Sample records for bonin islands japan

  1. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis, a New Species of Shallow-Water Pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Northwest Pacific. (United States)

    Nakamura, Koichiro; Akiyama, Tadashi


    A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

  2. Petrology and Geochemistry of Boninite Series Volcanic Rocks,Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan

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    Dobson, Patrick F.; Blank, Jennifer G.; Maruyama, Shigenori; Liou, J.G.


    An Eocene submarine boninite series volcanic center isexposed on the island of Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan. Five rocktypes, boninite, bronzite andesite, dacite, quartz dacite, and rhyolite,were distinguished within the boninite volcanic sequence on the basis ofpetrographic and geochemical observations. Boninite lavas contain highmagnesium, nickel, and chromium contentsindicative of primitive melts,but have high silica contents relative to other mantle-derived magmas.All boninite series lavas contain very low incompatible elementconcentrations, and concentrations of high-field strength elements inprimitive boninite lavas are less than half of those found in depletedmid-ocean ridge basalts. Abundances of large-ion lithophile elements arerelatively high in boninite series lavas, similar to the enrichmentsobserved in many island arc lavas. Trends for both major and traceelement data suggest that the more evolved lavas of the boninite magmaseries were derived primarily through high-level fractionalcrystallization of boninite. Textural features, such as resorption andglomeroporphyrocrysts, and reverse chemical zonations suggest that magmamixing contributed to the development of the quartz dacitelavas.

  3. Stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan (United States)

    Dobson, P.F.; O'Neil, J.R.


    Measurements of stable isotope compositions and water contents of boninite series volcanic rocks from the island of Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan, confirm that a large amount (1.6-2.4 wt.%) of primary water was present in these unusual magmas. An enrichment of 0.6??? in 18O during differentiation is explained by crystallization of 18O-depleted mafic phases. Silicic glasses have elevated ??18O values and relatively low ??D values indicating that they were modified by low-temperature alteration and hydration processes. Mafic glasses, on the other hand, have for the most part retained their primary isotopic signatures since Eocene time. Primary ??D values of -53 for boninite glasses are higher than those of MORB and suggest that the water was derived from subducted oceanic lithosphere. ?? 1987.

  4. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan. (United States)

    Tani, Naoki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Hoshi, Yoshio; Nobushima, Fuyuo; Yasui, Takaya


    Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  5. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan

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    Nobushima Fuyuo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Results Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. Conclusion The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a

  6. Sequence of deep-focus earthquakes beneath the Bonin Islands identified by the NIED nationwide dense seismic networks Hi-net and F-net (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Shiomi, Katsuhiko


    An M 6.8 ( Mw 6.5) deep-focus earthquake occurred beneath the Bonin Islands at 21:18 (JST) on June 23, 2015. Observed high-frequency (>1 Hz) seismograms across Japan, which contain several sets of P- and S-wave arrivals for the 10 min after the origin time, indicate that moderate-to-large earthquakes occurred sequentially around Japan. Snapshots of the seismic energy propagation illustrate that after one deep-focus earthquake occurred beneath the Sea of Japan, two deep-focus earthquakes occurred sequentially after the first ( Mw 6.5) event beneath the Bonin Islands in the next 4 min. The United States Geological Survey catalog includes three Bonin deep-focus earthquakes with similar hypocenter locations, but their estimated magnitudes are inconsistent with seismograms from across Japan. The maximum-amplitude patterns of the latter two earthquakes were similar to that of the first Bonin earthquake, which indicates similar locations and mechanisms. Furthermore, based on the ratios of the S-wave amplitudes to that of the first event, the magnitudes of the latter events are estimated as M 6.5 ± 0.02 and M 5.8 ± 0.02, respectively. Three magnitude-6-class earthquakes occurred sequentially within 4 min in the Pacific slab at 480 km depth, where complex heterogeneities exist within the slab.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Progressive enrichment of arc magmas caused by the subduction of seamounts under Nishinoshima volcano, Izu-Bonin Arc, Japan (United States)

    Sano, Takashi; Shirao, Motomaro; Tani, Kenichiro; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Fujii, Toshitsugu


