis, pneumonia, internal complaints and skin diseases in Tropical Africa. The seed is used as a soup thickener in Eastern Nigeria. Analysis of the petroleum ether extract of the seeds with ...

  14. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  15. Using Porterian Activity Analysis to Understand Organizational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheehan, Norman T.; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2017-01-01

    conceptualized by Porter’s writings on the activity-based view. Porterian activity analysis is becoming more accepted in the strategy literature, but no strategy scholar has explicitly used Porter’s activities, and particularly his concept of drivers, to understand and analyze organizational capabilities...

  16. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  17. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungrog Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  18. Activity Landscape Plotter: A Web-Based Application for the Analysis of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Medina, Mariana; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Medina-Franco, José L

    2017-03-27

    Activity landscape modeling is a powerful method for the quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships. This cheminformatics area is in continuous growth, and several quantitative and visual approaches are constantly being developed. However, these approaches often fall into disuse due to their limited access. Herein, we present Activity Landscape Plotter as the first freely available web-based tool to automatically analyze structure-activity relationships of compound data sets. Based on the concept of activity landscape modeling, the online service performs pairwise structure and activity relationships from an input data set supplied by the user. For visual analysis, Activity Landscape Plotter generates Structure-Activity Similarity and Dual-Activity Difference maps. The user can interactively navigate through the maps and export all the pairwise structure-activity information as comma delimited files. Activity Landscape Plotter is freely accessible at https://unam-shiny-difacquim.shinyapps.io/ActLSmaps /.

  19. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. The results shed a new light on terror activity and provide some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within...... result in a fully evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network. For suspicious emails detection and email author identification, a cluster-based text classification model has been proposed. The model outperformed...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...

  20. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  1. Acquisition Path Analysis as a Collaborative Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, A.; Grundule, R.; Gushchyn, K.; El Gebaly, A.; Higgy, R.; Tsvetkov, I.; Mandl, W.

    2015-01-01

    In the International Atomic Energy Agency, acquisition path analysis (APA) is indispensable to safeguards implementation. It is an integral part of both State evaluation process and the development of State level safeguards approaches, all performed through ongoing collaborative analysis of all available safeguards relevant information by State evaluation groups (SEG) with participation of other contributors, as required. To perform comprehensive State evaluation, to develop and revise State-level safeguards approaches, and to prepare annual implementation plans, the SEG in its collaborative analysis follows accepted safeguards methodology and guidance. In particular, the guide ''Performing Acquisition Path Analysis for the Development of a State-level Safeguards Approach for a State with a CSA'' is used. This guide identifies four major steps of the APA process: 1. Consolidating information about the State's past, present and planned nuclear fuel cycle-related capabilities and infrastructure; 2. Identifying and visually presenting technically plausible acquisition paths for the State; 3. Assessing acquisition path steps (State's technical capabilities and possible actions) along the identified acquisition paths; and 4. Assessing the time needed to accomplish each identified technically plausible acquisition path for the State. The paper reports on SEG members' and other contributors' experience with APA when following the above steps, including the identification of plausible acquisition pathways, estimation of time frames for all identified steps and determination of the time needed to accomplish each acquisition path. The difficulties that the SEG encountered during the process of performing the APA are also addressed. Feedback in the form of practical suggestions for improving the clarity of the acquisition path step assessment forms and a proposal for software support are also included. (author)

  2. Analysis of ESCO activities using country indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okay, Nesrin [Department of Management, Financial Engineering Program, Bogazici University, Bebek, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, Ugur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bogazici University, Bebek, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are private-sector instruments that offer energy-/emission-improvement (energy saving, energy efficiency, energy conservation and emission reduction) projects, or renewable-energy projects, in the developed and in some developing countries. There has been an increased interest for the provision of such energy services, driven by a restructuring of the gas and electricity sectors, and the push to mainstream sustainable forms of energy into the market. ESCOs are destined to deliver sustainable-energy solutions, especially in emerging markets. Literature reveals that energy/emission improvements of countries may be related to their innovation- and R and D-activity levels. In this work, we use a literature data on the activities and the sectors targeted by ESCOs in 38 countries, summarized in terms of the age of ESCO market (AEM), number of ESCO companies (NE), and total value of ESCO projects (VE). Along with the Global Innovation Index (GII) data of the countries, we investigate the relationships among the ESCO Indicators (EIs: AEM, NE, VE, sectors targeted by ESCOs), and the Country Indicators (CIs: GII and per-capita GDP, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission). We observe noteworthy dependencies between the EIs and CIs. Using the simple trend equations we estimate the missing VEs in the original data. We also project, as a hint for the size and orientation of the upcoming Turkish ESCO market, the set of EIs and the distribution of the sectors that are likely to be targeted by ESCOs in Turkey. (author)

  3. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    each Initial Entry Training ( IET ) sites to USMEPCOM but this reporting is not required by service regulations. The total numbers of reported...classification and reporting from the IET sites to MEPCOM, which is still passive, should be mandated and standardized by DoD/service regulations. Analysis would...attrit Hernia 2,029 19.7 565 27.8 335 59.3 158 47.2 18 11.4 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 300 2.9 91 30.3 46 50.5 24 52.2 9 37.5 Diabetes

  4. Digital image processing and analysis for activated sludge wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Lee, Xue Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Yeap, Kim Ho; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Activated sludge system is generally used in wastewater treatment plants for processing domestic influent. Conventionally the activated sludge wastewater treatment is monitored by measuring physico-chemical parameters like total suspended solids (TSSol), sludge volume index (SVI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. For the measurement, tests are conducted in the laboratory, which take many hours to give the final measurement. Digital image processing and analysis offers a better alternative not only to monitor and characterize the current state of activated sludge but also to predict the future state. The characterization by image processing and analysis is done by correlating the time evolution of parameters extracted by image analysis of floc and filaments with the physico-chemical parameters. This chapter briefly reviews the activated sludge wastewater treatment; and, procedures of image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation and analysis in the specific context of activated sludge wastewater treatment. In the latter part additional procedures like z-stacking, image stitching are introduced for wastewater image preprocessing, which are not previously used in the context of activated sludge. Different preprocessing and segmentation techniques are proposed, along with the survey of imaging procedures reported in the literature. Finally the image analysis based morphological parameters and correlation of the parameters with regard to monitoring and prediction of activated sludge are discussed. Hence it is observed that image analysis can play a very useful role in the monitoring of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  6. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, Marie-Helene

    1971-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ 2 test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author) [fr

  7. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  8. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kisło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.

  9. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dan

    2012-01-01

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  10. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  11. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical analysis of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts of edible indigenous medicinal plant Lasienthera africanum (“Editan”) and their antibacterial activities against clinical isolates, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated.

  12. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-06-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  13. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H.; Vaughn, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  14. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Multivariate Statistics for Pottery Provenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascock, M. D.; Neff, H. [University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center (United States); Vaughn, K. J. [Pacific Lutheran University, Department of Anthropology (United States)

    2004-06-15

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistics to archaeological studies of ceramics and clays is described. A small pottery data set from the Nasca culture in southern Peru is presented for illustration.

  15. Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of different polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of Pholiota adiposa. Yongxin Nie, Hongxia Jiang, Yanyou Su, Changxiang Zhu, Jiarui Li, Fujiang Wen ...

  16. The verification of neutron activation analysis support system (cooperative research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ichimura, Shigeju; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Takayanagi, Masaji

    2000-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis support system is the system in which even the user who has not much experience in the neutron activation analysis can conveniently and accurately carry out the multi-element analysis of the sample. In this verification test, subjects such functions, usability, precision and accuracy of the analysis and etc. of the neutron activation analysis support system were confirmed. As a method of the verification test, it was carried out using irradiation device, measuring device, automatic sample changer and analyzer equipped in the JRR-3M PN-3 facility, and analysis software KAYZERO/SOLCOI based on the k 0 method. With these equipments, calibration of the germanium detector, measurement of the parameter of the irradiation field and analysis of three kinds of environmental standard sample were carried out. The k 0 method adopted in this system is primarily utilized in Europe recently, and it is the analysis method, which can conveniently and accurately carried out the multi-element analysis of the sample without requiring individual comparison standard sample. By this system, total 28 elements were determined quantitatively, and 16 elements with the value guaranteed as analytical data of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) environment standard sample were analyzed in the accuracy within 15%. This report describes content and verification result of neutron activation support system. (author)

  17. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Bellido, Alfredo V.

    1997-02-01

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis for noble metals in matte leach residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the neutron activation analysis technique as a method for rapid and precise determinations of platinum group metals in matte leach residues depends on obtaining a method for effecting complete and homogeneous sample dilution. A simple method for solid dilution of metal samples is outlined in this study, which provided a basis for the accurate determination of all the noble metals by the Neutron Activation Analysis technique

  19. Natural gold composition studied by proton activation analysis (PAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Badica, T.; Popescu, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The minor and trace element concentration of natural gold is essential for provenance studies of gold archaeological artifacts. In this work proton activation analysis is used in order to find what elements can be put into evidence in natural gold. For that purpose some gold nuggets from Romania were used. It was found that PAA is a good supplemental method to neutron activation analysis. (authors)

  20. Youth physical activity self-efficacy: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuil, Vicki R; Robbins, Lorraine B

    2015-09-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of youth physical activity self-efficacy. Physical activity self-efficacy is a concept that has been frequently examined as a key variable in research aimed at increasing physical activity among youth. Different conceptual definitions and empirical measures indicate the need for concept analysis to advance knowledge of the concept. Rodger's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used to collect and analyse the data. Social cognitive theory guided the analysis. The PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychInfo, Educational Resources Information Center and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched for publications from 1990-2013. Search terms included self-efficacy, physical activity, youth, children, adolescent and teen. A total of 276 articles were identified. Fifty-five articles meeting inclusion criteria were included in the review. Data were analysed with particular focus on the attributes, antecedents and consequences of the concept. Defining attributes of physical activity self-efficacy were identified as personal cognition/perception, self-appraisal process, related action, power to choose physical activity, dynamic state and bi-dimensional nature. Antecedents and consequences were consistent with social cognitive theory. Youth physical activity self-efficacy is defined as a youth's belief in his/her capability to participate in physical activity and to choose physical activity despite existing barriers. This concept analysis provided an in-depth analysis and clarification of youth physical activity self-efficacy. Future research should be aimed at establishing consistency in conceptual definitions and empirical measurement to further develop the concept across disciplines. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Activation analysis by TC-Pn and Cd cover irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Rokuji

    1994-01-01

    In this lecture, the activation analysis by the irradiation using TC-Pn facility and Cd cover which are not much utilized for activation analysis is reported. As compared with the activation analysis using often utilized pneumatic tubes, the irradiated neutron spectra are remarkably different. In the TC-Pn irradiation, the neutrons on high energy side are little, and in the Cd cover irradiation, on the contrary the thermal neutrons on low energy side are little. According to the kinds of samples, by utilizing these features, the information that cannot be obtained by ordinary irradiation can be easily obtained. The features of neutron spectra in the TC-Pn activation analysis, the utilization of the characteristics of little fast neutron component and little epithermal neutron component, and the demerit of the activation analysis by the TC-Pn are explained. In the KUR, the activation analysis by Cd cover irradiation method is rarely used. But if the amount of Cd metal is less than 20 g, and the time of irradiation is shorter than 30 min, it can be utilized. In Cd cover irradiation, samples are covered with the Cd metal which has the large cross section of reaction in thermal neutron region. Its comparison with ordinary irradiation is discussed. (K.I.)

  2. Investigation of mixture heterogeneity by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakhtin, L.A.; Kurinov, A.D.; Shokel', E.S.; Merkulov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    Instrumental methods of activation analysis have been developed to study the distribution of heterogeneity of Co, Na, Cu, Tb additives in ferrite charge and Sn in silicon oxide. Reasons have been examined for arising systematic errors during neutron-activation estimation of a heterogeneity coefficient. Ways are proposed to eliminate them [ru

  3. In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Analysis of Antioxidant Activities of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. Fractions in Various Solvents. D Ahmed, S Zara, H Baig. Abstract. As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ...

  4. Activation analysis by gamma photons and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoroff, M.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron irradiation is generally used for activation analysis, however there are two cases where gamma radiation or charged particle activation are required: determination of elements when radioactivity produced is too low (case of light elements: O, C, N, B...) and determination of elements highly radioactive when irradiated by neutrons. Accuracy, sensitivity, calibration, sample preparation, applications and performance are reviewed [fr

  5. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  6. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    subjective estimate of their activity level over the past week using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE).3 This instrument dealt with...May 2004. Talaty M. Models for Gait Analysis. 5th SIAMOC (Societa Italiana Di Analisi Del Movimento in Clinica) Congress, Loano, Italy November

  7. Study of interference by double neutron capture in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.; Korob, R.O.; Mila, M.I.; Rocca, H.C.

    1976-06-01

    The characteristics of the interferences by double capture in activation analysis are studied. Calculations of these interferences are performed, based on the corresponding activation functions, for typical irradiation and decay times. The experiments performed with the pairs Ho-Dy and Pt-Au and their results are commented. (author) [es

  8. Newspaper Coverage of Nigeria Police Activities: A Content Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a content analysis of newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigeria from January to March, 2012. Three national dailies (the Nation, the Punch and Daily Sun) were studied. Among the specific objectives were to determine the volume of coverage of the activities of Nigeria Police by selected newspapers, ...

  9. Content Analysis of a Computer-Based Faculty Activity Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Eveleth, Lori; Stone, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The research presents an analysis of faculty opinions regarding the introduction of a new computer-based faculty activity repository (FAR) in a university setting. The qualitative study employs content analysis to better understand the phenomenon underlying these faculty opinions and to augment the findings from a quantitative study. A web-based…

  10. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Epiboron Neutron Activation Analysis with Nigeria Research Reactor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epiboron neutron activation analysis is optimized using Nigeria Research Reactor-1. Data are given for 6 elements using boron as shielding. Boron shield are of particular practical value for rapid instrumental analysis. Advantage factors for the following elements: I, Br, Cl, K, Mn and Na under boron shield are given.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation maps appear more (diffusively distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness, complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix, and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity. To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70% and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  13. Characterization of Phoenician pottery from Mothia by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.; Cuomo di Caprio, N.; Tusa, V.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 7 elements (Na, Al, Mg, Ti, Ca, V, Mn) was determined by neutron activation analysis in 35 samples of pottery and 14 samples of clay. The samples were collected in ancient Mothia (Sicily) and in its neighbourhoods. Cluster analysis of the data showed that most of the samples are homogeneous and confirmed the archaeological evidence that they are mostly local wer ware. The detailed results of the analyses are reported and the technique used for cluster analysis is described. (author)

  14. An analysis of a board game as a treatment activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neistadt, M E; McAuley, D; Zecha, D; Shannon, R

    1993-02-01

    Occupational therapists often use tabletop board games in treatment to help adult clients with physical disabilities improve the perceptual, cognitive, sensory, and fine motor skill components of occupational behavior. Detailed activity analyses of these types of activities, including performance norms, are not available in the occupational therapy literature. Such analyses would help therapists consider the multiple skill demands of tabletop games and allow more systematic grading of these treatment activities. This paper presents a model for analyzing therapeutic activities in relation to relevant motor learning and cognitive-perceptual literature. Included in this analysis are a description of the activity, examination of its component skills and of the qualitative features of activity performance, suggestions for grading and for treatment goals, and some preliminary performance standards derived from a pilot study of 18 adults without physical disabilities. The issue of transfer of skills between games and functional activities is also discussed.

  15. Activation analysis of high pure quartz used as packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luknitskij, V.A.; Morozov, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A γ-spectrometric technique of neutron activation determination of microelements in quartz tubes used as a packing material for irradiation in reactors is reported. The analysis of 29 micro-admixtures in quartz tubes of USSR brands ''spectrtosil'' and ''KV'' was carried out. The γ-spectra of ''KV'' quartz irradiated by thermal and epithermal neutrons are presented. The activation by epithermal neutrons provides an activity gain for the nuclei whose resonance integral is high enough as compared to the activation cross-section with regard to thermal neutrons. The activation by epithermal neutrons permits additional determination of W, Cd, V, Th, Mn and Ni and provides for a substantial decrease in the activity of 24 Na, 42 K, 140 La, 46 Sc, 141 Ce, 51 Cr, and 59 Fe, which hinder the determination of the above-mentioned elements. The microelement composition of Soviet-made quartz varieties is compared to that of foreign-made quartz brands

  16. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  17. Analysis of copper-based metallic artifacts by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M.D.; Spalding, T.G.; Biers, J.C.; Cornman, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of the major elements in copper-alloyed artifacts by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis is reported. Copper, zinc, tin and lead were measured in several ancient Roman, Greek and Iranian objects. Good agreement was found in comparison with analysis of similar objects by destructive methods. (author)

  18. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  19. Charged particle activation analysis at RIKEN. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    From 1960s to 1980s many groups in the world actively studied and utilized charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) mainly for absolute determination of B, C, N, and O in high-purity substances, particularly semiconductor materials. Here, after a short historical note on CPAA, works of the author's group mainly at RIKEN are outlined and then his opinion is shown about how to anticipate on the present shrinking of CPAA. (author)

  20. Hybrid independent component analysis by adaptive LUT activation function neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simone

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an efficient implementation of unsupervised adaptive-activation function neurons dedicated to one-dimensional probability density estimation, with application to independent component analysis. The proposed implementation is a computationally light improvement to adaptive pseudo-polynomial neurons, recently presented in Fiori, S. (2000a). Blind signal processing by the adaptive activation function neurons. Neural Networks, 13(6), 597-611, and is based upon the concept of 'look-up table' (LUT) neurons.

  1. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  2. Neutron activation analysis for certification of standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials. Characteristics of neutron activation analysis which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy multielemental capability to asses homogeneity, high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper report the concentrations of 30 elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban samples. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12- 10 13 n.cm 2. s -1. The gamma ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analyzed using ACTAN program development in Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development

  3. Determination of silver using cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pun, T.H.; Landsberger, S.

    2012-01-01

    A fast pneumatic transfer facility was installed in Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) of the University of Texas at Austin for the purpose of cyclic thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis. In this study efforts were focused on the evaluation of cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis (CENAA). Various NIST and CANMET certified materials were analyzed by the system. Experiment results showed 110 Ag with its 25 s half-life as one of the isotopes favored by the system. Thus, the system was put into practical application in identifying silver in metallic ores. Comparison of sliver concentrations as determined by CENAA in CANMET certified reference materials gave very good results. (author)

  4. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  5. DNQAA program to be used in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernedo, L.F.B.

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of the analysed elements were calculated by the program, based on the instrumental technique of analysis by activation. The DNQAA corrects due to the radioactive decay and to the neutron flow variation or carried particles and too the error propagation involved in the analysis. It is written in ORACL to be used in the ORTEC 6240-42 system. (L.M.J.) [pt

  6. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  7. Determination of ancient ceramics reference material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Jingxin; Wang Yuqi; Lu Liangcai

    1986-01-01

    Contents of trace elements in the reference material of ancient ceramics (KPS-1) were determined by means of activation analysis, using thermal neutron irradiation produced in nuclear reactor. KPS-1 favoured the analysis of ancient ceramics because it had not only many kinds of element but also appropriate contents of composition. The values presented here are reliable within the experimental precision, and have shown that the reference material had a good homogeneity. So KPS-1 can be used as a suitable reference material for the ancient ceramics analysis

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sewage sludge and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.; Buysse, A.M.; Helsen, M.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the analysis of sewage sludges of four municipal water treatment plants and one industrial water treatment plant. Compost was collected from a municipal compostation plant in Belgium. This pilot study showed that concentrations for 41 elements could be obtained. Tests for homogeneity and accuracy indicated the necessity of a thorough grinding and homogenization of the samples before analysis. The concentrations obtained were compared with the mean soil composition and the possible enrichment of heavy metals in the soil calculated when the materials are used as a manure to agricultural land. The Zn concentration is mostly the limiting factor for the agricultural application. (author)

  9. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  10. Studies in heavy ion activation analysis Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, J.F.; Lass, B.D.; Schweikert, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive heavy ion activation analysis has been used to determine the carbon content in various NBS SRM steel samples with a 7.0 MeV 6 Li + beam. The reaction 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N allows for carbon analysis with the only possible interference being beryllium, 9 Be( 6 Li,2n) 13 N. Under interference-free conditions, and employing a post-irradiation etch, the detection limit for carbon analysis in steel was 5 ppm. (author)

  11. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemon A, E.; Herrera V, L.

    1998-01-01

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  12. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  13. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC WAVE PARAMETERS NEAR SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  14. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  15. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity hot water, hot and cold ethanolic extracts of the bark of Vocanga Africana stapt. on Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescen, Staphyloccus aureus, Alternaria solani , Aspergellius niger and Penicillium notatum were investigated using paper disc diffusion technique.

  16. Antiglycation and Antioxidant Activities and HPTLC Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of Boswellia sacra resins was also carried out. Results: Polar fractions of the extract obtained exhibited the highest antiglycation activity while nonpolar fractions showed more than 50 % inhibition in superoxide anion scavenging assay.

  17. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  18. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the phytochemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta against paw edema induced by egg albumin and carrageenan in rats. Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity test (LD50) of the methanol extract was also carried out. Results show that ...

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity hot water, hot and cold ethanolic extracts of the bark of Vocanga Africana stapt. on Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescen, Staphyloccus aureus, Alternaria solani , Aspergellius niger and Penicillium notatum were investigated using paper disc diffusion technique. Results ...

