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Sample records for bonneville appliance efficiency

  1. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead evaluation. Volume I - report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) provides wholesale electric power to over 100 retail distribution utilities in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville is faced with meeting growing loads from these utilities. It acquires conservation as one means of meeting this load growth. Bonneville has offered a variety of conservation programs since 1980. Efficient showerheads have been a feature in residential conservation programs ever since. Bonneville launched the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program to focus on water-heater energy conservation opportunities in 1992. The Residential Appliance Efficiency Program consists of two parts, a water-heater efficiency program, and a hot-water efficiency program. This report evaluates the savings and costs of the first two years of the showerhead portion of the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program (the showerhead program). Although it is not a formal evaluation of the program limited to implementation or a {open_quotes}process{close_quotes} evaluation, observations about program design and implementation are included as appropriate. Results of this evaluation are limited to program participants within the Bonneville service territory.

  2. Economics of appliance efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. it is one of the first examples of large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}) in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville`s) service territory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for Bonneville. This study includes the process evaluation, preliminary impact evaluation, and market transformation assessment. It is based on site visits and interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, industry data, and Bonneville information. Results from this study are compared with those from a parallel study that examines the Program across the 24 participating utilities.

  4. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice.

  5. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    The number of appliances found in users’ homes is increasing together with electricity consumption of users’ residences. In addition, there is a tendency to consume during the same period leading to demand peaks. During these periods, electricity providers are forced to develop costly methods...... to generate enough power to meet consumers’ requirements. In addition, high demand peaks can lead to electricity shortages or even blackouts in certain areas. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances should consume electricity in a more distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home...... appliances is proposed and analyzed. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where...

  6. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A new tool to support appliance energy-efficiency deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; McNeil, Michael A.; Tu, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •IDEA collects, organizes, and stores data on appliance features and efficiency. •Data can be gathered for any appliance type on any international market. •IDEA enables new approaches to efficiency deployment and monitoring. •Techniques are developed for cross-market comparison of energy-savings potential. •We find significant cost-effective energy-savings potential from efficiency for Indian and Chinese refrigerators. -- Abstract: Appliance energy-efficiency programs are a central component of many countries’ energy-policy portfolios. A major barrier to optimal implementation of these programs is lack of data to determine market baselines, assess the potential for cost-effective energy savings, and track markets over time to evaluate and verify program impacts. To address this gap, we have developed the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), a suite of software tools that automatically gathers data that is currently dispersed across various online sources and compiles it into a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a diversity of appliances and devices in markets around the world. In this article we describe the framework and functionality of IDEA, and we demonstrate its power as a resource for research and policy development related to appliance energy efficiency. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we assess the potential for cost-effective energy savings within each market by computing robust indicators that can also be easily compared across different appliances and markets. We find that significant cost-effective savings are available on both markets. We discuss implications for the development of future energy-efficiency deployment programs.

  7. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  8. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  9. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  10. Removable orthodontic appliances: new perspectives on capabilities and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Zafarmand, A; Mahdi Zafarmand, M

    2013-06-01

    Removable appliances are a dependable choice for many patients but like all orthodontic appliances, they have some limitations in use. Patient selection and appropriate appliance design are two key factors for success. Many patients, especially adults, prefer intra-oral appliances to extra-oral devices. Sometimes a removable intra-oral appliance can solve a dental problem in a shorter period of time compared to fixed treatment, and this has also been repeatedly seen in molar distalisation. From the interceptive perspective, the appliance can prevent or alleviate an impending crowding for erupting permanent incisors. This article describes 5 patients with different orthodontic problems: impending crowding for erupting upper canine with 2 approaches, provision of space for upper cuspids, resolution of chronic attrition of anterior teeth, relief of space shortage for upper canines eruption, and reduction of excess overjet. All subjects were treated with removable appliances of various designs.

  11. Bonneville Powerhouse 2 Fish Guidance Efficiency Studies: CFD Model of the Forebay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2012-07-01

    In ongoing work, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP) is seeking to better understand and improve the conditions within the Bonneville Powerhouse 2 (B2) turbine intakes to improve survival of downstream migrant salmonid smolt. In this study, the existing B2 forebay computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was modified to include a more detailed representation of all B2 turbine intakes. The modified model was validated to existing field-measured forebay ADCP velocities. The initial CFD model scenarios tested a single project operation and the impact of adding the Behavior Guidance System (BGS) or Corner Collector. These structures had impacts on forebay flows. Most notable was that the addition of the BGS and Corner Collector reduced the lateral extent of the recirculation areas on the Washington shore and Cascade Island and reduced the flow velocity parallel to the powerhouse in front of Units 11 and 12. For these same cases, at the turbine intakes across the powerhouse, there was very little difference in the flow volume into the gatewell for the clean forebay, and the forebay with the BGS in place and/or the Corner Collector operating. The largest differences were at Units 11 to 13. The CFD model cases testing the impact of the gatewell slot fillers showed no impact to the forebay flows, but large differences within the gatewells. With the slot fillers, the flow above the standard traveling screen and into the gatewell increased (about 100 cfs at each turbine intake) and the gap flow decreased across the powerhouse for all cases. The increased flow up the gatewell was further enhanced with only half the units operating. The flow into the gatewell slot was increased about 35 cfs for each bay of each intake across the powerhouse; this change was uniform across the powerhouse. The flows in the gatewell of Unit 12, the most impacted unit for the scenarios, was evaluated. In front of the vertical barrier screen, the CFD model with slot fillers

  12. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A New Resource for Global Efficiency Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F; McNeil, Michael A; Tu, Thomas; Xu, Feiyang

    2017-09-06

    A major barrier to effective appliance efficiency program design and evaluation is a lack of data for determination of market baselines and cost-effective energy savings potential. The data gap is particularly acute in developing countries, which may have the greatest savings potential per unit GDP. To address this need, we are developing the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), which automatically compiles data from a wide variety of online sources to create a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a wide range of energy-consuming products across global markets. This paper summarizes the database framework and demonstrates the power of IDEA as a resource for appliance efficiency research and policy development. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we develop robust cost-effectiveness indicators that allow rapid determination of savings potential within each market, as well as comparison of that potential across markets and appliance types. We discuss implications for future energy efficiency policy development.

  13. When do energy-efficient appliances generate energy savings? Some evidence from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the energy efficiency of household appliances have the potential to decrease residential energy use, but these reductions accrue gradually over time as newer appliances replace older models. SHEU-2003 data are used to examine appliance replacement patterns in Canada for refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers and clothes dryers. The data indicate that the ages at which appliances are replaced tend to be lowest for dishwashers and highest for freezers, with over 40% of freezers in use for more than 20 years before being retired. The life spans of Canadian appliances are compared to the underlying assumptions regarding appliance lifetimes used in models of residential energy demand. We find that Canadian appliance retirement patterns differ from those assumed in the previous literature. Socioeconomic factors related to appliance replacement are also examined. We find that replacement patterns can be sensitive to household characteristics such as income, providing evidence that there may be scope for targeted policies aimed at inducing earlier replacements of older household appliances with new energy-efficient models

  14. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Junginger, Martin; Blok, Kornelis

    2010-01-01

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves. (author)

  15. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya, Muhammad Ery; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  16. Procool - eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeppi, Bernd; Ritter, Herbert; Barthel, Claus; Hermann, Laurenz; Streif, Oswald

    2005-01-01

    Pro-Cool is an EU-wide demonstration project which supports the development and market penetration of eco-efficient plug-in cold appliances for the commercial use. These products should be both highly energy efficient, free of HFC-containing refrigerants and -foaming agents and eco-efficient in a general sense. Thus the project corresponds with the EU Integrated Product Policy which aims at improving products by considering the ecological impact along the product life cycle. Besides ecological criteria, which are central for the project, other aspects relevant for purchasers like warranty and functionality are taken into account to guarantee the acceptance of the products by the demand side target groups. The so called 'voice of the customer' has been considered in the development of the criteria To achieve the necessary stimulation of the supply and demand side market a combined competition and procurement approach is developed addressing both manufacturers and buyers respectively users of the products. The central measure of the project is a European competition for suppliers what offers leading manufacturers of the market the opportunity to present themselves as innovative companies which provide eco-efficient equipment. Eight leading manufacturers which have a high market share in the selected product categories are taking part in the competition. Furthermore three large companies representing the demand side branches of super market chains and drinks industry already have signed a general agreement to support the project and to consider the products resulting from the competition in their procurement activities. Thus major supply and demand side target groups which are capable to support market transformation have joined the project. The competition terminates by December 2005 and the award of the winning products takes place in spring 2006 at an international fair or conference event. The paper presents the objectives and the concept of the project. Relevant

  17. A Study on Efficient Energy Use for Household Appliances in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Efficient , energy use, household appliances, power consumption. ... Although the hydro-electric power transmission lines extend the entire length of ..... R. Karri and P. Mishra, “Minimizing Energy Consumption of Secure Wireless ...

  18. Estimating returns to scale and scale efficiency for energy consuming appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group; Okwelum, Edson O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group

    2018-01-18

    Energy consuming appliances accounted for over 40% of the energy use and $17 billion in sales in the U.S. in 2014. Whether such amounts of money and energy were optimally combined to produce household energy services is not straightforwardly determined. The efficient allocation of capital and energy to provide an energy service has been previously approached, and solved with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) under constant returns to scale. That approach, however, lacks the scale dimension of the problem and may restrict the economic efficient models of an appliance available in the market when constant returns to scale does not hold. We expand on that approach to estimate returns to scale for energy using appliances. We further calculate DEA scale efficiency scores for the technically efficient models that comprise the economic efficient frontier of the energy service delivered, under different assumptions of returns to scale. We then apply this approach to evaluate dishwashers available in the market in the U.S. Our results show that (a) for the case of dishwashers scale matters, and (b) the dishwashing energy service is delivered under non-decreasing returns to scale. The results further demonstrate that this method contributes to increase consumers’ choice of appliances.

  19. Refrigerator efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, Robert; Ben Hagan, Essel; Ofosu Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    In some cases, a simple replication of developed country appliance efficiency labels and standards may not be completely feasible in Ghana, Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developed country appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should be possible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true in developed countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiency improvements provide the greatest energy savings potential in the residential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like many African countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does not have manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approach may hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of used appliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges of the Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energy efficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigerator market transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an average energy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetary savings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modified refrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaian context. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be an example for many other African countries

  20. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  1. Energy Efficiency: The Implementation of Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS Application on Home Appliances for Residential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS has been widespread across the country especially developed country. However, most consumers do not even know about the MEPS. Without sufficient knowledge, much energy have been wasted before this. The aim of this study is to review the implementation of MEPS of Asia country and to compare electricity consumption of home appliances with star rating and without star rating. In order to fulfil the objectives of the study, the equipment must be chosen correctly and must be learned properly. The home appliances that will be used also need to be chosen so that the comparison between the appliances will be matched correctly. To understand the results, the analysis was done using graphs and table. The purpose of using graph and table is to understand the comparison between appliances more clearly. The results show that home appliances with MEPS is more efficient on energy saving rather than without MEPS. This is the evidence as a method to educate a consumer on energy saving.

  2. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  3. Securing energy efficiency as a high priority. Scenarios for common appliance electricity consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foran, T. [Unit for Social and Environmental Research USER, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, P.O. Box 144, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand); Du Pont, P.T. [International Resources Group and Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, Bangkok (Thailand); Parinya, P. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Phumaraphand, N. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Between 1995 and 2008, Thailand's energy efficiency programs produced an estimated total of 8,369 GWh/year energy savings and 1,471 MW avoided peak power. Despite these impressive saving figures, relatively little future scenario analysis is available to policy makers. Before the 2008 global financial crisis, electricity planners forecasted 5-6% long-term increases in demand. We explored options for efficiency improvements in Thailand's residential sector, which consumes more than 20% of Thailand's total electricity consumption of 150 TWh/year. We constructed baseline and efficient scenarios for the period 2006-2026, for air conditioners, refrigerators, fans, rice cookers, and compact fluorescent light bulbs. We drew on an appliance database maintained by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand's voluntary labeling program. For the five appliances modeled, the efficiency scenario results in total savings of 12% of baseline consumption after 10 years and 29% of baseline after 20 years. Approximately 80% of savings come from more stringent standards for air conditioners, including phasing out unregulated air conditioner sales within 6 years. Shifting appliance efficiency standards to current best-in-market levels within 6 years produces additional savings. We discuss institutional aspects of energy planning in Thailand that thus far have limited the consideration of energy efficiency as a high-priority resource.

  4. Energy Efficiency of Electrical Appliances - Effects of Instruments and Measures; Energieeffizienz bei Elektrogeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, C.U.; Bush, E.; Gasser, S.; Lingenhel, S.; Nipkow, J.

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an analysis made of the market for electrical appliances in Switzerland with the aim of understanding the instruments and measures needed to improve energy efficiency better. The paper reports on reviews made of previous studies that were made in Switzerland and Germany and on interviews made with important persons and institutions in this field. Eight basic findings are listed concerning market expansion, technical progress, user behaviour, efficiency, possibilities for intervention, market forces, efficient appliances as a niche market and the competence lacking in the energy-efficiency area. Twelve basic points to be considered in the implementation of an energy-efficiency strategy are discussed and a list of requirements to be fulfilled by politics is presented. The results of the analysis for various sectors and the recommendations made for an implementation organisation are presented in detail. The report is concluded with a extract from the data base on the energy consumption of electrical appliances.

  5. Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards for residential appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; McMahon, J.E.; McNeil, M.; Liu, X.

    2003-01-01

    This study estimated energy, environmental, and consumer impacts of US federal residential energy efficiency standards taking effect in the 1988-2007 period. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated key data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 8-9% in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. The standards will save a cumulative total of 26-32 EJ (25-30 quads) by the year 2015, and 63 EJ (60 quads) by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly US$80 billion by 2015, and grows to US$130 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts in the 1987-2050 period is 2.75:1. The cumulative cost of the DOE's program to establish and implement the standards is in the range of US$200-US$250 million. (author)

  6. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  7. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The

  8. Energy efficiency and appliance purchases in Europe: Consumer profiles and choice determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Rui; Antunes, Dalila

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to the following: (1) understand the factors/characteristics typically considered when purchasing electrical appliances, (2) analyse the differences between consumer profiles regarding these and (3) understand the factors driving the consideration of energy efficiency class by purchasers. Results indicate a preference for first considering cost, followed by quality and energy consumption considerations. These are correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class in consumer choices. Also, regression analysis shows environmental attitudes to be negative predictors of energy efficiency class consideration, while specific environmental behaviours were positive predictors. Finally, consumer profiles were identified based on gender, age and whether or not the purchaser was accompanied when decisions were made. Implications for retail employee training and the development of persuasive messages for consumers based on established profiles are discussed. - Highlights: → We assessed factors typically considered by consumers in electrical appliances choice. → Characteristics identified as most important for choice were as follows: cost, quality and energy consumption. → These correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class. → Differences between consumer profiles regarding the characteristics consideration were identified. → Differences imply persuasive messages adaption to these, to increase energy class consideration.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector using cost and efficiency data developed as part of the regulatory process of the U.S. Department of Energy's Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. These data are presented as a case study in the development of an ‘efficiency technology database’ which can be expanded and published as a resource to other researchers and policy makers seeking scenarios that optimize efficiency policies and forecast their likely impacts on energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The use of this data to evaluate cost-effectiveness according to a variety of metrics is demonstrated using the example of one refrigerator–freezer product class. Cost-effectiveness is then evaluated in terms of cost of conserved energy for refrigerators, room air conditioners, water heaters, cooking equipment, central air conditioners and gas furnaces. The resulting potential of cost-effective improvement ranges from 1% to 53% of energy savings, with a typical potential of 15–20%. - Highlights: ► We determined the potential for cost-effective efficiency for residential appliances. ► We cover 6 appliance groups using cost of conserved energy as a metric for cost-effectiveness. ► Data are source from the DOE's Appliance and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. ► Between 15% and 20% additional cost-effective efficiency improvement is possible.

  10. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Nina Zheng; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  11. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  12. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  13. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.

  14. Orthodontic Class II:1 treatment-efficiency and outcome quality of Herbst-multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N; Ruehl, J; Ruf, S

    2017-12-08

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to assess the efficiency and outcome quality of Class II:1 treatment (Tx). The investigation is based on the evaluation of all Class II:1 patients that ever (1986-2014) started Tx with a Herbst appliance and subsequently a multibracket appliance (MBA) at the study center. Study casts from before Tx, after Herbst-MBA Tx, and (if available) after ≥ 24 months of retention were evaluated using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index, the Ahlgren scale, and standard occlusal variables. In total, 526 Class II:1 patients with a mean pre-Tx age of 14.4 years (range 9.8-44.4) had received Herbst-MBA Tx; 18 patients discontinued Tx before completion. For 240 patients, data from ≥ 24 months of retention were available. The pre-Tx PAR score of 32.4 ± 8.83 was reduced to 8.0 ± 4.51 during Tx. A slight increase to 8.8 ± 5.11 occurred during retention. The percentage of patients which could be assigned to the category "greatly improved" was 62% after Tx and 57% after retention; only 2-3% had to be assigned to the category "worse/no different." The outcome ratings according to the Ahlgren scale revealed 17% excellent, 35% good, 45% satisfactory, and 3% unsuccessful results. Class II:1 Tx using Herbst-MBA is an efficient approach in orthodontic care. During a mean active Tx period of 2 years, high-quality results can be obtained in the majority of patients. The present investigation is the first to investigate a large unselected cohort of consecutive Herbst-MBA patients to determine representative data on the efficiency and the outcome quality of this Tx approach.

  15. Information on the Department of Energy's analyses to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-23

    A historical overview of three separate Department of Energy analyses performed to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards is presented. An identification of the assumptions used in each of the analyses and the conclusions reached in each analysis are covered. Standards for furnaces, water heaters, central air conditioners, refrigerators, ranges/ovens, clothes dryers, freezers, and room air conditioners are considered. (MCW)

  16. The impact of socioeconomic and behavioural factors for purchasing energy efficient household appliances: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio; Wente, Jordan William

    2018-01-01

    appliances. Interestingly, income is a weaker predictor. Despite a relatively wealthy national income and well-educated population, information campaigns have been largely ineffective in driving high efficiency investments. In light of this study's results and exogenous factors such as urbanising...

  17. Consumer’s Attitude Towards Investments in Residential Energy-Efficient Appliances: How End-User Choices Contribute to Change Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio; Wente, Jordan William Halverson

    2017-01-01

    conventional and environmentally friendly alternatives when purchasing new household electric appliances. This study employs empirical data from a survey conducted by the Danish Energy Agency to model the decision criteria behind Danish consumer investment in energy-efficient labeled appliances. The analysis...... uses logistic regression over a set of socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral variables to predict purchase propensities. The findings are relevant for policy makers interested in targeting consumers in the appliance market, particularly for a relatively wealthy national context. The study...

  18. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  19. Short-term changes in chewing efficiency and subjective evaluation in normal dentate subjects after insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satokawa, Y; Minami, I; Wakabayashi, N

    2018-02-01

    Oral appliances with an occlusal flat table are used as treatment dentures. However, the short-term effect of insertion of such oral appliances on chewing has not been reported. This study aimed to determine whether experimental and continuous insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table has an effect on chewing efficiency and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) in healthy participants. Ten participants each in the oral-appliance and control (no oral-appliance insertion) groups attended six data collection sessions for 5 consecutive days. Participants answered the OHIP questionnaire and underwent the chewing efficiency test. For each parameter, intergroup differences were investigated in terms of change from baseline to immediately after oral-appliance insertion (0 hour; P appliance insertion (P appliance insertion (P = .477 and .275, respectively). Differences between the two groups in the degree of change in other parameters were not significant. Insertion of oral appliances caused a decrease in chewing efficiency and an increase in OHIP scores. Continuous insertion improved functional limitation and physical pain within 96 hours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Decomposing price differentials due to ENERGY STARR labels and energy efficiency features in appliances: proxy for market share tracking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work using statistical methods to examine the portions of the apparent price differences for a variety of appliances that are attributable to efficiency labels or components of efficient measures. The work stems from research examining progress in market transformation. The goal was to monitor market progress in the premium associated with efficient equipment compared to standard equipment - and potentially track these changes (hopefully, according to logic, declining) over time. However, the incremental cost metric is always confounded by the fact that the 'feature bundle' on appliances and lighting is not consistent ( i.e. , many efficient products are loaded up with other, high-end features). Based on work conducted by the authors some years ago, we adapted statistical models to decompose the price differentials for efficient and standard refrigerators, clothes washers, and dish washers. The authors used site visits and web searches to gather data on appliance prices and features for a set of efficient and standard models. The authors first examined apparent (raw) price differentials between efficient and standard models. Then, using regression techniques to control for differences in features on the measures, the differences attributable to various features - and in particular to energy efficient features and logos - were estimated. The results showed that while the apparent (gross) price differences for efficient measures are high, the percentage and dollar differences decrease dramatically when the price differences statistically attributable to other features of the measure are accounted for. The work illustrates a promising approach for three important applications in program planning and evaluation: tracking market progress within and between states or service territories, using a proxy variable that is less expensive and complicated to measure than direct indicators of sales or market share, identifying appropriate levels for

  1. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R D; Kantner, C L S; Gerke, B F; Chu, S

    2014-01-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs. (letter)

  2. Design of incentive programs for accelerating penetration of energy-efficient appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue du Can de la, Stephane; Leventis, Greg; Phadke, Amol; Gopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Incentives are policy tools that sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentives complement mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating market penetration of products that are more energy efficient than required by existing standards and by preparing the market for more stringent future mandatory requirements. Incentives can be directed at different points in the appliance's supply chain; one point may be more effective than another depending on the technology's maturity and market penetration. This paper seeks to inform future policy and program design by categorizing the main elements of incentive programs from around the world. We identify advantages and disadvantages of program designs through a qualitative overview of incentive programs worldwide. We find that financial incentive programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies with a small market share, and that program designs depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context. No program design is inherently superior to another. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and identification of the most important local obstacles to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies. - Highlights: • We researched incentive programs design and implementation worldwide. • This paper seeks to inform future policy and program design. • We identify design and identify advantages and disadvantages. • We find that incentive programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient products. • Program designs depend on the market barriers addressed and the local market context

  3. www.topten.info goes European. How to get Mr. Smith hooked to energy efficient appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, Sophie; Bush, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Topten is a consumer-oriented online search tool first created in Switzerland, which presents the 'best appliances' in various categories of products (white and brown goods, ITC, cars, lighting...). Energy efficiency is the key criteria. But Topten is more than an internet platform. It is a communication tool which helps to show how our energy consumption causes climate change and what we can do personally to reduce our impact. It is also a powerful instrument to influence manufacturers. Topten is independent of producers and retailers and relies on neutral tests and analyses of independent institutions and standardized declarations of manufacturers. The paper presents: The tool itself: what can be seen on www.topten.ch, why it has been developed in this way, how it is constantly updated, who is behind it with which goals... The results in Switzerland after five years of growing success, the media's central role in rising awareness, Topten's role as a reference for energy efficiency policies, manufacturers' reactions,... The new policy orientation taken by Topten with the support of WWF Europe: the extension to other countries through a Topten.info platform - in order to create multinational pressure at the European level to influence manufacturers while working specifically on national markets and adapting the concept to the specific needs of each country

  4. A run-around heat exchanger system to improve the energy efficiency of a home appliance using hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sung; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    A significant portion of the energy consumed by many home appliances using hot water is used to heat cold supply water. Such home appliances generally are supplied water at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature, and the supply water is normally heated to its maximum operating temperature, often using natural gas or an electrical heater. In some cases, it is possible to pre-heat the supply water and save energy that would normally be consumed by the natural gas or electrical heater. In order to save the energy consumed by an appliance using water heater, a run-around heat exchanger system is used to transfer heat from the ambient to the water before an electrical heater is energized. A simple model to predict the performance of this system is developed and validated, and the model is used to explore design and operating issues relevant to the run-around heat exchanger system. Despite the additional power consumption by the fan and pump of the run-around heat exchanger system, the experimental data and analysis show that for some systems the overall energy efficiency of the appliance can be improved, saving about 6% of the energy used by the baseline machine.

  5. Designing incentive schemes for promoting energy-efficient appliances: A new methodology and a case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galarraga, Ibon; Abadie, Luis M.; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The energy-efficiency gap has been high on research and policy agendas for several decades. Incentive schemes such as subsidies, taxes and bonus-malus schemes are widely used to promote energy-efficient appliances. Most research, however, considers instruments in isolation, and only rarely in the context of political constraints on instrument use, or for alternative policy goals. This paper presents a methodology for the optimal design of incentive schemes based on the minimisation of Dead Weight Loss for different policy goals and policy restrictions. The use of the methodology is illustrated by designing optimal combinations of taxes and subsidies in Spain for three types of appliance: dishwashers, refrigerators and washing machines. The optimal policies are designed subject to different policy goals such as achieving a fixed reduction in emissions or a certain increased market share for efficient appliances, and for policy constraints such as budget neutrality. The methodology developed here can also be used to evaluate past and current incentive schemes. - Highlights: • A new methodology for the optimal design of incentive schemes is presented. • This is done minimising the Dead Weight Loss for different goals and restrictions. • Efficient bonus malus schemes can be designed with this method.

  6. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  7. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  8. Policy implications of the purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances among China’s urban residents: Do subsidies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Dongxue

    2017-01-01

    Incentive policies are always used to sway purchase, retail stocking, and production decisions toward energy-efficient products by many countries or regions. So the effectiveness of such subsidies has been of much concern to scholars. This research focused on whether, or not, subsidy policies have guided people's intentions and behaviours. We investigated 436 urban residents from 22 provinces in China, covering the seven major geographic regions, and made an empirical analysis of the factors influencing Chinese urban residents’ purchasing intentions towards energy-efficient appliances based on the structural equation model. On theoretical aspect, we developed the theory of planned behaviour. Our results show that the variable “POLICY” is insignificant which indicates that policy environment and media propaganda in China do not have significant effect on Chinese residents’ willingness to pay for energy-efficient appliances. While, the residents’ environmental awareness, past purchasing experiences, social relationships, age, and level of education all exert a significant influence on Chinese residents’ purchasing intentions. Finally, based on the above research results, the corresponding policy suggestions which mainly focus on the time of subsidy, the object of subsidy and the method of subsidy are offered for policy makers. - Highlights: • We researched people’s behaviour combined with a policy implementation background. • We found that the subsidy policy didn’t change people’s purchase intentions. • Past purchasing experiences significantly influence consumers’ purchase intentions. • We proposed policy advices about the time, types and methods of incentive policies.