    The chemical composition of intraplate seamounts is distinct from normal seafloor material, meaning that the subduction of seamounts at a convergent margin can cause a change in the chemistry of the mantle wedge and associated arc magmas. Nishinoshima, a volcanic island in the Izu-Bonin Arc of Japan, has been erupting continuously over the past 2 years, providing an ideal opportunity to examine the effect of seamount subduction on the chemistry of arc magmas. Our research is based on the whole-rock geochemistry and the chemistry of minerals within lavas and air-fall scoria from Nishinoshima that were erupted before 1702, in 1973-1974, and in 2014. The mineral phases within the analyzed samples crystallized under hydrous conditions (H2O = 3-4 wt.%) at temperatures of 970 °C-990 °C in a shallow (3-6 km depth) magma chamber. Trace element data indicate that the recently erupted Nishinoshima volcanics are much less depleted in the high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) than other volcanics within the Izu-Bonin Arc. In addition, the level of enrichment in the Nishinoshima magmas has increased in recent years, probably due to the addition of material from HIMU-enriched (i.e., high Nb/Zr and Ta/Hf) seamounts on the Pacific Plate, which is being subducted westwards beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. This suggests that the chemistry of scoria from Nishinoshima volcano records the progressive addition of components derived from subducted seamounts.

  8. Aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Bonin Islands normal-faulting earthquake: Implication for deformation of the Pacific Plate (United States)

    Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; No, T.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.; Sato, T.; Noguchi, N.; Nakamura, T.


    A Mw 7.4 normal-faulting earthquake occurred 150 km east of Chichi-jima Island, Bonin Islands, Japan on December 21, 2010 (UTC). This is an earthquake occurred within the Pacific plate beneath the outer trench-slope region along the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. According to Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the associated tsunami was observed over a wide area along the Pacific coast of Japan. Normal faulting earthquakes in outer trench-slope region are a result of the bending of the incoming/subducting oceanic plates. The bending-related normal faults cutting the oceanic plate are likely associated with hydration of the oceanic plate prior to subduction [e.g., Ranero et al., 2003]. The normal faulting earthquakes can be a key to understand deformation and resulting hydration of the oceanic plate. That is also important for consideration of tsunami generation in shallow outer trench-slope region. Aftershock observation of the 2010 Bonin Islands earthquake were conducted by R/V Kairei of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs). First OBS was deployed in the source area on December 25, 2010 and retrieved on January 7, 2011. Other 4 OBSs were deployed on January 6 and 7 and retrieved on March 11 and 12, 2011. Overall aftershocks distributed in a 130 km long area extended in a NW-SE direction although Izu-Bonin trench extends N-S direction in this area. Most of the aftershocks were located at depths shallower than 30 km, corresponding to the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle of the Pacific plate. The aftershocks show a complicated distribution. In the central part of the aftershock area, aftershocks formed three subparallel lines with roughly 15 km intervals oriented NW-SE direction. In the southeastern part of the aftershock area away from the trench, the aftershocks distributed along ESE-WNW direction. We estimated aftershock

  9. Threatened pollination systems in native flora of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. (United States)

    Abe, Tetsuto


    Various alien species have been introduced to the Ogasawara Islands (Japan). A survey was made investigating whether the native pollination systems fit an 'island syndrome' (biasing the flora to dioecy, with subdued, inconspicuous flowers) and whether alien species have disrupted the native pollination network. Flower visitors and floral traits were determined in the field (12 islands) and from the literature. Associations among floral traits such as sexual expression, flower colour and flower shape were tested. Among the 269 native flowering plants, 74.7 % are hermaphroditic, 13.0 % are dioecious and 7.1 % are monoecious. Classification by flower colour revealed that 36.0 % were white, 21.6 % green and 13.8 % yellow. Woody species (trees and shrubs) comprised 36.5 % of the flora and were associated with dioecy and white flowers. Solitary, endemic small bees were the dominant flower visitors and visited 66.7 % of the observed species on satellite islands where the native pollination networks are preserved. In contrast to the situation on the satellite islands, introduced honeybees were the most dominant pollinator (visiting 60.1 % of observed species) on the two main islands, Chichi-jima and Haha-jima, and had spread to satellite islands near Chichi-jima Island. The island syndrome for pollination systems in the Ogasawara Islands was evident in a high percentage of dioecious species, the subdued colour of the native flora and solitary flower visitors on satellite islands. The shape and colour adaptations of several flowers suggested native pollination niches for long-proboscis moths and carpenter bees. However, the domination and expansion of introduced honeybees have the potential for disruption of the native pollination network in the two main, and several satellite, islands of the Ogasawara Islands.