  20. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  1. Neutron activation analysis as an element of sculpture provenance establishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.; Nalepa, B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation was carried out on the subject named ''Madonna Jackowa'' (XV cent.). The investigation object was to answer whether ''Madonna Jackowa'' was made of a native alabaster. Alabaster derived from five carious mines situated at the Cracow - Lvov line and ''Madonna Jackowa'' were analysed and the trace elements contents were compared. Instrumental neutron activation method was used for analysis of the trace. (author)

  2. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-29

    Nov 29, 2017 ... Chemistry, 219(1): 99 – 103. Win, D.T. (2004): Neuron activation analysis. Assumption University Journal of. Technology, 8(1): 8 – 14. Yalwa, I.R. (2002): Proximate and Amino Acid composition of Vigna dekindtiana. Unpublished M.Sc. Analytical Chemistry. Thesis (BUK). Yruela, I. (2005): Copper in plants.

  3. The Analysis and Reconciliation of Students' Rebuttals in Argumentation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue…

  4. Gamma Activation Analysis in the Havana Bay superficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, N.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Riso, O.; Manso, M.V.; Simon, M.J.; Maslov, A.G.; Gustova, M.V.; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study of 26 elements of Havana Bay superficial sediments were made using Gamma Activation Analysis. Samples from five zones of Havana Bay were analyzed. The results show a close interrelation between the concentration levels of the studied elements and the contaminant sources

  5. Trace elements in higher fungi (mushrooms) determined by activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 1 (2004), s. 99-107 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : trace elements * activation analysis * mushrooms Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  6. Development of an active solar crop dryer: design analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design analysis and performance evaluation of an active solar crop dryer was undertaken by drying marched cassava. The drying rate, system drying, collector and pick-up efficiencies were 1.6kg/day (14%/day), 9%, 46% and 29% respectively. Comparatively, the drying rate for sun drying was 0.9kg/day. The collector ...

  7. Application of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Park, Kwang Won; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This technical report is written for the promotion to utilization of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis facility to be installed in HANARO reactor. It is described for a practical aspects including experiment and equipments, methodology, current status of the research and development and its applications. 102 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  8. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter. Simran Bhullar Suma Chakravarthy Deepak Pental Pradeep Kumar Burma. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 953-962 ...

  9. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, Jan; Koleska, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, NOV (2015), s. 56-59 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fluorescent lamp * mercury measurement * neutron activation analysis * research reactor Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2015

  10. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...

  11. Functional and catalytic active sites prediction and docking analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioinformatics

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Functional and catalytic active sites prediction and docking analysis of azoreductase enzyme in. Pseudomonas putida with a variety of commercially available azodyes. Bikash Thakuria, Chandra J Singha, Premchand Maisnam and Samrat ...

  12. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Shukla, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  13. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel......-time series. The optimal number of clusters was chosen using a cross-validated likelihood method, which highlights the clustering pattern that generalizes best over the subjects. Data were acquired with PET at different time points during practice of a visuomotor task. The results from cluster analysis show...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  14. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  15. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1982-01-01

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24 Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  16. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  17. Analysis of some Egyptian cosmetic samples by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Ali, M.A.; Hassan, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. The concentrations of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

  18. Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

  19. A historical and proteomic analysis of botulinum neurotoxin type/G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Jon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum is the taxonomic designation for at least six diverse species that produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs. There are seven known serotypes of BoNTs (/A through/G, all of which are potent toxins classified as category A bioterrorism agents. BoNT/G is the least studied of the seven serotypes. In an effort to further characterize the holotoxin and neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs, we conducted an in silico and proteomic analysis of commercial BoNT/G complex. We describe the relative quantification of the proteins present in the/G complex and confirm our ability to detect the toxin activity in vitro. In addition, we review previous literature to provide a complete description of the BoNT/G complex. Results An in-depth comparison of protein sequences indicated that BoNT/G shares the most sequence similarity with the/B serotype. A temperature-modified Endopep-MS activity assay was successful in the detection of BoNT/G activity. Gel electrophoresis and in gel digestions, followed by MS/MS analysis of/G complex, revealed the presence of four proteins in the complexes: neurotoxin (BoNT and three NAPs--nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNH and two hemagglutinins (HA70 and HA17. Rapid high-temperature in-solution tryptic digestions, coupled with MS/MS analysis, generated higher than previously reported sequence coverages for all proteins associated with the complex: BoNT 66%, NTNH 57%, HA70 91%, and HA17 99%. Label-free relative quantification determined that the complex contains 30% BoNT, 38% NTNH, 28% HA70, and 4% HA17 by weight comparison and 17% BoNT, 23% NTNH, 42% HA70, and 17% HA17 by molecular comparison. Conclusions The in silico protein sequence comparisons established that the/G complex is phenetically related to the other six serotypes of C. botulinum. Proteomic analyses and Endopep-MS confirmed the presence of BoNT and NAPs, along with the activity of the commercial/G complex. The use of data

  20. Aspects of precision and accuracy in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1980-03-01

    Analytical results without systematic errors and with accurately known random errors are normally distributed around their true values. Such results may be produced by means of neutron activation analysis both with and without radiochemical separation. When all sources of random variation are known a priori, their effect may be combined with the Poisson statistics characteristic of the counting process, and the standard deviation of a single analytical result may be estimated. The various steps of a complete neutron activation analytical procedure are therefore studied in detail with respect to determining their contribution to the overall variability of the final result. Verification of the estimated standard deviation is carried out by demonstrating the absence of significant unknown random errors through analysing, in replicate, samples covering the range of concentrations and matrices anticipated in actual use. Agreement between the estimated and the observed variability of replicate results is then tested by a simple statistic T based on the chi-square distribution. It is found that results from neutron activation analysis on biological samples can be brought into statistical control. In routine application of methods in statistical control the same statistical test may be used for quality control when some of the actual samples are analysed in duplicate. This analysis of precision serves to detect unknown or unexpected sources of variation of the analytical results, and both random and systematic errors have been discovered in practical trace element investigations in different areas of research. Particularly, at the ultratrace level of concentration where there are few or no standard reference materials for ascertaining the accuracy of results, the proposed quality control based on the analysis of precision combined with neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, with an a priori precision independent of the level of concentration, becomes a

  1. Design, analysis, and test of an active tubular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elspass, Wilfried J.; Eerme, M.; Paradies, R.; Resch, Martin

    1997-06-01

    Space missions require higher and higher performance such as high pointing accuracy and stability, and high shape precision. Passive damping means often cannot fulfill the requirements. Besides space applications at the same time numerous applications in machine design require higher accuracy. For a lot of applications the passive measures come up against limits. Active technologies have to be considered more often. Active mechanical components are more and more used as a necessary step towards adaptive structures. Active mechanical interfaces are simpler systems having very useful applications and can be used as kind of test benches in order to master the most exacting technologies. The main advantages of such an active interface are the following: (1) state-of- the-art sensors and actuators can be used, (2) the mechanical design of the interface is conventional, (3) the passive behavior of the system is not deteriorated, (4) the design is compact and rather easy to integrate, (5) easy repair (replacement) of the active mechanical part, (6) standardization of the interfaces results in cost reductions. An important property in such intermediate step is that no major redesign of the conventionally designed mechanical structure should be needed. The design, numerical analysis, manufacturing and test of a fully integrated active tubular interface (ATI) is presented. The design of the ATI includes the optimal laminate stacking sequence with respect to maximum deformation efficiency. The results of an active damping application, an antenna support beam, including the controller layout are discussed.

  2. Development and coupling analysis of active skin antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinzhu; Huang, Jin; He, Qingqang; Tang, Baofu; Song, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    An active skin antenna is a multifunctional composite structure that can provide load-bearing structure and steerable beam pointing functions, and is usually installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles. This paper presents an innovative design of the active skin antenna, which consists of a package layer, control and signal processing layer, and RF (radio frequency) layer. The RF layer is fabricated by low temperature co-fired ceramics, with 64 microstrip antenna elements, tile transmitting and receiving modules, microchannel heat sinks, and feeding networks integrated into a functional block 2.8 mm thick. In this paper, a full-sized prototype of an active skin antenna was designed, fabricated, and tested. Moreover, a coupling analysis method was presented to evaluate the mechanical and electromagnetic performance of the active skin antenna subjected to aerodynamic loads. A deformed experimental system was built to validate the effectiveness of the coupling analysis method, which was also implemented to evaluate the performance of the active skin antenna when subjected to aerodynamic pressure. The fabricated specimen demonstrated structural configuration feasibility, and superior environmental load resistance.

  3. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  4. Vanadium determination in pretoleum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Espinosa, R.

    1983-01-01

    The vanadium concentration in an Peruvian petroleum sample is determined by neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated for 20 minutes with a flux of thermal neutrons of 1.75 x 10 7 n/cm 2 -s in a subcritical assembly. The activity of the created samples decreases to half 15 minutes after the irradiation. The result is 28.3 +- 0.8 p.p.m. with a typical deviation of 2.8%. The detection limit of this method is 4 p.p.m

  5. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program

  6. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrang, Farshid

    2003-07-01

    illustrated how the activated water would propagate along that pipe. C) Combustion products. In order to investigate the oxidation in combustion products (deposits), the total amount of oxygen in the deposits collected from combustion chambers of a modern gasoline engine was measured, using cyclic fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). As a compartment, the organic compounds containing oxygen were identified using {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results of FNAA showed that the amount of oxygen in deposits varies depending on where the deposits have been formed. {sup 13}C NMR has showed that the carbon backbone of the deposits exists as highly oxidized poly aromatics and/or graphitic structure. D) On-line fast neutron activation analysis. On-line neutron activation analysis was used to detect the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. The method was optimised for on-line detection of oxygen in rapeseed oil. The goal was to develop a non-intrusive method for measurement of the total amount of oxygen in oil during combustion/oxidation.

  7. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owrang, Farshid

    2003-01-01

    illustrated how the activated water would propagate along that pipe. C) Combustion products. In order to investigate the oxidation in combustion products (deposits), the total amount of oxygen in the deposits collected from combustion chambers of a modern gasoline engine was measured, using cyclic fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). As a compartment, the organic compounds containing oxygen were identified using 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results of FNAA showed that the amount of oxygen in deposits varies depending on where the deposits have been formed. 13 C NMR has showed that the carbon backbone of the deposits exists as highly oxidized poly aromatics and/or graphitic structure. D) On-line fast neutron activation analysis. On-line neutron activation analysis was used to detect the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. The method was optimised for on-line detection of oxygen in rapeseed oil. The goal was to develop a non-intrusive method for measurement of the total amount of oxygen in oil during combustion/oxidation

  8. Teaching chemistry with neutron activation analysis at Dalhousie University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) has been operating since July 1976 and has proven to be an invaluable tool in many teaching programs. These reactors are inherently safe and are designed to serve teaching and research needs of the universities, research centers, hospitals, etc. Since the DUSR has been, from its inception, associated with the Trace Analysis Research Centre, which is the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Department of Chemistry, the main thrust of its use continues to be in the field of nuclear analytical chemistry. Both teaching and research programs involve trace element analysis by neutron activation

  9. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel......-time series. The optimal number of clusters was chosen using a cross-validated likelihood method, which highlights the clustering pattern that generalizes best over the subjects. Data were acquired with PET at different time points during practice of a visuomotor task. The results from cluster analysis show...

  10. Characterization of the volcanic eruption emissions using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Tafuri, Victoria V.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the volcanic particulate material has been performed by analyzing aerosols and ashes with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated using the elemental concentration and clustering techniques, and multivariate analysis were done. The analytical and data treatment methodologies allowed the sample differentiation from their geographical origin viewpoint, based on their chemical composition patterns, which are related to the deposit formation processes, which consist of direct deposition from the volcanic cloud, and removal by wind action after the end of the eruption, and and finally the deposition. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Mercury determination in natural waters using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnone, M.; Marques, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. An analytical method for quantitative determination of Mercury traces in river and sea water is proposed. The neutron activation method and radiochemical separation of Mercury by developing of C L 4 Hg -2 complex, and their chromatographic separation using anionic exchange resin Dowex 1 X 8 of 400 mesh is used. The quantitative determination is done by gamma spectrometric analysis. The selection limits reached with this method showed that this is an amenable procedure in routine mercury determination in the ppb level, specially useful in the environmental contamination analysis. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Neutron activation and statistical analysis of pottery from Thera, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilikoglou, V.; Grimanis, A.P.; Karayannis, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, in combination with multivariate analysis of the generated data, was used for the chemical characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Greek islands of Thera, Melos (islands with similar geology) and Crete. The statistical procedure which proved that Theran pottery could be distinguished from Melian is described. This discrimination, attained for the first time, was mainly based on the concentrations of the trace elements Sm, Yb, Lu and Cr. Also, Cretan imports to both Thera and Melos were clearly separable from local products. (author) 22 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  13. Analysis of foreign physical activity recommendations and guidelines for schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:An adequate level of physical activity is an important part of children's lifestyle. The school environment plays a significant role in the area of interventions and strategies aiming to increase the level of physical activity in children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyse foreign recommendations leading to an increased level of physical activity in children and young people in Czech schools. Methods: A systematic search of studies published between 1988 and 2012 in the English language was completed in library databases Medline, Sport Discus, ProQuest, PsychInfo, ERIC, Wiley InterScience using the following keywords: physical activity, guidelines, recommendations, school and youth. The studies were then classified based on abstract and full-text analyses. Using a content analysis the expert team formulated the final recommendations to increase the level of physical activity for schools in the Czech Republic (CR. Results: Out of the total number of 91 identified foreign studies, 25 met the predetermined criteria and were used as a basis for formulating the recommendations. These foreign studies included 15 papers published in USA, two in Australia, two in Great Britain, two in Canada, one in the European Union, one in New Zealand and one international paper (an international consensus of experts from 34 countries. Based on the interpretation of the evidence, its justification and final consensus of the expert team, the basic areas for the recommendations to increase the level of physical activity in schools in the CR were identified. Conclusions: An analysis of foreign recommendations to increase the level of physical activity designed for schools and school facilities is one of the possible methods of formulating domestic recommendations. This recommendation could contribute to deeper understanding of the issue of the deteriorating lifestyle of school-aged children in the CR and reflects the efforts for improvement.

  14. Frequency band analysis of muscle activation during cycling to exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Diefenthaeler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p243 Lower limb muscles activation was assessed during cycling to exhaustion using frequency band analysis. Nine cyclists were evaluated in two days. On the first day, cyclists performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise to measure peak power output, which was used on the second day to define the workload for a constant load time to exhaustion cycling exercise (maximal aerobic power output from day 1. Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL, long head of biceps femoris (BF, lateral head of gastrocnemius (GL, and tibialis anterior (TA from the right lower limb was recorded during the time to exhaustion cycling exercise. A series of nine band-pass Butterworth digital filters was used to analyze muscle activity amplitude for each band. The overall amplitude of activation and the high and low frequency components were defined to assess the magnitude of fatigue effects on muscle activity via effect sizes. The profile of the overall muscle activation during the test was analyzed using a second order polynomial, and the variability of the overall bands was analyzed by the coefficient of variation for each muscle in each instant of the test. Substantial reduction in the high frequency components of VL and BF activation was observed. The overall and low frequency bands presented trivial to small changes for all muscles. High relationship between the second order polynomial fitting and muscle activity was found (R2 > 0.89 for all muscles. High variability (~25% was found for muscle activation at the four instants of the fatigue test. Changes in the spectral properties of the EMG signal were only substantial when extreme changes in fatigue state were induced.

  15. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. The flare productivity of an active region is observed to be related to its spatial complexity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region’s evolution for example. Aims. We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region’s complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. Methods. We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. Results. We find relationships between the complexity of an active region as measured by its Mount Wilson classification and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. Conclusions. Intrinsic dimension has the potential to distinguish simple from complex active regions. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view toward automatic clustering of active regions.

  16. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  17. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  18. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  19. Molecular activation analysis for organo-halogen contaminants in yogurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of total halogen (TX), extractable organo-halogen (EOX), extractable persistent organo-halogen (EPOX), organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 18 different yogurt specimens of 14 brands from Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shijiazhuang were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), molecular activation analysis (MAA) and GC-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results indicated that the halogen in yogurt mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organo-halogen compounds. About 1/3 to 1/4 of EOX was EPOX. Further, EOCl and EPOCl were the main organo-halogen species in yogurt. The average concentration of the unknown organo-chlorine was 96% of the EPOCl. HCHs and DDTs were still the main contaminants of OCPs in the yogurt of interest. Also, PCB202, PCB103 and PCB208 were the main contaminants of PCBs. (authors)

  20. Practical aspects of operating a neutron activation analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This book is intended to advise in everyday practical problems related to operating a neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory. It gives answers to questions like ''what to use NAA for'', ''how to find relevant research problems'', ''how to find users for the technique'', ''how to estimate the cost of the analysis and how to finance the work'', ''how to organize the work in a rational way'' and ''how to perform the quality control''. It gives advice in choosing staff, equipment, and consumables and how to design facilities and procedures according to need and available resources. Potential applications of economic or environmental importance, reactor facilities, counting and measuring equipment of the lab, cooperation with other analytical groups and competitiveness of NAA are discussed by experienced analysts. The compiled 8 tables of data useful for neutron activation analysts are a valuable asset for research labs as well as industrial quality control units. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Automated analysis of prerecorded evoked electromyographic activity from rat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarab-Horwath, I; Dewhurst, D G; Dixon, R; Meehan, A S; Odusanya, S

    1989-03-01

    An automated microprocessor-based data acquisition and analysis system has been developed specifically to quantify electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by the convulsant agent catechol in the anaesthetized rat. The stimulus and EMG response are recorded on magnetic tape. On playback, the stimulus triggers a digital oscilloscope and, via interface circuitry, a BBC B microcomputer. The myoelectric activity is digitized by the oscilloscope before being transferred under computer control via a RS232 link to the microcomputer. This system overcomes the problems of dealing with signals of variable latency and allows quantification of latency, amplitude, area and frequency of occurrence of specific components within the signal. The captured data can be used to generate either signal or superimposed high resolution graphic reproductions of the original waveforms. Although this system has been designed for a specific application, it could easily be modified to allow analysis of any complex waveform.

  2. Active Greens : An Analysis of the Determinants of Green Party Members' Activism in Environmental Movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    This article investigates green party members' activism in the environmental movement and tests how a number of predictors, theoretically suggested in the past yet rarely empirically tested, can account for it. The authors' analysis is based on an extensive data set of members of 15 green parties in

  3. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program for the evaluation of radiation protection parameters connected to diagnostic X-ray examination has been developed. For a selected X-ray examination the program picks out key values from a data base containg patient observations and calculates integral doses, collective doses and i njury cases . When the volume of the data base is sufficient large, a total concequence analysis of diagnostric X-ray activities in Norway will be carried out

  4. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  5. Activation analysis in zirconium and alloys for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.; Mila, M.I.; Gomez, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been performed with the purpose to ascertain the possibilities of using neutron activation analysis in non-destructive determination of several elements present in zirconium and its alloys. Those elements must be limited within acceptable top levels, in accordance to standards for nuclear applications. The experimental techniques used are described and the results obtained are discussed, showing that the method is adequate for determining Cl, Co, Hf, Mn, and W, but not Ni and U. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. A study on cigarette tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Soot Haji Ahmad; Tey Nsan Yen

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in cigarette tobacco of popular brands locally marketed were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These elements are: Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, and Zn. Comparison of the element contents to the reported cigarette tobacco of Egypt, Iran and Turkey was also done. (author)

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of apatite-nepheline ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, E.I.; Bakhmatov, B.A.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Sotskov, Yu.P.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the technique for neutron activation determination of rare elements (cerium, samariu, europium, terbium, ytterbium et al.) in apatite-nepheline ores using Ge(Li)-spectrometer. The effect of interference is studied, the recognition threshold and accuracy of analysis of the above elements in this ores are estimated. The technique developed are recommended for the calculation of rare earth element reserves in phosphate raw products

  8. Software for a measuring facility for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Keyser, A.; De Roost, E.

    1985-01-01

    A software package has been developed for an APPLE P.C. The programs are intended to control an automated measuring station for photon activation analysis at GELINA, the linear accelerator of C.B.N.M. at Geel (Belgium). They allow to set-up a measuring scheme, to execute it under computer control, to accumulate and store 2 K-spectra using a built-in ADC and to output the results as listings, plots or evaluated reports

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.

    1975-06-01

    The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)

  10. Neutron activation analysis of cheese, eggs, fish, fowl and meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovsky, L.; Soliman, K.

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, K, Mg, Na, Rb, S and Ti in 44 samples of cheese, eggs, fish, fowl and meats sold in Canada were determined with absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis. The procedure is fully computerized and incorporates one short irradiation and counting only. When an element was not detected, its detection limit was calculated. The nuclear interferences and blanks were taken into account. The nutritional significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  11. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ancient Indian coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhadane, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration levels of various elements, viz. Cu, Ag, Sn, Sb, Au and As have been estimated in different ancient coins using Cf-252 neutron source by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. It is found that copper forms one of the major components of all the coins studied while arsenic and gold are found to be at tracer level in almost all the coins. The other elements detected are tin, silver and antimony in varying amounts. (Author)

  12. 1997 Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Chronic knee pain 22 2.3 Adjustment disorder 16 2.7 Hearing 22 2.3 Bone injury-lower extremities 14 2.4 Eating disorder 22 2.3 Hypertension 12 2.0...Genetic Influences in Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders : Autism and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder . Am J Hum Genet 1997;60:1276-1282...active duty Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Armed Forces Qualifying Test Academic Skills Defect Accession Medical Standards Analysis and

  13. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  14. The solar activity by wavelet-based multifractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Maruyama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the relation between the solar activity and climate change is increasing. As for the solar activity, a fractal property of the sunspot series was studied by many works. In general, a fractal property was observed in the time series of dynamics of complex systems. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the sunspot number, solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7 cm and total ozone from a view of multifractality. To detect the changes of multifractality, we examined the multifractal analysis on the time series of the solar activity and total ozone indices. The changes of fractality of the sunspot number and F10.7 cm are very similar. When the sunspot number becomes maximum, the fractality of the F10.7 cm changes from multifractality to monofractality. The changes of fractality of the F10.7 cm and the total ozone are very similar. When the sunspot number becomes maximum, the fractality of the total ozone changes from multifractality to monofractality. A change of fractality of the F10.7 cm and total ozone was observed when the solar activity became maximum. The influence of the solar activity on the total ozone was shown by the wavelet coherence, phase and the similarity of the change of fractality. These findings will contribute to the research of the relationship between the solar activity and climate.