  9. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  10. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  11. Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarraga, Ibon, E-mail: ibon.galarraga@bc3research.org; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel, E-mail: mikel.gonzalez@bc3research.org; Markandya, Anil, E-mail: anil.markandya@bc3research.org

    2011-12-15

    This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: > The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. > The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. > The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). > The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.

  12. Saying Goodbye to 'Bonneville' Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Image NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 86 (March 31, 2004) before driving 36 meters (118 feet) on sol 87 toward its future destination, the Columbia Hills. This is probably the last panoramic camera image that Spirit will take from the high rim of 'Bonneville' crater, and provides an excellent view of the ejecta-covered path the rover has journeyed thus far. The lander can be seen toward the upper right of the frame and is approximately 321 meters (1060 feet) away from Spirit's current location. The large hill on the horizon is Grissom Hill. The Colombia Hills, located to the left, are not visible in this image.

  13. Probabilistic assessment of the potential indoor air impacts of vent-free gas heating appliances in energy-efficient homes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmyre, Gary K; Pandian, Muhilan D

    2018-06-01

    Use of vent-free gas heating appliances for supplemental heating in U.S. homes is increasing. However, there is currently a lack of information on the potential impact of these appliances on indoor air quality for homes constructed according to energy-efficient and green building standards. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of vent-free gas heating appliances on indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water vapor, and oxygen in "tight" energy-efficient homes in the United States. A total of 20,000 simulations were conducted for each Department of Energy (DOE) heating region to capture a wide range of home sizes, appliance features, and conditions, by varying a number of parameters, e.g., room volume, house volume, outdoor humidity, air exchange rates, appliance input rates (Btu/hr), and house heat loss factors. Predicted airborne levels of CO were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 9 ppm for all modeled cases. The airborne concentrations of NO 2 were below the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) guideline of 0.3 ppm and the Health Canada benchmark of 0.25 ppm in all cases and were below the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 0.11 ppm in 99-100% of all cases. Predicted levels of CO 2 were below the Health Canada standard of 3500 ppm for all simulated cases. Oxygen levels in the room of vent-free heating appliance use were not significantly reduced. The great majority of cases in all DOE regions were associated with relative humidity (RH) levels from all indoor water vapor sources that were less than the EPA-recommended 70% RH maximum to avoid active mold and mildew growth. The conclusion of this investigation is that when installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, vent-free gas heating appliances maintain acceptable indoor air quality in tight energy-efficient homes, as defined by the standards referenced in

  14. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  15. Learning energy efficiency: experience curves for household appliances and space heating, cooling, and lighting technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improving demand side energy efficiency is an important strategy for establishing a sustainable energy system. Large potentials for energy efficiency improvements exist in the residential and commercial buildings sector. This sector currently accounts for almost 40% of the European Union’s (EU)

  16. The Bonneville Power Administration new energy-efficient homes programs: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Assessing indoor air quality options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    BPA has underway marketing and incentive programs to encourage the construction of new energy-efficient homes that comply with Model Conservation Standards (MCS) developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council. These homes are designed to have lower infiltration rates than current building practices provide, which is likely to contribute to increased levels of indoor air pollutants, and may adversely affect the health of occupants. BPA's current and past new homes programs maintained ventilation rates comparable to those found in current practice homes by requiring balanced mechanical ventilation. BPA now proposes to give builders and consumers more flexibility by increasing the options for protecting indoor air quality in its new homes programs. This proposal is the impetus for this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which was prepared for BPA by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. BPS is preparing this EIS to assess whether other techniques maintain indoor air quality comparable to that found in homes built using current practices. Although many pollutants are potentially of great concern, our analysis concentrates on radon and formaldehyde. It is based on measured concentrations of these pollutants and measured ventilation rates in current practice. Ventilation was measured using fan pressurization tests, which measure only air leakage, and perfluorocarbon tracer gas (PFT) tests, which account for ventilation from mechanical devices and occupant behavior in addition to air leakage. These tests yielded two different estimates. We used these data to estimate pollutant concentrations and lifetime cancer rates under three alternative actions. Under all of the alternatives, radon had a much greater effect than formaldehyde. 102 refs

  17. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  18. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  19. Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and satisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-10-15

    During 2006-2007, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, provided incentives for low income and senior residents in single family homes for retrofitting with high efficiency fixtures. The participating residences were retrofitted with high-efficiency toilets, showerheads, and aerators. In 2012, a telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants and the associated effects on water conservation practices. This study evaluates the attitudes and opinions of the participants relative to water use efficiency measures and the actual reduction in water consumption characteristics of the participating households. The participant characteristics were analyzed to identify correlations between the socio-demographic factors, program satisfaction and actual water savings. Approximately 65.5% of the survey respondents reported changes in their water use habits and 76.6% reported noticeable reduction in their water bills. The analyses showed that the satisfaction levels of the participants were closely correlated with the actual water savings. The results also showed that satisfaction level along with water saving potential (i.e., implementation of water efficiency devices) or change of water use habits has provided positive synergistic effect on actual water savings. The majority of the participants surveyed (81.3-89.1%) reported positive attitudes for water conservation incentive program and the benefits of the high efficiency fixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring of Juvenile Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival for yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts during spring 2010 in a portion of the Columbia River that includes Bonneville Dam. The study estimated smolt survival from a virtual release at Bonneville Dam to a survival array 81 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. We also estimated median forebay residence time, median tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency (SPE), as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. A single release design was used to estimate survival from Bonneville Dam to a primary array located 81 km downstream of Bonneville. The approach did not include a reference tailrace release. Releases of acoustic-tagged smolts above John Day Dam to Hood River contributed to the formation of virtual releases at a Bonneville Dam forebay entrance array and at the face of the dam. A total of 3,880 yearling Chinook salmon and 3,885 steelhead smolts were tagged and released in the investigation. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) tag model number ATS-156dB, weighing 0.438 g in air, was used in this investigation.

  1. Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    For the first time in a decade, Bonneville had to propose a double digit rate increase in 1993. Many of the causes were beyond our control, but self-examination and painful budget cuts put the focus squarely where it should be -- on the changes needed for BPA to compete in an increasingly market-driven business environment. As deregulation and change sweep the electricity industry, BPA has launched a major Competitiveness Project. It`s clear that we can, and will, cut costs and make ourselves more efficient. We can shape our products and services to better reflect what customers want and are willing to pay for. And more than ever we will measure and reward output -- results -- more than process. BPA today is the Northwest`s low-cost supplier of electricity and transmission services. To stay that way, we must adopt a more business-like model. The move does not signal a rejection of our role as a federal agency. In fact, close attention to sound business principles is the only way to strengthen our commitment to fish and wildlife, environment, and other community values.

  2. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  3. On the development of an innovative gas-fired heating appliance based on a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump; system description and seasonal gas utilization efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawoud, Belal

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to introduce an innovative hybrid heating appliance incorporating a gas condensing boiler and a zeolite-water adsorption heat pump. The condensing boiler is applied to drive the zeolite-water heat pump for the heating base-load and to assist the heat pump in the so called “mixed operation” mode, in which both the heat pump and the condensing boiler are working in series to cover medium heating demands. Peak heating demands are covered by the condensing boiler in the so called “direct heating” mode. The three operation modes of the hybrid heating appliance have been technically described. In addition, the laboratory test conditions for estimating the seasonal heating performance according to the German Guideline VDI 4650-2 have been introduced. For both heating systems 35/28 °C and 55/45 °C, which represent the typical operating conditions of floor and high temperature radiating heating systems in Europe, seasonal heating gas utilization efficiencies of 1.34 and 1.26 have been measured, respectively with a ground heat source. In two field test installations in one-family houses in Germany, the introduced heating appliance showed 27% more seasonal gas utilization efficiency for heating and domestic hot water production, which is equivalent to a CO 2 -emission reduction of 20% compared to the gas condensing boiler technology

  4. Effective and Efficient Herbst Appliance Therapy for Skeletal Class II Malocclusion Patient with a Low Degree of Collaboration with the Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Bastos, Barbra Duque Costa; Araujo, Luana Fialho Ferro; Moyses-Braga, Wagner Fernando; Pantuzo, Mariele Garcia; Cheib, Paula Loureiro

    2015-01-01

    The current concept for effective and efficient treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion prescribes that interceptive approach should be delivered during the pubertal growth stage. However, psychosocial issues and a greater risk of dental trauma are also factors that should be addressed when considering early Class II therapy. This paper reports a case of a patient that sought orthodontic treatment due to aesthetic discomfort with the incisors' protrusion. Two previous treatments failed because patient's collaboration with removable appliances was inadequate. Given his history of no collaboration and because the patient was in the prepubertal stage, it was decided to try a different approach in the third attempt of treatment. Traumatic injury protective devices were used during the prepubertal stage and followed by Herbst appliance and fixed multibrackets therapy during the pubertal stage, resulting in an adequate outcome and long-term stability.

  5. Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.

  6. Transforce lingual appliances pre-adjusted invisible appliances simplify treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    Transforce lingual appliances are designed to be used in conjunction with conventional fixed appliances. Lingual arch development is normally followed by bonded fixed appliances to detail the occlusion. Alternatively Transforce appliance treatment is an efficient method of preparing complex malocclusions prior to a finishing stage with invisible appliances. This approach is ideal for adult treatment, using light continuous forces for arch development with appliances that are comfortable to wear. Sagittal and Transverse appliances are designed for arch development in a range of sizes for contracted arches. They can be used to treat all classes of malocclusion and are pre-adjusted fixed/removable devices for non-compliance treatment. Force modules with nickel titanium coil springs enclosed in a tube deliver a gentle, biocompatible continuous force with a long range of action. They are excellent for mixed dentition and ideal for adult arch development. There are multiple sizes for upper and lower arch development and a sizing chart may be placed over a study model for correct selection, eliminating the need for laboratory work.

  7. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-07-15

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville' (QTVR) This view captured by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit nearly a year ago is called Spirit's 'Legacy' panorama. It combines many frames acquired during Spirit's 59th through 61st martian days, or sols (March 3 to 5, 2004) from a position about halfway between the landing site and the rim of 'Bonneville Crater.' The location is within the transition from the relatively smooth plains to the more rocky and rugged blanket of material ejected from Bonneville by the force of the impact that dug the crater. The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of images obtained in 78 individual pointings. The camera took images though 5 different filter at each pointing. This mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters centered at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. The Columbia Memorial Station lander can be seen about 200 meters (about 650 feet) in the distance by following the rover tracks back toward right of center in the mosaic and zooming in.

  9. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  10. Retrospective evaluation of appliance price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Sydny Fujita, K.

    2009-01-01

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by the Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1.For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2.Past retail price predictions made by the DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3.The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4.Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances

  11. The Bonneville Power Administration's geothermal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darr, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being a power source with many desirable characteristics, geothermal has not been developed in the Pacific Northwest because of high costs, high risks, and the lack of a market for power. The region will require new power sources in the 1990s, and will need to know to what extent it can rely on geothermal. The Bonneville Power Administration has developed a geothermal RD and D program which includes a proposal to award power contracts to three pilot projects in the Northwest. Public outreach efforts, environmental base line studies, and economic and land use impact studies will also be undertaken. In this paper two projects already under way are discussed

  12. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  14. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  15. Study on residential appliances energy efficiency standards Refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, color TVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.G.; Cho, S.K.; Choi, S.H.; Jung, B.M.; Han, S.B.; Kim, K.D. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The energy efficiency standards and rating act, as amended by the rational energy utilization act, provides energy efficiency standards and ratings for 6 types of consumer products(refrigerators, air-conditioners, fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, ballasts and cars) authorizes the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) to prescribe amended or new energy efficiency standards and rating standards. This study was initiated by the KIER in 1992. KIER`s assessment of the standards is designed to evaluate their statistical and engineering analysis according to Korean(Industrial) Standards(KS). And to make distinction between the poor efficiency and good efficiency models, 5 grades are classified depending on their tested energy efficiency. This year, based on our analysis, MOTIE mandated updated standards for refrigerators, air-conditioners, incandescent lamps, and fluorescent lamps. Also the objective of this study is to set the energy efficiency standards and to grade for color TV sets. (author). 37 refs., 89 figs., 85 tabs.

  16. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  17. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  18. A quantile approach to assess the effectiveness of the subsidy policy for energy-efficient home appliances: Evidence from Rizhao, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xi-Long; Liu, Yang; Yan, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A one-year subsidy program for energy-efficient home appliances has been implemented in China. We construct a dataset consisting of participant and non-participant households in both urban and rural areas of Rizhao city. By applying a quantile regression and counterfactual analysis, this study disentangles the impact of this subsidy program and inherent household attributes on per capita residential electricity consumption. First, contrary to the mean regression, the elasticity of electricity consumption to household's income, age, education and energy-saving awareness, varies markedly across the electricity consumption distribution and shows discrepancy between urban and rural areas. Second, while inherent household attributes are identified as a primary determinant to the changes in residential electricity consumption, the effect induced by the subsidy incentive is more significant at the middle of the electricity consumption distribution than at the tails. Third, there are significant rebound effects that lead to overall increase in household electricity consumption. Our results suggest that the disparity between urban and rural regions and targeted consumer behavior changes should be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of a future energy-efficient subsidy program. - Highlights: • The effect of the subsidy policy on electricity consumption is assessed with a quantile regression. • Policy induced effect is more significant at the middle of the distribution than at the tails. • The rebound effects lead to overall increase in electricity consumption. • The impact of households attributes varies markedly across electricity consumption distribution

  19. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  20. 77 FR 15096 - Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Commission's Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. v. Bonneville Power Admin., 137 FERC ] 61,185 (2011... the Web site that enables subscribers to receive email notification when a document is added to a...

  1. Bonneville Power Administration 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration`s 60th anniversary year exceeded expectations. Net revenues were the best since 1991, which demonstrates that earlier decisions to transform BPA into a smaller, cost-conscious, customer-focused organization were the correct decisions. The region`s evaluation of the agency`s role in the Northwest was as gratifying as the positive financial position. Through the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System, the region concluded that BPA has been and must continue to be an important economic and environmental benefit to the Northwest. BPA occupies a unique position in the region that is crystallized in the agency`s new purpose statement: to meet their public responsibilities through commercially successful businesses. The agency must be commercially successful to provide funding for public responsibilities such as its fish and wildlife program, conservation, and reliable power and transmission systems. But the heart and soul of the agency is providing benefits that reflect the public service orientation that inspired the agency`s creation 60 years ago. BPA will provide the region with power at cost, provide preference to the region because the river on which the hydro system is based is a regional resource, and continue to see that its power flows to the little guys. It is just as important that BPA deliver power to the region`s residential and rural consumers now as it was when the agency brought electricity to rural areas for the first time.

  2. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  3. Design of China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP) for equipment and appliances and comparative study of international experience on super-efficient products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuying; Zhu, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    With rising global emphasizes on climate change and sustainable development, how to accelerate the transformation of energy efficiency has become an important question. Designing and implementing energy-efficiency policies for super-efficient products represents an important direction to achieve breakthroughs in the field of energy conservation. On December 31, 2014, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) jointly six other ministerial agencies launched China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP), which identifies top efficiency models for selected product categories. LEP sets the highest energy efficiency benchmark. Design of LEP took into consideration of how to best motivate manufacturers to accelerate technical innovation, promote high efficiency products. This paper explains core elements of LEP, such as objectives, selection criteria, implementation method and supportive policies. It also proposes recommendations to further improve LEP through international policy comparison with Japan’s Top Runner Program, U.S. Energy Star Most Efficient, and SEAD Global Efficiency Medal.

  4. Transversal changes, space closure, and efficiency of conventional and self-ligating appliances : A quantitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianrui; Xue, Chaoran; He, Yiruo; Zhao, Mengyuan; Luo, Mengqi; Wang, Peiqi; Bai, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) were compared to conventional brackets (CBs) regarding their effectiveness on transversal changes and space closure, as well as the efficiency of alignment and treatment time. All previously published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) dealing with SLBs and CBs were searched via electronic databases, e.g., MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. In addition, relevant journals were searched manually. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers and assessment of the risk of bias was executed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (version 5.3). A total of 976 patients in 17 RCTs were included in the study, of which 11 could be produced quantitatively and 2 showed a low risk of bias. Meta-analyses were found to favor CB for mandibular intercanine width expansion, while passive SLBs were more effective in posterior expansion. Moreover, CBs had an apparent advantage during short treatment periods. However, SLBs and CBs did not differ in closing spaces. Based on current clinical evidence obtained from RCTs, SLBs do not show clinical superiority compared to CBs in expanding transversal dimensions, space closure, or orthodontic efficiency. Further high-level studies involving randomized, controlled, clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results.

  5. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  6. Appliance based control for Home Power Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Hanife Apaydın

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes energy-friendly smart home appliances (hereafter ‘smart appliances’), control of these appliances and their effects on the efficient use of energy. To accomplish this, smart appliances and their operation principles are introduced and their energy savings compared to conventional appliances are analyzed using precise measurements. Then, a real-time Appliance-based Home Power Management System (Ab-HPMS) which manages power consumption of smart appliances and that of the house as a whole is proposed. For Ab-HPMS, an appliance control algorithm, called Appliance-based Rolling Wave Planning (Ab-RWP), is developed with the aim of reducing electricity cost and improving energy efficiency while maintaining user comfort. Ab-RWP algorithm interacts with appliances in a priority order based on user comfort which is determined by utilizing their smart operational characteristics. Operations of smart appliances and their integrations with Ab-HPMS are modeled with Petri nets to verify that they meet the requirements expressed in the specifications. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed Ab-HPMS provides improvements in terms of the energy consumption reduction of about 5%–16%, cost reduction of about 10%–24% and peak reduction at high demand period of about 38%–53% compared to conventional appliances usage. - Highlights: • The effects of smart home appliances on energy saving are investigated. • Petri nets models of smart appliances are developed to simulate their operations in smart home. • A real-time appliance-based home power management system (Ab-HPMS) is proposed. • Power density function is evaluated to interrupt the operation of smart washing machine.

  7. Advances in household appliances- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R and D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R and D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to 'level' the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers. - Highlights: → This paper presents latest developments/status of advanced residential appliances. → Stringent minimum energy performance standards can reduce appliance energy use. → There is a potential to reduce energy use in appliances by up to 50%.

  8. Crew appliance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  9. File System Virtual Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    4 KB of data is read or written, data is copied back and forth using trampoline buffers — pages that are shared during proxy initialization — because...in 2008. CIO Magazine. 104 · File system virtual appliances [64] Megiddo, N. and Modha, D. S. 2003. ARC: A Self-Tuning, Low Over- head Replacement

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Use With Small Appliances C Appendix C to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment... Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances Recovery Efficiency Test Procedure for Refrigerant Recovery Equipment Used on Small Appliances The following test procedure is utilized to evaluate the efficiency of...

  11. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  12. Oral radiation protector appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, T.M.; Dudas, R.M.; Shusta, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    An appliance for protecting teeth, gingiva, periodontal or alveola bone, salivary glands, and adjacent body areas against the harmful side effects of radiation therapy consists of an intraoral portion and an extraoral portion that may be selectively attached. The intraoral portion is substantially u-shaped to encompass the teeth and adjacent areas. The intraoral part may be made of lead sheet coated with plastic; the extraoral portion may be of lead sheet

  13. Boundedly rational consumers, energy and investment literacy, and the display of information on household appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    It is an ongoing debate how to increase the adoption of energy-efficient light bulbs and household appliances in the presence of the so-called ‘energy efficiency gap’. One measure to support consumers’ decision-making towards the purchase of more efficient appliances is the display of energy-related

  14. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  15. A modified, lingually supported cantilevered Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, D

    1996-01-01

    This new, fixed-functional appliance/Herbst/Bioprogressive system is designed for patient comfort and mandatory compliance. It also combines the positive clinical effects of four fixed-functional systems. It allows rapid palatal expansion of the upper arch, alveolar uprighting of the lower arch, upper and lower incisor alignment, and sagittal correction of Class II malocclusions to occur simultaneously with one appliance fixed in both arches. It is indicated for use in growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusions. The ideal timing for treatment is the late mixed dentition. Being able to remove the appliance after one year with the upper second bicuspids erupting slightly Class III so the clinician can immediately begin fixed finishing mechanics would be ideal. This new Herbst design will reduce the frequency of orthognathic surgery and upper bicuspid extraction to camouflage Class II malocclusions. At the same time, it gives total control to the clinician in treating some more difficult, non-compliant patients. Fixed-functional appliances, which improve treatment efficiency and treatment results and provide for patient comfort, while at the same time give the treating clinician almost total control of the three planes of facial growth will open new doors for orthodontic treatment and research in the next century.

  16. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  17. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but...

  18. Treatment with active orthodontic appliance in adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Radeska, Ana; Radeski, Josif; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Papakoca, Kiro; Zarkova, Julija

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Showing the efficiency of orthodontic mobile appliance in treatment of adult patient Case summary: The patient A.K. Age 25 years whit forced progenia, bilateral hypodontia of the maxillary incisors and cross bite of 2 mm in front. The patient was treated with active orthodontic appliance whit bitten ridge and down labial arch. The treatment lasted 18 months after which periods is reached normal occlusion with normal overlap in front and closed diastema mediana. The hypodontia of the m...

  19. 78 FR 39279 - United States Department of Energy; Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ13-10-000] United States Department of Energy; Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... (OATT) and a Petition for Declaratory Order requesting the Commission find that Bonneville's OATT, as...

  20. Decision-making in electrical appliance use in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Akihiko; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey as well as an argument from the viewpoint of behavioral economics with the aim of clarifying how consumers make decisions about electrical appliance use in the home. A survey of consumers showed that most have little awareness of the energy efficiency of appliances, the price of the services produced by electrical appliances, or electricity rates. These findings indicate that price does not function as a signal in electricity consumption through electrical appliance use. Rather, we found that consumer decision-making in electricity consumption is dependent on the characteristics of the particular electrical appliances they use. Additionally, we argue that the payment system for home electricity consumption plays an important role in decision-making, causing biases due to aspects of human psychology discussed here in terms of satisficing and heuristics, payment decoupling, and budgeting. We conclude that decision-making about electrical appliance use and electricity consumption in the home is not always rational and is affected both by the particular characteristics of appliances and the payment system for electricity consumption along with human psychology

  1. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  2. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  3. Remote repair appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  4. Improvements in appliance holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to appliance holders for locating tools, instruments, etc. in operative relationship to workpieces and accessible through passageways of restricted transverse dimensions. The appliance holder described comprises an elongated external frame provided with transversely, outwardly expanding frictional gripping means in two longitudinally spaced sets and with a ring of spur teeth. An inner elongated frame is held within the external frame in two longitudinally spaced rotary bearings and carries a spur wheel which engages the ring of the spur teeth. A motor is arranged to rotate the spur wheel and hence the inner frame in relation to the external frame. A carriage is carried by the inner frame, longitudinally movable by a motor in relation thereto, and a further carriage is mounted on this first carriage. This second cariage is transversely movable in relation to the inner frame and is provided with a face plate for attachment of tools, instruments, etc. A motor is mounted on the first carriage for moving the second carriage. (U.K.)

  5. Above Bonneville passage and propagation cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region

  6. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  7. Turning the appliance market around towards A++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard, Joergen S.; Guldbrandsen, Tom [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Brange, Birgitte; Karbo, Peter [Elsparefonden (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    In an effort to exploit better the labelling schemes for appliances the Danish Electricity Saving Trust has run some campaigns on cold appliances. In 1999 focus was on getting people to choose A-rated models, the 2004 campaign focussed on A+, and in 2005 on A++. These campaigns and their results are described in the paper and some conclusions are drawn.The campaigns have consisted of various elements, namely 1) a general information about the campaigns, 2) a subsidy offered temporarily during some months to people buying the A, A+ and A++ models, 3) a website where people can easily find the most energy efficient model within their specification, and 4) in the website are also listed the shops, where consumers can get the appliances at lowest prices. The latter was the most innovative and maybe also the most effective measure in the package.Results showed up as a permanent U-turn of the market in the course of a few years. Where models C, D, E earlier dominated the market, the A, A+ and A++, came to dominate as the standard models in stock. Consequently, their prices dropped significantly. The theory of a rational market behavior is based on some assumptions, one being that full information is available to all actors. The website identifying to the consumers the shops with the lowest priced efficient models was a step in that direction, and the result did not fail to turn up.

  8. Comparative assessment of alignment efficiency and space closure of active and passive self-ligating vs conventional appliances in adolescents: a single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songra, Goldie; Clover, Matthew; Atack, Nikki E; Ewings, Paul; Sherriff, Martyn; Sandy, Jonathan R; Ireland, Anthony J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to initial alignment and extraction space closure using conventional brackets and active and passive self-ligating brackets. One hundred adolescent patients 11 to 18 years of age undergoing maxillary and mandibular fixed appliance therapy after the extraction of 4 premolars were randomized with stratification of 2 age ranges (11-14 and 15-18 years) and 3 maxillomandibular plane angles (high, medium, and low) with an allocation ratio of 1:2:2. Restrictions were applied using a block size of 10. Allocation was to 1 of 3 treatment groups: conventional brackets, active self-ligating, or passive self-ligating brackets. All subjects were treated with the same archwire sequence and space-closing mechanics in a district general hospital setting. The trial was a 3-arm parallel design. Labial-segment alignment and space closure were measured on study models taken every 12 weeks throughout treatment. All measurements were made by 1 operator who was blinded to bracket type. The patients and other operators were not blinded to bracket type during treatment. Ninety-eight patients were followed to completion of treatment (conventional, n = 20; active self-ligating brackets, n = 37; passive self-ligating brackets, n = 41). The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and demonstrated a significant effect of bracket type on the time to initial alignment (P = 0.001), which was shorter with the conventional brackets than either of the self-ligating brackets. Sidak's adjustment showed no significant difference in effect size (the difference in average response in millimeters) between the active and passive self-ligating brackets (the results are presented as effect size, 95% confidence intervals, probabilities, and intraclass correlation coefficients) (-0.42 [-1.32, 0.48], 0.600, 0.15), but the conventional bracket was significantly different from both of these (-1.98 [-3.19, -0.76], 0.001, 0.15; and -1.56 [-2.79, -0.32], 0.001, 0

  9. An orthodontic oral appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Marie; Legrell, Per Erik

    2010-11-01

    This pilot study was performed to test the hypothesis that an orthodontic oral appliance (OA) that is designed to work against the backwardly directed forces on the upper incisors may counteract the reduction in overjet from these devices. Thirty patients with normal bites, good oral health, and milder sleep apnea were randomized to treatment with either OAs or orthodontic OAs. Bite changes were evaluated on plaster casts and radiographs and by questionnaires after a mean of 2.4 years in 19 frequent users. Four of nine patients in the orthodontic OA group increased their overjet by > or =0.4 mm, while none of the 10 patients in the OA group experienced that effect. Only the orthodontic OA increases the overjet; this design may therefore be beneficial to patients at risk of negative effects on their bite during OA treatment.