  10. 3-D simulation of temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern and evolution of the plate boundary around the Kanto Region of Japan due to the collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Furuya, H.; Tsumura, N.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.


    The Kanto region of Japan is in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands, which is considered to be a significant effect on the tectonics of Kanto. To reveal the present crustal structure and the present internal stress fields in such a complex tectonic setting, it is essential to comprehend them through the long-term tectonic evolution process. In this study, we estimate the temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern along with the geometry of the plate boundary around Kanto by numerical simulation with a kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend because of its buoyancy. This can be represented by giving slip-rate deficit. When crustal deformation occurs, it also causes change in geometry of the plate boundary itself. This geometry change sensitively affects mechanical interaction at the plate boundary. Then the renewed plate-to-plete interaction alters crustal deformation rates. This feedback system has a large effect on collision zones. Indeed, the plate boundary around the Izu peninsula, the northernmost end of the Izu-Bonin arc, intends landward as large as 100 km. Iterating this effect sequentially

  11. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.


    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (plate geometry with longer

  12. Sub Moho boundary beneath island arc, Japan (United States)

    Iidaka, T.; Igarashi, T.; Lee, C.; Iwasaki, T.; Niu, F.


    Moho is a seismic boundary discovered by Mohorovicic in 1909. It is generally considered as the boundary between Earth"fs crust and mantle, although the origin of the Moho and the definition of the crust-mantle boundary are still debated. Regardless whether it represents a phase or chemical boundary, it has been investigated world wide by seismologists since its discovery. Reflection/refraction data acquired from active sources were the main sources of the investigation. Recently, receiver function analysis provided an emerging tool for mapping this boundary below a seismic station. Since reflection/refraction data sample P- wave structure while receiver-function data are basically sensitive to S-wave velocity, a comparison of the two can provide better constraints on the composition of the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. In this study, we used receiver function data to determine subsurface boundaries. Receiver functions are calculated from teleseismic records of a borehole seismic network in Japan, the Hi-net, which covers the entire Japan with a 20-km station spacing. We used the multi-taper deconvolution method to generate individual receiver functions and a common-conversion-point gathering method for stacking the receiver functions. Results along several profiles where seismic refraction surveys have been conducted in the past were selected for comparison. We found remarkable difference between southwestern and central/northeastern Japan. In southwestern Japan both receiver function and refraction data yield a consistent and distinct Moho at around 35 km. In central and northeastern Japan, however, receiver function images reveal two P-to-S conversion events at approximately 30 km and 40 km, respectively. The shallow 30-km deep boundary is consistent with the refraction Moho. The deep boundary (sub-Moho) is about 10 km deeper than the refraction Moho boundary. The uppermost mantle seismic structure at central and northeastern Japan was known to be

  13. Mantle discontinuities beneath Izu-Bonin and the implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧绍先; 周元泽; 蒋志勇


    The SdP, pdP and sdP phases are picked up with the Nth root slant stack method from the digital waveform data recorded by the networks and arrays in USA, Germany and Switzerland for the earthquakes occurring beneath Izu-Bonin and Japan Sea. The mantle discontinuities and the effects of subducting slab on the 660 km and 410 km discontinuities are studied. It is found that there are mantle discontinuities existing at the depths of 170, 220, 300, 410, 660, 850 and 1150 km. Beneath Izu-Bonin, the 410 km discontinuity is elevated, while the 660 km discontinuity is depressed; for both discontinuities, there are regionalized differences. Beneath Japan Sea, however, there is no depth variation of the 410 km discontinuity, and the 660 km discontinuity is depressed without obvious effect of the subducting slab.

  14. The geological characteristics during the quaternary period around Japan island

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    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Corp., Enterprises Promotion Bureau, Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope facilities and nuclear research facilities should be disposed of in the surface of the earth, the shallow underground, the adequate depth and the deep underground according to radioactivity concentrations, and should be managed during several hundreds years. The earth scientific phenomena observed in Japan island at present occurred continuously from the past, and the same phenomena at the future should occur in the similar factor. Therefore, for the purpose to get the fundamental data for the selection of disposal site, this report reviewed on the genesis and classification of the sediments, earth scientific phenomena observed in Japan island and the feature of each place (10 districts) concerning to the Quaternary period in the newest geological time unit. (author)

  15. Two New Species of the Genus Theridion (Araneae: Theridiidae) from the Yaeyama Islands and Haha-jima Island of the Bonin Islands, Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    吉田, 哉


    八重山諸島および小笠原諸島母島産のヒメグモ科ヒメグモ属に属する2新種を, Theridion yaeyamense sp. nov. (八重山諸島) ヤエヤマヒメグモ (新称), Theridion ogasawarense sp. nov. (小笠原母島) オガサワラヒメグモ(新称) の名前で記載した....