  15. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  16. Corticomuscular coherence analysis on hand movement distinction for active rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinxin; Xiao, Siyuan; Qi, Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yiwen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Active rehabilitation involves patient's voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient's daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients' electroencephalography (EMG) on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest). We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  17. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  18. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  19. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.

    1983-01-01

    A fast method for the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples is described. The method is intended for samples having background concentrations of gold. The method is based on the dissolution of samples with hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia followed by the dissolution of the fluorides with boric acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold is then adsorbed on activated carbon by filtrating the solution through a thin carbon layer. The activity measurements are carried out using a Ge(Li)-detector and a multichannel analyzer. The chemical yields of the separation determined by reirradiation vary between 60 and 90%. The detection limit of the method is 0.2 ng/g gold in rock samples. USGS standard rocks and exploration reference materials are analyzed and the results are presented and compared with literature data. (author)

  20. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  1. Affective mapping: An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Lauren A J; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging has the spatial resolution to explain the neural basis of emotions. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE), as opposed to traditional qualitative meta-analysis, quantifies convergence of activation across studies within affective categories. Others have used ALE to investigate a broad range of emotions, but without the convenience of the BrainMap database. We used the BrainMap database and analysis resources to run separate meta-analyses on coordinates reported for anger, anxiety, disgust, fear, happiness, humor, and sadness. Resultant ALE maps were compared to determine areas of convergence between emotions, as well as to identify affect-specific networks. Five out of the seven emotions demonstrated consistent activation within the amygdala, whereas all emotions consistently activated the right inferior frontal gyrus, which has been implicated as an integration hub for affective and cognitive processes. These data provide the framework for models of affect-specific networks, as well as emotional processing hubs, which can be used for future studies of functional or effective connectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Eduardo E.; Thyssen, Sandra M.; Bruno, Hector A.

    1999-01-01

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  3. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  4. Cofrentes NPP activities on PSA and severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.; Borondo, L.; Garcia, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cofrentes NPP (CNPP) has developed a Level 1 PSA with the following scope: analysis of internal events, with the reactor initially operating at power, internal and external flooding risk analysis; internal fire risk analysis; reliability analysis of the containment heat removal and containment isolation systems. Level 1 CNPP-PSA results reveal that total core damage frequency in CNPP is less than other similar BWR/6 plants. The CNPP-PSA related activities and applications being carried out currently are: adjusting of MAAP 3.0B, revision 10, on VAX and PC; acquisition of MAAP 4; development of Level1/Level2-PSA interface; seismic site categorization for the IPEEE; prioritization of motor operated valves related to GL-89/10, complementary analysis for exemption to some 10CFR50 App. J requirements; Q-List grading; reliability-centered maintenance; maintenance rule support; on-line maintenance support, off-line risk-monitor development, PSA applicability to the 10CFR50 App. R requirements, analysis of the frequency of mis-oriented fuel bundle event, etc. About severe accident management, CNPP, as part of the Spanish-BWROG, is currently analyzing the generic products of the US-BWROG AMG in order to generate their specific ones. Also, in this group BWR, the development of tools to simulate accident scenarios beyond core damage will be studied and a training process oriented to warrant the optimum use of new EOP/AMG in accident scenarios will be implemented

  5. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  6. A description of the BNL active surface analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, J.W.

    1989-11-01

    Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories has a responsibility for the assessment of radioactive specimens arising both from post irradiation examination of power reactor components and structures and experimental programmes concerned with fission and activation product transport. Existing analytical facilities have been extended with the commissioning of an active surface analysis instrument (XSAM 800pci, Kratos Analytical). Surface analysis involves the characterisation of the outer few atomic layers of a solid surface/interface whose chemical composition and electronic structure will probably be different from the bulk. The new instrument consists three interconnected chambers positioned in series; comprising of a high vacuum sample introduction chamber, an ultra-high vacuum sample treatment/fracture chamber and an ultra-high vacuum sample analysis chamber. The sample analysis chamber contains the electron, X-ray and ion-guns and the electron and ion detectors necessary for performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The chamber also contains a high stability manipulator to enable sub-micron imaging of specimens to be achieved and provide sample heating and cooling between - 180 and 600 0 C. (author)

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of air filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuykendall, W.E.; Fite, L.E. Jr.; Wainerdi, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports the capabilities of automated instrumental neutron activation analysis as demonstrated on 40 air filter samples from Cleveland's area. The results indicate the usefulness of the method in the measurement of elemental concentrations in airborne particulates. Through the use of automated gamma-ray spectrometry procedures, magnetic tape recording of spectral data and computerized processing of data, the method becomes very competitive from the standpoint of sensitivity and cost. The capabilities of the technique for air filter analysis may be summarized as follows: a., over 33 elements are measurable in a filter sample; b., the median detection limit for airborne concentration of an element is approximately 4.10 -9 grams.meter -3 ; c., around 26 elements are detectable in a typical cellulose filter sample; d., the method is non-destructive, therefore the sample can be retained for further analysis. (T.G.)

  8. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G

    1980-01-01

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined.

  9. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min

    2003-01-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10 13 - 1 x 10 14 n/cm 2 ·s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  10. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined

  11. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  12. Analysis of muscle activation in lower extremity for static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Kingshuk; Chatterjee, Debatri; Das, Rajat Kumar; Tripathy, Soumya Ranjan; Sinha, Aniruddha

    2017-07-01

    Balance plays an important role for human bipedal locomotion. Degeneration of balance control is prominent in stroke patients, elderly adults and even for majority of obese people. Design of personalized balance training program, in order to strengthen muscles, requires the analysis of muscle activation during an activity. In this paper we have proposed an affordable and portable approach to analyze the relationship between the static balance strategy and activation of various lower extremity muscles. To do that we have considered Microsoft Kinect XBox 360 as a motion sensing device and Wii balance board for measuring external force information. For analyzing the muscle activation pattern related to static balance, participants are asked to do the single limb stance (SLS) exercise on the balance board and in front of the Kinect. Static optimization to minimize the overall muscle activation pattern is carried out using OpenSim, which is an open-source musculoskeletal simulation software. The study is done on ten normal and ten obese people, grouped according to body mass index (BMI). Results suggest that the lower extremity muscles like biceps femoris, psoas major, sartorius, iliacus play the major role for both maintaining the balance using one limb as well as maintaining the flexion of the other limb during SLS. Further investigations reveal that the higher muscle activations of the flexed leg for normal group demonstrate higher strength. Moreover, the lower muscle activation of the standing leg for normal group demonstrate more headroom for the biceps femoris-short-head and psoas major to withstand the load and hence have better static balance control.

  13. Meta-analysis of workplace physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Hafdahl, Adam R; Cooper, Pamela S; Brown, Lori M; Lusk, Sally L

    2009-10-01

    Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity levels. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from such programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21); fitness (0.57); lipids (0.13); anthropometric measures (0.08); work attendance (0.19); and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is less robust given small sample sizes. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on VO2max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, -0.2 on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein; and for diabetes risk, -12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity.

  14. Development Of The Computer Code For Comparative Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwadi, Mohammad Dhandhang

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an importance utilization of a nuclear research reactor, and this should be accelerated and promoted in application and its development to raise the utilization of the reactor. The application of Comparative NAA technique in GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor (RSG-GAS) needs special (not commercially available yet) soft wares for analyzing the spectrum of multiple elements in the analysis at once. The application carried out using a single spectrum software analyzer, and comparing each result manually. This method really degrades the quality of the analysis significantly. To solve the problem, a computer code was designed and developed for comparative NAA. Spectrum analysis in the code is carried out using a non-linear fitting method. Before the spectrum analyzed, it was passed to the numerical filter which improves the signal to noise ratio to do the deconvolution operation. The software was developed using the G language and named as PASAN-K The testing result of the developed software was benchmark with the IAEA spectrum and well operated with less than 10 % deviation

  15. Thin film analysis by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis using distributed recoil ranges of isotopic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thin foils (0.1 to 10 μm), metallic or polymeric, are frequently used in nuclear physics and chemistry experiments using ion beams from an accelerator. Very often it is important to know the major, minor and trace element composition of the foil. Several nuclear analytical techniques, namely RBS, ERDA, etc. are available for the near surface analysis. We have applied heavy ion activation analysis (HIAA) to explore the bulk composition of thin films. One of the difficulties in this method of thin film analysis is that the product nuclides from nuclear reaction come out of the sample surface due to high recoil energy. In thick sample, the recoiled nuclides are absorbed in the sample itself. This effect has been used to employ heavy ion activation for the analysis of thin films

  16. Determination of impurities in beryl by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy

    2015-01-01

    Beryl is a chemically complex and highly compositionally variable gem-forming mineral found in a variety of locations worldwide. Pure beryl is colorless, but the presence of impurities imparts colors such as green, blue, yellow, red, and white. It is one of the most important gem minerals and the gems are named by their color. The impurities in beryl can be determined using various analytical techniques. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a sensitive technique for multielement analysis of geological samples. Four beryl samples, collected from Nayakund Mehandi Block, Parseoni, Maharashtra, were received from Geological Survey of India (GSI), Pune. Powdered samples (50-100 mg) along with comparators (IAEA Soil-7) were packed in aluminum foils, sealed in an aluminum container and irradiated for 7 days in tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After irradiation, samples were brought to laboratory. Samples were opened, transferred into polyethylene packets and weighed. Gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. For the determination of manganese, which produces relatively shorter lived activation product ( 56 Mn: T 1/2 = 2.56 h), samples were sealed in polyethylene pouches and irradiated in graphite reflector position of Critical facility reactor, BARC, Mumbai. Relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. IAEA reference material (RM), SL -1 (lake sediment) was analyzed for quality control. Percentage errors on the measured concentrations of the elements are within ± 8% with respect to the recommended/information values

  17. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of "active nanomaterials," that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a "risk" worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  18. Is adaptation or transformation needed? Active nanomaterials and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Roberts, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been a key area of funding and policy for the United States and globally for the past two decades. Since nanotechnology research and development became a focus and nanoproducts began to permeate the market, scholars and scientists have been concerned about how to assess the risks that they may pose to human health and the environment. The newest generation of nanomaterials includes biomolecules that can respond to and influence their environments, and there is a need to explore whether and how existing risk-analysis frameworks are challenged by such novelty. To fill this niche, we used a modified approach of upstream oversight assessment (UOA), a subset of anticipatory governance. We first selected case studies of “active nanomaterials,” that are early in research and development and designed for use in multiple sectors, and then considered them under several, key risk-analysis frameworks. We found two ways in which the cases challenge the frameworks. The first category relates to how to assess risk under a narrow framing of the term (direct health and environmental harm), and the second involves the definition of what constitutes a “risk” worthy of assessment and consideration in decision making. In light of these challenges, we propose some changes for risk analysis in the face of active nanostructures in order to improve risk governance.

  19. Physical Activity and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William M; Davis, Nicholas; Sands, Stephen A; Whittington, Robert A; Sun, Lena S

    2016-10-01

    Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target. To estimate the effect of a structured regular exercise program on neuropsychological domains of executive function in children ages 7 to 12. We performed a systematic review of English and non-English articles using Cochrane Library, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PSYCInfo, Pubmed, and Web of Science, including all years allowed by each individual search engine. The search string used was "(exercise OR phys*) AND (cognit* OR executive) AND (child* OR preadolesc*)." The authors of the studies selected for review were contacted for any unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials, which enrolled children between the ages of 7 and 12, with randomization to either normal activity or a structured physical activity intervention consisting of scheduled aerobic exercise, at least once per week, for a period of at least 1 month. Eligible studies must have included a neuropsychological battery of tests that measured at least 1 executive function both before and after the intervention was completed. Two independent reviewers examined the screened studies in detail for potential inclusion. The results of the individual examinations were compared; if any discrepancies were present, a third party analyzed the study to determine if it should be included in the meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies were identified by abstract as candidates for

  20. Activities of the neutron activation analysis laboratory of the radiochemistry division of IPEN - CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the relevant applications of nuclear research reactors. Due to the high neutron fluxes available in these reactors, an excellent sensitivity of analysis is attained for many elements. NAA is one of the most sensitive, precise and accurate analytical methods for trace element determination. NAA has been one of the main activities of the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN, since the beginning of the operation of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1. Most of the effort was devoted to research work, aimed to improvements in the method as well as to its applications to several kinds of matrixes (geological, biological, metallic, environmental, forensic). Besides, analytical services were also offered, to the CNEN, to industries, universities, mining companies and research institutes. In the present paper, a review is made of the research work being developed presently at the Radiochesmitry Division of IPEN. A discussion is also made of the planned expansion of the analytical services offered [pt

  1. Determination of sodium in pharmaceuticals by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, fast and accurate neutron activation analysis method for determination of Na in drugs concerning either active compound or total content was developed. The examined dosage forms consisted of 10 injectable ampoules and 10 bottles of oral solutions. The irradiation of samples and standards was carried out in the rotation system of the Reactor of Nuclear Research Center Democritos with maximal neutron flux of 2,9.10 13 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Gamma-ray spectrometry of the irradiated samples and standards was accomplished with a coaxial Ge(Li) detector series Win 15 with an efficiency of 15% connected to an Ino-Tech 1024 channel analyser (Model IT 5200). The accuracy and precision of the method are found to be very high and therefore it could be established as an official one for the determination of sodium in parmaceuticals

  2. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Assistencia Social. Div. de Alimentacao

    2009-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  3. Studies on airborne dust particles by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Atsushi; Ishii, Taka; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Isao.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on the airborne dust particles collected at six places with different contaminating circumstances in Kyoto city and the suburbs of Okayama city, using an open type low volume air sampler with a membrance filter attached. Radioactivation by neutrons was performed with the reactor in the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Short half-life nuclides activated by thermal neutrons were measured. The concentration of airborne dust was usually high in November and December, while Na, Mn, K, etc. probably owing to soil origin showed similar seasonal change to the dust particles, as expected. The concentrations Cl and Br were in proportion to traffic volume, and it was considered to be caused by the exhaust gas from cars. Zn, V. et. were thick in factory areas, which seemed to show the relationship with oil fuel consumption. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de; Avegliano, Roseane P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis of traces of metallic elements in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinte, G.; Lefol, N.; May, S.; Darras, R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis is examined for the elements iron, nickel, chromium and cobalt which are constituents of the aqueous corrosion products of stainless steels and which are present in very low concentrations in the water used in the heat transfer systems of nuclear reactors. The best results were obtained by slow evaporation of the water sample in a quartz ampoule in an oven followed by irradiation of the dry sample in the same ampoule. The problems of blanks, of losses during concentration, and of conservation of solutions at very low concentrations were studied. Good agreement was found between the theoretical quantities and experimental results with standard samples containing 50ppb of each of the studied elements. There was also excellent agreement between neutron activation and spectrophotometric methods in the case of determinations of iron in solution [fr

  6. Analysis of the environmental impact generated by nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, Roxana Elena; Dumitrescu, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of environmental impact represents one of the most formalized examples of interdisciplinary approach. After more then a century from the introduction of the concept of environmental impact assessment, this undertaking still represents an amalgamation of mini-studies based on pre-determined approaches rather than a genuine integrated document. This work presents the most important and adequate techniques of analysis of environmental impact generated by nuclear activities starting from identification of the events causing negative effects upon environment (by using checking list, the matrices and the cause-effect diagram) and radiation dose determination up to the decision making process. To preserve environment integrity the human factor should be re-evaluated as well as its active participation in formation and settling of an real environmental culture

  7. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  8. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  9. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg 252 Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from 17 O. Detection sensitivities of 239 Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level

  10. Analysis of innovation activity of Slovak and Czech enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Spišáková

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available European innovation scoreboard is used to monitor and compare the innovation performance of European countries, according to which was the Slovak Republic, together with two other V4 countries, i.e. Hungary and Poland, at the time of last available data from this area, classified into the last, fourth group of countries named “catching-up countries”. These countries were characterized by the lack of innovation activity, which was well below the EU 27 average. From the V4 countries, Czech Republic achieved the best results, belongs to “moderate innovators” and is the most close to the European average. At a present time all four countries are included in a group of moderate innovators. The innovation performance of whole country is particularly influenced by innovation activities of enterprises operating in this country. For this reason, the article deals with the detailed analysis of innovative activity of enterprises by their size and sector of their operation in Czech and Slovak Republic, and also deals with the cooperation of enterprises in these activities in terms of the type of partner and the countries of their interaction.

  11. The Analysis of World Experiences in Promoting Export Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotysh Olena M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretical analysis of the scientific approaches to defining concepts such as «exports» and «export activity». The results of the study helped to reveal that these concepts are identical, although this approach is criticized by many scientists. In the publication presented, the export activity is understood as a combination of actions on the part of the enterprises – foreign economic actors, involved in organizational arrangements aimed at preparation and marketing of goods to foreign economic actors. The article calculates the macro indicators in dynamics in order to characterize the status of Ukraine’s export activities. Its main development tendencies have been identified, the main challenges and directions for further development have been indicated. The article provides the international experience in promoting exports worldwide, the main tasks and functions of export promotion institutions have been explained, thus creating possibility to form recommendations for further actions on the part of the State to support and develop the export activity of Ukraine.

  12. Activation product analysis in a mixed sample containing both fission and neutron activation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Eggemeyer, Tere A.; Finn, Erin C.; Hines, C. Corey; King, Mathew D.; Metz, Lori A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Snow, Mathew S.; Wall, Donald E.; Seiner, Brienne N.

    2017-11-02

    Activation analysis of gold (Au) is used to estimate neutron fluence resulting from a criticality event; however, such analyses are complicated by simultaneous production of other gamma-emitting fission products. Confidence in neutron fluence estimates can be increased by quantifying additional activation products such as platinum (Pt), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W). This work describes a radiochemical separation procedure for the determination of these activation products. Anion exchange chromatography is used to separate anionic forms of these metals in a nitric acid matrix; thiourea is used to isolate the Au and Pt fraction, followed by removal of the Ta fraction using hydrogen peroxide. W, which is not retained on the first anion exchange column, is transposed to an HCl/HF matrix to enhance retention on a second anion exchange column and finally eluted using HNO3/HF. Chemical separations result in a reduction in the minimum detectable activity by a factor of 287, 207, 141, and 471 for 182Ta, 187W, 197Pt, and 198Au respectively, with greater than 90% recovery for all elements. These results represent the highest recoveries and lowest minimum detectable activities for 182Ta, 187W, 197Pt, and 198Au from mixed fission-activation product samples to date, enabling considerable refinement in the measurement uncertainties for neutron fluences in highly complex sample matrices.

  13. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of Trigona Apicalis propolis extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Nur Liyana; Roslan, Husniyati; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Mokhtar, Norehan; Hapit, Nor Hussaini Abdul; Asem, Nornaimah

    2016-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance found in beehives. It provides beneficial effects on human health and has been used to treat many diseases since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to analyze the phytochemical profile of propolis derived from local T. apicalis species and its antioxidant activities. The ethanolic extract of propolis was subjected to HPLC analysis to analyze its phytochemical profile. The propolis extract was later tested for antioxidant capacities by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. TPC and TFC were performed to determine the correlation with its antioxidant activities. TEAC for each serial dilution sample was 2621.15 (4.76 mg/mL), 2050.85 (2.38 mg/mL), 1883.27 (1.19 mg/mL), 1562.67 (0.59 mg/mL), 1327.82 (0.29 mg/mL), 1164.49 (0.15 mg/mL), 983.27 (0.07 mg/mL), and 944.79 (0.04 mg/mL). The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract were dose dependent. The IC50 of propolis for DPPH assay was 4.27 mg/ml. Correlation values of TPC and TFC against DPPH indicate that the antioxidant activities of propolis extract used in this study could be mainly influenced by the phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings highlighted the importance of quality analysis in order to ensure the consistency of biological effects or therapy of a natural product, such as propolis.

  14. Multilevel predictors of adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hearst Mary O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine how factors from a social ecologic model predict physical activity (PA among adolescents using a longitudinal analysis. Methods Participants in this longitudinal study were adolescents (ages 10-16 at baseline and one parent enrolled in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA and the Etiology of Childhood Obesity (ECHO. Both studies were designed to assess a socio-ecologic model of adolescent obesity risk. PA was collected using ActiGraph activity monitors at two time points 24 months apart. Other measures included objective height and weight, adolescent and parent questionnaires on multilevel psychological, behavioral and social determinants of PA, and a home PA equipment inventory. Analysis was conducted using SAS, including descriptive characteristics, bivariate and stepped multivariate mixed models, using baseline adjustment. Models were stratified by gender. Results There were 578 adolescents with complete data. Results suggest few statistically significant longitudinal associations with physical activity measured as minutes of MVPA or total counts from accelerometers. For boys, greater self-efficacy (B = 0.75, p = 0.01 and baseline MVPA (B = 0.55, p p = 0.01 and barriers (B = -0.32, p = 0.05 significantly predicted MVPA at follow-up in the full model. The full multilevel model explained 30% of the variance in PA among boys and 24% among girls. Conclusions PA change in adolescents is a complex issue that is not easily understood. Our findings suggest early PA habits are the most important predictor of PA levels in adolescence. Intervention may be necessary prior to middle school to maintain PA through adolescence.