  10. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Gygi, K.F.

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs

  11. PAT portable appliance testing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 require any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required.This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam that anyone who conducts this work is required to take by law.It is an affordable and handy reference for electricians who administer PAT. It is also an ideal refesher and revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff, caretakers and charity shop volunteers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.Brian Scaddan, I Eng, MIET, is a consultant for and an Honorary Member of City & Guilds. ...

  12. Open-bite treatment utilizing clear removable appliances with intermaxillary and intramaxillary elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    Clear removable appliances with elastics can be effective and efficient in extruding maxillary teeth during aligner treatment or following a relapse of an open bite. Some patients with open bites refuse to wear conventional fixed appliances. In these individuals, clear aligners with elastics could be a valuable alternative. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  13. Hydropower operations data management at Bonneville Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, R.

    2006-01-01

    The decision support software used by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in its operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System in the Pacific northwest was presented along with examples of water resources data and information regarding weather and stream flow. Water resources data is used extensively in hydropower operations for planning purposes through to real-time operations. This includes long-term historical hydrology and realtime system information on snow cover, river discharges and water elevations. Since the data comes from many different sources, the quality and frequency varies, with sample intervals ranging from seconds to days. Some data may be intermittent and transmitted only when thresholds are reached. Data can be communication via SCADA telemetry, the Internet, direct satellite feed, telephone or fax. The key requirement for a decision support system is the reliable and easily accessed compilation of all this data. The BPA uses long-term planning models, system-wide generation scheduling applications, and near-real-time optimization of generating units. It was suggested that the hydrologic forecasting community could benefit from the utility's experience using these applications. tabs., figs

  14. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  15. Compliance with removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirmal

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesMedline via OVID, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and BBO databases. Unpublished clinical trials accessed using ClinicalTrials.gov, National Research Register, ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database.Study selectionTwo authors searched studies from inception until May 2016 without language restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative studies incorporating objective data on compliance with removable appliances, barriers to appliance wear compliance, and interventions to improve compliance were included.Data extraction and synthesisQuality of research was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I), and the mixed methods appraisal tool. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by examining a graphic display of the estimated compliance levels in conjunction with 95% confidence intervals and quantified using the I-squared statistic. A weighted estimate of objective compliance levels for different appliances in relation to stipulated wear and self-reported levels was also calculated. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Meta-regression was undertaken to assess the relative effects of appliance type on compliance levels.ResultsTwenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean duration of objectively measured wear was considerably lower than stipulated wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.81 hours, 95% confidence interval, 4.98, 6.64). Self-reported wear time was consistently higher than objectively measured wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.02 hours, 95% confidence interval, 3.64, 6.40). Two studies found an increase in compliance with headgear and Hawley retainers when patients were aware of monitoring. Five studies found younger age groups to

  16. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    to consume no more than 50 kWh per year, without using any risky synthetic gasses. Washing appliances will use no electricity for heating, which will bring annual electricity consumption below 50 kWh for a washing machine. For electronic equipment, the efficiency gain known from battery operated version...

  17. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  18. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  19. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  20. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  1. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Columbia River Section, John Day, OR)

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence

  2. Assessment of perceived orthodontic appliance attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziuchkovski, James P; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2008-04-01

    To date, no studies have been published in the literature evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to assess appliance variables, including appliance type, brand, wire, and ligature tie, for their relative attractiveness. Demographic factors were also evaluated. Appliances were placed in an adult, and digital images were captured, standardized, and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Subjects (n = 200) rated each image for attractiveness on a visual analog scale. The attractiveness ratings were analyzed by using factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures. Post-hoc testing was done with the Tukey-Kramer test (overall a appliances), ceramic, and all self-ligating/stainless steel appliances. No differences between brands in each appliance type were found. Ratings of some ceramic appliances were significantly affected by archwire and ligature tie, depending on several demographic interactions. Orthodontic appliance attractiveness varies by the following hierarchy of appliance types: alternative > ceramic > all stainless steel/self-ligating. Wire and tie selection can affect the appearance of ceramic appliances but have no impact on stainless steel or self-ligating appliances. Certain demographic factors have variable effects on attractiveness ratings.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appliances, cooling. 3280.714... Systems § 3280.714 Appliances, cooling. (a) Every air conditioning unit or a combination air conditioning... accordance with ANSI Z21.40.1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional appliances. 3285.503... appliances. (a) Comfort cooling systems. When not provided and installed by the home manufacturer, any comfort cooling systems that are installed must be installed according to the appliance manufacturer's...

  5. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances. 238.429 Section 238.429... Equipment § 238.429 Safety appliances. (a) Couplers. (1) The leading and the trailing ends of a semi... appliance mechanical strength and fasteners. (1) All handrails, handholds, and sill steps shall be made of 1...

  6. Ground source heat pump retrofit at North Bonneville, WA City Hall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughey, M. [Skamania Co. PUD No. 1, Carson, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In 1995, the City of North Bonneville, WA installed a 10-ton Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) to replace the electric resistance furnace in its 4,000 square, foot City Hall. North Bonneville is 30 miles east of Portland, Oregon, at river level in the Columbia River Gorge. Funded jointly by the Bonneville Power Administration, the State of Washington and the City, this project has successfully reduced the heating cost of City Hall by nearly one-half while dramatically increasing comfort. It has become a commercial model in the Pacific Northwest for assessing values of commercial GSHP retrofits. This interim report compares estimated savings with actual experience for the first operating year. Projected savings were $1,500; actual savings were $1,390 prior to adjustment for extreme weather. Adjusted savings for Heating Year 1996 were $1,490, a 47 percent decrease. Maintenance savings (not itemized) were in addition to this amount. Monitoring continues in 1997.

  7. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Cilil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1, and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2. Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

  8. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  9. Evaluation of a Behavioral Guidance Structure at Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse including Passage Survival of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead using Acoustic Telemetry, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; McComas, Roy L.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Fu, Tao; Skalski, J. R.; Fischer, Eric S.

    2010-02-12

    Summarizes research conducted at Bonneville Dam in 2008 to evaluate a prototype Behavioral Guidance Structure, that was deployed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to increase survival of outmigrating smolts at Bonneville Dam.

  10. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam, Annual Progress Report April 2006 - March 2007. Report C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kofoot, P.

    2008-01-01

    Describe reproduction and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available in the Columbia River between Bonneville and Priest Rapids dams. Progress updates on young-of-the-year recruitment in Bonneville Reservoir and indices of white sturgeon spawning habitat for 2006 for McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville dam tailrace spawning areas.

  11. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  12. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  13. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost

  14. Paper de recherche no. 28 Bis. Can negotiated agreements replace efficiency standards as an instrument for transforming the electrical appliance market?; Cahier de recherche no. 28. Les accords negocies peuvent-ils remplacer les normes de performance pour la transformation du marche de l'electromenager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2002-03-01

    Without reinforced energy saving policies, residential consumption of electricity will increase sharply over the next twenty years, in particular as a result of expected growth in the specific uses of electricity. The main problem is not a lack of energy efficient technologies, which do indeed exist for electrical appliances, but one of slow diffusion of existing technologies due to the weakness of the price signal and the purchasing behaviour of consumers. In association with energy labelling, minimum efficiency performance standards have proved to be very effective in stimulating technological progress and organizing market transformation. But standards also suffer from long and often difficult implementation periods because of the resistance of the industrial sector. For manufacturers, similar results could be obtained more easily and more rapidly with voluntary agreements because they introduce flexibility margins in the achievement of commitments. This paper analyses the specific advantages of voluntary agreements for improving energy efficiency in the domestic appliances sector. We conclude that voluntary agreements may be an effective instrument for market transformation in certain conditions, but the alternative of regulatory measures must remain a credible, realistic threat if voluntary agreements are to have a really significant impact on performance improvement. (author)

  15. 18 CFR 300.20 - Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim acceptance and review of Bonneville Power Administration rates. 300.20 Section 300.20 Conservation of Power and Water... Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation; or (ii) Deny the Administrator's interim rate request...

  16. Hydraulic alterations resulting from hydropower development in the Bonneville Reach of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    We used a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model to simulate and compare the hydraulic characteristics in a 74-km reach of the Columbia River (the Bonneville Reach) before and after construction of Bonneville Dam. For hydrodynamic modeling, we created a bathymetric layer of the Bonneville Reach from single-beam and multi-beam echo-sounder surveys, digital elevation models, and navigation surveys. We calibrated the hydrodynamic model at 100 and 300 kcfs with a user-defined roughness layer, a variable-sized mesh, and a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers backwater curve. We verified the 2D model with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data at 14 transects and three flows. The 2D model was 88% accurate for water depths, and 77% accurate for velocities. We verified a pre-dam 2D model run at 126 kcfs using pre-dam aerial photos from September 1935. Hydraulic simulations indicated that mean water depths in the Bonneville Reach increased by 34% following dam construction, while mean velocities decreased by 58%. There are numerous activities that would benefit from data output from the 2D model, including biological sampling, bioenergetics, and spatially explicit habitat modeling.

  17. Pleistocene Lake Bonneville and Eberswalde Crater of Mars: Quantitative Methods for Recognizing Poorly Developed Lacustrine Shorelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to quantify shoreline features on Earth has been aided by advances in acquisition of high-resolution topography through laser imaging and photogrammetry. Well-defined and well-documented features such as the Bonneville, Provo, and Stansbury shorelines of Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville are recognizable to the untrained eye and easily mappable on aerial photos. The continuity and correlation of lesser shorelines must rely quantitative algorithms for processing high-resolution data in order to gain widespread scientific acceptance. Using Savitsky-Golay filters and the geomorphic methods and criteria described by Hare et al. [2001], minor, transgressive, erosional shorelines of Lake Bonneville have been identified and correlated across the basin with varying degrees of statistical confidence. Results solve one of the key paradoxes of Lake Bonneville first described by G. K. Gilbert in the late 19th century and point the way for understanding climatically driven oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum in the Great Basin of the United States. Similar techniques have been applied to the Eberswalde Crater area of Mars using HRiSE DEMs (1 m horizontal resolution) where a paleolake is hypothesized to have existed. Results illustrate the challenges of identifying shorelines where long term aeolian processes have degraded the shorelines and field validation is not possible. The work illustrates the promises and challenges of indentifying remnants of a global ocean elsewhere on the red planet.

  18. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  19. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  20. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  1. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Installation of appliances. 3280... Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.709 Installation of appliances. (a) The installation of each appliance... the manufacturer's instructions attached to the appliance. Every appliance shall be secured in place...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707... Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof jacks and... appliance, the heating appliance shall be installed by the manufacturer of the manufactured home in...

  4. Designing appliances for mobile commerce and retailtainment

    OpenAIRE

    Roussos, George; Kourouthanassis, P.; Moussouri, T.

    2003-01-01

    In the emerging world of the new consumer and the `anytime, anywhere' mobile commerce, appliances are located at the collision point of the retailer and consumer agendas. The consequence of this is twofold: on the one hand appliances that were previously considered plain and utilitarian become entertainment devices and on the other, for the effective design of consumer appliances it becomes paramount to employ multidisciplinary expertise. In this paper, we discuss consumer perceptions of a re...

  5. Fibrotic encapsulation of orthodontic appliance in palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Jananni; Muthanandam, Sivaramakrishnan; Umapathy, Gubernath; Kannan, Anitha Logaranjani

    2017-01-01

    Iatrogenic trauma though not serious is very common in dental practice. Orthodontic treatment can inflict such injuries as they are prolonged over a long period of time. Ill-fabricated orthodontic appliances, such as wires and brackets, or the patients' habits such as application of constant pressure over the appliance can traumatize the adjacent oral soft tissues. In rare cases, these appliances can get embedded into the mucosa and gingival tissues. This case report describes one such case of iatrogenic trauma to the palatal mucosa due to entrapment of a tongue spike appliance and its surgical management.

  6. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Hernández, José M.; Periáñez, Raúl; O'Connor, Jim E.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s-1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y-1 Pa-1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the outflow to grow from 10

  8. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Hernández, José M.; Periáñez, Raúl; O'Connor, Jim E.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s−1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y−1 Pa−1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the

  9. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on ...

  10. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  11. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  12. Air conditioning with small power gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canci, Franco

    1997-01-01

    This article describes research and test activities on small power air conditioning appliances for residential use carried out in the United States, Japan and Europe. The absorption technology aims at the following objectives: to develop appliances requiring reduced maintenance and having a size comparable with electric units of the same output; to reduce production costs and therefore the final prince by adopting special manufacturing technologies such as welded plate exchangers; to obtain appliances which operate both in summer and winter ( as heat pumps), allowing to minimize management and installation costs in southern European climates. The final aim is to offer the customer one appliance only for the following purposes: hot water production for sanitary use, water refrigeration for summer air conditioning, hot water production production for winter heating. This kind of appliance should have management and maintenance costs similar to current individual boilers

  13. Office management of obstructive sleep apnoea: appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-08-01

    Oral appliances are becoming increasingly common in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). They work by advancing the mandible and opening the pharynx. There are several types of devices available for use. Many patients intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are using oral appliances for OSA. Oral appliances have been shown to improve polysomnography, quality of life and health measures associated with OSA. There is current work to better identify patients who are ideal candidates. Development of titratable devices and monitoring are optimizing usage. They have been compared with CPAP, with both showing improvement in OSA; however, CPAP remains superior overall. Oral appliances are becoming first-line therapy for mild and moderate OSA. They provide a meaningful alternative in severe OSA for patients unable to use CPAP. Device titration and usage monitoring are beginning to hone oral appliances as a therapeutic option.

  14. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available.

  15. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  16. From lab to field: Geotechnical properties for predicting embankment settlement on Lake Bonneville deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, K.C.; Sampaco, C.L.; Anderson, L.R.; Caliendo, J.A.; Rausher, L.; Keane, E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a laboratory analysis, to determine geotechnical properties of lacustrine Lake Bonneville deposits, within the I-15 corridor of Salt Lake City, Utah, is presented. Laboratory vertical and horizontal consolidation coefficients are compared with those back-calculated from observed, field settlement data and linear relationships established. The results are used to select vertical and horizontal field coefficients and predict settlement rate of an existing embankment, scheduled for enlargement. 27 refs., 9 figs

  17. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  18. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements for...

  19. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W (Lifesaving...

  1. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance must...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically listed...

  3. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  4. 77 FR 33337 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy... furnace or central air conditioner meets applicable Department of Energy regional efficiency standards... members install products that comply with Department of Energy (DOE) efficiency standards. II. Background...

  5. 77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy... equipment meets applicable new Department of Energy (``DOE'') efficiency standards for specific regions. The... disclosures and the DOE plan, the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy requested that the FTC...

  6. European Gas Appliances Directive and the Dutch Decree on Gas Appliances. Special section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, B.; Venhorst, T.; Van Tricht, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Gas Appliances Decree is the Dutch translation of the European Gas Appliances Directive. The Decree and the EU Directive contain substantial information, provided they will be read carefully. The EU Directive lays down general safety requirements for gas appliances. They serve as a practical tool for manufacturers and service engineers. In two articles, the Directive is explained, addressing uncertainties and answering important questions. 5 ills

  7. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG’s), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL’s), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL’s. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL’s and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL’s. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG’s registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach. PMID:28824226

  8. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  9. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  10. 76 FR 79057 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Labeling, Reporting and recordkeeping... emitting diode (OLED) means a thin-film light- emitting device that typically consists of a series of...

  11. Quality of Lab Appliances in Orthodontic Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzansky, D P; Park, J H

    Lab appliances are an integral part of orthodontics, from active treatment to retention. The quality and fit of an appliance can affect the treatment result and stability. This study aims to determine common points of failure in orthodontic appliances, and suggest methods to reduce this rate. A survey consisting of 23 questions was distributed to active members of the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) via Survey Monkey. The most common appliance to need an adjustment was the wrap-around retainer, with the Hawley retainer as a close second. The least common appliance needing adjustment was the Essix/clear retainer. Respondents were asked which component of each appliance was most commonly responsible for an ill-fit. For Hawley and wrap-around retainers, clasps were the most common problem at 50%, whereas spring aligners had two components - clasps and labial bows, both at 38%. Ill-fitting Essix/clear retainers had gingival impingement (52%) closely followed by poor posterior seating (43%). Communication between the orthodontist and lab technician can be improved by establishing a quality assurance protocol for outgoing and incoming cases. The labial bow of Hawley's, wrap-arounds and spring aligners should be clearly demarcated on the casts. Impressions should be free of distortion and casts should be inspected for accuracy. Clear retainers and positioner should be trimmed to avoid gingival impingement. The type of clasp should be selected based on the anatomy of the teeth, and bands should be checked for accuracy of fit.

  12. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances (2015 Update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Chung, Greg [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Energy commissioned a technology characterization and assessment of appliances used in commercial buildings for cooking, cleaning, water heating, and other end-uses. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development, and demonstration opportunities to improve energy efficiency in each end-use. This report serves as an update to a 2009 report of the same name by incorporating updated data and sources where possible and updating the available technology options that provide opportunities for efficiency improvements.

  13. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  14. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  15. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  16. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  17. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

    1999-01-01

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances

  18. Orthodontic appliance preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Daniel K; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Firestone, Allen R; Christensen, James C

    2010-12-01

    Although attractiveness and acceptability of orthodontic appliances have been rated by adults for themselves and for adolescents, children and adolescents have not provided any substantial data. The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences and acceptability of orthodontic appliances in children and adolescents. Images of orthodontic appliances previously captured and standardized were selected and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Additional images of shaped brackets and colored elastomeric ties, as well as discolored clear elastomeric ties, were captured and incorporated onto existing survey images with Photoshop (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The survey displayed 12 orthodontic appliance variations to 139 children in 3 age groups: 9 to 11 years (n = 45), 12 to 14 years (n = 49), and 15 to 17 years (n = 45). The subjects rated each image for attractiveness and acceptability. All images were displayed and rated twice to assess rater reliability. Overall reliability ratings were r = 0.74 for attractiveness and k = 0.66 for acceptability. There were significant differences in bracket attractiveness and acceptability in each age group. The highest-rated appliances were clear aligners, twin brackets with colored ties, and shaped brackets with and without colored ties. Colored elastomeric ties improved attractiveness significantly over brackets without colored ties for children in the 12-to-14 year group. There was a tendency for older subjects to rate clear orthodontic appliances higher than did younger subjects. Ceramic brackets with discolored ties tended to be rated lower than ceramic brackets with new ties and scored lowest in acceptability and attractiveness in all age groups. Girls rated shaped brackets significantly higher than did boys. Children's preferences for orthodontic appliances differ by age and sex. Child and adolescent preferences differ from adult preferences. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby

  19. Assessment of Fluctuating Reservoir Elevations Using Hydraulic Models and Impacts to Larval Pacific Lamprey Rearing Habitat in the Bonneville Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-24

    This report presents the results of a modeling assessment of likely lamprey larval habitat that may be impacted by dewatering of the major tributary delta regions in the Bonneville Pool of the Columbia River. This assessment was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP). The goal of the study was to provide baseline data about how the regions of interest would potentially be impacted at three river flows (10, 50, and 90 percent exceedance flow) for four different forebay elevations at Bonneville Dam. Impacts of unsteady flows at The Dalles Dam and changing forebay elevation at Bonneville Dam for a 2-week period were also assessed. The area of dewatered regions was calculated by importing modeled data outputs into a GIS and then calculating the change in inundated area near tributary deltas for the four Bonneville forebay surface elevations. From the modeled output we determined that the overall change in area is less sensitive to elevations changes during higher river discharges. Changing the forebay elevation at Bonneville and the resulting impact to total dewatered regions was greater at the lowest modeled river flow (97 kcfs) and showed the greatest variation at the White Salmon/Hood River delta regions followed by the Wind, Klickitat and the Little White Salmon rivers. To understand how inundation might change on a daily and hourly basis. Unsteady flow models were run for a 2-week period in 2002 and compared to 2014. The water surface elevation in the upstream pool closely follows that of the Bonneville Dam forebay with rapid changes of 1 to 2-ft possible. The data shows that 2.5-ft variation in water surface elevation occurred during this period in 2002 and a 3.7-ft change occurred in 2014. The duration of these changes were highly variable and generally did not stay constant for more than a 5-hr period.

  20. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  1. Late Pleistocene Hansel Valley basaltic ash, northern Lake Bonneville, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.M.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Nash, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Hansel Valley ash bed lies within 5 cm of the base of deposits of Lake Bonneville (???28 ka) in the vicinity of Great Salt Lake and provides a useful stratigraphic marker for this area of the lake basin. However, it has not been matched to an eruptive edifice, presumably because such an edifice was eroded by waves of Lake Bonneville. We present data for the chemical composition of the tephra and for possible matching lavas and tephras of the region, as well as grain size data for the tephra in an attempt to identify the location of the eruption. Matches with other tephras are negative, but lavas near the coarsest ash deposits match well with the distinctive high values of TiO2 and P2O5 of the ash. Neither chemistry nor grain size data points uniquely to a source area, but an area near the northwest shore of Great Salt Lake and within Curlew Valley is most likely. The Hansel Valley ash is an example of an ash that has no direct numerical date from proximal deposits, despite considerable study, yet nonetheless is useful for stratigraphic studies by virtue of its known stratigraphic position and approximate age. Basaltic tephras commonly are not as widespread as their rhyolitic counterparts, and in some cases apparently are produced by eruptive sources that are short lived and whose edifices are not persistent. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  2. Evaluation of Behavioral Guidance Structure on Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Hughes, James S.; Kim, Jin A.; Fu, Tao; Fischer, Eric S.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an acoustic-telemetry study at Bonneville Dam in 2009 to evaluate the effects of a behavioral guidance structure (BGS) in the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse forebay on fish passage and survival through the second powerhouse (B2), the dam as a whole, and through the first powerhouse and spillway combined. The BGS was deployed to increase the survival of fish passing through B2 by increasing the percentage of outmigrating smolts entering the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC)—a surface flow outlet known to be a relatively benign route for downstream passage at this dam. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. Study results indicated that having turbine 11 in service is important for providing flow conditions that are comparable to those observed in pre-BGS years (2004 and 2005) and in 2008. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  3. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of nitradine tablets in maxillary removable orthodontic appliance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento-Zahra, Ethel; De Wever, Bart; Decelis, Stephen; Mallia, Kenneth; Camilleri, Simon

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate the efficiency of NitrAdine (MSI Laboratories) tablets in the reduction of oral Candida levels, biofilm formation, and appliance odor in maxillary removable orthodontic appliance wearers. seventy children between 11 and 15 years of age undergoing maxillary removable appliance treatment were assigned via a double-blind randomized method to the experimental or placebo arm of the study. One milliliter of unstimulated saliva was collected at the beginning of the experiment and 6 weeks later after treatment of the maxillary removable appliance with NitrAdine tablets. Samples were cultured on chromogenic Candida agar, and the number of colony-forming units per mL of saliva (CFU mL-1) was determined. there was no significant difference in salivary Candida levels before or after treatment with NitrAdine tablets. There was a significant drop in plaque accumulation on the appliance and a significant amelioration in appliance odor. There was a small, nonsignificant drop in individuals exhibiting counts of 400 CFU mL-1 or more in the experimental group and a nonsignificant increase in the number of new species in the placebo group. NitrAdine tablets are effective in reducing plaque accumulation and appliance odor during maxillary removable appliance treatment. Further in vivo studies are required to determine the efficacy and exact protocol for NitrAdine tablets in appliance disinfection.

  4. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  5. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  6. Evaluation of the Fish Passage Effectiveness of the Bonneville I Prototype Surface Collector using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Fish Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah; Rhondorf, D.

    2001-05-01

    This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.

  7. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  8. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  9. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  10. Disposal machine using a hydraulic shovel loader for waste home electric appliances; Yuatsu shoberunado wo katsuyoshita haikaden shori kikai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-25

    This paper presents a disposal machine system developed by Hitachi Kenki Co. for waste home appliances. EX60 disposal machine and 2-axis shear shredder were developed as work machines for volume reduction and efficient disposal of waste home appliances. The shredder with rotary cutters is featured by superior crunch performance and efficient shredding of waste home appliances, and can crash not only waste home appliances but also various objects such as bulky waste, waste plastics and waste tire for passenger cars at crash torques from 7000 to 12000kgf{center_dot}m. The shredder is featured by superior mobility and easy operability by self-running and full-hydraulic driving, low- noise engine, and noise/vibration reduction by low-speed large torque hydraulic motor. EX60 disposal machine has clamp fixing waste home appliances, and a grapple for disassembling and classification, and can efficiently disassemble and classify 4 kinds of waste home appliances and other wastes only by itself. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Colostomies and the use of colostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Elaine

    The surgical formation of a colostomy is indicated as part of the treatment of various conditions, primarily colon cancer, requiring the patient (ostomist) to wear a colostomy pouch. Today's stoma appliances bear no resemblance to those worn three or four decades ago when colostomy, ileostomy and urostomy bags were made entirely from rubber. The patient, who would have two to three bags in circulation at a time, would interchange them allowing for the washing and drying of the previous one, thus minimizing odour and potential perishing of the rubber. The design of these appliances was simple, but they were large and bulky and the outlet resembled that of a hot-water bottle stopper or a cap from an old soda bottle that required the insertion of coinage (2p) to open it. This article explores the range of colostomy appliances and management options available to the nurse when caring for patients with a colostomy.