  16. Innovation in island ecotourism in different contexts: Yakushima (Japan and Tahiti and its Islands

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    Anne-Marie d’Hauteserre


    Full Text Available This article examines whether the future of tourism in island destinations lies in more and continued innovation on the part of all stakeholders so tourists will consider the extra expense of travelling a worthwhile investment. Islands have long been icons as tourism destinations. However, established destination images can cause a lack in adaptability to changing markets. Though located in different parts of the world and seeking different markets most island destinations would benefit from innovative strategies and products to enhance their attractiveness to high yield visitors. The article uses two examples to analyse the innovative forms that have been adopted in island destinations in the hope they could become models or encourage imitation by other destinations. Two aspects of innovation are discussed. New imaginary can creatively and innovatively (re-imagine representations; sustainability could be an important innovative pursuit, which requires new narratives for continued tourism growth. These concepts are applied next to the island of Yakushima in Japan and Tahiti and its Islands to determine the main innovative elements used or required to jumpstart the attractiveness of island destinations, though it is recognized that implementation is complex.

  17. The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Hoskins, Brian J.; Matsuda, Yoshihisa


    The Bonin high is a subtropical anticyclone that is predominant near Japan in the summer. This anticyclone is associated with an equivalent-barotropic structure, often extending throughout the entire troposphere. Although the equivalent-barotropic structure of the Bonin high has been known for years among synopticians because of its importance to the summer climate in east Asia, there are few dynamical explanations for such a structure. The present paper attempts to provide a formation mechanism for the deep ridge near Japan. We propose a new hypothesis that this equivalent-barotropic ridge near Japan is formed as a result of the propagation of stationary Rossby waves along the Asian jet in the upper troposphere ('the Silk Road pattern'). First, the monthly mean climatology is examined in order to demonstrate this hypothesis. It is shown that the enhanced Asian jet in August is favourable for the propagation of stationary Rossby waves and that the regions of descent over the eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Aral Sea act as two major wave sources. Second, a primitive-equation model is used to simulate the climatology of August. The model successfully simulates the Bonin high with an equivalent-barotropic structure. The upper-tropospheric ridge is found to be enhanced by a height anomaly of more than 80 m at 200 hPa, when a wave packet arrives. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to show that the removal of the diabatic cooling over the Asian jet suppresses the Silk Road pattern and formation of an equivalent-barotropic ridge near Japan, while the removal of the diabatic heating in the western Pacific does not.

  18. Reconstruction of Paleoclimate using stalagmite on Ishigaki-Island, Japan (United States)

    Kayama, Y.; Sakai, S.; Okamoto, K.


    It has been known that stalagmites are one of the best tools to reconstruct the on land paleoclimate. Stalagmites have annual bands such as a tree rings. The bands are composed of carbonate grown from droplet on the top surface of the stalagmites. Oxygen isotope from carbonate grown in the stalagmites is useful to estimate paleo-temperatures. The oxygen and carbon isotope are inverse correlation to those of rain falls. Therefore, paleoclimate can be reconstructed from annual variation of temperature change in past millions of years in better case. In the present study, we have collected stalagmites from the limestone cave beneath a construction area for new airport in Ishigaki Island, Japan. The Ishigaki Island is located in close to the southwestern extinction of Japanese Island. It is in sub-tropical area, and it is rainy compared to other areas in Japan. The cave is composed of Quaternary limestone. Just after we had collected the stalagmites, oldest Japanese bones were found in the cave. Age of the bones has been estimated as 20,000 years old. Therefore, it can be estimated the paleoclimate change from Ice age to inter Ice age. Origin of Japanese can be discussed in detail based on the present research. We had cut the stalagmites along the longitude, and have selected the best specimens in which has a flat growth surfaces, representing homogeneous precipitation for elements and growth on the surface. The specimens which have recrystallization and contamination with mud-water, were rejected. Isotope variation in single band, were seriously examined (Hendy test) because isotope homogeneity was operated by precipitation of carbonate in equilibrium condition. U-Th age data were determined from bottom of the stalagmite, indicating 13,585±2,778 years ago, respectively. Thus, from the study, it will be possible to reconstruct climate change at the Younger Dryas period (12,900 ~ 11,500 years ago) because growth direction seams to be changed at this time according to