  15. A Spatial Analysis of Tourism Activity in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luminita Constantin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Location is a key concept in tourism sector analysis, given the dependence of this activity on the natural, built, cultural and social characteristics of a certain territory. As a result, the tourist zoning is an important instrument for delimiting tourist areas in accordance with multiple criteria, so as to lay the foundations for finding the most suitable solutions of turning to good account the resources in this field. The modern approaches proposed in this paper use a series of analytical tools that combine GIS and spatial agglomeration analysis based techniques. They can be also employed in order to examine and explain the differences between tourist zones (and sub-zones in terms of economic and social results and thus to suggest realistic ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of tourist activities in various geographical areas. In the described context this paper proposes an interdisciplinary perspective (spatial statistics and Geographical Information Systems for analysing the tourism activity in Romania, mainly aiming to identify the agglomerations of companies acting in this industry and assess their performance and contribution to the economic development of the corresponding regions. It also intends to contribute to a better understanding of the way in which tourism related business activities develop, in order to enhance appropriate support networks. Territorial and spatial statistics, as well as GIS based analyses are applied, using data about all companies acting in tourism industry in Romania provided by the National Authority for Tourism as well as data from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI.

  16. Study of trace impurities in heroin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Yang, J.H.; Ouyang, H.; Li, Z.J.; Chai, Z.F.; Zhu, J.; Xi'an JiaoTong Univ., Shaanxi; Zhao, J.Z.; Yu, Z.S.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two heroin samples were analyzed for their contents of 15 trace elements (Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Large variations of elemental concentrations between samples were found to possess statistical significance. Of all the elements calcium was the most abundant element, followed by zinc and sodium. The concentrations of Au, Ce, Co, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, and Th in all the samples were below 1 μg x g -1 . Classification of these heroin samples was achieved by the application of hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that NAA can provide useful information on the origin of the illicit drugs. (author)

  17. Neutron sources for activation analysis of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1980-01-01

    The success of neutron activation analysis is frequently determined by the intensity, homogeneity and stability of the neutron flux. Thermal neutron fluxes of10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 are routinely achieved in research reactors, while small accelerators of the Cockroft-Walton type are able to produce fluxes on the order of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 using the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction. Isotopic neutron sources based upon spontaneous fission, (γ,n) or (d,n) reactions produce fluxes of from 10 3 to 10 6 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The reactor, the accelerator and isotope sources each have advantages and disadvantages, and each has been used successfully in the analysis of geologic materials. (L.L.)

  18. Calibration of HPGe detector for flowing sample neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, F.S.; Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo; Mohamed Soliman; Ahmed, M.M.; Rizk, R.A.M.; Megahid, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This work is concerned with the calibration of the HPGe detector used in flowing sample neutron activation analysis technique. The optimum counting configuration and half-life based correction factors have been estimated using Monte Carlo computer simulations. Depending on detection efficiency, sample volume and flow type around the detector, the optimum geometry was achieved using 4 mm diameter hose rolled in spiral shape around the detector. The derived results showed that the half-life based efficiency correction factors are strongly dependent on sample flow rate and the isotope half-life. (author)

  19. Neutron Activation Analysis of Pre-Columbian Pottery in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L; Antczak, Ma M Mackowiak de; Kasztovszky, Zs; Greaves, E D; Antczak, A; Simonits, A; Palacios, D; Millan, B

    2006-01-01

    Pre-Hispanic pottery figurines from north-central Venezuela islands and mainland were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA and PGAA) at the Budapest Research to establish their provenience. In order to classify the samples of figurines, characteristic molecular and atomic components were determined. Several mass ratios were calculated for significant classification of the object of two origins. Results shed light on the origin of island figurines and suggest specific areas of their production on the mainland, contributing to better understanding of late pre-Hispanic migration patterns in the southeastern Caribbean region

  20. Neutron Activation Analysis of Pre-Columbian Pottery in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó-Bohus, L.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma M.; Kasztovszky, Zs; Greaves, E. D.; Antczak, A.; Simonits, A.; Palacios, D.; Millan, B.

    2006-05-01

    Pre-Hispanic pottery figurines from north-central Venezuela islands and mainland were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA and PGAA) at the Budapest Research to establish their provenience. In order to classify the samples of figurines, characteristic molecular and atomic components were determined. Several mass ratios were calculated for significant classification of the object of two origins. Results shed light on the origin of island figurines and suggest specific areas of their production on the mainland, contributing to better understanding of late pre-Hispanic migration patterns in the southeastern Caribbean region.

  1. Charged particle activation analysis: present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis is a highly sensitive nuclear analytical technique for the determination of elements at trace and ultra trace levels. CPAA involves the irradiation of samples with high energy charged particles, both light ions and heavy ions, from an accelerator in the energy range of 10 to 100 MeV. CPAA has been developed and standardized for the determination of several elements at trace levels in various types of materials using high energy ion beams from VEC machine at Kolkata. A brief review on CPAA is presented here based on our present works and its applications in future. (author)

  2. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y.

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

  3. Rhodium in car exhaust tips by total automatic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Sterba, J.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust systems of modern cars contain catalysts for the reduction of CO, NO x and hydrocarbons. These catalysts are made of ceramic materials with a large surface on which platinum metals catalyse the oxidation. The catalysts contain approximately 2 g of platinum and 0.4 g of rhodium. Recently platinum is being replaced by palladium. During driving the platinum-group elements (PGEs) are expelled from the tip in fine particles and are deposited in the environment. For a projected study of emissions from cars driven on streets and highways it is important to know which elements can be measured by short time activation analysis without any chemical procedure. (author)

  4. The activation analysis of gold in small refractory pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, D.M.; Chaix, R.P.

    1975-08-01

    The gold content of a suite of small pebbles, residual to the milling and leach of a gold bearing ore, has been investigated by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA). An NAA technique presenting a sensitivity of 0.02μgm gold, was used as being appropriate to the samples under investigation. An alternative NAA technique developed with the same sample suite showed a sensitivity of the order of 10 -4 to 10 -5 μgm gold. The NAA techniques developed, are appropriate to the determination of gold in small samples of ore not normally amenable to milling and/or dissolution

  5. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis of an Egyptian cigarette and its ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of 28 elements in tobacco and cigarette paper in an Egyptian cigarette was determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These elements are: Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. The cigarette filter (before and after normal smoking) and the produced ash were analyzed to determine the adsorption of the elements on the filter and their remains in ash. The material balance for the determined elements were calculated. (author)

  7. Multielement analysis of iliac crest bone by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Korkusuz, F.; Olmez, I.; Sepici, B.; Eksioglu, F.; Bode, P.

    2000-01-01

    Bone samples from iliac crest were obtained from apparently healthy female (n = 4) and male (n = 8) subjects with ages between 15-50. Cortical and trabecular parts were separated and soft tissues like fat, muscle and blood were removed. Calcium, Mg, Na, Cl, Fe, Zn, Br, Sr, and Cs were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and other techniques, and their relations were discussed. Fairly good agreement was obtained with literature data. These values may serve as reference values for subjects from a Turkish population. (author)

  8. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  9. Fast neutron activation analysis at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Fast neutron generators are used at Texas A and M University to provide a supply of high energy neutrons for nuclear analytical measurements. A series of neutron activation analysis procedures have been developed for determining various major, minor and trace constituents in a variety of materials. These procedures are primarily developed to compliment our reactor based NAA program, thereby expanding the list of determinable elements to include those difficult or impossible to measure using thermal neutrons. A few typical methods are discussed. The unique implementation of the methodologies at Texas A and M are explained. (author)

  10. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  11. Determination of mercury in dentists through Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla M, M.A.; Granados C, F.

    1999-01-01

    It was determined the mercury levels in urine through Neutron activation analysis to 25 dentists who have been exposed to mercury by several time periods, because of the routine manipulations of amalgams. The determined concentrations of mercury were less to 10 μ g Hg/l of urine. The results were founded inside the safety limits reported in the literature. The mercury levels in the dentists are associated with a wide variety of factors that contribute to their exposure as: number of years of dental practice, number of amalgams manipulated between others. (Author)

  12. Neutron-activation analysis of routine mineral-processing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Eddy, B.; Pearton, D.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was applied to a suite of typical mineral-processing samples to establish which elements can be rapidly determined in them by this technique. A total of 35 elements can be determined with precisions (from the counting statistics) ranging from better than 1 per cent to approximately 20 per cent. The elements that can be determined have been tabulated together with the experimental conditions, the precision from the counting statistics, and the estimated number of analyses possible per day. With an automated system, this number can be as high as 150 in the most favourable cases [af

  13. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  14. Harmonic Analysis and Active Filtering in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to presence of long high voltage cable networks, and power transformers for the grid connection, the offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) are susceptible to harmonic distortion and resonances. The grid connection of OWPP should not cause the harmonic distortion beyond the permissible limits...... at the point of common coupling (PCC). The resonance conditions should be avoided in all cases. This paper describes the harmonic analysis techniques applied on an OWPP network model. A method is proposed to estimate the harmonic current compensation from a shunt-connected active power filter to mitigate...

  15. Activation Analysis. Proceedings of an Informal Study Group Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    As part of its programme to promote the exchange of information relating to nuclear science and technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened in Bangkok, Thailand, from 6-8 July 1970, an informal meeting to discuss the topic of Activation Analysis. The meeting was attended by participants drawn from the following countries: Australia, Burma, Ceylon, Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Prance, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States of America and Vietnam. The proceedings consist of the contributions presented at the meeting with minor editorial changes

  16. Automatization of the neutron activation analysis method in the nuclear analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, N.R.; Rivero, D del C.; Gonzalez, M.A.; Larramendi, F.

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper the work done to automatice the Neutron Activation Analysis technic with a neutron generator is described. An interface between an IBM compatible microcomputer and the equipment in use to make this kind of measurement was developed. including the specialized software for this system

  17. Speciation analysis of cobalt in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio; Koyama, Motoko

    1994-01-01

    A combined method by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, as a separation method) with neutron activation analysis (as a detection method) have been applied to the speciation analysis of cobalt in daily foods (e.g. egg, fish and milk). Cobalt species including free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were separated with a preparative HPLC and a centrifuge. Subsequently, the determination of cobalt in the separated species was made by neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the content of the total cobalt in the foods was found to lie in the range 0.4-11ng/g(0.4-11ppb) based on wet weight. The compositions of free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were ranged 16-43%, 55-73%, 2.3-17%, respectively. These experimental evidences suggest that the combination of HPLC and neutron activation analysis is expected to be a useful tool for speciation analysis of trace elements in biological as well as environmental materials. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the analysis of fresh, pasteurised and powder milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rehman, S.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study shows the application of semi-absolute k 0 instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for the determination of 21 elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sc Sr, and Zn) in different types of milk samples. The ENAA was required for the determination of iodine, AAS for Cu, Ni and Pb and the rest of the elements were measured by k 0 -INAA. Thirteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sr and Zn) were identified in all milk samples. Ni was detected in eleven and Pb in two samples. Concentrations of most of the elements were within the ranges of the world reported data. The data was further explored by principal component analysis to find relationships between samples and elements. (orig.)

  19. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Bayat, I.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs with the aid of neutron activation analysis the separation of volatile radionuclides after digestion of the sample is of special interest for radiochemical processing. A distillation procedure was developed to give reproducable results, however optimal conditions were not found for all volatile radionuclides studied. The required selective separation of Br-82 from the distillate was best achieved by the application of an ion-exchange column-chromatography technique. The computer programs for the evaluation of complex gamma spectra have been developed further. The automatic peak search and peak area determination is based on a computer program using the correlation technique and carried out with a mini-computer coupled with a multi-channel gamma spectrometer. The results, which are presented in 3 earlier reports relating to this research program, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the individual steps of the radiochemical separation scheme. Before neutron activation analysis can be introduced on a routine basis, some aspects of the radiochemical process remain to be tested; these studies will be published in a fourth and final report. (orig.) [de

  20. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

  1. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  2. Optimization to the medical facilities for Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin Mergarerejo, Ricardo; GarcIa Parra, Lazaro; Desdin, Luis Felipe; Lopez Aldama, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    A method of detection of the Fluorine is presented by means of the neutron activation analysis. This method supposes an accuracy in the determination of any very high element (of the ppm order); but having the particularity that with Oxygen and Fluorine after certain nuclear reactions are obtained the same reaction product (son). This implies serious inconveniences since an interference he/she takes place among the activation of the Oxygen and of the Fluorine falsifying the reading. To save this inconvenience and to take advantage of the kindness of this method it is known that the Oxygen is activated for neutrons with superior energy to the 10.5 MeV, while the Fluorine for energy of the superior incident neutrons to the 1.5 MeV. We think about as hypothesis that is possible to reduce the interference of the Oxygen using a moderator in order to affect the statistic of the count the less possible thing. The objective of the present work is to design and to optimize an installation to measure concentrations of Fluorine in presence of Oxygen using neutrons of 14 MeV coming from a generator of neutrons of the type NG-12-1. To fulfill our objective leaving of the hypothesis an experimental simulation it was implemented using mathematical methods of having proven efficiency in the transport of neutrons like the method of Mount Carlo (specifically the code MCNP-)

  3. The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, V.

    1988-01-01

    Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities

  4. Analysis of physical activity mass media campaign design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Tina; Wallace, Jana; Brown, David; Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N; Fridinger, Fred

    2014-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are a necessary tool for public health practitioners to reach large populations and promote healthy behaviors. Most health scholars have concluded that mass media can significantly influence the health behaviors of populations; however the effects of such campaigns are typically modest and may require significant resources. A recent Community Preventive Services Task Force review on stand-alone mass media campaigns concluded there was insufficient evidence to determine their effectiveness in increasing physical activity, partly due to mixed methods and modest and inconsistent effects on levels of physical activity. A secondary analysis was performed on the campaigns evaluated in the Task Force review to determine use of campaign-building principles, channels, and levels of awareness and their impact on campaign outcomes. Each study was analyzed by 2 reviewers for inclusion of campaign building principles. Campaigns that included 5 or more campaign principles were more likely to be successful in achieving physical activity outcomes. Campaign success is more likely if the campaign building principles (formative research, audience segmentation, message design, channel placement, process evaluation, and theory-based) are used as part of campaign design and planning.

  5. Multielement neutron activation analysis of underground water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Fujimoto, Yuzo; Ishida, Keiko; Mamuro, Tetsuo.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution and large volume Ge (Li) detectors followed by data processing with an electronic computer was applied to the multielemental analysis to elucidate the chemical qualities of the underground water which has been widely used in the sake brewing industries in Mikage, Uozaki and Nishinomiya districts, called as miyamizu. The evaporated residues of the water samples were subjected to the neutron irradiations in reactor for 1 min at a thermal flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 and for 30 hrs at a thermal flux of 9.3 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .sec -1 or for 5 hrs at a thermal flux of 3.9 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Thus, 11 elements in the former short irradiation and 38 elements in the latter two kinds of long irradiation can be analyzed. Conventional chemical analysis including atomic absorption method and others are also applied on the same samples, and putting the all results together, some considerations concerning the geochemical meaning of the analytical values are made. (author)

  6. A provenance study of coffee by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.J.; Wells, D.P.; Maschner, H.; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID; Benson, B.

    2013-01-01

    Photon activation analysis (PAA) is a multi-elemental radioanalytical technique in trace elements analysis with high accuracy and precision. Researchers at the Idaho accelerator center performed PAA analysis on coffee samples from several locations around the world as an initial step in assessing the relationship between trace elements in illicit drugs and the soils in which they were grown. The preliminary results show coffees from different locations have different concentrations of trace elements. In the three cases where we have soil samples, the matrices of elements in the coffee samples are closely related to the matrices of the elements of the local soil samples. The majority of trace elemental content is similar to that of the local soil sample in which the coffee is planted. It may be that coffee assimilates numerous elements from the soil where it is grown in similar ratios as is found in the soil. Thus, it is conceivable that the elemental content could serve as 'fingerprint' to trace the origins of the coffee. To verify our analytical results we applied X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods as well. Our PAA results are consistent with XRF experimental data. The future of tracing the origin of illicit drugs with the PAA technique is promising. (author)

  7. Optimization to improve precision in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustina Tri Handayani

    2010-01-01

    The level of precision or accuracy required in analysis should be satisfied the general requirements and customer needs. In presenting the results of the analysis, the level of precision is expressed as uncertainty. Requirement general is Horwitz prediction. Factors affecting the uncertainty in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) include the mass of sample, mass standards, concentration in standard, count of sample, count of standard and counting geometry. Therefore, to achieve the expected level of precision, these parameters need to be optimized. A standard concentration of similar materials is applied as a basis of calculation. In the calculation NIST SRM 2704 is applied for sediment samples. Mass of sample, irradiation time and cooling time can be modified to obtain the expected uncertainty. The prediction results show the level of precision for Al, V, Mg, Mn, K, Na, As, Cr, Co, Fe, and Zn eligible the Horwitz. The predictive the count and standard deviation for Mg-27 and Zn-65 were higher than the actual value occurred due to overlapping of Mg-27 and Mn-54 peaks and Zn-65 and Fe-59 peaks. Precision level of Ca is greater than the Horwitz, since the value of microscopic cross section, the probability of radiation emission of Ca-49 and gamma spectrometer efficiency at 3084 keV is relatively small. Increased precision can only be done by extending the counting time and multiply the number of samples, because of the fixed value. The prediction results are in accordance with experimental results. (author)

  8. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis for uranium and associated elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The samples obtained by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program are activated in the intense neutron flux from a Savannah River Plant production reactor. A pilot-scale facility was installed at the reactor site to provide analyses of samples through the initial phase of the program and to develop design data for a full-scale facility. Sediments are analyzed by direct activation of 0.5-g samples. However, to analyze ground or surface water samples, mineral elements from 1-liter samples are concentrated on ion exchange resin and then approximately 5-g samples of resin are activated. Uranium concentration is determined by counting neutrons emitted from specific short-lived products of fission induced in 235 U by the primary neutron flux. Repetitive short cycles of irradiation and counting permit detection and determination of <0.1 μg of uranium. Elements associated with uranium are determined by spectral analysis of the gamma ray activities induced by the cyclic and subsequent longer irradiations. The pilot facility consists of four irradiation positions (plus 2 spare positions), a sample loader and unloader, and counting stations with neutron and gamma ray detectors, all interconnected with a pneumatic sample transport system. A computer controls both the transport system and the data acquisition devices. Gamma ray counting data are stored on magnetic tape for further processing by a large central computer. Facility hardware and software are described. Repetitive analyses of standards have shown an accuracy within +-10% for uranium values and within +-25% for associated elements. A quality assurance program has been developed to maintain these levels of reliability

  10. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Roberto Nogueira da

    1998-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  11. Antioxidant activity of Costa Rican propolis: a multivariate analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umana Rojas, Eduardo; Solado, Godofredo; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is produced by Apis mellifera bees from resins of plants that are found around the apiary. The chemical composition is highly variable and Costa Rica has reported without studies of characterization to define the types of propolis in the country. 119 samples were collected from beekeeping areas of the country. The spectrum of 1 H-NMR and its antioxidant activity against DPPH radical were measured. The spectra have been divided into 243 blocks of 0,04 ppm and processed with the Minitab software for multivariate analysis. 99 of the samples collected were used for construction of models for the valuation of the predictive ability of the model have been used coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of prediction by the software and the remaining 20 samples. The existence of three types of propolis with chemically different metabolomes were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). A prediction model was constructed by analysis of partial least squares (PLS). The prediction model has allowed to classify a propolis according to the level of antioxidant activity (AAO), high (type I and II) or low (type III) from the spectrum of 1 H-NMR. The R 2 has been 0.88 and R 2 prediction of 0, 718 for new samples. The nconiferyl benzoate of group I and nemorosone of the group II as two discriminated antioxidants among the groups I and II were isolated and high concentration levels of these compounds have been differentiated with respect to type III. This has allowed the construction of a linear discriminant model with a success rate of 100% for the samples used for formulation and 92,9 for the prediction of different samples. The classification systems could be applied to the standardization of the quality of propolis from Costa Rica for future medicinal or cosmetic applications that take advantage of its antioxidant properties. Also, the methylated derivative has isolated and identified of the nconiferyl benzoate thereof propolis than was obtained his counterpart

  12. The determination of chromium in water samples by neutron activation analysis after preconcentration on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of chromium in sea- and fresh water. Chromium is concentrated on activated carbon from a neutral solution after a previous reduction of chromate with sodium sulfite at pH 1.5. The adsorption conditions, acidity, concentrations, amount of carbon, stirring-time, sample-volume, salinity, the influence of storage on the ratio of tervalent to hexavalent chromium, were investigated. The final determination of the total chromium content is performed by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. By preconcentration on activated carbon, a differentiation between tervalent and hexavalent chromium is possible. A separate determination of both species is not yet feasible due to the high carbon blank and to the necessity of measuring the adsorption percentage on carbon. The lower limit of determination, which depends on the value of the carbon blank, is 0.05 μg Cr/l with a precision of 20%. The determination is hampered by the considerable blank from the carbon. The use of activated carbon prepared from recrystallized sugar will probably improve the lower limit of determination and possibly allow the determination of chromate. (T.G.)