  12. Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

  13. 76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy... Department of Energy efficiency standard for the regions where it will be installed. The Commission seeks... staff will hold a public meeting with the Department of Energy to discuss possible disclosures. DATES...

  14. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  15. Mini-screws, a viable adjunct along with Incognito lingual appliance: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invisible orthodontics have been around for too long, and with the advent of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology appliances such as Incognito TM has made the whole treatment experience more pleasant and aesthetic. However, even in lingual orthodontics, biomechanics play the most important role, and the use of temporary anchorage devices (TADs has made the whole treatment more effective and efficient. This article focuses on cases where TADs in lingual appliances play a critical role in the treatment of various malocclusions.

  16. The greenhouse advantage of natural gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombe, N.

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle report prepared recently by Energetics for the AGA, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas, demonstrates clearly the greenhouse advantage natural gas has over coal in generating electricity. This study also goes one step further in applying this life cycle approach to the use of space and water heating within the home. The study shows the significant green-house advantage that natural gas appliances have over electric appliances. Findings from other studies also support this claim. The natural gas suppliers are encouraged to take advantage of the marketing opportunity that these studies provide, offering the householders the fuel that will significantly reduce their contribution to greenhouse emission

  17. Gas appliances in the domestic market - legal basis and questioning concerning the Directive for Gas Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienen, W. van

    1994-01-01

    Four years after the Directive for Gas Appliances has been passed by the European Community it shows the first effects on the market. Gas appliances bearing an CE label can prove that the EC-standardised demands are observed. Thus it can be demanded from every member state by law not to hinder a launch on the market and the initiation. The directive also effects the demands for national environmental protection. A new DVGW (Deutscher Verein des Gas und Wasserfaches e.V.) quality label for gas appliances is going to certify the observance of a quality level which exceeds the minimum EC level. (orig.) [de

  18. CE-mark for gas appliances: A laugh or a tear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The title CE-mark is a quality mark for products, assigned by the European Community (EC). One and a half year ago the EC Gas Appliances Directive (GAD) came into force. According to the program 'Europe 1992' the European internal market should have been established by now. In this article the state of the art for gas appliances is given. Attention is paid to the systematics of European verification, the GAD contents, the consequences of a number of other Directives (for low-voltage materials, for electromagnetic compatibility, for efficiencies of central heating boilers, for machines, and for building products), which also affect the use of gas appliances, GASTEC's role as Notified Body, and experiences gained from European certification up to now. 6 ills., 3 tabs

  19. Application of smart technology in monitoring and control of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abdulrazaq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inherent dependency of home appliances on human for monitoring and control has been found to be mainly responsible for power wastage, and increase in the rate of wear and tear, which invariably implies additional spending on the part of owners. The smart technology provides a way out. This paper presents an automated system which is based on arduino and android device for monitoring and controlling appliances to prevent the wastage of power. The system design is based on the Microcontroller MIKRO-C software, active sensors and wireless internet services which is used in different monitoring and control processes of fan, air-conditioner, light and heater. The system when tested performs efficiently in monitoring and controlling through switching the appliances in the room based on human presence and environmental changes due to light intensity and temperature variation.

  20. Equipment and appliances for underwater operations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 6/75 edition of 'mt' reported on the 'ARGE underwater appliances' and the study on 'design development of appliances and equipment for underwater use' in a brief summary. One of these designs, the 'unmanned DSWS underwater appliance' was described in detail. The present article describes three further design developments mentioned in the above study and which are based on unmanned appliances connected to the mother-ship. These designs were developed by Preussag-Meerestechnik. (orig.) [de

  1. Modelling the effects of U.S. ENERGY STARR appliance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Shel; Hoefgen, Lynn; Wilson-Wright, Lisa; Li, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Numerous U.S. utilities and market transformation organizations have invested heavily in the ENERGY STAR program, designed to increase market penetration of energy-efficient products (e.g., home appliances, lighting products, windows). Major activities involve stimulating production and promotion of qualifying models, as well as stocking, sales support and financial incentives to customers-all of which entail considerable investments of public funds. Several studies have shown that customer awareness of ENERGY STAR has increased across the country, particularly where energy-efficiency programs have been most active. Furthermore, studies in regions with aggressive programs have shown that the market penetration of qualifying products has increased rapidly. Until recently, however, policy makers have lacked reliable studies that compare changes in market penetration across regions with and without programs while factoring out effects of demographic and other background factors (e.g., education, income, and climate). Also lacking have been attempts to assess whether heavy promotion of the ENERGY STAR brand with some appliances (e.g., clothes washers) has affected the market penetration of less-promoted qualifying appliances. In this paper, the authors address these issues, using a database of the market penetration of four major home appliances at national retailers in each of the individual states over a multi-year period, based on multivariate statistical models. Results include both analyses of the overall trend of market penetration (1998-2002) for the appliances considered and the incremental effects of the 2003 program. The results lead to recommendations regarding the design of programs supporting ENERGY STAR compliant appliances and the key components of those programs

  2. On the necessity of improving the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances in net-zero energy buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Endrit; Jusselme, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    There is now clear evidence regarding the extensive use of furniture and appliances in daily human life, but there is less evidence of their impact on the environment. Responding to this gap in knowledge, this study focuses on an assessment of the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances as used in highly energy efficient buildings. Their primary energy, non-renewable energy and global warming potential indicators have been assessed by extending the boundaries of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study beyond the building itself. In conclusion, we found that furniture and appliances were responsible for around 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption and 15% of primary energy consumption comparing to the overall impacts of the building. Since embodied impacts represent the largest values, the process for labelling the appliances' energy efficiency should encompass a life-cycle point of view, not just a usage point of view as the case currently. Among office appliances, computer equipment was ranked as the highest impacting element, especially laptops and monitors. As for domestic appliances, refrigerators and electric ovens had the biggest impacts. Concerning furniture, the greatest impacts were from office and kitchen cabinets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-07

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  4. Compliance Monitoring of Yearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Spring 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-03-01

    The study was designed to estimate dam passage survival at Bonneville Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp) and to provide additional fish passage performance measures at that site as stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  5. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such as...

  7. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting underway, the master or person in charge shall insure that each appliance for watertight integrity is...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case of...

  9. Load Characterization for small domestic appliances and electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sluis, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the energy consumption of small domestic loads has been analysed. To make the around 100 types of appliances considereda bit manageable, the appliances were categorized into several groups. The possibilities for time-shifting of the energy use of these small appliances was

  10. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances... appliances including invalid lifts and therapeutic and rehabilitative devices, and special clothing made...

  11. 46 CFR 199.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 199.70 Section 199.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each vessel must carry lifebuoys approved under approval series 160.150 as follows...

  12. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section... Hospital Services § 409.14 Supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare pays for supplies, appliances, and equipment as inpatient hospital or inpatient...

  13. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  14. Conductor qualification tests for the 30-MJ Bonneville Power Administration SMES coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Boenig, H.J.; Henke, M.; Turner, R.D.; Schramm, R.

    1980-01-01

    The 30-MJ energy storage coil for the Bonneville Power Administration requires a low-loss, cryostable conductor that is able to carry 4.9 kA in a field of 2.8 T and will maintain its properties over 10 8 partial discharge cycles. The multi-level cable which satisfies these requirements has been extensively tested at various stages in its development and in its final form. Tests have been performed to determine the effect of manufacturing options on ac losses, low temperature electrical resistivity, stability, and fatigue resistance of the insulated conductor. This paper will concentrate on the stability and fatigue tests which have not previously been reported

  15. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  16. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batten, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  17. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  18. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was done to match the color of the appliance with that of the adjoining skin to make ... of the surface of the swelling with the gap between the two ... Figure 1: Preoperative view of keloid .... “multi model” approach for treating ear keloids. Indian J ...

  19. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  20. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  1. Hydrology and surface morphology of the Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley Playa, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Gregory C.

    1979-01-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley are in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in northwest Utah. The areas are separate, though similar, hydrologic basins, and both contain a salt crust. The Bonneville salt crust covered about 40 square miles in the fall of 1976, and the salt crust in Pilot Valley covered 7 square miles. Both areas lack any noticeable surface relief (in 1976, 1.3 feet on the Bonneville salt crust and 0.3 foot on the Pilot Valley salt crust).The salt crust on the Salt Flats has been used for many years for automobile racing, and brines from shallow lacustrine deposits have been used for the production of potash. In recent years, there has been an apparent conflict between these two major uses of the area as the salt crust has diminished in both thickness and extent. Much of the Bonneville Racetrack has become rougher, and there has also been an increase in the amount of sediment on the south end of the racetrack. The Pilot Valley salt crust and surrounding playa have been largely unused.Evaporite minerals on the Salt Flats and the Pilot Valley playa are concentrated in three zones: (1) a carbonate zone composed mainly of authigenic clay-size carbonate minerals, (2) a sulfate zone composed mainly of authigenic gypsum, and (3) a chloride zone composed of crystalline halite (the salt crust). Five major types of salt crust were recognized on the Salt Flats, but only one type was observed in Pilot Valley. Geomorphic differences in the salt crust are caused by differences in their hydrologic environments. The salt crusts are dynamic features that are subject to change because of climatic factors and man's activities.Ground water occurs in three distinct aquifers in much of the western Great Salt Lake Desert: (1) the basin-fill aquifer, which yields water from conglomerate in the lower part of the basin fill, (2) the alluvial-fan aquifer, which yields water from sand and gravel along the western margins of both playas, and (3) the

  2. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  3. CernVM - a virtual software appliance for LHC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncic, P; Sanchez, C Aguado; Blomer, J; Franco, L; Mato, P; Harutyunian, A; Yao, Y

    2010-01-01

    CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of CernVM project and compare performance of CVMFS to performance of traditional network file system like AFS and discuss possible scenarios that could further improve its performance and scalability.

  4. Policy instruments force climate protection by increasing the energy efficiency of electric appliances and electrical systems in private households and the commercial and small-scale sector; Politikinstrumente zur Effizienzsteigerung von Elektrogeraeten und -anlagen in Privathaushalten, Bueros und im Kleinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik; Griessmann, Benjamin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The implementation of new, more market-oriented instruments represents an additional starting point for future developments. This path was started on in the EU in 2005 with the CO{sub 2} emission trade. The price signals that could be expected for end customers in households and trade from this alone would most likely be too low to be a sufficient motivation for exhausting the electricity efficiency potential. At this point, we must again point out that only rarely are there economic hindrances to the complete use of potential, but rather a lack of information and organization leads to increased transaction costs in the implementation. This must be corrected by accompanying efficiency instruments and programs. However, implementing these programs does not (yet) represent an economic alternative to the efficiency measures in their own systems for the industry and power company involved in the emission trade due to such transaction costs. Otherwise there would be initiatives in the meantime for this type of privately organized program, as these have been suggested in this report as tasks for a national electricity fund. Therefore, the instrument of the EU emission trade must be supplemented in the foreseeable future with the instruments presented here. There is not much evidence as to how much a comparable implementation of tradable energy efficiency certificates (often referred to as ''white certificates'') is a suitable start for concluding efficiency potential at the level of the very inhomogeneous group of end consumers. We still see a need for research before such an instrument can be recommended as a guide for Germany or even Europe. The questions still to be clarified include, among other things, the ability of standardizing the assignment rules as well as the amount of the transaction costs to be expected, even in dependency on the market level at which the trade is started (end consumer, energy service provider, electronic equipment

  5. Using smart meter to monitor the energy consumption of home appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, M.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    A smart meter provides the foundation for the smart grid, which represent the future electric system in terms of communications, sensors and automation to improve the flexibility, reliability and efficiency of power systems. Smart meters are installed at the utility-customer interface point to provide real-time power usage and price data to each electricity user. The purpose is to create customer awareness on electricity consumption and help users to conserve energy. Smart meters are being deployed throughout North America to replace most traditional meters. However, this paper discussed a major technical gap of the smart meter. Existing smart meters do not provide households with enough feedback needed to achieve effective energy saving. In order to support the energy conservation effort of a customer, the whole house energy data must be displayed on minute or second basis, and it must also be broken down into individual appliance levels. The data of an appliance's energy usage is the most useful information for users to modify their actions and conserve energy. This paper proposed to make the smart meter capable of reporting the overall consumption of a household, as well as monitoring how individual appliances use electricity. It presented a method on using different appliance signatures to identify appliances and make energy estimations on their respective consumptions. Paired with time-of-use or other real time pricing mechanisms, the method enables customers to save energy. This paper also demonstrated how to implement an algorithm on the smart meter platform. Future work will focus on making the algorithm more accurate and faster, and on integrating the smart meter with an appliance energy monitoring system. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  7. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Victor L.; Delmas, Magali A.; Kaiser, William J.; Locke, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses high-frequency appliance-level electricity consumption data for 124 apartments over 24 months to provide a better understanding of appliance-level electricity consumption behavior. We conduct our analysis in a standardized set of apartments with similar appliances, which allows us to identify behavioral differences in electricity use. The Results show that households' estimations of appliance-level consumption are inaccurate and that they overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate plug-load use by 29%. We find that similar households using the same major appliances exhibit substantial variation in appliance-level electricity consumption. For example, households in the 75th percentile of HVAC usage use over four times as much electricity as a user in the 25th percentile. Additionally, we show that behavior accounts for 25–58% of this variation. Lastly, we find that replacing the existing refrigerator with a more energy-efficient model leads to overall energy savings of approximately 11%. This is equivalent to results from behavioral interventions targeting all appliances but might not be as cost effective. Our findings have important implications for behavior-based energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Hourly electricity usage was collected from 124 comparable apartments for 24 months. • Households overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate HVAC usage by 29%. • Households using the same appliances show substantial variations in electricity use. • Plug load accounts for the largest share of electricity use at all hours of the day. • Savings of 11% were achieved by replacing old refrigerators

  8. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F R; Lentini-Oliveira, D; Machado, M A C; Prado, G F; Prado, L B F; Saconato, H

    2007-04-18

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they change the mandible posture forwards and potentially enlarge the upper airway and increase the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effectiveness of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for OSAS in children. A sensitive search was developed for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 3); PubMed (January 1966 to September 2005); EMBASE (1980 to September 2005); Lilacs (1982 to September 2005); BBO-Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (1986 to September 2005); and SciELO (1997 to September 2005). There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiologic function, behavioural problems, drop outs and withdrawals, quality of life, side effects (tolerability), economic evaluation. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. The initial search identified 384 trials

  9. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  10. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  11. Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C J; Shin, J S; Cha, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 +/- 0.15, 37 degrees C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 x .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco's copper NiTi and Tomy's Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500 degrees C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

  12. Switch green : Energy Star appliance feebate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2004, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the residential sector have grown by 10 per cent, and are likely to continue growing unless a policy aimed at reducing emissions is introduced. The residential sector is a significant contributor to Canada's overall GHG emissions, and an important source for potential reductions. This report presented the results of a study that described and evaluated a new economic instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption in Canada from household appliances, such as air conditioners, furnaces and boilers. Results of a quantitative analysis to determine the effect of changing taxation of residential appliances to reflect energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were presented. In addition, the report presented the results of a qualitative evaluation of the policy, using the criteria established in the 2005 budget plan, a framework for evaluating environmental tax proposals. The report outlined the context for the tax proposal that was evaluated and provided a summary of trends in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption as well as a discussion of important trends in residential energy consumption. A review of policies already in place to address energy consumption from household appliances was also presented. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that are expected to occur at high penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator...

  14. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  15. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... combined with some consideration on the future human need for the energy service output from the technologies. On the above basis is suggested one set of energy services, which a family in a cold climate can enjoy from just annually consuming 250 kWh of electricity per person. This is actually sufficient......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  16. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO 2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO 2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO 2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Solar water heating: The making of a simple, standard appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Within the solar community we have carried on never-ending discussions about the performance of solar water heaters. As a long-time solar advocate and researcher, I am continually asked, open-quotes When will solar usage become widespread?close quotes We who are in the solar business all face this question, and we must respond. Our answers usually take the form of some discussion on efficiency improvements, life-cycle costs, level playing field or environmental factors. But the only real way to answer this question is: Use of solar will be widewspread when a solar water heater is considered to be just another standard appliance. Increased installations is the key, and the solar technology with the greatest near-term potential for increased installation is solar water heating

  18. Design and operation of the 30-MJ superconducting magnetic-storage system on the Bonneville Power Administration bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Barron, M.H.; Boenig, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic-energy-storage (SMES) unit is suitable for power-system stabilization because it can provide positive damping by absorbing or releasing energy with a relatively fast response time, 10 ms. In the fall of 1982, an SMES unit was installed at the Tacoma Substation of the Bonneville Power Administration as an experiment in monitoring, predicting and improving system stability. This paper reports principally on the system testing

  19. Efficacy of the Nance appliance as an anchorage-reinforcement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A; Garvey, Therese M; Alhag, Mohamed; Claffey, Noel M; O'Connell, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The Nance appliance is widely considered to be an efficient method of anchorage reinforcement; however, much of the perceived advantage is based on clinical judgment. The aim of this study was to assess the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement associated with the Nance appliance. The mandibular arches of 7 beagle dogs were used. The first and third premolars were extracted. Reference miniscrews were placed at the first premolar sites as stable references to measure the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement. Four beagles were fitted with custom-made Nance appliances on the fourth premolars and orthodontic bands on the second premolars (Nance group). Three beagles were fitted with orthodontic bands on the second and fourth premolars with no anchorage reinforcement (control group). The second premolars were retracted over 15 weeks in both groups. The amounts of second premolar movement (desired tooth movement) and fourth premolar movement (anchorage loss) were recorded at 5, 10, and 15 weeks. The percentages of desired tooth movement and anchorage loss to the total space closure were calculated. The mean desired tooth movement was significantly more in the Nance group than in the control group at 10 weeks (P appliance did not provide absolute anchorage, but there was significantly less anchorage loss with it than in the control group. The majority of anchorage loss occurred during the first 10 weeks in the Nance group. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  1. Relative survival of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyischa) through a Bonneville dam on the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Bonneville Dam second powerhouse bypass system for juvenile salmon has one 6.1-m submersible travelling screen in each intake of all eight turbines, for a total of 24 screens. These screens set up a hydraulic cushion that deflects juvenile salmon away from the turbine intakes and into vertical bulkhead slots, from which they exit by their own volition into a collection gallery that travels the length of the powerhouse to a dewatering station and the outlet. A multiple-year evaluation was conducted on the comparative survival of subyearling chinook salmon through various passage modes at the dam. Using this information, operational scenarios could then be formulated to provide additional juvenile protection while meeting power system demands. In the summer, the juvenile salmon that passed through the bypass system had significantly lower survival rates than upper and lower turbine, spillway, and downstream control groups. Predation by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) was suspected to have been the cause of high mortalities among bypassed fish. No significant differences existed between survival rates of upper and lower turbine groups. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.; Burk, K.W.; Driver, C.J.; Liljegren, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Schwartz, M.N.; Dana, M.T.; Laws, G.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Rhoads, K.

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

  3. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C; Guensch, Greg

    2001-01-01

    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating

  4. Measurement of HTO permeability of materials for protective appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tomooka, M.; Kato, S.; Murata, M.; Kinouchi, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Tritiated water (HTO) vapor permeabilities were measured for plastic and rubber films used for protective appliances (suits, gloves, wrappings, etc.). The measurement data prove that polyehylene and butyl rubbers are materials suitable for HTO protective appliances with their lower permeability. The data also indicate that desiccating protective appliances before reuse is effective for restoring their original resistances to penetrating HTO vapor when they are repeatedly used. (author)

  5. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  6. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  7. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic band...

  8. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients.

  9. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  10. The Determination of Load Profiles and Power Consumptions of Home Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Issi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increment of distributed electricity generation based on renewable energy sources and improvement of communication technologies have caused the development of next-generation power grids known as smart grids. The structures of smart grids have bidirectional communication capability and enable the connection of energy generated from distributed sources to any point on the grid. They also support consumers in energy efficiency by creating opportunities for management of power consumption. The information on power consumption and load profiles of home appliances is essential to perform load management in the dwelling accurately. In this study, the power consumption data for all the basic home appliances, utilized in a two-person family in Çankırı, Turkey, was obtained with high resolution in one-second intervals. The detailed power consumption analysis and load profile were executed for each home appliance. The obtained data is not only the average power consumption of each appliance but also characterizes different operating modes or their cycles. In addition, the impact of these devices on home energy management studies and their standby power consumptions were also discussed. The acquired data is an important source to determine the load profile of individual home appliances precisely in home energy management studies. Although the results of this study do not completely reflect the energy consumption behavior of the people who live in this region, they can reveal the trends in load demands based on a real sample and customer consumption behavior of a typical two-person family.

  11. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando R; Lentini-Oliveira, Débora A; Prado, Lucila Bf; Prado, Gilmar F; Carvalho, Luciane Bc

    2016-10-05

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adeno-tonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbidities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they hold the lower jaw (mandible) forwards which potentially enlarges the upper airway and increases the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effects of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 7 April 2016); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 7 April 2016); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 7 April 2016); Embase Ovid (1980 to 7 April 2016); LILACS BIREME (from 1982 to 7 April 2016); BBO BIREME (from 1986 to 7 April 2016) and SciELO Web of Science (from 1997 to 7 April 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials on 7 April 2016. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiological function, behavioural problems, quality of life, side effects

  12. Offsetting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Whichever way the local distribution company (LDC) tries to convert residential customers to gas or expand their use of it, the process itself has become essential for the natural gas industry. The amount of gas used by each residential customer has been decreasing for 25 years -- since the energy crisis of the early 1970s. It's a direct result of better-insulated homes and more-efficient gas appliances, and that trend is continuing. So, LDCs have a choice of either finding new users and uses for gas, or recognizing that their throughput per customer is going to continue declining. The paper discusses strategies that several gas utilities are using to increase the number of gas appliances in the customer's homes. These and other strategies keep the gas industry optimistic about the future of the residential market: A.G.A. has projected that by 2010 demand will expand, from 1994's 5.1 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 5.7 quads, even with continued improvements in appliance efficiency. That estimate, however, will depend on the industry-s utilities and whether they keep converting, proselytizing, persuading and influencing customers to use more natural gas

  13. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  14. Hydrologic connections between environmental and societal change at the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B. B.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Liu, T.; Bernau, J. A.; Horel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats (BSF) is an ephemeral and valued salt pan in northwestern Utah where a century of land speed racing and potash mining have created a complex and intertwined social and hydrologic system. The character of BSF changes on daily, weekly, monthly, annual, and geologic time scales in response to fluctuations in water balance, solute flux, and groundwater flow which is impacted by both local meteorology and water management associated with potash mining. In addition, the texture of the salt surface is changed by land use including racing activities, which impacts water fluxes through the crust. Ongoing research is focused on characterizing physical changes in the BSF environment and attributing observed changes in the landscape to specific processes and drivers. Five years of field observations and sampling, analyses of satellite imagery dating back the 1980s, and geochemical analysis of surface brines have shown that spatiotemporal changes in surface water and fluctuations in the surface salt footprint are linked to both climate and land use. Climate data over the last 30 years are examined to identify annual patterns in surface water balance at BSF to identify annual and seasonal climate constraints on flooding, evaporation, and desiccation cycles. A new weather station installed in the Fall of 2016 in the middle of BSF allows for unprecedented analyses of halite surface dynamics. Spatiotemporally dispersed stable isotope analyses of BSF surface brine samples constrain brine sources and evolution. An understanding of the processes that change the surface composition and texture through time inform interpretation of subsurface saline deposits at BSF. The wide range of temporal and spatial scales of observation help to guide to best management practices of this iconic natural resource.

  15. Appliance choice functions in Canadian households. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydinalp, M.; Fung, A.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Decisions regarding the purchase of various types of major household appliances are influenced by the economic and demographic characteristics of households, i.e., appliance customers. It is therefore necessary to understand the relationship between these characteristics and the decisions made regarding the purchase of appliances to be able to predict future trends in appliance purchases, and consequently, the future appliance energy consumption of the national stock of appliances. In this paper, a methodology is presented to develop choice functions for the purchase of new major household appliances. This methodology is used to develop appliance choice functions for Canada. (author)

  16. Convex stoma appliances: an audit of stoma care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Angie

    2016-12-08

    This article observes the complexities surrounding the use of convex appliances within the specialist sphere of stoma care. It highlights some of the results taken from a small audit carried out with 24 stoma care nurses examining the general use of convex appliances and how usage of convex products has evolved, along with specialist stoma care practice.

  17. Economical regulation power through load shifting with smart energy appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlot, M.C.; Knigge, J.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the technical and economical feasibility of the introduction of automated demand response from domestic smart appliances in a European setting as a means to create a significant amount of regulating power. Simplified power-time flexibility models for appliances are introduced on

  18. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances-new equipment. 238.230 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.230 Safety appliances—new equipment. (a) Applicability. This section..., 2007, that is equipped with a safety appliance, required by the “manner of application” provisions in...

  19. 46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.580 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each unit...

  20. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a...

  1. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances-general. 238.229 Section 238.229... Equipment § 238.229 Safety appliances—general. (a) Except as provided in this part, all passenger equipment continues to be subject to the safety appliance requirements contained in Federal statute at 49 U.S.C...

  2. 46 CFR 133.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 133.70 Section 133.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.70 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each OSV must...

  3. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight integrity...

  4. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (pappliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (pappliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  5. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... appliances. Each vessel under the 72 COLREGS, except the vessels of the Navy, is exempt from the requirements...