  19. Japan. (United States)


    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  20. Japan. (United States)


    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  1. Petrochemical Results for Volcanic Rocks recovered from SHINKAI 6500 diving on the Bonin Ridge (27°15'N-28°25'N): submarine extension of Ogasawara forearc volcanism (United States)

    Bloomer, S. H.; Kimura, J.; Stern, R. J.; Ohara, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Haraguchi, S.; Machida, S.; Reagan, M.; Kelley, K.; Hargrove, U.; Wortel, M.; Li, Y. B.


    Four SHINKAI 6500 submersible dives (dive #823 to #826) were performed along the Bonin Ridge escarpment west of Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands in the West Pacific during May 2004, in the hopes of finding exposures of lower crust of the IBM forearc. The Ogasawara Islands are located on the Bonin ridge, exposing 48-40 Ma boninites on Chichi-jima and depleted arc tholeiite lavas of the same age on Haha-jima. These extremely depleted lavas are believed to have been generated when subduction began beneath the Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc system. Subsequent rifting (35-30 Ma) formed the Bonin Trough and a 350 km long N-S trending eastern escarpment (Bonin Ridge), where we concentrated our dives. We observed lavas and volcaniclastic sequences by the four SHINKAI dives along the escarpment, and 16 fresh basaltic to andesitic lava samples have been recovered. The first three dives appear to have sampled volcanic constructs, of presumed Oligocene age, along the escarpment, whereas the last dive sampled exposures similar to Eocene rocks of the Bonin islands, including nummulitic limestone. The lava samples were analyzed by ICP-MS at Shimane University for 30 incompatible trace elements. All samples show arc-like chemical signatures, including elevated concentrations of LIL elements, depletions in Ta and Nb, and spikes in Pb, Sr, and Li. All samples show modest enrichments in LREE. A lava sample from the northernmost dive #824 is identical with the depleted tholeiite from Haha-jima Islands at the southernmost end of the Bonin Ridge in terms of trace element characteristics. Other lava samples from northern three dives (#823, #824, #825) have tholeiitic affinities with more elevated highly incompatible elements. This suggests derivation of the series of lavas by different degree of partial melting of a similar source mantle. Samples from southernmost dive site #826, immediately northwest of Chichi-jima Islands, are boninites with U-shaped REE patterns and relatively enriched Zr and

  2. Detection of avian Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences from mosquitoes captured in Minami Daito Island of Japan. (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Sasaki, Emi; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko; Matsui, Shin; Horie, Sayaka; Akatani, Kana; Takagi, Masaoki; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi


    Several species of birds in Minami Daito Island, an oceanic island located in the far south from the main islands of Japan, were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, no vector species of the avian malaria in this island have been revealed yet. To speculate potential vectors, we collected mosquitoes there and investigated using a PCR procedure whether the mosquitoes harbor avian malaria or not. Totally 1,264 mosquitoes including 9 species were collected during March 2006 to February 2007. The mosquitoes collected were stored every species, sampled date and location for DNA extraction. Fifteen out of 399 DNA samples showed positive for the partial mtDNA cytb gene of avian Plasmodium. Estimated minimum infection rate among collected mosquitoes was 1.2% in this study. Four species of mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Lutzia fuscanus and Mansonia sp. had avian Plasmodium gene sequences. Detected DNA sequences from A. albopictus and L. fuscanus were identical to an avian Plasmodium lineage detected in bull-headed shrike (Lanius bucephalus) captured in the island. Different sequences were detected from C. quinquefasciatus, which were corresponding to an avian Plasmodium from a sparrow (Passer montanus) and Plasmodium gallinaceum. Our results suggest that A. albopictus, Lutzia fuscanus, C. quinquefasciatus, and Mansonia sp. could be potential vectors of avian malaria in Minami Daito Island. This study was the first report of molecular detection of avian Plasmodium from mosquitoes in Japan.

  3. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko


    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  4. Chikungunya Fever in Japan Imported from the Caribbean Islands. (United States)

    Imai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Eri; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Mitarai, Aoi; Honma, Yasuko; Miyake, Satoru; Kaku, Koki; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko


    A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean islands presented with a high-grade fever and severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR and serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer and immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months and the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean islands. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis and have a history of travel to an endemic area.