  13. Comparison of neutron activation analysis with other instrumental methods for elemental analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de; Lievens, F.; Delespaul, I.; Monsecour, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental methods, including neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrometry, for the analysis of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter is described. The merits and drawbacks of each method for the routine analysis of a large number of samples are discussed. The sample preparation technique, calibration and statistical data relevant to each method are given. Concordant results are obtained by the different methods for Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Less good agreement is obtained for Fe, Mn and V. The results are not in agreement for the elements Cd and Cr. Using data obtained on the dust sample distributed by Euratom-ISPRA within the framework of an interlaboratory comparison, the accuracy of each method for the various elements is estimated. Neutron activation analysis was found to be the most sensitive and accurate of the non-destructive analysis methods. Only atomic absorption spectrometry has a comparable sensitivity, but requires considerable preparation work. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is less sensitive and shows biases for Cr and V. Automatic emission spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the beam intensities by photomultipliers is the fastest and most economical technique, though at the expense of some precision and sensitivity. (author)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of the MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium fitate active principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Sayaz, G.; Moreno Bermudez, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Molina Insfran, J.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) both instrumental (INAA) and radiochemical (RNAA) are extensively applied for determination of minor and trace elements in samples of quite different origin and composition. Particularly, the application of INAA is well recognized for analysis of microquantitis of heavy metals as well as toxic elements in biological samples. In this work the possibility of the determination of MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium fitate elemental composition by INAA was investigated Analytical information about the concentration and/or detection limits of some toxic elements (Hg, Cd, As, Se, Sb) and other trace elements of interest (Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br) was obtained. The samples were irradiated in the CAb Ra-6 nuclear research reactor

  15. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method (k 0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method

  16. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  17. Neutron activation analysis for calibration of phosphorus implantation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Rick L.; Simons, David S.

    2001-01-01

    A feasibility study was undertaken to determine if radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) can be used to certify the retained dose of phosphorus implanted in silicon, with the goal of producing a phosphorus SRM. Six pieces of silicon, implanted with a nominal phosphorus dose of 8.5x10 14 atoms·cm -2 were irradiated at a neutron flux of 1.05x10 14 cm -2 ·s -1 . The samples were mixed with carrier, dissolved in acid, the phosphorus isolated by chemical separation, and 32 P measured using a beta proportional counter. A mean phosphorus concentration of (8.35±0.20)x10 14 atoms·cm -2 (uncertainty=1 standard deviation) was determined for the six samples, in agreement with the nominal implanted dose

  18. The analysis and reconciliation of students' rebuttals in argumentation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ren; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the guidance provided by science teachers to resolve conflicts during socioscientific issue-based argumentation activities. A graphical representation (GR) was developed as a tool to code and analyze the dialogue interaction process. Through the GR and qualitative analysis, we identified three types of dialogue reconciling strategies. The first one consists of teacher management, in which the teacher temporarily maintains the right to speak when students get mired in an emotional rebuttal situation. The second strategy involves the use of qualifiers to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an opposing argument. The third strategy consists of providing students with guidance to keep both parties (i.e. the students taking, respectively, the affirmative and negative positions) on the same discussion topic and can be used to assist teachers with forming broad questions that prompt students to conduct deeper discussions. These reconciling strategies were beneficial in that they helped students to argue in a more reflective way.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Henrique S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  20. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Quintana C, G.; Torres R, C. E.; Mejia J, J. O.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  1. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Robert R., E-mail: robert.greenberg@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Bode, Peter, E-mail: p.bode@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A., E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere - Metrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance - Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  2. Characterization of FCCU catalyst powder using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.G.C.; Tomar, B.S.; Nathaniel, T.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pant, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Two catalyst samples used in Fluid Catalyst Cracking Units (FICUS) in petroleum refineries were characterized for their elemental composition as well as for finding the most suitable radioisotope(s) present required to be used as a tracer in radiotracer investigations. Neutron activation analysis of the samples was carried using IAEA Certified Reference Materials (CRM) as standards. Thirteen different elements were identified and their concentrations were determined. From the gamma-ray spectra of a sample cooled for seven days after the irradiation, it was found that 140 La is the most suitable radioisotope present in the catalyst powder and thus the irradiated catalyst powder itself could be used as a radiotracer for tracing solid phase in FCCU investigations. (author)

  3. Tables of nuclear constants for gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Kreisinger, F.

    1983-01-01

    Tables of nuclear data were compiled for the purpose of routine gamma (photon) activation analysis. The tables are arranged in two parts. The first one lists the radionuclides in the order of their atomic number. In the second one, the emitted gamma-ray photons are tabulated in the order of increasing energy. Tables contain the gamma emitters produced by the following photonuclear reactions: (#betta#,#betta#), (#betta#,n), (#betta#,p), (#betta#,p+n), (#betta#,2n), (#betta#,3n), (#betta#,4n), (#betta#,2p), (#betta#,α), (#betta#,α+n), (#betta#,α+p). This set corresponds to the maximum energy of the bremsstrahlung of roughly 45 MeV. The program for the output of the tabulated data allows the data as required for specific irradiation and measuring reduction of conditions (reaction thresholds, energy and intensity of gamma-rays, half-lives and target elements). (author)

  4. Determination of gallium in flint clay by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padova, A.; Even, O.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to determine gallium traces in different flint clay samples found in Israel. The principal 835 KeV gamma ray of gallium-72 was measured with a 60 cm 2 Ge(Li) spectrometer in conjunction with a Packard 4000 channel analyzer and Wang table computer, model 720 C. Samples were weighed into polyethylene vials, sealed and inserted into polyethylene rabbit. Gallium metal and gallium oxide used as standards were similarly prepared for irradiation for 10 minutes in the I.R.R.I., at a thermal flux of 3.5x10 12 n/cm 2 sec. Careful calibration of the spectrometer and judicious choice of cooling time eliminate the influence of such elements as europium-152, and sodium-24 and make possible the determination of gallium without prior chemical separation. Representative Israel flint clay samples contain about 55 ppm gallium. (B.G.)

  5. Neutron activation analysis of new botanical reference materials. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L.

    1993-01-01

    The certified, information, and other values of elemental contents were compared with results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the new Czechoslovak botanical reference materials (RMs) Green Algae 12-02-02, Lucerne 12-02-03, Wheat Bread Fluor 12-02-04, and Rye Bread Flour 12-02-05. These were prepared by the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, and statistically evaluated after interlaboratory comparisons. For the majority of elements, a very good agreement was found between the IRANT values and the results of NAA. In several cases, however, significant differences were detected; possible analytical reasons for the differences and the suitability of a purely statistical evaluation of intercomparison results without analytical considerations for RM certification are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Neutron activation analysis on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at giving support to the Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, an assessment related arsenic was carried out in two galvanising factories by means of hair and toenail samples analysis as biomonitors. The arsenic was determined in all matrixes from the factories where gold electrodeposition process was applied. This is because arsenic salts are usually added to gold bath to improve the metal covering. The high concentration results surprised the health surveillance professionals, and alerted for the need of assessing the influence of a long-term exposure. Studies concerning galvanising process have usually been developed broaching many aspects, but so far few works has pointed out the detection and measurement of other elements like arsenic. The k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation method was applied confirming to be a suitable technique on determination of arsenic in biological matrixes. (author)

  7. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  8. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R

    2007-01-15

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future.

  9. Multielement characterization of atmospheric pollutants by x-ray fluorescence analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancitelli, L.A.; Tanner, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of a wide spectrum of elements in aerosols collected on air filters and in rainwater can yield information on the origin, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. In order to determine the elemental content of these aerosols, a pair of highly sensitive, precise and complementing instrumental techniques, x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis, have been developed and employed. Data are presented on the results of combined x-ray fluorescence and activation analysis of aerosols collected in a number of urban areas of the USA and from the 80th median sampling network in March 1972. From a comparison of these ratios in granite and diabase with those of filters placed in urban areas, it is evident that Zn, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb levels have been increased by as much as several orders of magnitude. Al, Co, La, Fe, Eu, Sm, Tb, Ta, Hf, and Th appear to exist at levels compatible with an earth's crust origin

  10. Analysis of College Students' Personal Health Information Activities: Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Sinn, Donghee; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2018-04-20

    With abundant personal health information at hand, individuals are faced with a critical challenge in evaluating the informational value of health care records to keep useful information and discard that which is determined useless. Young, healthy college students who were previously dependents of adult parents or caregivers are less likely to be concerned with disease management. Personal health information management (PHIM) is a special case of personal information management (PIM) that is associated with multiple interactions among varying stakeholders and systems. However, there has been limited evidence to understand informational or behavioral underpinning of the college students' PHIM activities, which can influence their health in general throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate demographic and academic profiles of college students with relevance to PHIM activities. Next, we sought to construct major PHIM-related activity components and perceptions among college students. Finally, we sought to discover major factors predicting core PHIM activities among college students we sampled. A Web survey was administered to collect responses about PHIM behaviors and perceptions among college students from the University of Kentucky from January through March 2017. A total of 1408 college students were included in the analysis. PHIM perceptions, demographics, and academic variations were used as independent variables to predict diverse PHIM activities using a principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical regression analyses (SPSS v.24, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Majority of the participants were female (956/1408, 67.90%), and the age distribution of this population included an adequate representation of college students of all ages. The most preferred health information resources were family (612/1408, 43.47%), health care professionals (366/1408, 26.00%), friends (27/1408, 1.91%), and the internet (157/1408, 11.15%). Organizational or

  11. Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs from Corn Stalk: Activation Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were isolated from corn stalk using sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and their morphology, chemical structure, and thermal stability properties were characterized. The CNCs had an average length of 120.2 ± 61.3 nm and diameter of 6.4 ± 3.1 nm (L/D = 18.7. The degree of crystallinity of the CNCs increased to 69.20% from the 33.20% crystallinity of raw corn stalk fiber, while the chemical structure was well kept after sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Thermal stability analysis showed that the degradation temperature of the CNCs reached 239.5 °C, which was higher than that of the raw fiber but lower than that of the extracted cellulose. The average activation energy values for the CNCs, evaluated using the Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (F-W-O and Coats-Redfern methods, were 312.6, 302.8, and 309 kJ·mol−1 in the conversion range of 0.1 to 0.8. The isolated CNCs had higher values of activation energy than did the purified cellulose, which was attributed to the stronger hydrogen bonds present in the crystalline domains of CNCs than in those of cellulose. These findings can help better understand the thermal properties of polymer/CNC composites.

  12. Activation analysis utilizing byproduct neutrons of cyclotron internal target runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.; Finn, R.; Smith, P.; Tavano, E.; Dwyer, J.; Sheh, H.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron flux generated by the CS-30 cyclotron at Mt Sinai Medical Center during routine internal target runs was characterized by employing various elements as neutron monitors. The characteristic (p,xn) nuclear reactions from internal targets bombarded by 26.5 Mev protons and the cyclotron inner wall bombarded by stray protons produce a neutron flux of approximately 2 x 10 9 cm -2 s -1 at energies up to 22 MeV at a point immediately outside the cyclotron vacuum chamber. Samples exposed to neutron fluences up to 5 x 10 14 cm -2 were analyzed with a Ge(Li) detector. Although the detection limits are relatively high (i.e., Au-0.2 μg; In-1 μg; Na-50 μg), this mode of neutron activation analysis is ancillary to other irradiations and allows a large number of samples to be monitored. This approach may provide an alternative to a neutron generator for research activation applications. (orig.)

  13. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  14. Revisiting Greek Propolis: Chromatographic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Machera, Kyriaki

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin.

  15. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  16. Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; El-Shershaby, A.; Walley El-Dine, N.

    1996-01-01

    Two brazing alloy samples (C P 2 and C P 3 ) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10 1 1 n/cm 2 /s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10 1 2 n/cm 2 /s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab

  17. Revisiting Greek Propolis: Chromatographic Analysis and Antioxidant Activity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos M Kasiotis

    Full Text Available Propolis is a bee product that has been extensively used in alternative medicine and recently has gained interest on a global scale as an essential ingredient of healthy foods and cosmetics. Propolis is also considered to improve human health and to prevent diseases such as inflammation, heart disease, diabetes and even cancer. However, the claimed effects are anticipated to be correlated to its chemical composition. Since propolis is a natural product, its composition is consequently expected to be variable depending on the local flora alignment. In this work, we present the development of a novel HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS targeted method, used to identify and quantify 59 phenolic compounds in Greek propolis hydroalcoholic extracts. Amongst them, nine phenolic compounds are herein reported for the first time in Greek propolis. Alongside GC-MS complementary analysis was employed, unveiling eight additional newly reported compounds. The antioxidant activity study of the propolis samples verified the potential of these extracts to effectively scavenge radicals, with the extract of Imathia region exhibiting comparable antioxidant activity to that of quercetin.

  18. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Study of coal oxidation by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    It has been possible, using the technique of changed particle activation analysis, to follow the time course of the oxidation of coal exposed to air. The kinetics have been studied and seem to be consistent with a rapid initial uptake of oxygen containing molecules followed by slow diffusion into the surface of the coal particles. In this latter regard a study has been undertaken to study the depth profile of the oxygen into the coal particle surface. The depth of penetration of the activating particle is determined by the incident energy and therefore, by comparison to the appropriate standards, the depth profile may be determined either by varying the incident energy or by varying the particle size. Both approaches have been used and give consistent results. The depth to which a significant amount of oxygen penetrates varies from about 3 μm for very high rank coals to about 20 μm for low rank coals. This diffusion depth seems to be related to the porosity of the coals. A model for the low temperature air oxidation of coal has been developed to explain the results from the above mentioned experiments

  20. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  1. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.; Madaro, M.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  2. Analysis of elements in human blood of patients with chronic kidney disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Kovacs, L.; Genezini, F.A.; Santos, N.F.; Vilela, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as in whole blood of normal individuals (control group). The dependence of the elements concentration in function of sex, age, time and type of treatment were investigated. The similarities and differences between healthy individuals and CKD are discussed. (author)

  3. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth’s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1 Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2 The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3 For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4 Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth’s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  4. Neutron activation analysis for the characterization of seawater uranium adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, M; Landsberger, S; Schneider, E; Eder, S

    2018-03-01

    This work details the development of an iterative neutron activation analysis (NAA) based workflow to precisely quantify metal ion uptake in an adsorbent. The workflow is iterative because it explores the dependence between independent variables defining the adsorbent fabrication procedure and the time-dependent uptake. It can be adapted to other adsorbents provided they have an affinity for ions which are amenable to efficient quantification using NAA. For this work, the ability of silver nanoparticles to mitigate the negative effects of biofouling on uranium transfer to an adsorbent was ultimately of interest, and hence motivates the development of this method. The limits of U detection and quantification were found to be 0.609 and 3.01μgg -1 , respectively; these were obtained using modest irradiation and counting times. The uncertainties arising from the NAA procedure were no more than 9.9%, far smaller than other sources of uncertainty present in the analysis. These results provided solid evidence that adsorbent shape and structure, rather than uniformity of composition, drives variability in adsorption of uranium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of eruca sativa seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Sadiq, A.; Tariq, H.; Imran, M.; Qureshi, R.; Zeenat, A.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Eruca sativa seed as well as seed oil was investigated against Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed from seed oil followed by methanolic seed extracts from all bacterial strains compared with broad spectrum antibiotics gentamicine. MIC values of seed oil were within the ranges of 52-72 mu g/ml as compared to 56-70 mu g/ml standard antibiotic Gentamicine). Proximate and Phytochemical analysis of seed of E. sativa showed presence of all essential phyto constituents required for promising traditional medicine. Analysis of seed oil by gas chromatography revealed that there was high concentration of Erucic acid (51.2%) followed by oleic acid (15.1%) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (12.5%). In addition, minor quantities of other essential and non essential fatty acids were also present. Therefore the present study supports effectiveness of E. sativa seeds for it use in traditional medicine used in various human disorders. (author)

  7. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  8. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  9. Neutron activation analysis: a powerful tool in provenance investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Sandro; Oddone, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that neutron activation analysis (NAA), both instrumental and destructive, allows the simultaneous determination of a number of elements, mostly trace elements, with high levels of precision and accuracy. These peculiar properties of NAA are very useful when applied to provenance studies, i.e. to the identification of the origin of raw materials with which artifacts had been manufactured in ancient times. Data reduction by statistical procedures, especially multivariate analysis techniques, provides a statistical 'fingerprint' of investigated materials, both raw materials and archaeological artifacts, that, upon comparison, allows the identification of the provenance of prime matters used for artifact manufacturing. Thus information on quarries and flows exploitation in the antiquity, on technological raw materials processing, on trade routes and about the circulation of fakes, can be obtained. In the present paper two case studies are reported. The first one deals with the identification of the provenance of clay used to make ceramic materials, mostly bricks and tiles, recovered from the excavation of a Roman 'villa' in Lomello (Roman name Laumellum) and of Roman settlings in Casteggio (Roman name Clastidium). Both sites are located in the Province of Pavia in areas called Lomellina and Oltrepo respectively. The second one investigates the origin of the white marble used to build medieval arks, Carolingian age, located in the church of San Felice, now property of the University of Pavia. Experimental set-up, analytical results and data reduction procedures are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL SSCM ACTIVITIES THROUGH CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Narasimham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, economic and environmental performance has to be balanced in India. Green supply chain management (GSCM is emerging as an important proactive approach for Indian enterprises for improving environmental performance of processes and products in accordance with the requirements of environmental regulations. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity,construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM requirements. This study examines the consistency approaches by Confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption and implementation of Sustainable supply chain management activities in small & medium scale industries. The requirements include Management commitment, customer coordination, sustainable design & production, green procurement and eco logistics for sustainable supply chains. This study suggested that the five factor model with eighteen items of the sustainable supply chain design had a good fit. Further, the study showed a valid and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the requirements of sustainable supply chains.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  13. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, L.; Olerud, H.; Saxeboel, G.

    1987-01-01

    A status report from the project ''Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway'' is presented. A principal project description as well as the main purpose of the project are presented. The report gives information on methods and strategy in connection with patient dose measurements and instrument calibration. The main task of the report is to present and explain the development of an analytical tool based on computer programs. At present, five different programs are produced, linked together in a menusystem. The programs deal with registration of observed variables, compute aritmetic mean/median values, make statistics,and plot and calculate integrated doses from X-ray examinations of interest. So far approximately 2200 X-ray examinations have been observed, each limited to 24 observation variables. The potential power of the analytical tool is demonstrated for the barium meal examination. The analysis indicates a mean integrated energy of 229 mJ per examination, while the annual collective dose from these examinations is 200 manSv in Norway. Discussion of facts relevant to optimization clearly shows that the use of 100 mm technique should be encouraged

  14. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt

  15. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  17. Laboratory of neutron activation analysis at the Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, Řež

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2011), s. 30-35 ISSN 1061-9127 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * epithermal neutron activation analysis * radiochemical neutron activation analysis * applications in science and technology Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis as a routine method for rock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1977-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation methods for the analysis of geological samples have been developed. Special emphasis has been laid on the improvement of sensitivity and accuracy in order to maximize tha quality of the analyses. Furthermore, the procedures have been automated as far as possible in order to minimize the cost of the analysis. A short review of the basic literature is given followed by a description of the principles of the method. All aspects concerning the sensitivity are discussed thoroughly in view of the analyst's possibility of influencing them. Experimentally determined detection limits for Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U are given. The errors of the method are discussed followed by actions taken to avoid them. The most significant error was caused by flux deviation, but this was avoided by building a rotating sample holder for rotating the samples during irradiation. A scheme for the INAA of 32 elements is proposed. The method has been automated as far as possible and an automatic γ-spectrometer and a computer program for the automatic calculation of the results are described. Furthermore, a completely automated uranium analyzer based on delayed neutron counting is described. The methods are discussed in view of their applicability to rock analysis. It is stated that the sensitivity varies considerably from element to element and instrumental activation analysis is an excellent method for the analysis of some specific elements like lanthanides, thorium and uranium but less so for many other elements. The accuracy is good varying from 2% to 10% for most elements. Instrumental activation analysis for most elements is rather an expensive method there being, however, a few exceptions. The most important of these is uranium. The analysis of uranium by delayed neutron counting is an inexpensive means for the analysis of large numbers of samples needed for

  19. Synchronization analysis of the uterine magnetic activity during contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson James D

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent of synchronization of the spatial-temporal myometrial activity over the human uterus before and during a contraction using transabdominal magnetomyographic (MMG recordings. Synchronization can be an important indicator for the quantification of uterine contractions. Methods The spatialtermporal myometrial activity recordings were performed using a 151-channel noninvasive magnetic sensor system called SARA. This device covers the entire pregnant abdomen and records the magnetic field corresponding to the electrical activity generated in the uterine myometrium. The data was collected at 250 samples/sec and was resampled with 25 samples/sec and then filtered in the band of 0.1–0.2 Hz to study the primary magnetic activity of the uterus related to contractions. The synchronization between a channel pair was computed. It was inferred from a statistical tendency to maintain a nearly constant phase difference over a given period of time even though the analytic phase of each channel may change markedly during that time frame. The analytic phase was computed after taking Hilbert transform of the magnetic field data. The process was applied on the pairs of magnetic field traces (240 sec length with a stepping window of 20 sec duration which is long enough to cover two cycle of the lowest frequency of interest (0.1 Hz. The analysis was repeated by stepping the window at 10 sec intervals. The spatial patterns of the synchronization indices covering the anterior transabdominal area were computed. For this, regional coil-pairs were used. For a given coil, the coil pairs were constructed with the surrounding six coils. The synchronization indices were computed for each coil pair, averaged over the 21 coil-pairs and then assigned as the synchronization index to that particular coil. This procedure was tested on six pregnant subjects at the gestational age between 29 and 40 weeks

  20. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking

  1. Using robust statistics to improve neutron activation analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique where an unknown sample is submitted to a neutron flux in a nuclear reactor, and its elemental composition is calculated by measuring the induced activity produced. By using the relative NAA method, one or more well-characterized samples (usually certified reference materials - CRMs) are irradiated together with the unknown ones, and the concentration of each element is then calculated by comparing the areas of the gamma ray peaks related to that element. When two or more CRMs are used as reference, the concentration of each element can be determined by several different ways, either using more than one gamma ray peak for that element (when available), or using the results obtained in the comparison with each CRM. Therefore, determining the best estimate for the concentration of each element in the sample can be a delicate issue. In this work, samples from three CRMs were irradiated together and the elemental concentration in one of them was calculated using the other two as reference. Two sets of peaks were analyzed for each element: a smaller set containing only the literature-recommended gamma-ray peaks and a larger one containing all peaks related to that element that could be quantified in the gamma-ray spectra; the most recommended transition was also used as a benchmark. The resulting data for each element was then reduced using up to five different statistical approaches: the usual (and not robust) unweighted and weighted means, together with three robust means: the Limitation of Relative Statistical Weight, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval. The resulting concentration values were then compared to the certified value for each element, allowing for discussion on both the performance of each statistical tool and on the best choice of peaks for each element. (author)