  6. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  7. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, S.M.; Riesgo, O.; Duffo, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  8. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  9. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  10. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  11. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  12. Bonneville Power Administration: financial fallout from termination of WPPSS nuclear projects 4 and 5. Oversight hearings before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, February 14 and 15, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Peter T. Johnson, Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration, and a representative of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) described the financial situation resulting from the cancellations and cost overruns of WPPSS nuclear projects that have left the area with an unacceptable debt. Four panels representing area utilities and electric cooperatives described their financial positions on the second day of hearings. Two appendices with additional material from Bonneville, WPPSS, the Department of the Interior, and others follow the testimony

  13. The effect of life-cycle cost disclosure on consumer behavior. Evidence from a field experiment with cooling appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, M. [Prognos AG, Goethestr. 85, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Theory suggests that providing consumers with an estimated life-cycle cost (LCC) may make them buy more energy-efficient household appliances in cases where energy efficiency is cost effective. This article evaluates the link between the provision of LCC and consumer behavior by using an online field experiment for cooling appliances. Internet users arriving at a commercially operating price comparison website were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, and the groups were exposed to different visual stimuli. The control group received regular product price information, whereas the treatment group was offered additional information about estimated operating cost and total LCC. Consumers' click behavior was evaluated with multiple regression controlling for several product characteristics (n=1,969 clicks). We find that LCC disclosure reduces the mean specific energy use of chosen cooling appliances by 2.5% (p<0.01), making it a potentially interesting approach for environmental policy regarding the market transformation toward more energy-efficient household appliances. However, LCC disclosure also decreases the number of clicks from the price comparison website to final retailers by about 23% (p<0.01), which makes it - in the format chosen here - undesirable from a business perspective. Therefore, future research should clarify under what (if any) conditions can monetary energy cost disclosure be associated with more positive effects for price comparison websites.

  14. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application

  15. Hot surface temperatures of domestic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Malcolm; Arild, Anne-Helene

    2002-09-01

    Domestic appliances are burning people. In the European Union, accidents requiring hospital treatment due to burns from hot objects account for between 0 and 1% of all such accidents. Young children are particularly at risk. These reported accidents requiring hospital treatment are also likely to be a small proportion of the total number of burns from hot objects. There is a lack of hard evidence about the level of accidents, typical consumer expectation and use, and on the state of the art of appliances. Results of technical laboratory tests carried out on products are used to demonstrate the state of the art and also show how consumer expectations could be changing. Results of a survey into accidents, based on a written questionnaire following telephone contact, provide information on non-hospital cases. Results of tests on products show that there are significant differences in the temperatures of touchable surfaces, even in products of the same type. Typically, these differences are due to variations in design and/or materials of construction. Some products are hot enough to burn skin. Accident research indicates that non-hospital medical practices are treating burn injuries, which are therefore not being included into the current accident statistics. For products with the same function, some types of design or materials of construction are safer, with lower surface temperatures. Many product standards have no or unnecessarily high limits on surface temperatures. Many standards do not address the realities of who is using their products, for what purpose or where they are located. Some standards use unreasonable general limitations and exclusions that allow products with higher surface temperatures than they should have. Many standards rely on the experience factor for avoiding injury that is no longer valid, with the increased availability of safer products of the same type. A major field of work ahead is to carry out more surveys and in-depth studies of non

  16. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  18. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  19. Pyogenic granuloma: a rare side complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Priti N; Gill, Daljit; Lloyd, Tim

    2011-12-01

    This case report discusses a rare side effect associated with the use ofa fixed quad helix orthodontic appliance. A 14-year-old healthy girl presented with a painful enlarging mass on her tongue, which was causing distress to both her and her parents. Investigations confirmed that the mass was a pyogenic granuloma and management involved surgical excision of the mass and removal of the quad helix appliance. At least once previous case associated with an orthodontic quad helix appliance has been reported in the literature.

  20. The use of functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, A T; Cobourne, M T; Lee, R T

    2015-02-16

    Functional appliances have been used for over 100 years in orthodontics to correct Class II malocclusion. During this time numerous different systems have been developed often accompanied by claims of modification and enhancement of growth. Recent clinical evidence has questioned whether they really have a lasting influence on facial growth, their skeletal effects appearing to be short term. However, despite these findings, the clinical effectiveness of these appliances is acknowledged and they can be very useful in the correction of sagittal arch discrepancies. This article will discuss the clinical use of functional appliances, the underlying evidence for their use and their limitations.

  1. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S3: THIRD INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  2. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S2: SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  3. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S1: FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  4. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  5. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are room...

  6. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to... watertight closures for openings in watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to insure weathertight...

  7. 14 CFR 21.502 - Approval of materials, parts, and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appliances. 21.502 Section 21.502 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Materials, Parts, and Appliances: Import § 21.502 Approval of materials, parts, and appliances. (a) A material, part, or appliance, manufactured in a foreign country with which the United States has an...

  8. 46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to ensure watertight integrity include... watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to ensure weathertight integrity include weathertight doors...

  9. 14 CFR 21.305 - Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and appliances. 21.305 Section 21.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., Parts, Processes, and Appliances § 21.305 Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances. Whenever a material, part, process, or appliance is required to be approved under this chapter, it may be...

  10. A retrospective cephalometric investigation of two fixed functional orthodontic appliances in class II treatment: Functional Mandibular Advancer vs. Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael; Lisson, Jörg Alexander; Frye, Linda; Gross, Ulrich; Hourfar, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study is to compare skeletal and dental changes in class II patients treated with fixed functional appliances (FFA) that pursue different biomechanical concepts: (1) FMA (Functional Mandibular Advancer) from first maxillary molar to first mandibular molar through inclined planes and (2) Herbst appliance from first maxillary molar to lower first bicuspid through a rod-and-tube mechanism. Forty-two equally distributed patients were treated with FMA (21) and Herbst appliance (21), following a single-step advancement protocol. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment and immediately after removal of the FFA. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed with customized linear measurements. The actual therapeutic effect was then calculated through comparison with data from a growth survey. Additionally, the ratio of skeletal and dental contributions to molar and overjet correction for both FFA was calculated. Data was analyzed by means of one-sample Student's t tests and independent Student's t tests. Statistical significance was set at p appliance were found, intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant differences. Almost all measurements resulted in comparable changes for both appliances. Statistically significant dental changes occurred with both appliances. Dentoalveolar contribution to the treatment effect was ≥70%, thus always resulting in ≤30% for skeletal alterations. FMA and Herbst appliance usage results in comparable skeletal and dental treatment effects despite different biomechanical approaches. Treatment leads to overjet and molar relationship correction that is mainly caused by significant dentoalveolar changes.

  11. FIXED OR REMOVABLE APPLIANCE FOR EARLY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL ANTERIOR CROSSBITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedel, Anna-Paulina

    2015-01-01

    angle > 0 degrees, and no previous orthodontic treatment. Sixty-two patients agreed to participate and were randomly allocated for treatment either with FA with brackets and wires, or RA, comprising acrylic plates with protruding springs. Paper I compared and evaluated the efficiency of the two different treatment strategies to correct the anterior crossbite with anterior shift in mixed dentition. Paper II compared and evaluated the stability of the results of the two treatment methods two years after the appliances were removed. In Paper III, the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment methods was compared and evaluated by cost-minimization analysis. Paper IV evaluated and compared the patient's perceptions of the two treatment methods, in terms of perceived pain, discomfort and impairment of jaw function. The following conclusions were drawn from the results: Paper I. Anterior crossbite with functional shift in the mixed dentition can be successfully corrected by either fixed or removable appliance therapy in a short-term perspective. Treatment time for correction of anterior crossbite with functional shift was significantly shorter for FA compared to RA but the difference had minor clinical relevance. Paper II. In the mixed dentition, anterior crossbite affecting one or more incisors can be successfully corrected by either fixed or removable appliances, with similarly stable outcomes and equally favourable prognoses. Either type of appliance can be recommended. Paper III. Correction of anterior crossbite with functional shift using fixed appliance offers significant economic benefits over removable appliances, including lower direct costs for materials and lower indirect costs. Even when only successful outcomes are considered, treatment with removable appliance is more expensive. Paper IV. The general levels of pain intensity and discomfort were low to moderate in both groups. The level of pain and discomfort intensity was higher for the first three days in the

  12. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  13. Development of a measurement system for the mechanical load of functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Aya; Kimura, Hitoshi; Inou, Norio; Maki, Koutaro

    2017-10-03

    Devices called functional appliances are commonly used in orthodontics for treating maxillary protrusion. These devices mechanically force the mandible forward to apply traction force to the mandibular condyle. This promotes cartilaginous growth in the small mandible. However, no studies have clarified how much traction force is applied to the mandibular condyle. Moreover, it remains unknown as to how anatomical characteristics affect this traction force. Therefore, in this study, we developed a device for measuring the amount of force generated while individual patients wore functional appliances, and we investigated the relationship between forces with structures surrounding the mandibular condyle. We compared traction force values with cone-beam computed tomography image data in eight subjects. The functional appliance resulted in a traction force of 339-1477gf/mm, with a mean value of 196.5gf/mm for the elastic modulus of the mandible. A comparison with cone-beam computed tomography image data suggested that the mandibular traction force was affected by the mandibular condyle and shape of the articular eminence. This method can contribute to discovering efficient treatment techniques more suited to individual patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Customer service in appliance sales departments of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer service in appliance sales departments of selected prominent retail outlets: store manager, ... A single measurement of customers' perception of service quality in various stores however suggested ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Effect of Fixed Metallic Oral Appliances on Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    There is a substantial proportion of the population using fixed metallic oral appliances, such as crowns and bridges, which are composed of various dental alloys. These restorations may be associated with a number of effects on oral health with variable degrees of severity, to review potential effects of using fixed metallic oral appliances, fabricated from various alloys. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using certain combinations of keywords related to the topic. The search revealed that burning mouth syndrome, oral pigmentation, hypersensitivity and lichenoid reactions, and genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are the major potential oral health changes associated with fixed prosthodontic appliances. Certain oral disorders are associated with the use of fixed metallic oral appliances. Patch test is the most reliable method that can be applied for identifying metal allergy, and the simultaneous use of different alloys in the mouth is discouraged.

  16. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  17. The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Abbott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians’ interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5 designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described.

  18. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; Lima, Tatiana Araújo de; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher economic status, golden orthodontic brackets and

  19. Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Benoit; Allaire, Sylvain; Gauvin, Denis; Gingras, Suzanne; Rhainds, Marc; Prud' Homme, Henri; Duchesne, Jean-Francois [CHUQ-Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Unite de Recherche en Sante Publique, 2400, d' Estimauville, Beauport, G1E 7G9 Quebec (Canada); Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2001-12-17

    Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median=8 years old; range=5-14 years old) and an adult (median=37 years old; range=23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly.

  20. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; de Lima, Tatiana Araújo; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher

  1. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Caldas Kuhlman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276 was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those

  2. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  3. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of maximum protrusion, the titration appliance may provide immediate, temporary therapeutic benefit.

  4. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  5. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  6. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  7. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  8. New horizons in orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics: fixed Twin Blocks & TransForce lingual appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century functional appliances evolved from night time wear to more flexible appliances for increased day time wear to full time wear with Twin Block appliances. The current trend is towards fixed functional appliances and this paper introduces the Fixed Twin Block, bonded to the teeth to eliminate problems of compliance in functional therapy. TransForce lingual appliances are pre-activated and may be used in first phase treatment for sagittal and transverse arch development. Alternatively they may be integrated with fixed appliances at any stage of treatment.

  9. Speech and orthodontic appliances: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyu; Wan, Jia; You, Lun

    2018-01-23

    Various types of orthodontic appliances can lead to speech difficulties. However, speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances have not been sufficiently investigated by an evidence-based method. The aim of this study is to outline the scientific evidence and mechanism of the speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies focusing on the effect of orthodontic appliances on speech were included. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, complemented by a manual search. The types of orthodontic appliances, the affected sounds, and duration period of the speech disturbances were extracted. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the quality of non-randomized studies, and the bias of RCT was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No meta-analyses could be performed due to the heterogeneity in the study designs and treatment modalities. Among 448 screened articles, 13 studies were included (n = 297 patients). Different types of orthodontic appliances such as fixed appliances, orthodontic retainers and palatal expanders could influence the clarity of speech. The /i/, /a/, and /e/ vowels as well as /s/, /z/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /r/, and /ʃ/ consonants could be distorted by appliances. Although most speech impairments could return to normal within weeks, speech distortion of the /s/ sound might last for more than 3 months. The low evidence level grading and heterogeneity were the two main limitations in this systematic review. Lingual fixed appliances, palatal expanders, and Hawley retainers have an evident influence on speech production. The /i/, /s/, /t/, and /d/ sounds are the primarily affected ones. The results of this systematic review should be interpreted with caution and more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are

  10. Face and neck dermatitis from a stainless steel orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnrooth, Minna; Kerosuo, Heidi

    2009-11-01

    Although nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy, nickel-containing orthodontic appliances seldom cause adverse reactions that result in discontinuation of treatment. We report on an eruption of dermatitis in the face and neck of an adult female patient after placement of a rapid maxillary expansion appliance (RME). Because the patient suspected nickel allergy, her tolerance to the appliance material was tested intraorally before treatment by cementing bands on four teeth for a week. No visible adverse reactions were seen during the test. One week after cementation of the RME appliance, the patient reported strong itching of the face and a red rash. Clinical examination showed itchy papular erythema on the face and neck. No intraoral reactions or symptoms were present. The RME appliance was removed, and symptoms disappeared in 4 to 5 days. The patient was referred for a nickel patch test, which gave a strong positive result. Adverse patient reactions of potential allergic origin should be diagnosed carefully, and their possible impact on further treatment should be evaluated accordingly.

  11. An Iterative Load Disaggregation Approach Based on Appliance Consumption Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, monitoring single-appliance consumption level by decomposing the aggregated energy consumption, is a novel and economic technology that is beneficial to energy utilities and energy demand management strategies development. Hardware costs of high-frequency sampling and algorithm’s computational complexity hampered NILM large-scale application. However, low sampling data shows poor performance in event detection when multiple appliances are simultaneously turned on. In this paper, we contribute an iterative disaggregation approach that is based on appliance consumption pattern (ILDACP. Our approach combined Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm, which provide an initial appliance operating status, and sub-sequence searching Dynamic Time Warping, which retrieves single energy consumption based on the typical power consumption pattern. Results show that the proposed approach is effective to accurately disaggregate power consumption, and is suitable for the situation where different appliances are simultaneously operated. Also, the approach has lower computational complexity than Hidden Markov Model method and it is easy to implement in the household without installing special equipment.

  12. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  13. Status Checking System of Home Appliances using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Chi-Yurl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes status checking system of home appliances based on machine learning, which can be applied to existing household appliances without networking function. Designed status checking system consists of sensor modules, a wireless communication module, cloud server, android application and a machine learning algorithm. The developed system applied to washing machine analyses and judges the four-kinds of appliance’s status such as staying, washing, rinsing and spin-drying. The measurements of sensor and transmission of sensing data are operated on an Arduino board and the data are transmitted to cloud server in real time. The collected data are parsed by an Android application and injected into the machine learning algorithm for learning the status of the appliances. The machine learning algorithm compares the stored learning data with collected real-time data from the appliances. Our results are expected to contribute as a base technology to design an automatic control system based on machine learning technology for household appliances in real-time.

  14. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  15. Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Karaki, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon's energy sector crisis leads to a lack of access to uninterrupted, basic modern electricity services that affects all sectors of the economy. Energy conservation measures are nearly inexistent yet they can potentially lead to substantial reductions in energy demand growth, environmental damages and public expenditures. This paper presents an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the introduction of mandatory standards for energy efficiency for four different household appliances (refrigerator/freezers, AC split units, washing machines and lighting) over the period 2013–2027. Our results show potential savings in electricity consumption reaching 2054 GW h annually in 2027 as well as a reduction of subsidies paid to the public utility of 3.6 billion USD in 2027 while CO 2 emissions avoided amount to 8.9 million tons over the period of analysis. Furthermore, we propose a financially attractive refrigerator/freezer replacement program for low income households. If this program would cover all existing low-income households in 2013, the savings in electricity consumption would lead to a reduction in subsidies of 9 billion USD (NPV) over the period 2013–2027, while full funding for this program would cost the government 223.8 million USD. This program would thereby benefit consumers, the government and further economic development. - Highlights: ► We model the effect of mandatory appliance standards on electricity consumption. ► We present a refrigerator replacement program contributing to economic development. ► We show that economic efficiency favors the introduction of standards for appliances.

  16. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  17. Fixed-functional appliance treatment combined with growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy and fixed functional appliance treatment in a 13-year-old Class II malocclusion patient without GH deficiency. GH has been shown to effectively increase endochondral growth and induce a more prognathic skeletal pattern. Although a major concern in Class II retrognathic patients is chin deficiency, long-term studies have shown that the mandibular growth enhancement effects of functional appliances are clinically insignificant. This case report demonstrates that the mandible grew significantly during fixed functional appliance treatment combined with GH therapy, with stable results during 2 years 11 months of retention. More studies are needed to evaluate GH therapy as a supplement in Class II treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  19. Management of anterior dental crossbite with removable appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Tuba Ulusoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of an 8-year-old girl with anterior dental crossbite using a series of removable appliances to bring the teeth into a normal position. Clinical presentation and intervention: A removable acrylic appliance with a bite plate incorporating a screw was used to correct the anterior dental crossbite and align the incisors. The subsequent eruption of the maxillary left lateral incisor on the palatinal side was treated with a second acrylic plate incorporating a labiolingual spring. After an 8-month period, the anterior crossbite involving multiple incisors was corrected.

  20. Smart meter deployment optimisation and its analysis for appliance load monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaharyar Khwaja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors study the problem of smart meter deployment optimisation for appliance load monitoring, that is, to monitor a number of devices without any ambiguity using the minimum number of low-cost smart meters. The importance of this problem is due to the fact that the number of meters should be reduced to decrease the deployment cost, improve reliability and decrease congestion. In this way, in future, smart meters can provide additional information about the type and number of distinct devices connected, besides their normal functionalities concerned with providing overall energy measurements and their communication. The authors present two exact smart meter deployment optimisation algorithms, one based on exhaustive search and the other based on efficient implementation of the exhaustive search. They formulate the problem mathematically and present computational complexity analysis of their algorithms. Simulation scenarios show that for a typical number of home appliances, the efficient search method is significantly faster compared to the exhaustive search and can provide the same optimal solution. The authors also show the dependency of their method on the distribution of the load pattern that can potentially be in a typical household.

  1. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  2. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances.

  3. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with the... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements...

  4. Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances.

  5. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope... Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a) Medicare Part B pays for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1) Surgical dressings, and splints, casts, and other...

  6. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  7. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.153 Section 17.153 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and training...

  8. 49 CFR 176.54 - Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-actuated tools and appliances. 176.54 Section 176.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, repairs or work involving welding or burning, or the use of power-actuated tools or appliances which may...

  9. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and... Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Except as specified... can obtain a continuing supply. (c) Supplies, appliances, and equipment. Except as specified in...

  10. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances. 58.16-20 Section 58.16-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with...

  11. 46 CFR 133.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances and arrangements. 133.40 Section 133.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment required by this part to be... OCMI for use on the OSV. (c) The Commandant (CG-521) may accept a novel lifesaving appliance or...

  12. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country with...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter W...

  14. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart 160...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances and accessories. 888.3030 Section 888.3030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a) Identification. Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories are devices intended to be...

  17. 46 CFR 199.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances and arrangements. 199.40 Section 199.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.40 Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of...

  18. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, or under the...

  19. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally false...

  20. Increased BMI in children-an indicator for less compliance during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Lorenz, Nathalie; Ludwig, Björn; Ruf, Sabine

    2018-02-19

    To assess whether or not childhood overweight is associated with lower levels of compliance during orthodontic therapy with removable appliances. Starting in 2011, all upper expansion plates and Sander II appliances were equipped with a Theramon® microsensor chip to assess appliance wear time objectively. According to their pre-treatment, BMI normal weight patients were matched to consecutively treated overweight or obese patients by gender, age, and appliance type. Cooperation was assessed with microelectronic wear time documentation over a period of at least 6 months. A total of 50 patients (25 overweight, 25 normal weight) with upper expansion plates and 64 patients (32 overweight, 32 normal weight) with Sander II appliances were analysed. Spearman Rho coefficients showed an indirect association between BMI and appliance wear time, indicating that the higher the BMI, the less the patients wore their appliances (P appliances (P appliance wear during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances. Additional factors which influenced cooperation during treatment with removable appliances were patient age and appliance type.

  1. Investigation of transient behaviour of combi boiler type appliances for domestic hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaca, Ayşe Uğurcan; Erek, Aytunç; Altay, Hürrem Murat

    2015-01-01

    Combi boiler type appliances heating both space and water demanded for use and consuming natural gas as the energy source are one of the most common branches of the household goods. This study touches mainly on two types of combi boiler concepts to investigate only domestic hot water (DHW) heating function since highly efficient condensing appliances have been manufactured in terms of space heating. First concept has the normal working configuration of the heat exchangers of a standard combi boiler; whereas, the second has the opposite operation order of the heat exchangers. 1D transient energy equations have been constructed with the help of the laws of thermodynamics in order to model the heat exchangers in a standard combi boiler. After obtaining a general mathematical model for the standard combi boiler, the energy equations have been discretised with finite difference scheme, and solved numerically in Matlab ® . Subsequently, numerical results are validated experimentally in different working modes of a standard appliance. As the last step, similar results are obtained for the second proposed concept using the related equations of the standard combi model to compare both concepts on a numerical basis. - Highlights: • 1D theoretical model of a combi boiler was constructed and verified experimentally. • Preliminary estimations will be obtained from the model about the laboratory tests. • Number of the laboratory tests will be decreased thanks to the theoretical model. • The model was used to compare the transient behaviour of two kinds of combi boilers. • The second combi boiler alternative to standard one has a higher comfort potential

  2. Light-Emitting Tag Testing in Conjunction with Testing of the Minimum Gap Runner Turbine Design at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 1; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Thomas J

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a pilot study conducted by Tom Carlson of PNNL and Mark Weiland of MEVATEC Corp to test the feasibility of using light-emitting tags to visually track objects passing through the turbine environment of a hydroelectric dam. Light sticks were released at the blade tip, mid-blade, and hub in the MGR turbine and a Kaplan turbine at Bonneville Dam and videotaped passing thru the dam to determine visibility and object trajectories

  3. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  4. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.176 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must be plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block...

  5. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  6. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  7. Low-power Appliance Recognition using Recurrent Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizky Pratama, Azkario; Simanjuntak, Frans Juanda; Lazovik, Aliaksandr; Aiello, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Indoor energy consumption can be understood by breaking overall power consumption down into individual components and appliance activations. The clas- sification of components of energy usage is known as load disaggregation or ap- pliance recognition. Most of the previous efforts address the

  8. Radioactive tracers in the assessment of cleaning of surgical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A.B.M.G.; Chackett, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Radioactive tracers which may be used in the assessment of cleaning of surgical appliances are described. Five labelled compounds were used as soiling material and tested in the rather severe conditions that exist during cleaning cycles. Measurements of decontamination in two cases were considered reliable but in the other three some degree of decomposition of the soil occurred, which falsified the results. (author)

  9. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Interoperability for smart appliances in the IoT world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.; Solanki, M.; Hartog, F. den; Roes, J.

    2016-01-01

    Household appliances are set to become highly intelligent, smart and networked devices in the near future. Systematically deployed on the Internet of Things (IoT), they would be able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing ecosystems. Smart systems are technically very

  11. The Acceptance of Domestic Ambient Intelligence Appliances by Prospective Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Allouch, Soumaya; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Peters, O.; Tokuda, Hideyuki; Beigl, Michael; Friday, Adrian; Bernheim Brush, A.J.; Tobe, Yoshito

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a growing interdisciplinary area where the focus is shifted towards users instead of merely emphasizing the technological opportunities of AmI. Different methods are employed to understand the adoption of AmI appliances by users. However, these are often small-scale

  12. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  13. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  14. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  15. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  16. A comparison between customized clear and removable orthodontic appliances manufactured using RP and CNC techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Gerbino, Salvatore; Giudice, Michele; Ausiello, Pietro

    2013-02-01

    Aim of the research is to compare the orthodontic appliances fabricated by using rapid prototyping (RP) systems, in particular 3D printers, with those manufactured by using computer numerical control (CNC) milling machines. 3D printing is today a well-accepted technology to fabricate orthodontic aligners by using the thermoforming process, instead the potential of CNC systems in dentistry have not yet been sufficiently explored. One patient, with mal-positioned maxillary central and lateral incisors, was initially selected. In the computer aided virtual planning was defined that, for the treatment, the patient needed to wear a series of 7 removable orthodontic appliances (ROA) over a duration of 21 weeks, with one appliance for every 3 weeks. A non-contact reverse engineering (RE) structured-light 3D scanner was used to create the 3D STL model of the impression of the patient's mouth. Numerical FEM simulations were performed varying the position of applied forces (discrete and continuous forces) on the same model, simulating, in this way, 3 models with slice thickness of 0.2 mm, 0.1 mm (RP staircase effect) and without slicing (ideal case). To define the areas of application of forces, two configuration "i" and "i-1" of the treatment were overlapped. 6 patients to which for three steps (3rd, 4th and 5th step) were made to wear aligners fabricated starting from physical models by 3D printing (3DP-ROA) and afterwards, for the next steps (6th, 7th and 8th step), aligners fabricated starting from physical models by CNC milling machine (CNC-ROA), were selected. For the 6 patients wearing the CNC-ROA, it was observed a best fitting of the aligner to the teeth and a more rapid teeth movement than the 3DP-ROA (2 weeks compared to 3 weeks for every appliance). FEM simulations showed a more uniform stress distribution for CNC-ROA than 3DP-ROA. In this research, 6 different case studies and CAD-FEM simulations showed that, to fabricate an efficient clear and removable

  17. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  18. Comparative study of 2 electric and 2 manual toothbrushes in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, V; Dermaut, L R; Van Maele, G

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this prospective single-blind crossover clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 4 toothbrushes in 33 children undergoing fixed appliance orthodontic therapy. The toothbrushes included in this study were the Braun Oral-B 3D Plaque Remover (Kronberg, Germany), the Philips-Jordan HP 510 (Philips Domestic Appliances, Groningen, The Netherlands), the Lactona orthodontic toothbrush (Bergen op Zoom, The Netherlands), and the Oral-B Advantage Control Grip (Braun); the first 2 are electric, and the last 2 are manual. Every patient tested each type of toothbrush in a randomly designed sequence. Plaque and gingival scores were recorded at baseline and after every 4-week test period. All patients received professional prophylaxis after each clinical evaluation. The data were analyzed with the Friedman test, which showed no significant differences among the 4 brushes for any of the parameters measured. The Wilcoxon signed rank test, comparing the plaque and the gingival scores between the upper and lower jaw for each brush, indicated that plaque removal was more efficient in the lower jaw than in the upper.