  5. Contamination status and spatial distribution of organochlorine compounds in fishes from Nansei Islands, Japan. (United States)

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Two species of fishes (n=52; tilapia and mullet) from industrialized and urbanized areas of Okinawa Island (Manko-Noha river, Hija river and Shikaza river) and from a remote area of Ishigaki Island (Anparu mudflat), Japan were collected between August 2005 and July 2006, and analyzed for five organochlorine compounds (OCs), viz., DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. Concentrations and the contamination patterns of OCs in fishes varied between locations. Considerable residue levels of OCs, especially CHLs and DDTs were found in both fishes from the main Okinawa Island. These levels were relatively higher than the reported values for seafood from Japanese coasts, indicating that even now pollution sources of these contaminants still exist in this region. On the other hand, lower concentrations of OCs were detected in fishes from Ishigaki Island waters than those of other Japanese coastal waters, suggesting that this region is less contaminated by OC contaminants.

  6. Factors restricting the range expansion of the invasive green anole Anolis carolinensis on Okinawa Island, Japan. (United States)

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Morita, Kenjiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Mori, Hideaki; Abe, Shintaro; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado


    The green anole Anolis carolinensis invaded the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, drove various native species to extinction, and its distribution expanded 14 years after initial establishment. A. carolinensis invaded Okinawa Island, but it has not expanded its distribution in more than 25 years, although its density is extremely high in the southern region. To determine whether A. carolinensis has the potential to expand its distribution on Okinawa Island, we performed phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND2 DNA sequences to study the origin of A. carolinensis that invaded Okinawa Island. We further used a species distribution model (MaxEnt) based on the distribution of native populations in North America to identify ecologically suitable areas on Okinawa Island. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the invader A. carolinensis originated in the western part of the Gulf Coast and inland areas of the United States and that a portion of the anoles on Okinawa was not introduced via the Ogasawara Islands. The MaxEnt predictions indicate that most areas in Okinawa Island are suitable for A. carolinensis. Therefore, A. carolinensis may have the potential to expand its distribution in Okinawa Island. The predictions indicate that habitat suitability is high in areas of high annual mean temperature and urbanized areas. The values of precipitation in summer in the northern region of Okinawa Island were higher compared with those of North America, which reduced the habitat suitability in Okinawa Island. Adaptation to low temperatures, an increase in the mean temperature through global warming, and an increase in open environments through land development will likely expand the distribution of A. carolinensis in Okinawa Island. Therefore, we must continue to monitor the introduced populations and be alert to the possibility that city planning that increases open environments may cause their range to expand.

  7. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto


    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  8. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in paragneiss from Oki-Dogo Island, western Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TSUTSUMI, Yukiyasu; YOKOYAMA, Kazumi; HORIE, Kenji; TERADA, Kentaro; HIDAKA, Hiroshi


    We obtained the radiometric ages of detrital zircons from two samples of paragneiss from Oki-Dogo Island, Japan, from the 238U/206Pb ratio and isotopic composition of Pb determined using a Sensitive...

  9. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in paragneiss from Oki-Dogo Island, western Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TSUTSUMI, Yukiyasu; YOKOYAMA, Kazumi; HORIE, Kenji; TERADA, Kentaro; HIDAKA, Hiroshi


      We obtained the radiometric ages of detrital zircons from two samples of paragneiss from Oki-Dogo Island, Japan, from the 238U/206Pb ratio and isotopic composition of Pb determined using a Sensitive...

  10. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae). (United States)

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha


    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  11. Island-Arc Collision Dominates Japan's Sediment Flux to the Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Codilean, A. T.; Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Matsushi, Y.; Saito, H.; Matsuzaki, H.