  2. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Greenberg, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (≤ 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ≤ 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

  4. A software architectural framework specification for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.A.; Grant, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is a sensitive multi-element nuclear analytical technique that has been routinely applied by research reactor (RR) facilities to environmental, nutritional, health related, geological and geochemical studies. As RR facilities face calls to increase their research output and impact, with existing or reducing budgets, automation of NAA offers a possible solution. However, automation has many challenges, not the least of which is a lack of system architecture standards to establish acceptable mechanisms for the various hardware/software and software/software interactions among data acquisition systems, specialised hardware such as sample changers, sample loaders, and data processing modules. This lack of standardization often results in automation hardware and software being incompatible with existing system components, in a facility looking to automate its NAA operations. This limits the availability of automation to a few RR facilities with adequate budgets or in-house engineering resources. What is needed is a modern open system architecture for NAA, that provides the required set of functionalities. This paper describes such an 'architectural framework' (OpenNAA), and portions of a reference implementation. As an example of the benefits, calculations indicate that applying this architecture to the compilation and QA steps associated with the analysis of 35 elements in 140 samples, with 14 SRM's, can reduce the time required by over 80 %. The adoption of open standards in the nuclear industry has been very successful over the years in promoting interchangeability and maximising the lifetime and output of nuclear measurement systems. OpenNAA will provide similar benefits within the NAA application space, safeguarding user investments in their current system, while providing a solid path for development into the future. (author)

  5. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    1993-01-01

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on γ-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a γ-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the γ-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A γ-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the γ-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a γ-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all γ-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this 'holistic' approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of γ-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP)

  6. Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchai, Daisy; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, Sasikala R; Pitchai, Gnanamani

    2010-07-06

    Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plants, here we describe another web database containing the information of pharmacophore analysis of active principles possessing antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous and antioxidant properties from medicinal plants. The database provides the botanical, taxonomic classification, biochemical as well as pharmacological properties of medicinal plants. Data on antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti oxidative, anti tumor and anti inflammatory compounds, and their physicochemical properties, SMILES Notation, Lipinski's properties are included in our database. One of the proposed features in the database is the predicted ADMET values and the interaction of bioactive compounds to the target protein. The database alphabetically lists the compound name and also provides tabs separating for anti microbial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antioxidative compounds. http://www.hccbif.info /

  7. Present status of neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, in spite of its many advantageous features, is less widely used than some alternative trace element techniques, and has been losing ground during the last decade. In the environmental field however there are still many problems which can be solved in a better way by the contribution of NAA. The combination of multi-element capability and high accuracy is of great importance in many studies related to atmospheric trace elements. Also in aquatic studies NAA still has a significant role to play. Applications to soils, sediments, and plant material have so far been limited, but there is a place for further development. The scope of NAA in environmental research may be extended by further use of pre-irradiation separations. NAA is particularly important in the certification of analytical reference materials in the environmental field. In future applications of NAA an appropriate combination with other analytical techniques will often be a requisite for success. The general future of NAA is dependent on the availability of nuclear reactors, radiochemical laboratoties and appropriate competence. 21 references

  8. Characterization of Brazilian commercial milks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the determination of toxic and essential elements in Brazilian commercial bovine milk, 25 ultra high temperature (UHT) milk samples were acquired in the local market of Piracicaba, SP. The samples were freeze-dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) allowing the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn. When the results were expressed as concentration (mg x l -1 ) no significant differences were found. However, considering the dry matter, results showed a clear difference between the mass fractions (mg x kg -1 d.w.) of skim milk and whole milk for the elements Br, Ca, K, Na, Rb and Zn, indicating that the removal of fat caused a concentration effect in the dry matter of skim milks. Discrepancies were found between the concentrations of Ca and Na measured by INAA and the values informed in the labels. Ca showed variations within 30% for most samples, while concentrations of Na were up to 190% higher than informed values. The sample preparation and the INAA procedure were appropriate for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn in milk samples. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Imai, Sakingo; Ohmori, Sayoko.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical values of trace elements in sea water samples have been fluctuated according to the sampling locations, the analytical procedures and so on. It is very important in marine chemistry to elucidate the cause of such concentration variations. This report is the analytical results of the samples obtained in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Sea of Japan, by means of neutron activation analysis. As the preconcentration, 1-pyrrolidine carbothio acid (APDC)-chelate extraction and freeze-drying were adopted. The specimens obtained by this extraction from 500 or 800 ml samples were irradiated by KUR reactor for 1 min, 1 hr to 10 hrs and the gamma-ray spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector was used for the determination of V, Mn, Cu, Zn, U, Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, Sb and Au. By about 80 hrs irradiation of the specimens obtained by freeze-drying from 20 ml samples and their gamma-ray spectrometry, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb and Cs were determined. The former procedure gives concentrations of elements in species reactable with APDC, but the latter method shows entire concentrations of the elements in the sea water samples. Some considerations on the analytical values and the comparisons of the both methods are described. (author)

  10. Neutron activation analysis of lipsticks using gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsa, G.; Mittal, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis with gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of various elements in lipsticks of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present work was to study the possibility of existence of trace elements in samples of lipsticks (the ingredients of which are mostly organic in nature) and to see whether trace elements could distinguish lipsticks of different Indian and foreign brands from the forensic point of view apart from their inter-se differentiation. In the different samples of lipsticks that were analysed the following elements were detected: Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Fe, Na, Ru, Sb, Sc, Ta, Yb, Zn, Rb and Se. It was found that inter-se differentiation of lipsticks was possible on the basis of concentrations of trace elements and their profile. Concentration of bromine in samples of lipsticks identified lipsticks of different Indian brands. Samples of lipsticks of Indian and foreign brands could be differentiated on the basis of concentrations of cesium, antimony and scandium which were found to be higher in foreign brands as compared to those in Indian brands. (authors)

  11. Neutron activation analysis of renal cadmium and its critical concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haddad, I.K.

    1979-10-01

    The possibility is investigated of using neutron activation analysis for the in-vivo detection of cadmium in the human kidneys - as the critical organ following long term exposure - rather than the human liver. The possibility of using ultrasonic scanning for determining relevant physiological factors has been investigated and some volunteers were measured. Phantom studies have been carried out using the existing MERMAID facility with some modifications of collimations and shielding materials. A transportable system for in-vivo cadmium measurements has been designed, constructed and used for screening cadmium workers at four cadmium factories. The lower limit of detection using the cyclotron system was 1 mg cadmium in the left kidney (1 S.E.) for a localized dose of 500 m rem. In experiments on the transportable kidney system a limit of detection of 3 mg cadmium in the left kidney was achieved for a localized dose of 200 m rem. The total amount of cadmium stored in the kidney was found to be ranging from about 0 to 25 mg. From correlating kidney data with the medical data, the critical level seems to lie between 20 to 25 mg in whole kidney or 210 to 260 ppm in the kidney cortex. (author)

  12. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da

    2013-01-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of carbonatites from Homa Mountain, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, S.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty eight (major and trace) elements including eight rare earth elements (REEs) in African carbonatite samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The geochemical behavior of trace elements was studied in relation to the order of carbonatite intrusion from C1 to C4 through C2 and C3 at Homa Mountain, Kenya. The enrichment of Mn, Fe, Sr, Ba, Th, U and REE is found in the sixteen carbonatites examined in this study. The general increase in the concentrations of Na, Sc, Mn, Sb, Ba, Th, U and REE occurs from C1 to C4 through C2 and C2c, but C3 carbonatite shows a different pattern. The C3 carbonatite is extraordinarily enriched in Mn, Fe and Ba and is highly enriched in Cr, As, Sb and Th. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution pattern of the C3 carbonatite is not rich in the light REE. Strong fractionation between light and heavy REEs is found in the carbonatites, and moderate fractionation in the two alkalic igneous rock samples. In order to evaluate partitioning of REEs into carbonate, oxide and other mineral fractions, a selective chemical leaching technique on carbonatites was applied and is discussed. (author)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of an iranian cigarette and its smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.; Razeghi, M.; Parsa, B.

    1977-01-01

    Non-destructive neutron activation analysis, employing a high-resolution Ge(Li)detector, was applied to determine the concentration of 24 trace elements in the tobacco of the Zarrin cigarette which is commercially made in Iran. These elements are: Na, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Au, Hg and Th. The smokes from the combustion of this tobacco and of the cigarette paper were also analysed for these elements and the percentage transference values were calculated. The concentration of some of the trace elements in Zarrin cigarette tobacco obtained in this work from the pooled tobacco sample have significantly changed in comparison with the results obtained in the earlier observations based on individual cigarettes. Aside from the differences which may occur due to different sampling methods, this may be attributed to the variations in specific brands of commercial cigarettes over a period of time. The fact of particular importance is that the concentrations of Se, Hg and Sb in Zarrin cigarette tobacco have almost increased by a factor of 2,3 and 10, respectively. However, the levels of some elements such as K, Fe, Rb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Tb, Hf and Th have remained fairly constant during the two observation periods. (T.G.)

  15. Radiochemical separation and their application to neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turel, Z.R.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper discusses the development of some new, rapid and selective method for the radiochemical separation and estimation of elements such as, Co(II) 2-3 , Ir(III) 4 , Au(III) 5 , Pt(IV), Pd(II), Os(IV) 6 , Cu(II), Ag(I), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cs(I), Sb(III), La(III), Sc(III) etc. using various reagents. Various parameters such as pH, time of equilibrium, effect of anions and cations, effect of reagent etc. has been determined employing tracers of the elements under consideration and will be discussed. The method is made highly selective by the use of appropriate masking agent. The stoichiometry of metal reagent is determined by the substoichiometric method. Some examples of multielemental radiochemical separation methods thus developed which have been applied in determining the elements by radiochemical thermal neutron activation analysis will be presented and discussed. The implications of the results on the reference system will also be accounted. Statistical evaluation with reference to accuracy, precision and sensitivity will also be presented

  16. Neutron activation analysis and provenance study of Tupiguarani Tradition pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/ CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais], e-mail: gleikam@yahoo.com.br; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/ CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Ribeiro, Loredana; Jacome, Camila [Cooperativa dos Empreendedores em Acoes Culturais - COOP. CULTURA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Arqueologia], e-mail: loredana.ribeiro@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. The fingerprint identified, that is the chemical composition of the ceramics, can help understanding this connection between the past and the present. The Tupiguarani Tradition vestiges found by archaeologists will be a way to know about the last two millennia of the Brazilian prehistory. This archaeological site is located along the coast of the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo, where the main evidence is a pretty ceramic with the occurrence of plastic and painted decoration. When the Portuguese settlers arrived in this region, in sixteenth century, several Missoes Jesuiticas (Jesuitical Missions) were built along the Brazilian coast. In spite of living within the Mission and been catechized, the Indians kept on producing traditional handicraft, as the decorated ceramic, however, they introduced European elements to the decoration. During the research expeditions made to the archaeological site of the Tupiguarani Tradition, many sherds were found. The identification and classification of ceramics through a multielemental chemistry analysis will be used to determine if they have the same origin. This paper shows the first elemental concentration results of the sherds collected from archaeological site determined at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 nuclear reactor, applying the neutron activation technique, k{sub 0}-method. (author)

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to study the element contents in bones of prehistoric dinosaurs and bones of an ancient bear and an archantrop (ancient person), which were found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Concentrations of more than 25 elements were in the range of 0.043-3600 mg/kg. Multielement analyses of bone and soil samples were carried out by INAA using the WWR-SM research nuclear reactor. Results of measurements have shown that in the dinosaurs bones the concentration of the rare earth elements (REEs) were within 280-3200 mg/kg; the uranium content reached a very high value, up to 180 mg/kg, while in soils coating the dinosaurs bones this content was 4.2 mg/kg; in the bones of the archantrop it was 1.53 mg/kg and in the bones of a standard person its amount is less than 0.016 mg/kg. (author)

  18. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  19. Selenium contents of Japanese foodstuffs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Katsuhiko; Hirai, Shoji; Danbara, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Selenium (Se) contents of Japanese foodstuffs were measured by neutron activation analyses with the TRIGA-II reactor in Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Musashi Institute of Technology. Freezedried samples (200 - 500 mg) were irradiated in the pneumatic tube (thermal neutron flux, 1 x 10 12 n.cm -2 . sec -1 ) for 10 sec, and sup(77m)Se produced was counted for 30 sec in a gamma -ray spectrometer system equipped with a Ge(Li) detector. Samples containing less than 0.05 ppm Se and the processed foods of high salt contents were analyzed with radioactivities of 75 Se after irradiation in the central symble (thermal neutron flux, 4 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 ) for 5 hours, digestion in the HNO 3 -HClO 4 mixture, and then purification by a precipitation process. Foodstuffs of animal origins contained more Se than those of plant origins. Se contents were as follows in the descending order: fish, meats, cereals, vegetables, and fruit. Daily per capital intaked of Se was in the range of 100 - 200 mu g, as calculated for and as found by analysis of composite diets representing ordinary Japanese meals. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis and provenance study of Tupiguarani Tradition pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Gleikam Lopes de Oliveira; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Ribeiro, Loredana; Jacome, Camila

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can fill the gap between ancient population and modern society elucidating the evidences found in archaeological sites. The fingerprint identified, that is the chemical composition of the ceramics, can help understanding this connection between the past and the present. The Tupiguarani Tradition vestiges found by archaeologists will be a way to know about the last two millennia of the Brazilian prehistory. This archaeological site is located along the coast of the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo, where the main evidence is a pretty ceramic with the occurrence of plastic and painted decoration. When the Portuguese settlers arrived in this region, in sixteenth century, several Missoes Jesuiticas (Jesuitical Missions) were built along the Brazilian coast. In spite of living within the Mission and been catechized, the Indians kept on producing traditional handicraft, as the decorated ceramic, however, they introduced European elements to the decoration. During the research expeditions made to the archaeological site of the Tupiguarani Tradition, many sherds were found. The identification and classification of ceramics through a multielemental chemistry analysis will be used to determine if they have the same origin. This paper shows the first elemental concentration results of the sherds collected from archaeological site determined at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 nuclear reactor, applying the neutron activation technique, k 0 -method. (author)

  1. A computer language for reducing activation analysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.H.; Tanner, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    A program, written in FORTRAN, which defines a language for reducing activation analysis data is described. An attempt was made to optimize the choice of commands and their definitions so as to concisely express what should be done, make the language natural to use and easy to learn, arranqe a system of checks to guard against communication errors and have the language be inclusive. Communications are effected through commands, and these can be given in almost any order. Consistency checks are done and diagnostic messages are printed automatically to guard against the incorrect use of commands. Default options on the commands allow instructions to be expressed concisely while providing a capability to specify details for the data reduction process. The program has been implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer. A complete description of the commands, the algorithms used, and the internal consistency checks used are given elsewhere. The applications of the program and the methods for obtaining data automatically have already been described. (T.G.)

  2. Substoichiometric determination of chromium by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, K.; Shigematsu, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    1977-01-01

    A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the determination of chromium. It is based on the substoichiometric extraction of chromium diethyldithiocarbamate into methyl-isobutyl-ketone from acetate buffer solution in the presence of EDTA and potassium cyanide. A solution of NaDDC was prepared by dissolving an appropriate amount of GR grade salt in bidistelled water. The concentration of NaDDC was determined by substoichiometric isotope dilution method using 64 Cu or sup(114m)In tracer of known specific activity. The extraction of chromium is not influenced by the presence of EDTA or potassium cyanide while the extraction of chromium is inhibited in tartrate or citrate solution. All metal ions examined are extracted by NaDDC together with chromium and become to interfere for the substoichiometric extraction of chromium. This can be avoided, however, by the addition of EDTA except for copper and silver. The method has been applied for the determination of chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate and NBS glasses as standard reference materials. (T.G.)

  3. Uranium in coral skeletons determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohde, S.; Hossain, M.M.M.; Ozaki, H.; Masuzawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and non-destructive method has been proposed for the routine determination of uranium by epithermal neutron activation analysis in coral skeletons. Using a cadmium capsule, about 0.1-0.2 g samples were irradiated for 6 hours in the Triga Mark II Reactor. Measurements of γ-ray ( 239 Np via 239 U) were performed with each sample and standard after cooling for about three days. Compared with a non-destructive thermal NAA, the present method was found to improve the sensitivity because it reduced the intense Compton background induced by 24 Na. Uranium in coral standards was determined within 2% of analytical precision. The data obtained for the carbonate standards are mostly consistent with reported values. The present method could be usefully applied to determine uranium contents in fossil corals from the Funafuti Atoll in the Pacific. The distribution of uranium between seawater and coral skeletons is also discussed in order to understand the environmental media in which the coral grew. (author)

  4. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2011-01-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  5. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  6. Low-cost activation analysis at small research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, G P; Lemmel, H; Niedermaier, M R; Joestl, K; Schröder, P; Böck, H H; Schachner, H; Klapfer, E

    2003-01-01

    A software implementation of a loss-free counting multichannel analyzer, storing immediately into the multimegabyte memory of a low-cost 486 or Pentium type PC, enables the real-time control of a rabbit system as well as the collection of up to 1000 pairs of simultaneously recorded loss-corrected and non-corrected spectra of 16 k channels each, in a true sequence without time gaps in between, at throughput rates of up to 200 kc/s. Intended for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions, the system renders possible peak to background optimizations and separations of lines with different half-lives without an a priori knowledge of sample composition by summing up appropriate numbers of spectra over appropriate intervals of time. By automatically adapting the noise filtering time to individual pulse intervals, the Preloaded Digital Filter (PLDF) combines low- to medium-rate resolutions comparable to those of high-quality Gaussian amplifiers with throughput rates of up to 100 kc/s, and high-rate reso...

  7. Neutron activation analysis method - international ring test for proficiency assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbos, D.; Bucsa, A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this test is to assess the quality control of analytical procedures for soils and plants which is of utmost importance to produce reliable and reproducible analytical data. For this purpose first, second, and third line quality control measures are taken in analytical laboratories. For first line control certified reference materials (CRM's) are preferred. However, the number and matrix variation in CRM's for environmental analytical research is still very limited. For second line control internal reference samples are often used, but again here the values for many element and parameter concentrations are questionable since almost no check versus CRM's is possible. For third line control participation in laboratory-evaluating exchange programs is recommended. This article contains the results achieved by our neutron activation analysis laboratory after irradiation experiment of soil and vegetation samples in TRIGA Reactor. All the samples were irradiated in the same location of the reactor in roughly similar conditions. (authors)

  8. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  9. Analysis for toxic elements in food and drinking water in Thailand by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelhaphunt, N.; Chueinta, S.; Punnachaiya, M.; Chueinta, W.; Nouchpramool, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research aimed at the determination of several trace elements in foodstuffs and water in Thailand. The project included the development of adequate analytical procedures for the determination of As, Cd, Cu and Zn by ion exchange chromatography; Hg and Se by a direct combustion technique; Br, Co, Fe and Mn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); Pb by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry; and As, Co, Mn, Sb, U, V, Zn, and Cr in water samples by pre-concentration on activated carbon followed by INAA. The samples analyzed comprised various kinds of vegetables, meat, poultry, beans and peas, various species of rice, fish, shellfish and other marine products. Natural and tap water samples were collected at several locations in twenty-nice provinces in Southern, Northern, North-Eastern and Central parts of Thailand. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 49 tabs

  10. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  11. Elemental analysis and plant samples at el-Manzala lake by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; El-Abbady, W.H.; Hassan, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A soil and a plant samples were taken from two locations, Bahr el-Bakar and Bahr Kados at the Manzala lake, where a high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1) and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for such a type of analysis. Among the 34 identified elements Fe, Co, As, Ru, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of their toxic deleterious impact to organisms. This work is a part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stand as a reference basic record for any future follow up of the contamination level. 1 tab

  12. On-stream analysis of coal by prompt neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.

    1981-01-01

    The need for rapid continuous on-stream analysis of coal was recognised in 1975. Analytical systems capable of determining some of the most important compositional properties of coal have been developed. The research programme has produced a series of analysers suitable for on-stream, batch, slurry and laboratory analytical determination of coal. This series of analysers is marketed under the name of 'Nucoalyzer'. The Nucoalyzer - CONAC (Continuous On-line Nuclear Analyzer for Coal) offers real-time, continuous determination of calorific value, percentage ash, percentage moisture, percentage sulphur, boiler fouling and slagging indices. The CONAC model is described in this article. The analytical principle employed in the various Nucoalyzer systems is based on prompt neutron activation analysis

  13. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented

  14. Analysis of low levels of rare earths by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandless, G.A.; Morgan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for the radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the rare earth elements (REE) involves the separation of the REE as a group by rapid ion exchange methods and determination of yields by reactivation or by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The US Geological Surveys (USGS) standard rocks, BCR-1 and AGV-1, were analyzed to determine the precision and accuracy of the method. Authors found that the precision was +-5-10% on the basis of replicate analysis and that, in general the accuracy was within +-5% of accepted values for most REE. Data for USGS standard rocks BIR-1 (Icelandic basalt) and DNC-1 (North Carolina diabase) are also presented. (author)

  15. Simultaneous multi-element analysis of some edible pulses using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Metwally, E.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper comprises the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for multi-element determination in some edible pulse samples. These edible pulses are usually daily used in the Egyptian kitchen. These were: anise, cumin, coriander, caraway, black cumin, white kidney bean, lupine, lentil, chickpea, broad bean, peanut, almond, and fenugreek. The pulses have been analyzed as dehulled pulses, in the case of legume and oil pulses with simultaneous analysis of their respective skins. The determined elements were: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th and Zn. The element content in the dehulled pulses and their respective skins has been compared. Some elements were major or minor elements where others were trace elements. Standard reference materials were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique. (author)

  16. Analysis of essential elements in medicinal plants and their respective soils by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna Raju, M.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Raju, M.K.; Brahmaji Rao, J.S.; Seshadreesan, N.P.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the essential elements for humans in selected medicinal plants and their respective growing soils are measured by Neutron Activation Analysis. The concentrations of Na, K, Fe, Br, Al, Mn, Cl, Ca and Mg were analyzed using 20 kW KAMINI Reactor, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. Results show that justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases. Moreover, these results can be useful for preparing dosage of the herbal formulations. (author)

  17. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  18. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  19. Coal stream composition analysis for process control using prompt neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Reynolds, G.; Elias, E.; Maung, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Orphan, V.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we describe early results of a series of laboratory experiments and computer modeling studies designed to provide realistic accuracy limits for the determination of the elemental concentration in coal using prompt neutron activation analysis. The results provide guidance for optimizing the technique for monitoring the quality of coal which is being input to an electric power generating plant. The reported work was performed as the initial phase of an ongoing program to develop a prototype on-line coal analyzer based on the PNAA technique for power plant application

  20. Neutron activation analysis of manganese-mercury telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadykov, I. I.