  19. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  20. Cephalometric evaluation of maxillary retrognathism cases treated with FR-3 appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biren, S; Erverdi, N

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of the FR-3 appliance on functional Cl III malocclusion cases. A total of 45 functional Cl III cases were chosen from a general clinic intake of which 25 were treated with the FR-3 appliance and 20 were untreated and were taken as a control group. Patients that were treated with FR-3 had the following characteristics: Cl III with maxillary deficiency; functional anterior cross-bite; absence of anterior open-bite; patients in mixed dentition. The mean age in the treatment group was 8.4 years 8.8 years in the control group. The observation period was one year for both groups. The results were as follows: Sagittal forward growth stimulation was not observed in the maxilla. Mandibular growth was redirected in the vertical direction. The SNB angle decreased in that the mandible rotated downward and backward. The ANB angle increased. There was an increase in total and lower anterior facial height and reduction in the overbite. Another skeletal change observed was the increase in the cranial flexure angle. Improved dental results were a significant amount of overjet increase and a decrease in the IMPA. There was also a beneficial effect on the soft tissue profile.

  1. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... (foreign language disclosures in advertising); 16 CFR 308.3(a)(1) (foreign language disclosures under Pay... Commission finds that these benefits outweigh the disadvantages, including the need to adjust the rate... advertising terms such as ``energy savings'' or ``energy efficient'' as suggested by CEE. The FTC declines to...

  2. Fixed functional appliances with multibracket appliances have no skeletal effect on the mandible: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; AlHammadi, Maged Sultan; Fayed, Mona M S; El-Ezz, Amr Abou; Mostafa, Yehya

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to assess the skeletal mandibular changes (anteroposterior and vertical) in circumpubertal patients with fixed functional appliances installed on multibracket appliances compared with untreated patients. An open-ended electronic search of 4 databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) up to April 2014 was performed. Additional searches of relevant journals, reference lists of the retrieved articles, systematic reviews, and gray literature were performed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify relevant articles. Quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for prospective controlled clinical trials. Meta-analyses were conducted with fixed and random effects models as appropriate. Statistical heterogeneity was also examined. Seven articles were included in the qualitative synthesis and 5 in the meta-analysis. The included randomized controlled trials were at high risk of bias, and the methodologic quality of the prospective controlled clinical trials was high. Based on assessment of the fixed functional appliance phase in isolation, no difference in mandibular anteroposterior positional changes (SNB angle) (standard mean difference, 0.11°; 95% CI, -0.28, 0.50) was found between the treated and control groups. The vertical dimension was not influenced by the fixed functional appliance treatment. There is little high-quality evidence concerning the relative influence of fixed functional appliances on skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. However, based on the limited evidence, it appears that they have little effect on the skeletal mandibular parameters. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior... Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar appliances...

  4. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  5. Domestic appliances energy optimization with model predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, E.M.G.; Godina, R.; Pouresmaeil, E.; Ferreira, J.R.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An alternative power management control for home appliances that require thermal regulation is presented. • A Model Predictive Control scheme is assessed and its performance studied and compared to the thermostat. • Problem formulation is explored through tuning weights with the aim of reducing energetic consumption and cost. • A modulation scheme of a two-level Model Predictive Control signal as an interface block is presented. • The implementation costs in home appliances with thermal regulation requirements are reduced. - Abstract: A vital element in making a sustainable world is correctly managing the energy in the domestic sector. Thus, this sector evidently stands as a key one for to be addressed in terms of climate change goals. Increasingly, people are aware of electricity savings by turning off the equipment that is not been used, or connect electrical loads just outside the on-peak hours. However, these few efforts are not enough to reduce the global energy consumption, which is increasing. Much of the reduction was due to technological improvements, however with the advancing of the years new types of control arise. Domestic appliances with the purpose of heating and cooling rely on thermostatic regulation technique. The study in this paper is focused on the subject of an alternative power management control for home appliances that require thermal regulation. In this paper a Model Predictive Control scheme is assessed and its performance studied and compared to the thermostat with the aim of minimizing the cooling energy consumption through the minimization of the energy cost while satisfying the adequate temperature range for the human comfort. In addition, the Model Predictive Control problem formulation is explored through tuning weights with the aim of reducing energetic consumption and cost. For this purpose, the typical consumption of a 24 h period of a summer day was simulated a three-level tariff scheme was used. The new

  6. The effectiveness of oral appliances for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Jian, Fan; Lin, Jianchang; Zhu, Jingyi; Gao, Meiya; Lai, Wenli

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of oral appliances (OAs) for managing patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL and SIGLE were electronically searched from January 1980 to September 2015 for randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of OAs on OSAS. The processes of study search, selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and evaluation of evidence quality were conducted independently by two reviewer authors. Meta-analyses were performed in Review Manager 5, Stata11.0 and StatsDirect 2.7.9. Finally, we included 17 eligible studies which compared OAs and placebo or blank control. Six outcomes were assessed in this meta-analysis, i.e., apnea hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory arousal index (RAI), minimum oxygen saturation(MinSaO2), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Meta-analysis revealed that the pooled mean differences were -10.26 [95% CI: (-12.59, -7.93)], -9.03 [95% CI: (-11.89, -6.17)], 3.08 [95% CI: (1.97, 4.19)], 0.36 [95% CI: (-0.30, 1.02)], 1.34 [95% CI: (-0.05, 2.73)] and -1.76 [95% CI: (-2.57, -0.94)], respectively. The sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis displayed generally robust results except for MinSaO2, REM sleep and sleep efficiency. Furthermore, publication bias was detected in RAI and MinSaO2. The available evidence indicates benefits in respiration and sleep quality with oral appliances as compared to placebo devices or blank control, while we cannot determine its effectiveness in sleep efficiency and sleep architecture alterations. However, due to low evidence quality as revealed by GRADE, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Through critical meta-analyses, we found that oral appliances are effective in respiration improving and sleep quality. The existing evidence supports the employment of OAs as a recommendable treatment option for OSA. This meta-analysis helps to direct clinical practice

  7. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection. 36 refs. Translation. The original text is published under the same guide number. The guide is valid from 5 January 1987 and will be in force until further notice.

  8. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  9. Analysis appliance by gamma tomography with focused collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and specifically an image-forming appliance providing a very sensitive quantitative determination and the localization in space of the radioactivity of a body organ such as the brain of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The characteristics of this appliance, which forms an image in a transversal scanning field by means of radioactive isotope radiations, includes several highly focused collimators, placed in line and focused inwards so that they form an arrangement that surrounds a given scanning field. Each collimator is mobile with respect to the adjacent collimator and a system moves the collimators so that the focus of each one uniformly samples at least a half of the total scanning field corresponding to a cross section. The number of detectors is an even one between two and twenty four, and the collimators are twelve in number [fr

  10. Designing, Building and Controlling of Home Appliances Unit Using PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ben Safar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart home is a residential building that is usually new or modern equipped with necessary tools and wiring that enable its occupants to control a number of electrical devices and several household appliances through a suitable software. Recently, the development of home automation systems is accelerating rapidly as a result of the rapid intersection of modern technologies. Here we are talking about systems for home communication networks as well as entertainment, security, convenience, etc. These systems are controlled by sending signals through wires distributed throughout the house or Through wireless means to programmable keys or devices so that they understand these commands and deal with them as desired. In this paper, I will discuss how to design the circuit with appropriate components, build it in Printed Circuit Board and connect it to a personal computer by using programmable language in order to control all home appliances by just one click. 

  11. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection

  12. Orthodontic treatment with a series of removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, David A; Trosien, Andrew H; Fong, Patricia F; Miller, Robert A; Lee, Rodney S

    2003-09-01

    In the United States, the demand for straight white teeth has never been more important to patients. Crowded, poorly aligned teeth are not esthetically pleasing and are difficult to keep clean. However, until recently, the process of straightening the teeth typically has involved appliances involving bands, brackets and wires that also can be difficult to clean. The desire for a cosmetic solution to misaligned teeth has led to an increase in the number of patients seeking veneers, crowns and other laboratory-fabricated cosmetic restorations. Some clinicians are not aware that there are other ways to align teeth without either significant enamel reduction or conspicuous fixed orthodontic appliances. An alternative method of treatment, involving a series of clear removable appliances, circumvents this shortcoming and enables tooth alignment while avoiding deterioration in the cosmetics of the smile during treatment. This article describes a method of treatment, Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif.), that clinicians can use in conjunction with 3-D computer models to accomplish the esthetic and oral hygiene objectives during and after treatment. The authors present three case reports, all involving a chief concern of crowding. The first case involved treatment of both arches by interproximal reduction, alignment of teeth and leveling the curve of Spee. The second case involved treatment of both arches by proclination, expansion and minor interproximal reduction. The final case shows relief of lower-arch crowding via lower-incisor extraction. In addition to satisfying the patient's chief concern of desiring straight teeth, this method of treatment satisfies additional objectives of esthetic treatment and esthetic results with significant oral hygiene benefits. Clinicians can address a patient's chief concern effectively without requiring an inventory of appliances (such as bands, brackets, wires and instruments). Furthermore, the use of 3-D computer models

  13. Appliance of geochemical engineering in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Zhang Chengjiang; Ni Shijun; Li Kuanliang

    2008-01-01

    The basic foundation of applying geochemical engineering to control environment, common engineering models of disposal radioactive waste and the functions of the engineering barriers are introduced in this paper. The authors take the geochemical engineering barrier materiel research of a radioactive waste repository as an example to explain the appliance of geochemical engineering in the disposal of radioactive waste. And the results show that it can enhance the security of the nuclear waste repository if we use geochemical engineering barrier. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of photo-activation appliances used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Ribeiro de Magalhães Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the Vickers microhardness promoted by three photo-activation appliances: one Halogen Light Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and two Light Emitting Diodes. One with a larger diode (Ultraled, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and the other with seven smaller diodes (Ultraled xp, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in composites with different matrixes. Methods: Three test specimens were made for each resinous materials using silicone molds measuring 4 X 8 X 30 mm. Polymerization was performedin three stages and on the two surfaces. After having been submitted to careful polishing with sequential abrasive papers and diamond paste, the Vickers microhardness of the test specimens was determined. Afterwards these values were submitted to statistical analysis by the ANOVA table and Student’s-t test. Results: The microhardness values obtained in the hybrid composite were as follows: 51.63 kg/mm2 +- 3.27; 52.22 kg/mm2 +- 3.3; 38.08 kg/mm2 +-0.31 and in the ormocer, 41.87 kg/mm2 +- 2.36; 41.5 kg/mm2 +- 1.2; 33.63 kg/mm2 +- 1.2, by the Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances, respectively. Conclusion: The Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances promoted microhardness values that were similar between them and higher than the values produced by Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in the composites. It was verified that the intensity of the photo-activator appliances is directly related to the microhardness they produce in the composites.

  15. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  16. Acceptability and attractiveness of intra- and extra-oral orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Karajeh, M A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of different intra-oral and extra-oral orthodontic appliances, to rank orthodontic appliances from the most to the least attractive and to investigate the factors that may affect the acceptance of orthodontic treatment. A random sample of 800 students (schoolchildren and university students) were invited to participate in this study and a total of 688 students were included (86%). A self-administrated structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study. More than one-half in each age group (53%) claimed that they would accept to have orthodontic treatment. Acceptance of the different orthodontic appliances was affected by gender, age and type of school. Removable appliance was reported as the most acceptable and facemask was reported as the least acceptable orthodontic appliances. Majority of subjects ranked ceramic and facemask appliances as the most and the least attractive orthodontic appliances, respectively. The predictor variables for the acceptance of orthodontic treatment were perceived demand for orthodontic treatment, perceived positive effect of orthodontic treatment and expected benefits from orthodontic treatment. Removable appliance was the most acceptable orthodontic appliance whereas ceramic appliance was ranked as the most attractive one. Facemask was the least acceptable and the least attractive option.

  17. Evaluation of safety management in an Appliances manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of accidents and work related diseases, are not allowed regardless of the safety of employees, customers, contractors and other persons. Assessment of individual safety management activities could reduce many losses. Present study aimed to evaluate the safety management of a household appliance manufacturing company.  .Material and Method: This study has done in a household appliance manufacturing company in Damavand city. Two questionnaires were firstly designed based on the weighted scores. The questionnaire 1 consisted of 4 indicators: Safety of machinery, Electrical safety, Risk assessment and Fire safety. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 11 sub indicators. Both questionnaires were completed by 30 HSE experts and supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was based on cronbachs alpha coefficient. the safety status of each unit was determined and scored using information acquired by the questionnaires. Lastly, the safety of the entire company was determined.  .Result: Results showed that in safety management: the pressing and store house were in a good range of 66.66 and 60.12 points. Powder painting, enameling, laboratory were in a average range of 56.25, 55.92 and 54.15 points. Assembling and door storage were in a week range of 46.06 points.  .Conclusion: The findings showed that the safety status in the studied appliances company is in average range with 55.45 points. Therefore, it is recommended that the safety indicators should be improved for the betterment of the safety management in the company.

  18. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males) wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI). A questionnaire was used to collect patient's information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7), mesial (0.8 ± 0.6), and distal (0.8 ± 0.5) areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3) (P appliances have the highest biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.

  19. Consequences of the Public Contract Law for Purchase of Scientific Appliances in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vyklický

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article essentially covers in more detail the consequences of the present wording of the Public Contract Law for purchase of scientific appliances in the Czech Republic. The beginning of the article deals with increasing public expenses in research; then, the problem is defined concerning unsuitable wording of certain provisions of the Public Contract Law; while subsequently, the solution for the problem is searched together with the final comments. Investing of public funds into science and research is probably the most efficient in a long-term horizon. However, the flow of funds for acquisition of scientific and research equipment should be supported by appropriate legislation with such wording and form not to prevent purchases of that equipment. Availability of public funds for something which in fact cannot be, due to wrongly set legislation, acquired by a contracting authority is the problem which must be eliminated through timely implementation of the above proposed changes in the Public Contract Law.

  20. Reducing electricity demand peaks by scheduling home appliances usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossello-Busquet, A.; Kardaras, G.; Baek Iversen, V.; Soler, J.; Dittmann, L.

    2011-05-15

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users' appliances should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions. On the contrary, the low priority devices have to pause their operation, when the algorithm dictates it, and resume it in the future. This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks periods. Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. In order to analyze this scenario, teletraffic engineering theory, which is used in evaluating the performance of telecommunication networks, is used. A reversible fair scheduling (RFS) algorithm, which was originally developed for telecommunication networks, is applied. The purpose is to analyze how a power consumption limit and priorities for home appliances will affect the demand peak and the users' everyday life. Verification of the effectiveness of the RFS algorithm is done by means of simulation and by using real data for power consumption and operation hours. The defined maximum power limit of 750 and 1000 Watt was not exceeded during

  1. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam Report C, Annual Progress Report April 2003 - March 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Gadomski, Dena M.; Kofoot, Pete

    2005-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2003 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Although optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for less than two weeks, they coincided with a period of relatively high river discharge. Bottom-trawl sampling in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir, but none were captured in The Dalles Reservoir. A comparison of five years of indices of abundance of YOY sturgeon from sampling done by ODFW with gillnets and the USGS with bottom trawls was completed. Despite obvious differences in gear sampling characteristics (e.g. one gear is actively fished, one passively fished), it appears that either gear can be used to assess relative trends in YOY white sturgeon abundance. The analyses suffered due to poor catches of YOY fish, as YOY were only captured in The Dalles Reservoir during three of the five years of comparison sampling, and during only one of four years in John Day Reservoir. However, both gears detected the presence or absence of YOY white sturgeon within a reservoir equally. That is, if any YOY white sturgeon were captured in any year in a reservoir, both gears captured at least one fish, and if one gear failed to collect any YOY white sturgeon, both gears failed. Concerns have been raised that the Wang et al. (1985) egg development relationships for Sacramento River white sturgeon may not be applicable to Columbia Basin stocks. However, using laboratory experiments with white sturgeon eggs incubated at 10, 12, 15, and 18o C, we found no significant differences in development rates of eggs of Columbia, Kootenai, Snake, and Sacramento river fish.

  2. Analysis of Class II patients, successfully treated with the straight-wire and Forsus appliances, based on cervical vertebral maturation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servello, David F; Fallis, Drew W; Alvetro, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes in patients successfully treated with the Forsus appliance based on cervical vertebral maturation status. Forty-seven Class II patients, successfully treated with the Forsus appliance, were divided into peak and postpeak growth groups determined immediately prior to Forsus placement. The mean (SD) ages of the peak and postpeak groups were 13.4 (1.0) and 14.1 (1.3) years, respectively. Superimpositions of initial, Forsus placement, Forsus removal, and final cephalometric radiographs were completed, allowing the measurement of changes during three treatment phases. There were no significant differences between groups during treatment phase 1 (alignment/leveling), with both groups demonstrating a worsening of the Class II molar relationship. However, during treatment phase 2 (Class II correction), patients within the peak group demonstrated significantly higher mean apical base, mandibular and molar changes, and an increased rate of change compared with those in the postpeak group. No significant differences were observed during treatment phase 3 (detail/finishing). Following an initial worsening of the Class II molar relationship as a result of straight-wire appliance effects, Forsus appliance treatment initiated during cervical vertebral maturation status (CS) 3-4 elicits more effective and efficient correction of Class II molar relationships than when initiated during CS 5-6. Data support that these effects are due mainly to maxillary skeletal and dentoalveolar restraint during a period of more rapid mandibular growth.

  3. Association of tooth brushing behavior with oral hygiene index among students using fixed appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria, N.; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Uses of fixed appliance have become popular recently. The purpose of its use is to correct malposition of teeth in order to normalize the masticatory function and to eliminate the accumulation of food remain between the teeth. These will prevent the formation of caries and any periodontal tissue disease. Fixed appliance patients must routinely maintain their oral hygiene. This study was an analytical survey with cross-sectional design to know the relationship between behavior in tooth brushing of students using thefixed appliance and oral hygiene in Poltekkes Kemenkes Medan. The average of Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S) value of students using fixed appliance (2.68) was still above national target which is ≤2, and there was a relationship between behavior in tooth brushing of students using the fixed appliance and oral hygiene (phygiene and to prevent caries formation and periodontal disease patients using fixed appliances should maintain their dental health.

  4. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  5. Performance Assessment of Chemical Coagulation Together with Advanced Oxidation Peroxone Regarding Dye Wastewater Treatment of Appliance Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Shahriyari Farfani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Considering the important role of industry in polluting the environment, the present study aimed to evaluate the performance of chemical coagulation together with advanced oxidation (peroxone regarding dye wastewater treatment of appliance factories. Methods: This study was experimental, which it’s pilot-scale was conducted on the wastewater of the painting appliance Factory. The sample was selected via the combined sampling procedure. The processes used in the present study consisted of chemical coagulation and advanced oxidation (peroxone processes and 250 samples were analyzed. MgCl2, PAC and FeCl3, Bentonite, Cationic Polymer were used for chemical coagulation. The used equipments consisted of Spectrophotometer DR 2000, Jar taste and a ozonation reactor. COD and dye of samples were measured according to standard method. Results: The results revealed that each of the coagulants in its optimal pH were able to arrange the magnesium chloride 86.85%, poly aluminum chloride 88.47% and ferric chloride 85.41% in removal of COD. Poly aluminum chloride achieved the highest dye removal 90.92%. Furthermore, the highest COD removal efficiency was related to the combination of magnesium chloride (1.4 mg/l, poly aluminum chloride (0.6 mg/l and cationic polymers (0.4 mg/l with an efficiency of 89.11%, which managed to remove the dye up to 93.38%. COD removal efficiency reached to 99.67% using advanced oxidation process by peroxone method on pretreated wastewater (with chemical coagulation. Conclusions: For better performance of peroxone treatment, the wastewater should be pretreated for removal of dissolved solids. As a result, due to its suspension status of using peroxone method together chemical coagulation has a high capability to remove COD and dye from appliance Factore ,s wastewater.

  6. 1998-1999 evaluation of fall chinook and chum salmon spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naald, W.D. van der

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  7. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II) on class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yassaei S.; Aghili H.; Razeghi D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Mate...

  8. Assessing consumer benefits of selected gas appliance technology center tasks. Topical report, April-December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Bournakis, A.D.; Worek, W.M.; Kalensky, D.C.; Dombrowski, L.P.

    1992-12-01

    The Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) was created in 1983 to assist the gas industry in bringing about a new generation of reasonably priced, advanced gas appliances. The objective of the report is to evaluate consumer benefits of sixteen selected GATC tasks for the time period between 1983 and 1990. Tasks were selected for review based upon their degree of industry impact and how well they represented activities in the four targeted research areas of Space Conditioning, Commercial Appliances, Residential Appliances, and Codes and Standards

  9. A modified palatal crib appliance for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit - Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlEmran, Sulaiman

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to introduce a modified design of palatal crib habit breaking appliance that can be used for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit. The appliance is made of two bands on the upper first permanent molars and an extended metal framework to cover the anterior of the palatal roof. The appliance was applied for 4 months on an 8-year-old boy who persistently continued the habit of thumb-sucking. The appliance proved to be very effective for arresting thumb-sucking habit. (author)

  10. Real-time identification of residential appliance events based on power monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wei, Zhiqiang; Yin, Bo; Wang, Xiuwei

    2018-03-01

    Energy monitoring for specific home appliances has been regarded as the pre-requisite for reducing residential energy consumption. To enhance the accuracy of identifying operation status of household appliances and to keep pace with the development of smart power grid, this paper puts forward the integration of electric current and power data on the basis of existing algorithm. If average power difference of several adjacent cycles varies from the baseline and goes beyond the pre-assigned threshold value, the event will be flagged. Based on MATLAB platform and domestic appliances simulations, the results of tested data and verified algorithm indicate that the power method has accomplished desired results of appliance identification.

  11. The impact of personality on adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Bachar, Eytan; Tsur, Boaz; Chaushu, Stella; Shalish, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of psychological traits on patients' choice of orthodontic appliances and their adjustability to orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 68 adult patients divided into three groups (28 buccal, 19 lingual, and 21 clear aligners). Prior to treatment participants filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory to assess symptoms of mental distress and the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale to assess narcissistic personality traits. During the first week after appliance delivery and on day 14, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to assess their perception of pain and four areas of dysfunction. The correlation between personality traits and patients' reaction to treatment was evaluated. Somatization was the only trait that affected the choice of lingual and clear aligner appliance. Reduced self-esteem regulation was associated with increased pain in all patients, while exploitation was associated with pain in lingual patients. Narcissistic vulnerability slightly influenced patients' adaptability to orthodontic appliances. Although adjustability to lingual appliances was the most difficult, only two parameters were affected by personality features. In the buccal group, adjustability was affected by numerous parameters. Adaptation to the clear aligner appliance was relatively uneventful and least affected by psychological features. Anxious individuals tend to prefer lingual and clear aligner appliances. The selection of lingual and clear aligner appliances governs the patient's response and recovery process, leaving little room for the effect of psychological features. On the other hand, the buccal appliance allows for greater impact of personality traits on adjustability.

  12. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Development of technology for reducing power consumption during standby (Research and development of technologies for application of standby power reduction to domestic and office-automation appliances); 1999 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden oyobi OA kiki no taiki denryoku sakugen jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop power-efficient modules to be built into electrical products for reduction in power consumption in the standby state for domestic and office-automation appliances. In this study, television sets, audio sets, and air conditioners were selected out of domestic appliances and, out of office-automation appliances, notebook-size and desktop personal computers were selected. The standby power consumption is to be reduced to 3mW for domestic appliances, to 0.2W for notebook-size personal computers, and to 1/10-1/200 of the level being currently consumed in the case of desktop personal computers. For domestic appliances, a power efficient module not insulated from the AC power line was developed, to be built into a CPU-aided appliance to be turned on and off by remote control for the reduction of its standby power to 3mW. For notebook-size personal computers, a power-efficient power source insulated from the AC power line was developed, which consumes but 0.2W of standby power. It was built into a marketed notebook-size personal computer and tested for performance. For desktop personal computers, a 25mW power source insulated from the AC power line was fabricated, and tested for performance. (NEDO)

  13. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  14. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  15. Prediction of appliances energy use in smart homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arghira, Nicoleta; Hawarah, Lamis; Ploix, Stéphane; Jacomino, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents methods for prediction of energy consumption of different appliances in homes. The aim is to predict the next day electricity consumption for some services in homes. Historical data for a set of homes in France was used. Two basic predictors are tested and a stochastic based predictor is proposed. The performance of the predictors is studied and it shows that the proposed predictor gives better results than other approaches. Two processings are proposed to improve the performance of the predictor, segmentation and aggregation of data. Application results are provided.