    Quantifying volumes and rates of delivery of terrestrial sediment to subduction zones is indispensable for refining estimates of the thickness of trench fills that may eventually control the location and timing of submarine landslides and tsunami-generating mega-earthquakes. Despite these motivating insights, knowledge about the rates of erosion and sediment export from the Japanese islands to their Pacific subduction zones has somewhat stagnated despite the increasing availability of highly resolved data on surface deformation, climate, geology, and topography. Traditionally, natural erosion rates across the island arc have been estimated from catchment topographic predictors of reservoir sedimentation rates that were recorded over several years to decades. We correct for a systematic bias in these predictions, and present new estimates of decadal to millennial-scale erosion rates of the Japanese terrestrial inner forearc, drawing on several unprecedented inventories of mass wasting, reservoir sedimentation, and concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in river sands. Our data reveal that catchments draining Japan's eastern seaboard have distinctly different tectonic, lithological, topographic, and climatic characteristics, underscored by a marked asymmetric pattern of erosion rates along and across the island arc. Erosion rates are highest in the Japanese Alps that mark the collision of two subduction zones, where high topographic relief, hillslope and bedrock-channel steepness foster rapid denudation by mass wasting. Comparable, if slightly lower, rates characterize southwest Japan, most likely due to higher typhoon-driven rainfall totals and variability rather than the similarly high relief and contemporary uplift rates that are linked to subduction earthquake cycles, and outpace long-term Quaternary uplift. In contrast, our estimated erosion and flux rates are lowest in the inner forearc catchments that feed sediment into the Japan Trench. We conclude that

  12. The History of Research and Development Islands Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr B. Kosolapov


    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the discovery, research and development of the islands of Russian pioneers in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan from the middle of the XIX century. The paper used in scientific papers and journalistic materials researchers Islands Peter the Great Bay, unpublished sources: Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East, Primorsky Region State Archives, Archives of Primorsky regional department of the All-Russian public organization "Russian Geographical Society" Society for the Study of the Amur region. The methodological basis of the work was the principle of historicism and objectivity, allowed to consider the issue of research and development of the islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great on a broad documentary basis in the process of development in the specific historical conditions. The history of hydrographic discoveries of natural and geographical studies. It touches upon the issues concerning the construction of Vladivostok fortress. In the periodical press materials recreated pages agricultural and industrial development of the islands. Examples of business entrepreneurs first edge (A.D. Startsev, M.I. Jankowski, O.V. Lindgolm. The Toponymic notes link the island territories with the names of their discoverers, explorers, industrialists. The authors conclude that the historical conditionality of development of the islands is linked mainly with the military interests of Russia on its southeastern edge, using the resources of the sea and the unique natural conditions suitable for the development of agricultural, industrial, recreation and tourism.

  13. Strontium isotopic ratios of the volcanic rocks from Dogo of the Oki Islands, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasawa, Hajime


    The isotopic composition of strontium and the abundances of rubidium and strontium in volcanic rocks from Dogo of the Oki Islands and Takashima in the northwest Kyushu, West Japan, and Ulrungdo of Korea, have been determined. The rubidium and strontium contents for alkakine basalts range from 27.6 to 51.2 ppm and 444 to 723 ppm, and 148 to 208 ppm and 3.7 to 205 ppm for intermediate to felsic suites, respectively. The alkaline basalts are divided into two groups with /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of the restricted ranges of 0.70481 - 0.70496 and 0.70540 - 0.70575, respectively. However, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of intermediate to felsic rocks of Dogo are relatively high and variable ranging from 0.70706 to 0.71019, which probably reflect the contamination and/or produced by body or partial melting of the basement rocks in this area without crustal assimilation of basaltic magma. In addition, the lead isotopic results indicate that the melting of Precambrian basement rocks possibly yields less radiogenic lead. In the southwest Japan, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of Cenozoic basaltic rocks are clearly different between the San-in and the northwest Kyushu regions, which includes Jeju island. The higher /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of basalts from the San-in region than that of basalts from the northwest Kyushu region also reflect the different properties of the upper mantle, which means there is regional heterogeneity of Sr isotopic ratios under the southwest Japan arcs. Furthermore, the relatively high and variable /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of volcanic rocks are particularly concentrated in the southwestern Japan arcs which has probably more continental properties than northeastern Japan arcs.

  14. Science education in Elementary school by using of "Geopark", Oki Islands, Japan (United States)

    Oku, S.; Matsumoto, I.