    2003-01-01

    The triple semiconductor compound Mn x Hg 1-x Te is a worthwhile material for the development of infra-red detectors. It's properties, as well as other semiconductors ones depend on impurity elements content. So, analytical Purity control of Mn x Hg 1-x Te is required. Some procedures of the neutron activation analysis of Te[1], Hg [2] and that of their compounds (Cd x Hg 1-x Te [3], for instance) have been developed recently. However, no papers on the NAA of Mn x Hg 1-x Te have been found. This paper describes the procedure of the NAA of Mn x Hg 1-x Te based on anion-exchange chromatographic separation of impurity and matrix elements. Experimental The following reagents were used: commerciality available strongly based anion-exchange resin AW-17 (50-100 meash), hydrochloride hydrasine of analytical grade, solutions of HCl and HNO 3 prepared from concentrated acids of reagent grade. Separation processes were studied by radioactive tracers. The gamma-activity was measured on a HPGe detector GC1518 (efficiency 15 %, resolution 1,7 keV at 1332,5 keV line of 6 0C o) using DSA-1000 digital multichannel analyzer (Canberra, USA). Radioactive tracers were produced by irradiation of metals, salts or oxides of corresponding elements in WWR-SM water-water nuclear reactor. Irradiation of Mn x Hg 1-x Te samples and standards was carried out in a channel of WWR-SM reactor with a neutron flux density of 1.10 14 cm 2 .s -1 for 10 h. Solutions of manganese and mercury were prepared by dissolving their oxides in concentric hydrochloric acid. Solutions of tellurium were prepared by dissolving metallic tellurium in HCl:HNO 3 (3:1) mixture. Solution obtained was evaporated to dryness, the reside was dissolved in conc. HCl. To reduce tellurium to Te(IV) 1-2 mg of hydrazine were dissolved in solution at slight heating. Then, distilled water was added in a required quantities to get a desired concentration of HCl. The chromatographic behaviour of matrix and impurity elements was studied

  1. A simple and fast method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Antiperspirant cosmetics are tested for their active ingredient (aluminium chlorohydroxide) by conventional analytical techniques. Aluminium has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in all antiperspirant products and package forms available in the Greek market in order to develop a simple and fast method for quantization. The results show that neutron activation analysis could be established as an official method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics. The proposed method is compared with the existing official methods and an alternative sampling method for aerosol package is presented. (author)

  2. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  3. SAFETY ANALYSIS APPROACH TO TANK 241-SY-101 REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN, G.W.

    2000-01-01

    An Unreviewed Safety Question was declared related to the unexplained waste surface level growth in high-level radioactive waste storage Tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Because the waste surface level in Tank 241-SY-101 was growing in a manner inconsistent with previous behavior, the following issues of concern were recognized: (1) The continually rising surface level had the potential to reach physical encumbrances or limits within the tank (e.g., instrumentation, cameras, established Authorization Basis limits, and the double containment boundary) and the potential to significantly change the consequences of previously analyzed accidents (e.g., flammable gas deflagrations). (2) The presence of new hazards because of significant quantities of flammable gas retained in the crust (e.g., crust collapse gas-release events). (3) The potential to inhibit information gathering related to the existing hazards in the tank (e.g., unable to determine surface level to assess the potential for large gas releases). In response to this situation, a Contractor Project Team, which included Department of Energy representation, was formed to constructively address the issue. The team was responsible for developing and evaluating remediation options and executing the chosen option for remediating the surface level rise issue for Tank 241-SY-101. From an Authorization Basis perspective, the following important aspects will be discussed in this paper: (1) The integrated nature of the Project Team. The team consisted of all the organizations necessary to ensure that the time available to remediate Tank 241-SY-101 was effectively used. Most notable is the connectivity of the Nuclear Safety and Licensing organization with the Engineering, Design, and Operations organizations. (2) The ability of the safety analysis support to adjust to and address evolving Project Team goals and dynamic tank conditions. (3) Due to the urgency to mitigate this developing issue

  4. Applications of neutron activation analysis in agriculture of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatamov, Sh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Soil is one of the main components of biosphere, which is subject to Man's economic activity from year to year. Unfortunately, during last 50-60years it became an object of the chemization (the treatment of crop by poison chemicals and the usage of mineral fertilizers).Thus, definite pre-conditions are created to migrate to substances applied along the soil horizon. These substances fall into organism of Man and animals through soil-contacting media: plants, air, water. In this respect the instrumental neutron-activation techniques which allows determination of about 40 chemical elements in soils and other objects of environment, with detection limit equal to 0.001-10.0mg/kg and not more than 30% uncertainty, are provided with the Ge -detector (the Canberra firm). The report discusses some metrological points of INAA concerning the objects of environment, in particular, the influence of space-time non-uniformity of chemical element distributions on the reliability of analysis results. The elaborated techniques make it possible to: - establish the elemental composition of soils, cotton, natural waters, mineral fertilizers, aerosol dust of near land layer of various climatic zones of Uzbekistan, including the airs around the Aral sea. - study of the interrelation between the soil elemental composition and the chemism in the evolution of pathological processes - find the correlation between the cotton returns and Mn contents in soils and to elaborate on this base a new way to value the presown grain quality - choose the wall material of ancient monuments of a region, which were not strongly subjected to ecological impact, as standards to monitor the background of chemical elements in soils - value the ecologically agrochemical conditions of soils for main cotton-sawing zones of Uzbekistan - perform a large scale mapping of soils to find the Mn contents and to elaborate the technology of introduction of Mn - containing microfertilizers - estimate the

  5. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  6. A dimensional analysis of the benefits derived from physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceived benefits of regular physical activity are well documented in literature. However, despite the benefits many university students do not engage in physical activity. The purpose of the study was to examine the potential benefits that university students receive from physical activity participation. The secondary ...

  7. Recent applications of neutron activation analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myung; Kim Young Jin

    2004-01-01

    There are two purposes in this research; first aim is to promote the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a utilization of nuclear research reactor in the field of air pollution studies through a routine and long-term monitoring. Other is to improve NAA with an experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions. For the study on air pollution, airborne particulate matter (APM) for the fine (< 2.5 μm EAD) and coarse particle (2.5-10 μm EAD) fractions were collected using the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. Air samples were collected at two regions (suburban and industrial site of Daejeon city in the Republic of Korea) from January to December 2002. Mass concentration and elemental black carbon of APM were measured and the concentration of 25 elements were determined by Instrumental NAA. Analytical quality control is carried out using three certified reference materials (CRM). The monitoring data were treated statistically to assess air pollution source and source apportionment. The results obtained from this project can be used to investigate source identification and apportionment and its trends, and to establish a more cost-effective method for national air quality management. Preliminary experiment for application of ko-standardization method has been carried out to determine the reactor neutron spectrum parameters, i.e.a and f-values as the main factors of irradiation quality at NAA no.1 irradiation hole on HANARO research reactor, to determine peak detection efficiency for the HP Ge(EG and G ORTEC, GEM 35185) detector for the use in the ko-experiments and to compare the measured concentration results with the certified values of some CRMs applying the experimentally determined ko-parameters. (author)

  8. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  9. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  10. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.

    2011-01-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves)(0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the ''Reference plant? data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  11. In vivo neutron activation analysis of bone manganese in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingzi; Rolle-McFarland, Danelle; Mostafaei, Farshad; Zhou, Yuanzhong; Li, Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wells, Ellen; Nie, Linda H

    2018-03-23

    Manganese (Mn) is a neurotoxin. However, the impact of elevated, chronic Mn exposure is not well understood, partially due to the lack of a cumulative exposure biomarker. To address this gap, our group developed a compact in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to quantify Mn concentration in bone (MnBn). In this study, we used this system and determined MnBn among male Chinese workers and compared results to their blood Mn (MnB), a measure of recent exposure, and the years of employment, a measure of cumulative exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 30 ferroalloy smelters (exposed) and 30 general manufacturing workers (controls). MnBn was assessed using IVNAA, MnB was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and occupational history and demographics were obtained via questionnaire. Mn-doped phantoms were used to generate a calibration curve; spectra from these phantoms were consistent with in vivo spectra. The median (interquartile range (IQR)) values for Mn biomarkers were 2.7 µg g -1 (7.2) for MnBn and 14.1 µg l -1 (4.0) for MnB. In regression models adjusted for age and education, the natural log transformed MnBn (ln(MnBn)) was significantly associated with the exposed/control status (β  =  0.44, p  =  0.047) and years of employment (β  =  0.05, p  =  0.002), but not with natural log transformed MnB (ln(MnB)) (β  =  0.54, p  =  0.188). Our results support the use of IVNAA to quantify MnBn and the use of MnBn as a biomarker of cumulative Mn exposure.

  12. Limitations for qualitative and quantitative neutron activation analysis using reactor neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Abbady, W.H.; El-Tanahy, Z.H.; El-Hagg, A.A.; Hassan, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the most important limitations for qualitative and quantitative analysis using reactor neutrons for activation are reviewed. Each limitation is discussed using different examples of activated samples. Photopeak estimation, nuclear reactions interference and neutron flux measurements are taken into consideration. Solutions for high accuracy evaluation in neutron activation analysis applications are given. (author)

  13. Fast neutron activation analysis by means of low voltage neutron generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Medhat

    Full Text Available A description of D-T neutron generator (NG is presented. This machine can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. Procedure of neutron flux determination and efficiency calculation is described. Examples of testing some Egyptian natural cosmetics are given. Keywords: Neutron generator, Fast neutron activation analysis, Elemental analysis

  14. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Separating active regions that are quiet from potentially eruptive ones is a key issue in Space Weather applications. Traditional classification schemes such as Mount Wilson and McIntosh have been effective in relating an active region large scale magnetic configuration to its ability to produce eruptive events. However, their qualitative nature prevents systematic studies of an active region’s evolution for example. Aims. We introduce a new clustering of active regions that is based on the local geometry observed in Line of Sight magnetogram and continuum images. Methods. We use a reduced-dimension representation of an active region that is obtained by factoring the corresponding data matrix comprised of local image patches. Two factorizations can be compared via the definition of appropriate metrics on the resulting factors. The distances obtained from these metrics are then used to cluster the active regions. Results. We find that these metrics result in natural clusterings of active regions. The clusterings are related to large scale descriptors of an active region such as its size, its local magnetic field distribution, and its complexity as measured by the Mount Wilson classification scheme. We also find that including data focused on the neutral line of an active region can result in an increased correspondence between our clustering results and other active region descriptors such as the Mount Wilson classifications and the R-value. Conclusions. Matrix factorization of image patches is a promising new way of characterizing active regions. We provide some recommendations for which metrics, matrix factorization techniques, and regions of interest to use to study active regions.

  15. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jong Hoon; Tabata, Izumi; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in ...

  16. Teaching Strategic Thinking on Oligopoly: Classroom Activity and Theoretic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongseung; Ryan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a simple classroom activity, in which students are asked to take action representing either collusion or competition for extra credit to teach strategic thinking required in an oligopolistic market. We suggest that the classroom activity is first initiated prior to the teaching of oligopoly and then the instructor…

  17. Analysis awkward posture at food production activity using RULA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the workers continuously perform the activities throughout the working hours, they may experience prolonged standing which creates fatigue and causes an occupational hazard which includes slips and falls. The goal of this study was to identify awkward postures during food production activities. 40 workers with minimum ...

  18. Bone calcium measurement: correlation between compartimental analysis and neutron activation determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauran-Clavel, M.-J.; Oustrin, Jean; Maziere, Bernard; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1980-01-01

    In cadmium exposed rats correlation analysis of calcium deep bone assessed by compartimental analysis and results of bone calcium determination by neutron activation shows a significative relationship between both values [fr

  19. Analysis of some egyptian cosmetic samples by using fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Awaad, Z.

    2002-01-01

    A description of our neutron generator (NG) facility for neutron activation analysis is presented. As an example, the concentration of Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe elements were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using a beam of 14 MeV neutrons. An empirical expression for detector efficiency in terms of incident gamma ray energy and the source-detector distance has been obtained for a hyper pure germanium detector (HPGe) using different standard point sources. The comparison of the calculated efficiencies and the measured values in the energy range from 59.5 to 1332.2 keV and for source-to-detector distances of 5-30 cm show the agreement between the calculated values and the measured experimental values

  20. Elemental analysis of Korean adult toenail using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Ha; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Chung, Yong-Sam; Lee, Ok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The elemental contents in a toenail as a biological sample may depend on the dietary habit and health status. In this study, the inorganic elements in Korean adult toenail were determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Toenail samples were collected from Korean adults, and the total number of samples was 50. The collected samples were pretreated and analyzed using INAA facilities at the HANARO research reactor. 15 elements, i.e., Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Se, V, and Zn in the toenail samples were determined and evaluated for the level of elemental concentration. Finally, correlation between 15 elements was examined. It is found that Mn-V, Na-Cl, Br-K, and Cr-Fe seem to be in close correlation. (author)

  1. The path of obsidian at the Tajin region. Origin analysis through Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz J, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The task of contemporary archaeology is extended every day; new techniques and new instruments have been incorporating to those tools which the archaeologist has in order to achieve a better approach to his study object. The archaeology had been exploring in the physical chemical sciences with the purpose to obtain information beyond the traditional methodologies and so obtaining more and best data. The sudden advance in the knowledge of the basic particles which make up the matter can be applied to these archaeological studies too. Archaeology takes part of the new possibilities which nuclear physics offers in the study of materials such as ceramics, clays, metal alloys, native metals and practically some lithological source. In Latin America the neutron activation analysis was used first for the characterization and determination of the ceramics origin. Some regions have been better studied from the point of view of obsidian exploitation and consumption, such is the case of El Tajin and Oaxaca region in Mexico. (Author)

  2. Multi-element analysis of the obese subject by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwek, R.A.; Burkinshaw, L.; Oxby, C.B.; Robinson, P.A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Leeds facility for in vivo neutron activation analysis has been modified and calibrated for the simultaneous measurement of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus and calcium in obese patients weighing up to 210 kg. The effects of body size and shape were incorporated into the calibration by measuring 14 anthropomorphic phantoms of known composition representing individual patients being treated for obesity. The phantoms were constructed from tissue substitutes representing lean skeletal and adipose tissues, arranged to simulate the distributions of the corresponding tissues within the patients, as visualised by CT scanning. The precision of the method, determined by measuring a single phantom ten times over a period of ten weeks, is between two and three per cent for all elements except calcium, for which it is 11.3%. Accuracy is estimated to be similar to precision. The procedure has been used to study changes in body composition of patients undergoing therapeutic starvation. (author)

  3. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  4. Present and future position of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Bruin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of the performance of INAA and RNAA and when compared with other spectrometric methods for trace element analysis. Indications are given for further developments aiming at exploiting the advantage and reducing the drawbacks of these two analysis technique. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  6. Research activities in the fields of radiochemistry and neutron activation analysis using the LENA nuclear plant in Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, L.; Genova, N.; DiCasa, M.; Carmella-Crespi, V.

    1978-01-01

    In the past two years the activity of the Radiochemistry Laboratory and CNR Centre of Radiochemistry and Activation Analysis was mainly devoted to studies of nuclear activation analysis applied to different fields using the LENA reactor. Three NBS vegetable reference standards, Orchard Leaves, Tomato Leaves and Pine Needles, were analyzed for their halogen content. Halogen determination in foodstuff, vegetables and organic tissues gives valuable information on metabolic, nutritional, pollution and epidemiological fields. A detailed study on macro- and micro-elements content in Sardinian coal and its ashes was performed, in order to assess the possibility of using it as a fuel in electric power generating plants. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, Si, Mn, Mg, Na, V, CI, Ce, Yb, Th, Cr, Hf, Cs, Se, Rb, Fe, Co, Ta, Eu, K, La and Sb. A multielement trace analysis of rock samples was developed in cooperation with scientists from other Universities; the determination of R.E., U, Th, Zr, Cs, Ba, Ni, Sc, Ta, Hf, Sr, and Cr by instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out in connection with orogenetic studies of African Rocks. In the archaeological field ancient artefacts recently discovered during a digging campaign at Monza's Cathedral (Italy) were analyzed with the aim to trace their origin and compare their composition with similar samples whose dating is certain. As a contribute to the international program of certifying NBS reference standard materials, chromium in the Brewer's Yeast, recently proposed as a new SRM, was determined by both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis. In the study of the role and behaviour of trace elements in human physiology, vanadium was investigated in human blood, as a trace element of increasing interest in connection with its origin from pollutants. Nuclear activation analysis was also applied to marine organism samples under a contract for oceanographic research

  7. Activity analysis of English Premiership rugby football union refereeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Smith, N C; Tolfrey, K; Jones, A M

    2001-10-10

    Little is known about the physiological demands placed on officials during sporting activities. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the movement activities of referees during English Premiership rugby football union matches, and to determine the frequency and duration of these activities. Nine referees who were ranked in the top 20 referees in England were videotaped during a total of 19 matches. During playback of the videotapes, a single observer coded the referees' activities into one of six distinct categories (standing, walking forwards, walking backwards, jogging, running and sprinting) using a computerized video editing system (Observer Video-Pro). The referees were timed over a 20 m distance for the modes of locomotory activity, and the average velocity of the referee for each activity was used to calculate the total distance covered in each mode of activity during matches. The total distance covered during a match was (chi +/- SD) 8581 +/- 668 m. The mean percentage of total playing time spent in each activity was: standing still, 37.0 +/- 11.0%; walking forward, 29.5 +/- 7.2%; walking backward, 9.9 +/- 3.2%; jogging, 12.8 +/- 3.2%; running, 9.8 +/- 2.3%; and sprinting, 1.0 +/- 0.4%. There were a total of 672 transitions between modes of activity during a match. The results of this study suggest that refereeing top English rugby football union matches is physically demanding. Although the major physiological load is placed on the oxygen transport system, frequent sprint bouts and the associated requirements for acceleration and deceleration impose additional metabolic demands on referees. This information may be used in the design of physical training programmes to optimize performance in referees.

  8. OTC Derivatives and Global Economic Activity: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Bodnar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available That the global market for derivatives has expanded beyond recognition is well known. What is not know is how this market interacts with economic activity. We provide the first empirical characterization of interdependencies between OECD economic activity and the global OTC derivatives market. To this end, we apply a vector-error correction model to OTC derivatives disaggregated across instruments and counterparties. The results indicate that with one exception, the heterogeneity of OTC contracts is too pronounced to be reliably summarized by our measures of economic activity. The one exception is interest-rate derivatives held by Other Financial Institutions.

  9. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Santos, C.

    1989-10-01

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . (autor) [pt

  10. Analysis of toxical element in the whitening cream cosmetic samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th Rina M; Sunarko

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been done to analyze of toxical elements that is not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. These samples have been randomly selected from the cosmetic market. The samples were irradiated at thermal neutron flux of 10 13 3n.cm -2 s -1 in the irradiation facility of rabbit system in the RSG-GAS reactor Serpong. Counting of irradiated samples have been done by a high resolution HPGe detector couple to multichannel analyzer. Data have been analyzed by GENIE 2000. The sample have been qualitatively determined up to 19 elements. These elements are: As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Rb, Th, IV, and Zn. The result of qualitative analysis showed that the toxical elements present in the samples are Hg, As, Cr and Sb with the following concentration ranges in μg/g 25.2-65.1, 1.0-6.3, 30.5-89.1 and 2.9-5.3, respectively and these element not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. Besides that, the others elements have been detected in the samples are Br, Fe, Zn, Sc and Co, with concentration ranges, 13.1-36.4, 65.6-159.3, 0.79-77.1, 0.5-19.5, and 6.8-31.7 μg/g, respectively, in the sample whitening cream cosmetic. (author)

  11. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  12. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  13. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age-matched control population and 2...

  14. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Mary

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this project are: 1) to study the temporal relationship between activity level and health status in polio survivors and to compare the results with those obtained from an age matched control population and 2...

  15. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadzadeh, Farzad; Willems, Frans M. J.; Voloshinovskiy, Sviatoslav

    2014-01-01

    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  16. Semiquantitative activation analysis in metallic alloys submitted to irregular irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veissid, N.; Lucki, G.