  16. Appliances facilitating everyday life - electricity use derived from daily activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, Kajsa (Dept of Thematic Studies, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)), e-mail: kajsa.ellegard@liu.se; Widen, Joakim (Dept of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Vrotsou, Katerina (Dept of Science and Technology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present how, using a visualization method, electricity use can be derived from the everyday activity patterns of household members. Target groups are, on the one hand, professionals in the energy sector and energy advisors who need more knowledge about household energy use, and, on the other hand, household members wanting to reduce the energy use by revealing their own habits and thereby finding out how changed activity performance may influence electricity use. The focus is on the relation between utilizing electric appliances to perform everyday life activities and the use of electricity. The visualization method is based on the time-geographic approach developed by Haegerstrand and includes a model that estimates appliance electricity use from household members' activities. Focus, in this paper, is put on some basic activities performed to satisfy daily life needs: cooking and use of information, communication and entertainment devices. These activities appear frequently in the everyday life of households, even though not all household members perform them all. The method is applied on a data material comprising time-diaries written by 463 individuals (aged 10 to 85+) in 179 households in different parts of Sweden. The visualization method reveals when and for how long activities that claim electric appliances are performed by which individual(s). It also shows electricity load curves generated from the use of appliances at different levels, such as individual, household and group or population levels. At household level the method can reveal which household members are the main users of electricity, i.e. the division of labour between household members. Thereby it also informs about whom could be approached by energy companies and energy advisors in information campaigns. The main result of the study is that systematic differences in activity patterns in subgroups of a population can be identified (e.g. men and women) but

  17. Crozat appliance therapy for an arch-length discrepancy problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The case involved a white male subject, aged 10 years 6 months, with a Class I molar relationship complicated by a deep overbite and impaction of all four permanent canines, which were completely blocked out of the arches. The growth rate of the arches was found to be abnormal, and there was premature loss of the deciduous teeth. Over a period of approximately 5 years, with intermittent pauses to allow growth to catch up with treatment, the Crozat removable appliance was used to help establish the arch form and correct the plane of occlusion.

  18. Modified distal shoe appliance--fabrication and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li

    2012-01-01

    When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results.

  19. A comparison between indirect and objective wear-time assessment of removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Timm C; Meyer-Gutknecht, Hannes; Mayer, Nicolai; Weber, Joachim; Weimer, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Patients do not always adhere to the wear times prescribed for removable orthodontic appliances. We evaluated the validity and usability of indirect wear-time assessment methods by comparing wear-time estimates with microelectronically measured wear times in patients with removable orthodontic appliances. Wear times of 33 expansion plates, 34 functional appliances, and 42 retention plates of patients aged 6-20 years (12.3±2.9 years, 50.5% female) were indirectly determined by practitioners using a questionnaire assessing five parameters on a 5-point Likert scale: appliance handling, appliance appearance, bite shift, tooth movement, and appliance fit. The perceived difficulty in assessing each parameter was rated. Actual wear times were evaluated with microelectronic sensors in the appliances. Regression analyses revealed that practitioners' decisions about wear times varied depending on the type of appliance and criteria used, with only one standard criterion best predicting estimated wear time for each appliance. Different standard criteria were better predictors of measured wear time: 22.3% of wear-time variability was explained by expansion plate appearance, 31.2% by functional appliance handling, and 18.8% by retainer fitting. However, practitioners rated the difficulty of assessment in most cases as 'easy'. The study was not double blinded for technical reasons, and practitioners may have considered the evaluation criteria more carefully than in normal daily practice. Practitioners' decisions about wear times based on standard criteria strongly vary depending on the type of appliance and criteria used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Residential carbon dioxide emissions in Canada. Impact of efficiency improvements and fuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugursal, V.I.; FUng, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of improving house envelope, heating system and appliance efficiencies, and fuel substitution on the atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide in the Canadian residential sector is studied based on simulation studies. The findings clearly indicate that improving appliance efficiency reduces the overall end-use energy consumption in the residential sector as well as the associated carbon dioxide emissions. However, the magnitude of the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions as a result of improving only appliance efficiencies is quite small. Significantly larger reductions can be obtained by improving house envelopes and heating/cooling systems in addition to improving appliance efficiencies. Fuel substitution for space and domestic hot water heating can also present a potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions depending on the fuel substitution scenario adopted. (author)

  1. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, R.F. III [Power Networks, Big Indian, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  3. The Design, Construction, and Experimental Evaluation of a Compact Thermoacoustic-Stirling Engine Generator for Use in a micro-CHP Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A., Jr.

    Micro combined heat and power or micro-CHP is the simultaneous generation of useful heat and electricity on a residential scale. The heat and electricity are produced at the point of use, avoiding the distribution losses associated with a centralized power plant. These appliances combine a conventional gas-fired condensing boiler with an electric power module capable of generating electricity from the heat of combustion. Currently, the leading power modules for micro-CHP appliances are free-piston Stirling engines (FPSEs) which can generate 1050 watts of electricity at a thermal-to-electric efficiency of 26%.[1] These external combustion engines have been under development for the last 25 years, with FPSE micro-CHP appliances only recently being introduced to the commercial market. Publications by developers assert unlimited service life and high efficiency, with low noise and emissions; but despite these claims, the actual reliability and cost of manufacturing has prevented their successful mass-market adoption. A Thermoacoustic-Stirling Engine Generator or TaSEG is one possible alternative to FPSE's. A TaSEG uses a thermoacoustic engine, or acoustic heat engine, which can efficiently convert high temperature heat into acoustic power while maintaining a simple design with fewer moving parts than traditional FPSE's. This simpler engine is coupled to an electrodynamic alternator capable of converting acoustic power into electricity. This thesis outlines the design, construction, and experimental evaluation of a TaSEG which is appropriate for integration with a gas burner inside of a residential micro- CHP appliance. The design methodology is discussed, focusing on how changes in the geometry affected the predicted performance. Details of its construction are given and the performance of the TaSEG is then outlined. The TaSEG can deliver 132 watts of electrical output power to an electric load with an overall measured thermal-to-electric (first law) efficiency of eta

  4. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  5. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  6. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Natapol Thongplew

    Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in

  7. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  8. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  9. 78 FR 54450 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic...\\ is certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks. The subject merchandise is currently classifiable...

  10. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 2010... countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

  11. 77 FR 12811 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China, dated January 10, 2012; and Letter to the...

  12. 76 FR 62765 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the First Administrative... review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... administrative review of certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the PRC for the period March 5, 2009...

  13. Eu-energy label for electric appliances; Das EU-Energielabel fuer Elektrogeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    When buying a new appliances to have clear and understandable information on energy consumption to avoid later expensive surprices by to high power cost. But European classifiaction A to G of big household appliances is out of date and must be changed.(orig./GL)

  14. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  15. Toward semantic interoperability of energy using and producing appliances in residential environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy

  16. Effects of mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials on the initial force of thermoplastic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Naohisa; Iijima, Masahiro; Muguruma, Takeshi; Brantley, William A; Ahluwalia, Karamdeep S; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-05-01

    To measure the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances made from three materials and investigate effects of mechanical properties, material thickness, and amount of activation on orthodontic forces. Three thermoplastic materials, Duran (Scheu Dental), Erkodur (Erkodent Erich Kopp GmbH), and Hardcast (Scheu Dental), with two different thicknesses were selected. Values of elastic modulus and hardness were obtained from nanoindentation measurements at 28°C. A custom-fabricated system with a force sensor was employed to obtain measurements of in vitro force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances for 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm activation for bodily tooth movement. Experimental results were subjected to several statistical analyses. Hardcast had significantly lower elastic modulus and hardness than Duran and Erkodur, whose properties were not significantly different. Appliances fabricated from thicker material (0.75 mm or 0.8 mm) always produced significantly greater force than those fabricated from thinner material (0.4 mm or 0.5 mm). Appliances with 1.0-mm activation produced significantly lower force than those with 0.5-mm activation, except for 0.4-mm thick Hardcast appliances. A strong correlation was found between mechanical properties of the thermoplastic materials and force produced by the appliances. Orthodontic forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances depend on the material, thickness, and amount of activation. Mechanical properties of the polymers obtained by nanoindentation testing are predictive of force delivery by these appliances.

  17. Optimal residential smart appliances scheduling considering distribution network constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ree Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As smart appliances (SAs are more widely adopted within distribution networks, residential consumers can contribute to electricity market operations with demand response resources and reduce their electricity bill. However, if the schedules of demand response resources are determined only by the economic electricity rate signal, the schedule can be unfeasible due to the distribution network constraints. Furthermore, it is impossible for consumers to understand the complex physical characteristics and reflect them in their everyday behaviors. This paper introduces the concept of load coordinating retailer (LCR that deals with demand responsive appliances to reduce electrical consumption for the given distribution network constraints. The LCR can play the role of both conventional retailer and aggregated demand response provider for residential customers. It determines the optimal schedules for the aggregated neighboring SAs according to their types within each distribution feeder. The optimization algorithms are developed using Mixed Integer Linear Programming, and the distribution network is solved by the Newton–Raphson AC power flow.

  18. Multimedia architectures: from desktop systems to portable appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Natarajan, Balas R.

    1997-01-01

    Future desktop and portable computing systems will have as their core an integrated multimedia system. Such a system will seamlessly combine digital video, digital audio, computer animation, text, and graphics. Furthermore, such a system will allow for mixed-media creation, dissemination, and interactive access in real time. Multimedia architectures that need to support these functions have traditionally required special display and processing units for the different media types. This approach tends to be expensive and is inefficient in its use of silicon. Furthermore, such media-specific processing units are unable to cope with the fluid nature of the multimedia market wherein the needs and standards are changing and system manufacturers may demand a single component media engine across a range of products. This constraint has led to a shift towards providing a single-component multimedia specific computing engine that can be integrated easily within desktop systems, tethered consumer appliances, or portable appliances. In this paper, we review some of the recent architectural efforts in developing integrated media systems. We primarily focus on two efforts, namely the evolution of multimedia-capable general purpose processors and a more recent effort in developing single component mixed media co-processors. Design considerations that could facilitate the migration of these technologies to a portable integrated media system also are presented.

  19. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  20. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  1. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields Produced by Domestic Appliances (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.W.; Kaune, W.T.; Grainger, P.; Golding, J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 50 homes and their appliances examined whether a detailed appliance-use questionnaire and survey would yield data comparable with direct personal monitoring. This was coupled with direct measurement of the appliances in use to determine the field at 50 cm and 1 m. The findings were that individual time-weighted average (TWA) exposures calculated from questionnaire and activity diaries in conjunction with the appliance magnetic field were unrelated to actual personal exposure measurement. It was concluded that questionnaires are of little or no value for TWA estimation. However, peak exposure and short-term temporal variability could be modelled in subjects spending at least 15 min per day within 1 m of an operating microwave cooker or conventional cooker. This method could be extended to other appliances. (author)

  2. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  3. Development of High-Efficiency Low-Lift Vapor Compression System - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-03-31

    PNNL, with cofunding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Building Technologies Program, conducted a research and development activity targeted at addressing the energy efficiency goals targeted in the BPA roadmap. PNNL investigated an integrated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option referred to as the low-lift cooling system that potentially offers an increase in HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  4. Routines for interocclusal appliance therapy among general dental practitioners in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Maja; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate what kind of interocclusal appliances that were chosen among Swedish dentists when treating temporomandibular disorders (TMD), the clinical rationale for the treatment, the diagnoses that warranted the appliance treatment, the use of adjunct TMD treatments and prognostic considerations, and possible differences in these respects between children/adolescents and adults with TMD, and, finally, possible differences between private practitioners and general practitioners in the public dental service. During the 12-months-period April 2009-March 2010 all general dental practitioners in the county of Jönköping, Sweden, were asked to fill in a questionnaire when performing a TMD treatment with an interocclusal appliance. A total of 394 questionnaires were filled in and returned, 216 (55%) from dentists in public dental service and 178 (45%) from private practitioners. It was found that in 40% of the cases, no pre-treatment recording of the functional status in the masticatory system had been made. The commonest reasons for the treatment were bruxism, headache, and replacement of a previous appliance. Less than half of the appliances made were hard acrylic appliances. Some kind of adjunct therapy had been made in 22% of the cases treated in public dental service. The corresponding figure for those treated by private practitioners was 25%. Therapeutic jaw exercises was the commonest adjunct therapy followed by selective occlusal adjustment. In the vast majority of cases, the dentists judged the prognosis of the treatment to be good. It is concluded that a large number of appliances made to treat TMD were soft appliances, especially in public dental service. This reflects a possible overuse of soft appliances at the expense of hard acrylic appliances. Furthermore, in a large number of cases, the treatment was performed without any pre-treatment registrations, and adjunct therapies were rarely used. In all these respects,there is

  5. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment Launching Appliances § 150.504 When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching...

  6. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section 150.506 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.506 When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator must...

  7. Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Rotary Transmitting Coil for Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An omnidirectional magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system based on rotary transmitting coil is presented. The proposed scheme can ease the variations of the transfer efficiency and output power caused by the deviation of transfer direction, and improve the unbalanced power distribution phenomenon between the receivers, which are still not fully achieved in current WPT systems. The modified coupled-mode model is built first to describe the non-rotary multi-receiver WPT system. The analysis indicates that the transfer efficiency and output power of the system can be expressed as functions of the deviation angle between the transmitting coil and receiving coil, which has a non-negligible influence on the system performances. Then, the modified high order coupled-mode model containing time-varying parameters about the deviation angle is derived for the proposed omnidirectional WPT system. Theoretical analysis and simulated results indicate that this system can transfer power to multiple receivers around the transmitter synchronously and evenly, which is very suitable for wireless charging for household appliances indoors. The scheme feasibility and theoretical analysis are verified by experimental results.

  8. Data Overview for Sensor Fish Samples Acquired at Ice Harbor, John Day, and Bonneville II Dams in 2005, 2006, and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2008-03-12

    The purpose of this work was to acquire Sensor Fish data on turbine passage at Bonneville II, John Day, and Ice Harbor dams for later analysis and use. The original data sets have been entered into a database and are being maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory pending delivery to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when requested. This report provides documentation for the data sets acquired and details about the operations of the Sensor Fish and interpretation of Sensor Fish data that will be necessary for later use of the acquired data. A limited review of the acquired data was conducted to assess its quality and to extract information that might prove useful to its later use.

  9. Survey of Potential Hanford Site Contaminants in the Upper Sediment for the Reservoirs at McNary, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Priddy, M; Yokel, Jerel W.; Delistraty, Damon A.; Stoops, Thomas M.

    2005-02-01

    This report presents the results from a multi-agency cooperative environmental surveillance study. of the study looked at sediment from the pools upstream from dams on the Columbia River that are downstream from Hanford Site operations. The radiological and chemical conditions existing in the upper-level sediment found in the pools upstream from McNary Dam, John Day Dam, The Dalles Lock and Dam, and Bonneville Dam were evaluated. This study also evaluated beach sediment where available. Water samples were collected at McNary Dam to further evaluate potential Hanford contaminants in the lower Columbia River. Samples were analyzed for radionuclides, chemicals, and physical parameters. Results from this study were compared to background values from sediment and water samples collect from the pool upstream of Priest Rapids Dam (upstream of the Hanford Site) by the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project.

  10. Class III camouflage using skeletal anchorage and Pendex appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, José Augusto M; Zanardi, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment for a young female, aged 18 years 4 months, with a Class III malocclusion on the right side, with a combination of a posterior and anterior crossbite. Two rigid orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the retromolar region in order to move the entire lower arch distally with nickel-titanium coil springs. In addition, a Pendex appliance was used to create space and to improve the arch form and the transverse relationship. The active treatment period was 17 months. Normal overjet and overbite were obtained, and facial balance was improved. Although the cephalometric superimposition has demonstrated the effects of dental compensation, the final dental and facial results were satisfactory and stable after the second year in retention. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  11. Inventory of usage pattern for wood burning appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) in co-operation with the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) and Statistics Sweden (SCB) have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  12. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  13. Magnetic emission ranking of electrical appliances. A comprehensive market survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.; Lehofer, P.; Schmidpeter, U.; Rampetsreiter, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades emissions of magnetic fields from electric appliances have considerably changed. Based on a comprehensive market survey it could be shown that today magnetic emissions are usually characterised by complex frequency spectra while single-frequency emissions have become rare. Therefore, spectral assessment procedures play a critical role. Compared to frequency-weighted equivalent magnetic induction, rms values may underestimate emissions up to two orders of magnitudes. Therefore, rms measurements are not suitable and emission-ranking lists of devices need revision. Surface hot-spot measurements at nominal load conditions and 230 V/50 Hz supply involved 1146 new electrical devices of 166 different categories. High emissions were not rare. Magnetic emissions of devices of 73 different categories exceeded reference levels up to almost two orders of magnitudes above reference levels. Maximum values were higher than reported so far. Magnetic emissions were high enough to make even conformity with existing basic restrictions not self-evident. (authors)

  14. A cephalometric comparison of treatment with the Twin-block and stainless steel crown Herbst appliances followed by fixed appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Abbie T; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2004-07-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 treatment protocols for correcting Class II disharmony. The first phase of treatment consisted of functional jaw orthopedics with either the Twin-block or the stainless-steel crown Herbst appliance; the second phase consisted of comprehensive fixed-appliance therapy in both protocols. Each of the 2 samples comprised 28 consecutively treated Class II patients. The mean age at the start of treatment was approximately 12 years, and the mean age at the end of the treatment was approximately 14.5 years in both groups. The duration of the treatment phase with the functional appliance was approximately 13 months, and the duration of fixed-appliance therapy was approximately 15 months in both groups. The sex distribution was identical in the 2 groups. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the start of treatment (T1) and at the end of the overall treatment protocol (T2). Nonparametric statistics were used for comparisons of starting forms and of the T1-T2 changes between the 2 treatment groups. The stainless-steel crown Herbst appliance and the Twin-block appliance produced very similar therapeutic modifications in Class II patients, although the Twin-block group exhibited almost 2 mm greater correction of the maxillomandibular differential than did the crown Herbst group. The treatment effects of both protocols led to a normalization of the dentoskeletal parameters at the end of the overall treatment period. Twin-block therapy also induced a greater increase in the height of the mandibular ramus (posterior facial height). Overall, only minor differences were detected in the treatment and posttreatment effects of a compliance-free (crown Herbst) and a noncompliance-free (Twin-block) appliance for correcting Class II disharmony.

  15. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagkiolidou, Angeliki; Ludwig, Björn; Pazera, Pawel; Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and 1.6-mm diameter placed during orthodontic treatment by the same experienced orthodontist. In total, 196 patients (121 girls, 75 boys; median age, 11.7; interquartile range, 3.7) who received 384 miniscrews were evaluated. Two hundred four miniscrews were used with rapid palatal expansion appliances, 136 with appliances for distalization of posterior teeth, and 44 with other appliances, such as transpalatal arches for tooth stabilization. The overall survival of the miniscrews was excellent (97.9%) in the cases examined. Cox regression analysis showed no difference in the overall survival rates of miniscrews loaded with different appliances for sex (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.27; P = 0.73) after adjusting for appliance and age. This study shows that miniscrews placed in the paramedian anterior palate for supporting various orthodontic appliances have excellent survival. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of thermoplastic appliance thickness on initial stress distribution in periodontal ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Shin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation into the initial stress distribution induced within the periodontal ligament by thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses is performed. Based on the plaster model of a 25-year-old male patient, a finite element model of the maxillary lateral incisors and their supporting structures is constructed. In addition, four finite element models of thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses in the range of 0.5–1.25 mm are also constructed based on the same plaster model. Finite element analysis simulations are performed to examine the effects of the force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances on the stress response of the periodontal ligament during the elastic recovery process. The results show that the stress induced in the periodontal ligament increases with an increasing appliance thickness. For example, the stress triples from 0.0012 to 0.0038 MPa as the appliance thickness is increased from 0.75 to 1.25 mm. The results presented in this study provide a useful insight into as a result of the compressive and tensile stresses induced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses. Moreover, the results enable the periodontal ligament stress levels produced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses to be reliably estimated.

  17. Design and manufacturing of patient-specific orthodontic appliances by computer-aided engineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Neri, Paolo; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2018-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient's needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions. In this article, a computer-aided design-based methodology for the design and manufacturing of a patient-specific eruption guidance appliances is presented. The proposed approach is based on the digitalization of several steps of the overall process: from the digital reconstruction of patients' anatomies to the manufacturing of customized appliances. A finite element model has been developed to evaluate the temporomandibular joint disks stress level caused by using symmetric eruption guidance appliances with different teeth misalignment conditions. The developed model can then be used to guide the design of a patient-specific appliance with the aim at reducing the patient discomfort. At this purpose, two different customization levels are proposed in order to face both arches and single tooth misalignment issues. A low-cost manufacturing process, based on an additive manufacturing technique, is finally presented and discussed.

  18. Treatment effects of the Jasper Jumper and the Bionator associated with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leniana Santos; Janson, Guilherme; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; de Lima, Karina Jerônimo Rodrigues Santiago; Fernandes, Thaís Maria Freire; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Class II malocclusion treatment with the Jasper Jumper and the Bionator, associated with fixed appliances. The sample comprised 77 young individuals divided into 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with the Jasper Jumper appliance associated with fixed appliances for a mean period of 2.15 years; group 2 had 30 patients, treated with the Bionator and fixed appliances, for a mean treatment time of 3.92 years; and the control group included 22 subjects followed for a mean period of 2.13 years. The initial and final lateral cephalograms of the patients were evaluated. Intergroup comparison at the initial stage and of the treatment changes were performed by analysis of variance. Their effects consisted in a restrictive effect on the maxilla, a slight increase in anterior face height, retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors, labial tipping and protrusion of the mandibular incisors in both groups and intrusion with the Jasper Jumper appliance, maxillary molar distalization with the Jasper Jumper, extrusion and mesialization of the mandibular molars, both appliances provided significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, overjet, overbite and molar relationship. The effects of both appliances in class II malocclusion treatment are similar; however, treatment with the Jasper Jumper was shorter than with the Bionator.

  19. A comparison of pain experienced by patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Abby K Y; McGrath, Colman; Wong, Ricky W K; Wiechmann, D; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare pain experiences among Chinese adult patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances. Sixty patients, 30 with labial appliances (18 females and 12 males, mean age 20.33 years, SD +/- 4.205) and 30 with lingual appliances (22 females and 8 males, mean age 21.63 years, SD +/- 2.236), rated their overall pain experience on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) at three time points: 1 week (T(1)), 1 month (T(2)), and 3 months (T(3)) after bracket placement. In addition, on a separate 100 mm VAS, they rated their pain experience at the locations of the tongue, lips, cheeks, gums, face, and jaw at T(1), T(2), and T(3). Changes in pain VAS were conducted using Friedman analysis of variance, area under the curve (AUC) analysis and the data were compared using a t-test. There was no significant difference in global ratings of pain among those treated with labial or lingual appliances (P > 0.05). Among both groups, global ratings of pain decreased over the study period (P appliances reported higher ratings of tongue pain (P appliances reported higher ratings of lip (P appliances rate similarly the level of overall pain they experience during treatment. Ratings of overall pain experienced decreased for both treatment groups with time. However, ratings of pain differed at various sites with respect to the type of orthodontic appliance. These findings have implications in informing patients' treatment decision-making processes regarding labial and lingual appliances and in the management of discomfort associated with different treatment modalities.

  20. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in

  1. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  2. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalayci, Nurhat; Yetmez, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  3. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhat Ozkalayci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  4. Emissions from SF6 appliances in Norway. Additional report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjarede, Anne Cathrine

    1999-01-01

    The report presents facts regarding the Norwegian SF 6 emissions and the significance for the Norwegian climatic gas accounts in order to evaluate whether 12-24 kV SF 6 appliances are environmentally acceptable. Estimations show that emissions from such equipment contribute with about 0.2 % of the total Norwegian CO 2 emissions in 1993. The SF 6 which is stored in electric appliances, may either be recycled or decomposed to more environmentally acceptable end products. The report concludes that the contribution to the greenhouse effects from SF 6 appliances is minimal

  5. A review on energy efficiency standards and labels: present status and implementation possibilities in malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.I. Mahlia,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review on energy efficiency standards  and labels for household electrical appliances around the world. Through the review of other country experiences on energy efficiency standards and labels, we attempt to identify savings possibilities in Malaysian households. The implementation possibilities of standards and labels for various household electrical appliances in Malaysia are also examined. It is found that various household appliances in Malaysia offer some potential in reducing electricity consumption. Finally, it is concluded that there are many advantages for Malaysia to implement the standards and labels for household electrical appliances as soon as possible in order to reduce electricity  bills  and energy  consumption  in Malaysian  households.

  6. Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust-A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerer, A.; Schmatloch, V.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems due to high emission levels often related to small scale wood combustion. In this study, simultaneous combustion particle deposition and heat recovery from the exhaust of two commercially available wood-fired appliances has been investigated. The experiments were performed with a miniature pipe bundle heat exchanger operating in the exhaust gas lines of a fully automated pellet burner or a closed fireplace. The system has been characterised for a wide range of aerosol inlet temperatures (135-295 deg. C) and flow velocities (0.13-1.0ms -1 ), and particle deposition efficiencies up to 95% have been achieved. Deposition was dominated by thermophoresis and diffusion and increased with the average temperature difference and retention time in the heat exchanger. The aerosols from the two different appliances exhibited different deposition characteristics, which can be attributed to enhanced deposition of the nucleation mode particles generated in the closed fire place. The measured deposition efficiencies can be described by simple linear parameterisations derived from laboratory studies. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of thermophoretic particle removal from biomass burning flue gas and support the development of modified heat exchanger systems with enhanced capability for simultaneous heat recovery and particle deposition

  7. Development of a multimodal transportation educational virtual appliance (MTEVA) to study congestion during extreme tropical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    In this study, a prototype Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is developed to assist in transportation and cyberinfrastructure undergraduate education. This initial version of the MTEVA provides a graphical user interface...

  8. Effect of dental wear, stabilization appliance and anterior tooth reconstruction on mandibular movements during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Priscila de Oliveira; Faot, Fernanda; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2008-01-01

    This study described changes in mandibular movements during pronunciation of /m/ and /s/ sounds in Portuguese, in patients presenting dental wear before and after appliance insertion and tooth reconstruction. Subjects were divided into a control group of dentate patients and an experimental group of patients with incisal tooth wear due to bruxism. A magnetic jaw tracking device measured the jaw opening, and translations to left and right sides of the mandible during pronunciation of phonemes. Evaluations were carried out 1 week and immediately before appliance insertion; 24 h, 7, 30 and 60 days after appliance insertion; and 1 week and 1 month after tooth reconstruction. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests (pspeech of /m/ and /s/ sounds were not changed after appliance insertion and reconstruction of teeth.