    1979-01-01

    An analytic semiquantitative method using neutron activation was developed to determine the impurities and verify the composition of metallic alloys. By the radioactive transformation law, the number of atoms of each element present in the sample is determined measuring the activity in a multichannel. Two samples were analysed: a) Sample of nominal compositions FeNiCr (49,95-49,95 - 0,1% at). b) Sample of nominal composition NiCr (80,20% at). (Author) [pt

  17. Thermodynamic Activity-Based Progress Curve Analysis in Enzyme Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiss, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Active tourism as a tourist mode in expansion. Analysis of the supply of active tourism in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Araújo Vila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the social and economic situation, where the experience economy is a reality, new tourist typologies are emerging in line with this demand experiential. Tourists are looking for sensations and emotions, so tourism sector has diversified its offer adapting to this desire. Active tourism appears, mode belonging to a larger field, nature tourism, a booming tourist type today by the increase of tourists interested in its activities. Therefore, this paper takes from this concept to below detail the types that are part of it, and finally it does an analysis of the active tourism offer of the Spanish territory, territory that is appropriate for this type of activity.

  19. Muscle synergy analysis in transtibial amputee during ramp ascending activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, P; Shourijeh, M S; Maqbool, H F; Torabi, M; Dehghani-Sanij, A A

    2016-08-01

    In developed countries, the highest number of amputees are elderly with transtibial amputation. Walking on inclined surfaces is difficult for amputees due to loss of muscle volume and strength thereby transtibial amputees (TA) rely on the intact limb to maintain stability. The aim of this study was to use the concatenated non-negative matrix factorization (CNMF) technique to calculate muscle synergy components and compare the difference in muscle synergies and their associated activation profiles in the healthy and amputee groups during ramp ascending (RA) activity. Healthy subjects' dominant leg and amputee's intact leg (IL) were considered for recording surface electromyography (sEMG). The muscle synergies comparison showed a reasonable correlation between the healthy and amputee groups. This suggests the central nervous system (CNS) activates the same group of muscles synergistically. However, the activation coefficient profile (C) results indicated statistically significant difference (p amputee groups. The difference exhibited in activation profiles of amputee's IL could be due to the instability of the prosthetic leg during the GC which resulted in alteration of the IL muscles activations. This information will be useful in rehabilitation and in the future development of prosthetic devices by using the IL muscles information to control the prostheses.

  20. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Active disturbance rejection control: methodology and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Xue, Wenchao

    2014-07-01

    The methodology of ADRC and the progress of its theoretical analysis are reviewed in the paper. Several breakthroughs for control of nonlinear uncertain systems, made possible by ADRC, are discussed. The key in employing ADRC, which is to accurately determine the "total disturbance" that affects the output of the system, is illuminated. The latest results in theoretical analysis of the ADRC-based control systems are introduced. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R.; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Ocsachoque, Marco A.; Romanelli, Gustavo P.; Ortiz, Erlinda del V.; Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M.; Castro, Eduardo A.

    2009-01-01

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED 50 feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-(α-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED 50 = 1.162.

  3. QSAR analysis on Spodoptera litura antifeedant activities for flavone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchowicz, Pablo R., E-mail: pabloducho@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Goodarzi, Mohammad [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ocsachoque, Marco A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Romanelli, Gustavo P. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas ' Dr. J. J. Ronco' (CINDECA), Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP-CONICET. Calle 47 No 257, B1900AJK La Plata (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Ortiz, Erlinda del V. [Facultad de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Av. Maximio Victoria 55, (4700), Catamarca (Argentina); Autino, Juan C.; Bennardi, Daniel O.; Ruiz, Diego M. [Catedra de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, UNLP. Calles 60 y 119, B1904AAN La Plata (Argentina); Castro, Eduardo A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, Sucursal 4, C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-12-20

    We establish useful models that relate experimentally measured biological activities of compounds to their molecular structure. The pED{sub 50} feeding inhibition on Spodoptera litura species exhibited by aurones, chromones, 3-coumarones and flavones is analyzed in this work through the hypothesis encompassed in the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) Theory. This constitutes a first necessary computationally based step during the design of more bio-friendly repellents that could lead to insights for improving the insecticidal activities of the investigated compounds. After optimizing the molecular structure of each furane and pyrane benzoderivative with the semiempirical molecular orbitals method PM3, more than a thousand of constitutional, topological, geometrical and electronic descriptors are calculated and multiparametric linear regression models are established on the antifeedant potencies. The feature selection method employed in this study is the Replacement Method, which has proven to be successful in previous analyzes. We establish the QSAR both for the complete molecular set of compounds and also for each chemical class, so that acceptably describing the variation of the inhibitory activities from the knowledge of their structure and thus achieving useful predictive results. The main interest of developing trustful QSAR models is that these enable the prediction of compounds having no experimentally measured activities for any reason. Therefore, the structure-activity relationships are further employed for investigating the antifeedant activity on previously synthesized 2-,7-substituted benzopyranes, which do not pose any measured values on the biological expression. One of them, 2-({alpha}-naphtyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, results in a promising structure to be experimentally analyzed as it has predicted pED{sub 50} = 1.162.

  4. Study of the elemental composition of Chenopodium Quinoa Willd by fast neutron activation analysis and X ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szegedi, S.; Llopiz, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence and fast neutron activation analysis the nitrogen content has been determined in samples of roots, stems, leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd), which was previously treated with fertilizer

  5. Spatial analysis of crime incidence and adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alyssa I; Carnes, Fei; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman's correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1694 reported crimes and 16,702min of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, pCrime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, pcrime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  7. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R

    2006-01-01

    Akey feature of integrins is their ability to regulate the affinity for ligands, a process termed integrin activation. The final step in integrin activation is talin binding to the NPXY motif of the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains. Talin binding disrupts the salt bridge between the alpha....../beta tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin...... and the membrane-proximal salt bridge between alpha and beta1 tails have no apparent function under physiological conditions in vivo....

  8. Functional analysis of Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Estrid; Honoré, Christian; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole

    2010-01-01

    Ficolin-3 mediated complement activation that could be applicable for research and clinical use. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was acetylated (acBSA) and chosen as a solid phase ligand for Ficolins in microtiter wells. Binding of Ficolins on acBSA was evaluated, as was functional complement activation...... was applied to the samples that inhibited interference from the classical pathway due to the presence of anti-BSA antibodies in some sera. We describe a novel functional method for measuring complement activation mediated by Ficolin-3 in human serum up to the formation of TCC. The assay provides......The recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are mannose-binding lectin and Ficolin -1, -2 and -3. Recently deficiency of Ficolin-3 was found to be associated with life threatening infections. Thus, we aimed to develop a functional method based on the ELISA platform for evaluating...

  9. Safeguards and Physics Measurements: Neutron Activation Analysis with k0-standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation concentrates on the improvement of the standardisation method and the characterisation of the neutron field as well as on the improvement of the statistical control on neutron activation analysis. Main achievements in 2000 are reported

  10. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Guide Instructional Design of Experiential Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sheri; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Kinney, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Designing experiential learning activities requires an instructor to think about what they want the students to learn. Using importance-performance analysis can assist with the instructional design of the activities. This exploratory study used importance-performance analysis in an online introduction to criminology course. There is limited…

  11. Study on the methods for analysis of the chemical poison in canister by neutron activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingqui; Xu Jiayun; Yang Zunyong; Yao Zhenqiang; Yao Maoying; Dai Zhuangrong; Zhang Yu

    2011-01-01

    The method that is used to analyse the poison gases in canister by neutron activity is proposed. Through theory analysis and experimental measurement, the feasibility for analysis of the poison gases in a canister by neutron activity has been demonstrated, and it is proved that the method itself do not result in radioactive problem to use again the canister. (authors)

  12. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jong Hoon; Tabata, Izumi; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-11-24

    Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day) targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45), and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day) or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day) targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75). These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW). In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day), 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day), and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day), respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  13. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  14. Trace analysis measurements in high-purity aluminium by means of radiochemical neutron and proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study consisted in the development of efficient radiochemical composite processes and activation methods for the multi-element determination of traces within the lower ng range in high-purity aluminium. More than 50 elements were determined with the help of activation with reactor neutrons; the selective separation of matrix activity (adsorption with hydrated antimony pentoxide) led to a noticeable improvement of detectability, as compared with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Further improvements were achieved with the help of radiochemical group separations in ion exchangers or with the help of the selective separation of the pure beta-emitting elements. Over 20 elements up to high atomic numbers were determined by means of activating 13 MeV protons and 23 Me protons. In this connection, improvements of the detection limit by as a factor of 10 were achieved with radiochemical separation techniques, as compared with pure instrumental proton activation analysis. (RB) [de

  15. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  16. DEM Analysis of Backfilled Walls Subjected to Active Translation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Khosravi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of a retaining wall under active translation mode is investigated numerically. To this end, a series of numerical models is conducted using the discrete element code, PFC2D. The backfill soil is simulated by an assembly of separate cohesionless circular particles. Backfill soil was prepared by pouring soil particles from a specific height under gravity force and giving them enough time for appropriate settlement. Different heights of retaining walls are simulated and the lateral earth pressure on the wall is observed under both at-rest and active conditions. Numerical results compared with predictions from some analytical methods and measurements from physical models. The active state of earth pressure is defined as the earth pressure distribution corresponding to the values of wall displacement where the failure zone in the backfill is fully developed. The numerical results showed that the fully active state of earth pressure occurred at a wall displacement corresponding to the strains required for reaching the critical state in biaxial compressive tests.

  17. Linear analysis of active-medium two-beam accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Voin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed development of the linear theory of wakefield amplification by active medium and its possible application to a two-beam accelerator (TBA is discussed. A relativistic train of triggering microbunches traveling along a vacuum channel in an active medium confined by a cylindrical waveguide excites Cherenkov wake in the medium. The wake is a superposition of azimuthally symmetric transverse magnetic modes propagating along a confining waveguide, with a phase velocity equal to the velocity of the triggering bunches. The structure may be designed in such a way that the frequency of one of the modes is close to active-medium resonant frequency, resulting in amplification of the former and domination of a single mode far behind the trigger bunches. Another electron bunch placed in proper phase with the amplified wakefield may be accelerated by the latter. Importantly, the energy for acceleration is provided by the active medium and not the drive bunch as in a traditional TBA. Based on a simplified model, we analyze extensively the impact of various parameters on the wakefield amplification process.

  18. Do we need radiochemical separation in activation analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Zeisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 262, č. 10 (2004), s. 255-260 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4048301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : biological reference materials * neutron activation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  19. Analysis of Chromatin Dynamics during Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Craig J.; Ward, James M.; Crusselle-Davis, Valerie J.; Kissling, Grace E.; Phadke, Dhiral; Shah, Ruchir R.

    2012-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors initiate a genetic program tightly regulated by the chromatin environment of the responsive regions. Using the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a model factor for transcriptional initiation, we classified chromatin structure through formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE). We looked at dynamic changes in FAIRE signals during GR activation specifically at regions of receptor interaction. We found a distribution of GR-responsive regions with diverse responses to activation and chromatin modulation. The majority of GR binding regions demonstrate increases in FAIRE signal in response to ligand. However, the majority GR-responsive regions shared a similar FAIRE signal in the basal chromatin state, suggesting a common chromatin structure for GR recruitment. Supporting this notion, global FAIRE sequencing (seq) data indicated an enrichment of signal surrounding the GR binding site prior to activation. Brg-1 knockdown showed response element-specific effects of ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling. FAIRE induction was universally decreased by Brg-1 depletion, but to varying degrees in a target specific manner. Taken together, these data suggest classes of nuclear receptor response regions that react to activation through different chromatin regulatory events and identify a chromatin structure that classifies the majority of response elements tested. PMID:22451486

  20. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity analysis of extracts of Acacia modesta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of extracts of certain herbs including Acacia modesta (leaf and stem), Artimisia absinthium (leaf and stem), Nigella sativa (seeds) and i (root) was evaluated against three Gram positive and two Gram negative microorganisms. The Gram positive organisms included Bacillus subtalis (ATCC 6633), ...

  2. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  3. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of eight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... Hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The superoxide anion radical scavenging activity was assessed according to the method of Parejo et al. (2003). Two concentrations. (100 and 25 μg/ml) were tested for each extract. The mixture solution contained buffer phosphate (pH = 7.5; Sigma-Aldrich), 0.2.

  4. Trace elements in higher fungi (mushrooms) determined by activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 1 (2004), s. 99-107 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : neutron-activation * edible mushrooms * heavy metals Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  5. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... All plates were incubated at 37oC for 24 h. The diameter of the zones of inhibition in the triplicate plates was measured by calculating the difference between core borer (5 mm) and the diameters of inhibition (Hewitt and Vincent, 1989) and their mean designated as ZI. The activity indices, designated as AI, ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity and chemical analysis of some edible oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, Pakistan. Received 31 January, 2014; Accepted 21 October, 2014. Antimicrobial activity of oils of Syzigium aromaticum (Clove), Nigella sativa (Kalonji) and Eruca sativa ... al., 1999) and essential oil (Halwani et al., 1999) possess.

  7. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... to a reporter gene and a second expression cassette is introduced in a linked fashion in the same transfer DNA. (T-DNA). Normalization in .... synthetic context sequences were generated by keeping their length and GC content the .... In order to test whether similar trends in activity were observed in other ...

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Plankton, Periphyton, and Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This manual is intended for professional personnel in the fields of water pollution control, limnology, water supply and waste treatment. Primary emphasis is given to practice in the identification and enumeration of microscopic organisms which may be encountered in water and activated sludge. Methods for the chemical and instrumental evaluation…

  9. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis method of environmental samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, Sri; Rina M, Th.; L, Dyah

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of precision and accuracy of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used by P2TRR performed by analyzed the standard reference samples from the National Institute of Environmental Study of Japan (NIES-CRM No.10 (rice flour) and the National Bureau of USA (NBS-SRM 1573a (tomato leave) by NAA method. In analyze the environmental SRM No.10 by NAA method in qualitatively could identified multi elements of contents, namely: Br, Ca, Co, CI, Cs, Gd, I, K< La, Mg, Mn, Na, Pa, Sb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Zn (19 elements) for SRM 1573a; As, Br, Cr, CI, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mn, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Se, Sc, Sb, Ti, and Zn, (25 elements) for CRM No.10a; Ag, As, Br, Cr, CI, Ce, Cd, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, TI, and Zn, (26 elements) for CRM No. 10b; As, Br, Co, CI, Ce, Cd, Ga, Hg, K, Mn, Mg, Mo, Na, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, TI, and Zn (20 elementary) for CRM No.10c. In the quantitatively analysis could determined only some element of sample contents, namely: As, Co, Cd, Mo, Mn, and Zn. From the result compared with NIES or NBS values attained with deviation of 3% ∼ 15%. Overall, the result shown that the method and facilities have a good capability, but the irradiation facility and the software of spectrometry gamma ray necessary to developing or seriously research perform

  10. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  11. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian Numelin

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies....... Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity...... postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased...

  12. Analysis of Flavonoids in Rhamnus davurica and Its Antiproliferative Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnus davurica Pall. (R. davurica has been used as a traditional medicinal herb for many years in China and abroad. It has been well documented as a rich source of flavonoids with diversified structures, which in turn results in far-ranging biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to further correlate their anticancer potentials with the phytochemical components, the fingerprint profile of R. davurica herb from Dongbei was firstly investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Thirty two peaks were detected and identified, 14 of which were found in R. davurica for the first time in this work. Furthermore, a total of 23 peaks were resolved as flavonoids, which are the major components found in R. davurica. Meanwhile, the antiproliferative activities against human cancer cells of HT-29 and SGC-7901 in vitro exhibited distinct inhibitory effects with IC50 values at 24.96 ± 0.74 and 89.53 ± 4.11 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the general toxicity against L-O2 cells displayed a much higher IC50 at 229.19 ± 8.52 μg/mL, which suggested very low or no toxicity on hepatic cell viability. The current study revealed for the first time the correlations between the flavonoids of R. davurica with their antiproliferative activities, which indicated that the fingerprint profile of flavonoids and their anticancer activities could provide valuable information on the quality control for herbal medicines and their derived natural remedies from this valuable medicinal plant.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  14. GC-MS analysis of the antioxidant active fractions of Micromeria juliana with anticholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Kolak, Ufuk; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Harmandar, Mansur

    2009-09-01

    The aerial parts of Micromeria juliana (L.) Bentham ex Reichb. were extracted with light petroleum, acetone and methanol, successively. The antioxidant activity of different concentrations of the extracts was evaluated using different antioxidant tests, namely total antioxidant (lipid peroxidation inhibition activity), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ferric reducing power, and metal chelating. Total antioxidant activity was determined using the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay. Unexpectedly, the light petroleum extract exhibited strong lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract was fractionated on a silica gel column and the antioxidant activity of the fractions was determined by the beta-carotene-linoleic assay at 25 microg/mL concentration. The fractions that exhibited more than 50% inhibition activity were analysed by GC and GC/MS; thus, the structure of fourteen compounds were elucidated. In addition, acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts were also determined in vitro. The light petroleum and acetone extracts were found to have mild butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  15. Optimization of HEP Analysis Activities Using a Tier2 Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezzini, S; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Ciampa, A; Mazzoni, E; Coscetti, S; Sarkar, S; Taneja, S

    2012-01-01

    While the model for a Tier2 is well understood and implemented within the HEP Community, a refined design for Analysis specific sites has not been agreed upon as clearly. We aim to describe the solutions adopted at the INFN Pisa, the biggest Tier2 in the Italian HEP Community. A Standard Tier2 infrastructure is optimized for Grid CPU and Storage access, while a more interactive oriented use of the resources is beneficial to the final data analysis step. In this step, POSIX file storage access is easier for the average physicist, and has to be provided in a real or emulated way. Modern analysis techniques use advanced statistical tools (like RooFit and RooStat), which can make use of multi core systems. The infrastructure has to provide or create on demand computing nodes with many cores available, above the existing and less elastic Tier2 flat CPU infrastructure. At last, the users do not want to have to deal with data placement policies at the various sites, and hence a transparent WAN file access, again with a POSIX layer, must be provided, making use of the soon-to-be-installed 10 Gbit/s regional lines. Even if standalone systems with such features are possible and exist, the implementation of an Analysis site as a virtual layer over an existing Tier2 requires novel solutions; the ones used in Pisa are described here.

  16. Determination of oxygen content in steel using activation analysis with 14 MeV neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calado, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    In the quantitative analysis of oxygen in steel by fast neutron activation analysis the oxygen content is evaluated from the measured activity of 16 N produced. Steel s mples are irradiated in 14 MeV neutron flux. After irradiation the samples are pneumatically transfered to the counting terminal where activity is measured. Oxygen concentrations, are obtained by comparison with standards of specified oxygen content [pt

  17. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora...... to a fully realised example of information seeking activity. The core contribution of the proposed method is in supporting the analysis of activity with respect to both macro and micro level temporal interactions between variables....

  18. [Development of aromatase inhibitors and analysis of their inhibitory activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, M

    1998-12-01

    Inhibitors of aromatase are of interest in the treatment of advanced estrogen-dependent breast cancers. In addition, the inhibitors are promising to play as conformational and catalytic probes for the active site of this enzyme, aromatase. There fore, we synthesized a number of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, including suicide substrates, and also studied the mechanism for a time-dependent inactivation of aromatase by the suicide substrates. The mechanism for the aromatase inactivation by 6-oxo-androstenedione (AD) (1), one of the first discovered suicide substrates, was explored using the 19-substituted analogs 2-5 as well as stereo- and/or regio-specifically labeled [3H, 14C]-compound 1. The results indicated that the 4 beta,5 beta-epoxy-19-oxo derivative 7 is a reactive electrophile that irreversibly binds to the active site of aromatase. Studies on the aromatase inhibition by regioisomers of AD, 4-en-6-one 17, 5-en-4-one 18 and 5-en-7-one 19, revealed that the C-3 carbonyl function is not essential for the tight binding of an inhibitor to the active site. 3-Deoxy AD (22) and its 6 alpha,7 alpha-cyclopropano steroid 24 as well as some of 6-alkyl-ADs are among the most potent competitive inhibitors reported so for (K(m) for AD/Ki > 6). Structure-activity relationships of the 6-alkyl-ADs and their 3-deoxy-, delta 1-, delta 6-, and delta 1,6-analogs as aromatase inhibitors showed that aromatase has a hydrophobic binding pocket with a limited accessible volume in the active site in the region corresponding to the beta-side rather than the alpha-side of the C-6 position of the substrate. The 6-alkyl-ADs and their delta 1-analogs were converted into the corresponding estrogens with human placental aromatase, whereas the 3-deoxy steroids 22 and 25 were metabolized to the corresponding 19-oxygenated compounds. The relative apparent K(m) values for the androgens are different from the relative Ki values, indicating that there is a difference between the ability to serve

  19. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...... a noticeable development of national policy documents on physical activity promotion. Following principles for policy development more closely could increase the effectiveness of their preparation and implementation further....

  20. Metrological role of reactor neutron activation analysis in contemporary inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the inherent characteristics of relative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement, the unique functions of parametric INAA as an ideal back-up method of the relative INAA, and the valuable role of INAA in characterization of sampling behavior of individual elements in certified reference materials (CRMs) will be discussed. In the second of this series, traceability and uncertainty of measurement results by k 0 -INAA will be described. The role of k 0 -INAA as a back-up to relative INAA will be discussed. In the final series, minimum sample size, usually 100 mg or larger, is often the only information given in certificates of the existing certified reference materials (CRMs) to describe sampling behavior. This value is not only too large to cope with the quality control (QC) requirements of microanalysis, but also too general to reflect the strong element-specific nature of sampling behavior of solid materials. The need for CRMs with sampling behavior characterized for individual elements is explained, and the unique role INAA can play in this aspect is described. (J.P.N.)