  9. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  10. Design and explanation of organizational excellence model in home appliances industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are considered as one of low margin and competitive industry in the world. This industry often needs significant amount of investment and resources and it often faces with some challenges during economic crises. In this paper, we present a framework for organizational excellence to detect any possible problems in home appliances industry. The proposed framework of this paper is used for a real-world case study of Iranian home appliances. The results of our survey indicate that there are four major dimensions involved with this industry including facilities, knowledge and skills, environment and vision. There are three criteria associated with facilities with 30 indexes, 14 criteria associated with knowledge and skills with 144 indexes, three criteria involved with environment with 33 indexes and five criteria linked with vision with 53 indexes. Therefore, home appliances in our case study needs 4 dimensions for achieving the organizational excellence.

  11. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study. Results of the study showed even though most of the students felt uncertain about the technical appliances in E-learning Portal, the study illustrates the true nature of the student’s perceptions with respect to the functionality and effectiveness of technical appliance in E-learning Portal. This research is essential to elucidate the functions of technical appliances in facilitating the process of learning through the portal.

  12. Modified custom made J-hook for maxillary protraction in a rapid maxillary expansion appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithesh Kumar Kodoth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple yet innovative attaching the J-hook along with an rapid maxillary appliance for the protraction of maxilla is presented. The proposed method not only simplifies construction but also is equally effective.

  13. Changes in 3D Midfacial Parameters after Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dave Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: These data support the notion that maxillary bone width and volume can be changed in nongrowing adults. Furthermore, midfacial redevelopment may provide a potentially-useful method of managing adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, using biomimetic, oral appliances.

  14. Realization of Intelligent Household Appliance Wireless Monitoring Network Based on LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong ZHOU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent household appliance wireless monitoring network can real-time monitor the apparent power and power factor of various household appliances in different indoor regions, and can realize the real-time monitoring on the household appliance working status and performance. The household appliance wireless monitoring network based on LEACH protocol is designed in the paper. Firstly, the basic idea of LEACH routing algorithm is proposed. Aiming at the node-distribution feature of intelligent home, the selection of cluster head in the routing algorithm and the data transmission method at the stable communication phase is modified. Moreover, the hardware circuit of power acquisition and power factor measurement is designed. The realization of wireless monitoring network based on CC2530 is described, each module and the whole system were conducted the on-line debugging. Finally, the system is proved to meet the practical requirement through the networking test.

  15. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  16. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  17. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  18. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  19. Clinical Effectiveness of Using Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances with Combined Occlusal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions. Aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface demonstrated high functional and aesthetic characteristics. The use of the USHPS system showed a decisive advantage of milled frameworks and combined occlusal surface over traditional cast ceramic frameworks.The combination of high mechanical, strength and tribological properties of zirconium dioxide and high biological as well as aesthetic properties of ceramic materials helped reveal high clinical characteristics of aesthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface.

  20. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups. PMID:23956884

  1. Space Maintenance with an Innovative ?Tube and Loop? Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance)

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limit...

  2. Occlus-o-Guide® versus Andresen activator appliance: neuromuscular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farronato, Giampietro; Giannini, Lucia; Galbiati, Guido; Grillo, Elena; Maspero, Cinzia

    2013-05-20

    The aim of the present study was to assess the muscular variations at the electromyography (EMG) level for the anterior temporalis muscles and masseter muscles during treatment with Occlus-o-Guide® and Andresen activator appliances. Eighty-two patients (35 males and 47 females) aged between 8 and 12 years (mean age, 10.5±0.8 years) participated in the study. Fifty patients underwent treatment with an Occlus-o-Guide® and 32 patients with an Andresen activator. All patients underwent EMG examination using a Freely EMG (De Gotzen, Legnano, Italy) and surface bipolar electrodes when the appliances were worn for the first time (T0), and after 6 months (T1) and after 12 months (T2) of appliance use. Statistical analysis showed that both at T0 and T2, the percent overlapping coefficient (POC) of the anterior temporalis muscles was not statistically different between the appliance groups. At T0, the POC of the masseter muscles was significantly lower for the Andresen appliance as compared to the Occlus-o-Guide® (p=0.02), while at T2 this significance was lost. At insertion of an appliance, all patients show neuromuscular balance that does not correspond to orthognathic occlusion. Both appliances work by creating muscular imbalance. With the appliances in situ, EMG responses were generally analogous for the Occlus-o-Guide® and the Andresen activator; however, the imbalance was greater and the recovery of the orthological muscular balance was slower in patients under treatment with the Andresen activator as compared to those with the Occlus-o-Guide®.

  3. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Nathali Silva; Murad Khan; Kijun Han

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage...

  4. Optimal joint scheduling of electrical and thermal appliances in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Elham; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal appliances are scheduled based on desired temperature and energy prices. • A discomfort index has been introduced within the home energy scheduling model. • Appliances are scheduled based on activity probability and desired options. • Starting probability depends on the social random factor and consumption behavior. - Abstract: With the development of home area network, residents have the opportunity to schedule their power usage in the home by themselves aiming at reducing electricity expenses. Moreover, as renewable energy sources are deployed in home, a home energy management system needs to consider both energy consumption and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost. In this paper, a smart home energy management model has been presented in which electrical and thermal appliances are jointly scheduled. The proposed method aims at minimizing the electricity cost of a residential customer by scheduling various type of appliances considering the residents consumption behavior, seasonal probability, social random factor, discomfort index and appliances starting probability functions. In this model, the home central controller receives the electricity price information, environmental factors data as well as the resident desired options in order to optimally schedule appliances including electrical and thermal. The scheduling approach is tested on a typical home including variety of home appliances, a small wind turbine, photovoltaic panel, combined heat and power unit, boiler and electrical and thermal storages over a 24-h period. The results show that the scheduling of different appliances can be reached simultaneously by using the proposed formulation. Moreover, simulation results evidenced that the proposed home energy management model exhibits a lower cost and, therefore, is more economical.

  5. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior...

  6. Treatment of cooling appliances. Interrelations between environmental protection, resource conservation, and recovery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of cooling appliances in Austria is primarily influenced by two factors. On the one hand is their changing composition and on the other hand the ordinance on Waste Prevention, Collection and Treatment of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE ordinance), which stipulates a minimum recycling rate of 75% for cooling appliances. This paper investigates whether this recycling rate leads to optimal treatment practices for cooling appliances with respect to resource conservation and environmental protection. Two different treatment technologies which achieve recycling rates between 50-60% and 80-90%, respectively, are compared both for cooling appliances containing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and for appliances containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Materials and energy balances are developed for each model. To evaluate resource consumption, expenditures as well as savings of energy and materials are incorporated via the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). In order to analyse the environmental impact of the different practices, balances for CFC, CO 2 , HF, HCl and solid residues are established. The results show that the treatment type aiming for a maximum of materials recycling contributes more to resource conservation than the other treatment type. But for CFC appliances the former is associated with substantial CFC emissions, which turn out to be most relevant when treating these appliances. Generally, it is found that the optimum recycling rate is a function of the composition of the appliance and the technologies applied, both in recycling and in primary production. A high recycling rate per se does not automatically result in an optimal solution with regard to resource conservation and environmental protection. (author)

  7. Gas at work. Vision on decentralized gas appliances in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gastel, M.; Hooijschuur, J.; De Jong, A.; De Visser, I.; Overdiep, H.; Bakker, E.J.; Van Wolferen, H.

    2008-04-01

    Various platforms operate within the SenterNovem programme Creative Energy. This report is the first version of the vision document of the working group Decentralized gas appliances of the Platform New Gas, in which the following aspects of the various promising innovative gas appliances are indicated: the development stage, the intended energy saving, the CO2 reduction, the bottlenecks for large scale market introduction and the solutions for these bottlenecks. [mk] [nl

  8. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  9. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions

  10. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  11. BLOND, a building-level office environment dataset of typical electrical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno

    2018-03-27

    Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.

  12. Alteration in Taste Perception among Young Children during the use of Removable Orthodontic Appliance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Priyanka; Sakthivel, V S; Naqvi, Zuber A; Goyal, Vinod; Tripathi, Swati; Singh, Smita

    2017-07-01

    The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste perceptions has always had a controversial subject. The present study was designed to analyze the change in taste perception in children using removable orthodontic appliances. All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception. The verbal score was calculated based on the correct and incorrect taste stimuli given to them. Visual analog scale was used to assess intensity and hedonic (palatability) estimation of the volunteers. The volunteers from both study and control groups scored different values for taste stimuli. The majority of stimuli were estimated correctly by both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control groups. In different testing sessions, the scoring of the volunteers was nearly constant, indicating that an appliance does not play a major role in the alteration of taste stimuli. The appliance brings about transient change in taste perception, we should educate the patient before delivering the appliance about the transient change in taste perception and encourage full-time wear of the appliance, including during meals, without fear of affecting taste sensations.

  13. BLOND, a building-level office environment dataset of typical electrical appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno

    2018-03-01

    Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.

  14. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  15. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A randomized clinical trial comparing mandibular incisor proclination produced by fixed labial appliances and clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Garvey, Thérèse; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-09-01

    To compare the mandibular incisor proclination produced by fixed labial appliances and third generation clear aligners. Patients underwent a course of orthodontic treatment using either fixed labial appliances or clear aligners (Invisalign). Mandibular incisor proclination was measured by comparing pretreatment and near-end treatment lateral cephalograms. Eligibility criteria included adult patients with mild mandibular incisor crowding (clear aligner group. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups: Fixed appliance mean crowding was 2.1 ± 1.3 mm vs clear aligner mean crowding, 2.5 ± 1.3 mm; pretreatment mean mandibular incisor inclination for the fixed appliance group was 90.8 ± 5.4° vs 91.6 ± 6.4° for the clear aligner group. Fixed appliances produced 5.3 ± 4.3° of mandibular incisor proclination. Clear aligners proclined the mandibular incisors by 3.4 ± 3.2°. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > .05). There was no difference in the amount of mandibular incisor proclination produced by clear aligners and fixed labial appliances in mild crowding cases.

  17. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, W Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-04-01

    The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner C.O.S., 3M). A digital impression was used to design 2 multicomponent orthodontic appliances. Biocompatible acrylic baseplates were produced with the aid of a 3D printer. The metal springs and clasps were produced by a bending robot. The fit of the 2 appliances was assessed by 2 experienced orthodontists. The authors assessed both orthodontic appliances with the volunteer's dentition and found the fit to be excellent. Clinicians can fully produce a multicomponent dental appliance consisting of both an acrylic baseplate and other parts, such as clasps, springs, or screws, using a digital workflow process without the need for a physical model of the patient's dentition. Plaster models can be superfluous for orthodontic treatment as digital models can be used in all phases of a full digital workflow in orthodontics. The arduous task of making a multicomponent dental appliance that involves bending wires can possibly be replaced by a computer, design software, a 3D printer, and a bending robot. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of orthodontic appliances on eating - young people's views and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Louise A; Geldenhuys, Mieke; Moynihan, Paula J; Slater, Dina R; Exley, Catherine E; Rolland, Sarah L

    2015-06-01

    Orthodontic appliances are known to cause patients difficulty with eating. Learning more about the issues patients face, while eating with orthodontic appliances in place, will allow us to create more informative and relevant patient information, thereby improving patient compliance and treatment success. This study aims to understand how orthodontic appliances impact on eating in the broader context and to explore adolescent patients' perceptions of eating with orthodontic appliances. Purposive sampling was used and 19 participants currently undergoing orthodontic treatment and aged 11-14 years were selected for either a focus group or semi-structured interview to explore eating-related issues. Data collection and analysis were carried out as an iterative process broadly following principles of thematic analysis. Data collection ceased when no new themes emerged. Two main themes relating to eating problems emerged: restriction of food choice and problems associated with the eating process. Participants reported restricting food choice due to physical aspects of the appliance, advice given by their orthodontist, fear of breakage and also to minimize embarrassment. Participants also reported problems with the time taken to eat, chewing problems, taste change and being messy while eating. Additionally, time in treatment, the location of eating and relationship with those present during eating influenced emotions. Some participants indicated a positive impact of orthodontic appliances on their diet. These results can be used to further inform dietary advice offered to patients. Factors were identified which may not be considered in clinical practice but which could improve the value of dietary advice given to patients.

  19. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea patients using oral appliances--our experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljus, Dusan; Tihacek-Sojić, Ljiljana; Milić-Lemić, Aleksandra; Andjelković, Marko

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. It is recognized as a serious risk factor for car and workplace accidents due to daytime sleepiness, and factor for coronary heart diseases and stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of oral appliances for mandibular advance in treating mild to moderate OSA. A total of 15 patients were included in this study, all diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA. Oral appliances were custom made for each patient in protrusive position at 50% of maximum mandibular advancement. The patients were given instructions not to sleep on their backs and avoid alcohol consumption during the study as these are the factors that can contribute to symptoms progression. Complete and partial treatment success was achieve in 14 of the patients. Apnea-hypopnea index values were significantly lower (p appliances has proven successful. Patients were comfortable using oral appliances and were ready to wear them for prolonged period of time. Use of oral appliances is very common in the world and should not be discarded. They are also very comfortable, practical and affordable comparing to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) apparatus, not to mention surgery. Use of oral appliances is safe and very well tolerated, and ought to be offered to patients with OSA.

  20. Lingual vs. labial fixed orthodontic appliances: systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Gölz, Lina; Jäger, Andreas; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to compare the therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial orthodontic fixed appliances from clinical trials on human patients in an evidence-based manner. Randomized and prospective non-randomized clinical trials comparing lingual and labial appliances were included. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed using the Cochrane tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2015, without limitations. A total of 13 papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. Compared with labial appliances, lingual appliances were associated with increased overall oral discomfort, increased speech impediment (measured using auditory analysis), worse speech performance assessed by laypersons, increased eating difficulty, and decreased intermolar width. On the other hand, lingual appliances were associated with increased intercanine width and significantly decreased anchorage loss of the maxillary first molar during space closure. Based on existing trials, there is insufficient evidence to make robust recommendations for lingual fixed orthodontic appliances regarding their therapeutic or adverse effects, as the quality of evidence was low. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. Comparative evaluation of sagittal anchorage loss in lingual and labial appliances during space closure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to assess and compare the anchorage loss between labial and lingual appliance systems during space closure. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were part of the study among which 10 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.6 years were treated using lingual appliance system (0.018" slot-STb™ and 10 subjects (mean age 19 ± 6.1 years were treated using labial preadjusted edgewise appliance system (0.018" slot-MBT™ . First premolar extractions were performed to enable retraction of anterior teeth. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at two intervals, before starting space closure and after space closure that were connoted as T0 and T1 and were analyzed using the method described by Pancherz to measure anchorage loss. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate intraexaminer reliability of the measurements. Student′s t-test was performed to verify any statistical significant correlation between the labial and lingual appliance systems. Statistical differences were determined at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05. Results: The results showed that all ICC for lingual and labial group were ≥0.90 showing good repeatability of the measurements. Mean anchorage loss of 1.238 ± 0.17 mm in lingual appliance system and an anchorage loss of 2.06 ± 0.39 mm occurred with the labial appliance system. On the comparison between the two appliance systems, lingual appliance demonstrated a significantly lesser anchorage loss than did the labial appliance. Interpretation and Conclusion: This prospective study concludes with the fact that lingual appliance provided better anchorage control than labial appliance during space closure. Use of lingual appliance could be considered in critical anchorage cases when compared with labial appliance.

  2. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo Guimarães, Maria De Lourdes; Hermont, Ana Paula

    2014-05-01

    Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA) on the health and safety of workers. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents.

  3. Plastic profiled sealing element for household refrigeration appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, E; Robl, G

    1988-12-28

    A plastic profiled sealing element for household refrigeration appliances, such as freezers, refrigerators, and freezer compartments, includes a sealing bellows having a hose-shaped cross section. The sealing bellows is provided with two side walls and a covering wall, and is made of a plastic that has been set by means of a softener so as to be continuously flexible. Further, the profiled sealing element is provided with an anchor member made of a plastic of the same or different material hardness, with the sealing bellows and the anchor member being connected with one another to form a unit. The cross sections of the two side walls of the sealing bellows narrow as the side walls rise from the region of the connection of the side walls with the covering wall of the anchor member to approximately half the height of the sealing bellows, so that the side walls become increasingly thinner. Thereafter, the cross sections of the side walls increase again to the edges of the covering wall of the sealing bellows, until the side walls again reach approximately their initial cross sections. The side walls, on the one hand, and the covering wall, on the other hand, are kept flexible by means of softeners having different characteristics.

  4. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  5. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...

  6. 76 FR 36908 - Draft Competition Rules for a Global Appliance Efficiency Award for Televisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... and branding (currently under development) in their marketing, and the best of the regional winners..., particularly with regard to typical product production cycles and marketing/promotional needs; Proposed...

  7. 76 FR 55834 - Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee, Appliance Standards Subcommittee, Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... ensure a broad and balanced array of stakeholder interests and expertise on the negotiating working group..., fair to all parties, and in the public interest. All meetings are open to all stakeholders and the... #0;notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to...

  8. The benefit of the Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) for high-efficiency installations in industrial buildings; EIA maakt hr-apparatuur voor bedrijfsgebouwen voordelig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, A. [ed.

    1998-02-01

    Gas-fired condensing appliances for space heating of industrial buildings are more expensive than appliances that do not show a high efficiency. In many cases, however, it is still cheaper to invest in condensing appliances. Not only because of lower exploitation costs, but also because of the ISO-high-efficiency subsidy regulation (`ISO-hr`), the energy investment allowance (EIA) and the energy conservation fund. The technologies that are eligible for the EIA are listed in the `Energielijst` (energy list) for 1998

  9. Effect of material variation on the biomechanical behaviour of orthodontic fixed appliances: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Keilig, Ludger; Hasan, Istabrak; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Biomechanical analysis of orthodontic tooth movement is complex, as many different tissues and appliance components are involved. The aim of this finite element study was to assess the relative effect of material alteration of the various components of the orthodontic appliance on the biomechanical behaviour of tooth movement. A three-dimensional finite element solid model was constructed. The model consisted of a canine, a first, and a second premolar, including the surrounding tooth-supporting structures and fixed appliances. The materials of the orthodontic appliances were alternated between: (1) composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement for the adhesive, (2) steel, titanium, ceramic, or plastic for the bracket, and (3) β-titanium or steel for the wire. After vertical activation of the first premolar by 0.5mm in occlusal direction, stress and strain calculations were performed at the periodontal ligament and the orthodontic appliance. The finite element analysis indicated that strains developed at the periodontal ligament were mainly influenced by the orthodontic wire (up to +63 per cent), followed by the bracket (up to +44 per cent) and the adhesive (up to +4 per cent). As far as developed stresses at the orthodontic appliance are concerned, wire material had the greatest influence (up to +155 per cent), followed by bracket material (up to +148 per cent) and adhesive material (up to +8 per cent). The results of this in silico study need to be validated by in vivo studies before they can be extrapolated to clinical practice. According to the results of this finite element study, all components of the orthodontic fixed appliance, including wire, bracket, and adhesive, seem to influence, to some extent, the biomechanics of tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the quantitative effects of the pendulum appliance and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was 30 January 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 203 studies were identified for screening, and 25 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated four (16%) of the study as being of strong quality and 21 (84%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. The pendulum appliances showed mean molar distalization of 2-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 6.67° to 14.50° and anchorage loss with mean premolar and incisor mesial movement of 1.63-3.6 mm and 0.9-6.5 mm, respectively. The bone anchored pendulum appliances (BAPAs) showed mean molar distalization of 4.8-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 9° to 11.3° and mean premolar distalization of 2.7-5.4 mm. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances are effective in molar distalization. Pendulum appliance with K-loop modification, implant supported pendulum appliance and BAPA significantly reduced anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the molar teeth.

  11. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Part III. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eight Congress, Second Session, March 28 and August 2, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Part III of the hearing record contains the testimony of Peter Johnson, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator, and Energy Secretary Donald Hodel on the subject of BPA's contracts with the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) in which BPA will assume responsibility of WPPSS nuclear projects 1, 2, and 3. At issue was whether the contracts exceed BPA's authority and the protection of BPA's $1.9 billion invested in the projects. Johnson denied any secret agreements and emphasized that the intent was to preserve the assets for the federal government and federal power system. On the second hearing day, Hodel explained DOE's involvement in the agreements and its concurrence with BPA because of related litigation. An appendix with additional correspondence and statements submitted for the record follows the testimony

  12. Characterization of Gatewell Orifice Lighting at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse and Compendium of Research on Light Guidance with Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Simmons, Mary Ann

    2007-12-29

    The goal of the study described in this report is to provide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) biologists and engineers with general design guidelines for using artificial lighting to enhance the passage of juvenile salmonids into the collection channel at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2). During fall 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers measured light levels in the field at one powerhouse orifice through which fish must pass to reach the collection channel. Two light types were evaluated—light-emitting diode (LED) lights and halogen spot lights. Additional measurements with mercury lamps were made at the PNNL Aquatic Research Laboratory to determine baseline intensity of the current lighting. A separate chapter synthesizes the relevant literature related to light and fish guidance for both field and laboratory studies. PNNL will also review the Corps plans for existing lighting protocol at all of the Portland District projects and help develop a uniform lighting scheme which could be implemented. The specific objectives for this study are to 1. Create a synthesis report of existing lighting data for juvenile salmonid attraction and deterrence and how the data are used at fish bypass facilities. 2. Evaluate current B2 orifice lighting conditions with both LED and halogen sources. 3. Make recommendations as to what lighting intensity, source, and configuration would improve passage at the B2 orifices. 4. Review USACE plans for retrofit of existing systems (to be assessed at a later date).

  13. Interceptive Correction of Anterior Crossbite Using Short-Span Wire-Fixed Orthodontic Appliance: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagarajan M. P. Sockalingam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior crossbite is relatively a common presentation in the mixed dentition stage. If left untreated, it can lead to a host of problems and may complicate future orthodontic treatment. One of the major difficulties in performing anterior crossbite correction in young children is treatment compliance. In most cases, poor compliance is due to the unacceptability of the removable appliance used. This article describes three cases of successful correction of anterior crossbite of patients in mixed dentition using short-span wire-fixed orthodontic appliances. This sectional appliance provides an alternative method of correcting anterior crossbite of dental origin and offers many advantages compared to the use of removable appliances.

  14. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  15. Changes in the oral environment after placement of lingual and labial orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Ortan, Yildiz Öztürk; Gorgun, Özge; Panza, Chiara; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-11

    This study compared the oral hygiene and caries risk of patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances throughout a prospective evaluation of the status of the oral environment before and after bracket placement. A total of 20 orthodontic patients aged 19 to 23 years were included in the study and were divided into two groups: 10 patients wore Roth labial appliance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) and 10 patients wore STb lingual appliance (Ormco Corporation, Glendora, CA, USA). Plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), salivary flow rate, saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in saliva were determined at three time points: before orthodontic appliance placement (T0), 4 weeks after bonding (T1), and 8 weeks after bonding (T2). After appliance placement, all patients were periodically educated to the oral hygiene procedures. Wilcoxon rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine intragroup and intergroup differences as regards qualitative data. To compare quantitative data between the groups, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were undertaken, while intragroup differences were tested with McNemar test. The level of statistical significance was set at pappliance. The GBI value increased significantly between T0 and T1 but decreased significantly between T1 and T2 (pappliance. S. mutans counts increased significantly between T0 and T2 in the saliva samples of patients treated with lingual appliance. No statistically significant differences were found between S. mutans and Lactobacillus counts at the three terms of saliva collection in patients treated with labial appliance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups at the three time points as regards the salivary flow rate and saliva buffer capacity. Lingual and labial orthodontic appliances showed a different potential in modifying the investigated clinical parameters: patients wearing STb

  16. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  17. Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Fuziy, Acácio

    2006-04-01

    This prospective clinical study analyzed the distalization of maxillary molars achieved by the pendulum appliance and its effect on the anchorage teeth during and after fixed orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms of 22 adolescents (15 girls, 7 boys) taken pretreatment, after distalization, after leveling and aligning, and after fixed orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The initial mean age was 14.5 years (SD = 1.80). The mean time for distalization of the maxillary molars was 5.85 months (SD = 1.82), and the total treatment time was 3.61 years (SD = 1.83). The pendulum appliance moved the maxillary molars distally, but with significant distal inclination, protrusion of the anterior teeth, and increase in lower anterior facial height (LAFH) due to the clockwise mandibular rotation. After fixed orthodontic treatment, the maxillary incisors and the maxillary first premolars and first molars were returned to their pretreatment anteroposterior positions. Thus, at postdistalization, there was 2.1 mm of protrusion of the maxillary first molars, despite the anchorage reinforcement (Nance button and cervical headgear worn at night during fixed appliance therapy). However, at the end of treatment, all patients had Class I molar relationships. The pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic treatment corrected the Class II sagittal relationship, especially due to the dentoalveolar changes secondary to the spontaneous mandibular growth in the anterior direction during fixed appliance treatment.

  18. Measured results and assessment of personal protection appliances against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lijuan; Lin Zhikai; Cao Jisheng; Zhu Pei; Tang Haiying; Liu Baiqun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the protective qualities of personal protective appliances and to ensure the health and safety of radiological working personnel. Methods: The lead-equivalent thickness of personal protective appliances and materials was measured by means of standard lead slices. The lead equivalent thickness represents in terms of mm Pb. Results: 77 pieces of products and samples were measured altogether. The results indicate that the specific lead equivalents of lead-rubber plates were between 0.20-0.39 mm Pb/mm for 37 pieces of lead-rubber plates and the values of 6 pieces of samples were less than 0.25 mm Pb/mm, which did not accord with the requirement of the relational standard. 27 pieces of personal protection appliances were measured altogether. They were 12 pieces of protective clothes, 4 pieces of protective headgears, 5 pieces of protective neckpieces, 4 pieces of protective gloves and 2 pieces of protective masks. 13 pairs of lead-glass spectacles among them were measured altogether. The measured results for personal protective appliances and lead-glass spectacles showed that actually measured lead-equivalent were higher than the nominal lead-equivalent. Conclusions: The protective qualities are reliable for personal protection materials and appliances to be made in home and imported abroad. But the protective qualities of interventional protection gloves should be improved and made them better. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  20. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.