    The Oki islands are located at Japan sea coast side of southwest Japan and belonging to Shimane Prefecture. And there is rich Nature which is consist of mainly alkaline volcanic rocks and metamorphic rocks. Aiming at authorization "Geopark" authorization of Oki Islands, Geologist, Biologist, and residents of Oki Islands are doing investigation and advertisement. Promotion of the science education which utilized the precious Nature, or environmental education is very important in the viewpoint of the science literacy which can protect a Nature and the earth. In this presentation, we mainly propose activity at an elementary school about how to advance the science education by using of this precious Nature. Children learn about the geology which constitutes the ground, and its petro-genesis in the Science of the sixth grade of elementary school. The viewpoint of having been formed by volcano, Earthquake, etc, in long global time is important for the precious and beautiful geology which constitutes the ground. It is at the same time important for a global change to teach also about often doing serious damage to human beings or a living thing with an Earthquake, a volcano, tsunami, etc. That is, we can push (teaching beautiful geology and a precious living thing using "Geopark"), and can learn about the blessing and disaster of a Nature. Moreover, teaching materials and teaching tools like a local textbook or a signboard with which a teacher and a resident can teach them to a child are required.

  15. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  16. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana). (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi


    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  17. Effect of groundwater recycle system on nitrate load distribution in an agricultural island, Japan (United States)

    Bai, J.; Onodera, S. I.; Jin, G.; Saito, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Matsumori, K.


    As one of the major elements for crops, nitrogen directly affects the agricultural production. However, the excess application of fertilizers leads to a lot of environmental problems such as groundwater and surface water contamination. Especially, groundwater contamination by nitrate (NO3-) has been an important issue in agriculture areas. Ikuchijima Island, located on the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan is one of the most famous and important agricultural island in Japan, with citrus groves cover 42% of the island. Groundwater is one of important water resources in the area because of low annual rainfall and relatively high risk of drought in the area. To maintain and improve crop yields, nitrogen fertilizer is applied over the whole year at a rate of 2,400 kg ha-1 yr-1. Consequently, most of the groundwater of the agricultural area are significantly contaminated by NO3-, and are considered in "eutrophic" condition. Therefore, the recycle of high NO3- groundwater to the irrigation on the catchment scale is effective strategy for saving both fertilizer usage and groundwater resource in the area. In this study, we estimated nitrogen load from the catchments in Ikuchijima Island using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Especially, we tried to simulate the effect of reducing fertilizer application on nitrogen load assumed the recycle of NO3- in groundwater. The results showed that NO3- loads were highest near the coastal areas, which is related to the distribution of citrus farms. 42% of nitrogen load was from citrus farms in the north region of the island, and it ups to 60 % in the south region. It indicates fertilizer is the major source of nitrogen load in the island. Higher average nitrogen loadings also occurred in high density of residential area. The total nitrogen load from whole island was estimated to be 82507kg/year when the annual nitrogen fertilizer application is 240kg/ha/year. However, it decreased to 42548kg/year when the fertilizer

  18. Sessile Organisms on PVC Panels in the Waters around a Coral Reef of Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, Immediately after the Catastrophic Coral Bleaching in 1998


    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Takada, Yoshitake; Shibuno, Takuro


    Sessile organisms on PVC panels suspended inside and outside coral reef at Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, was monitored for 20 days just after the wide-spread incident of coral bleaching in September, 1998. The settlement of a total of 16 species of algae and invertebrates was recorded. Generally, Enteromorpha sp. (Chlorophyceae) dominated the panels. The percentage area cover, number of species, biomass and algal growth were significantly greater in waters outside the reef.

  19. Sessile Organisms on PVC Panels in the Waters around a Coral Reef of Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, Immediately after the Catastrophic Coral Bleaching in 1998


    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Takada, Yoshitake; Shibuno, Takuro


    Sessile organisms on PVC panels suspended inside and outside coral reef at Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, was monitored for 20 days just after the wide-spread incident of coral bleaching in September, 1998. The settlement of a total of 16 species of algae and invertebrates was recorded. Generally, Enteromorpha sp. (Chlorophyceae) dominated the panels. The percentage area cover, number of species, biomass and algal growth were significantly greater in waters outside the reef.

  20. Ecological study of avian malaria vectors on the island of Minami-Daito, Japan. (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Matsui, Shin; Saito, Atsushi; Akatani, Kana; Sato, Yukita; Takagi, Masaoki; Murata, Koichi


    The seasonal prevalence and spatial distribution of mosquitoes were examined as part of an avian malaria study on the oceanic island of Minami-Daito Island, Japan. Because dry ice was not available in this study, yeast-generated CO2 was used to attract biting mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected biweekly using battery-operated traps enhanced with yeast-generated CO2 and a gravid trap from March 2006 to February 2007. The CO2-baited traps were distributed in 4 different habitats: sugar cane field, forest and vegetation ring, residential area, and swamp area. At 3 collection sites beside sugar cane fields, traps were fixed at 2 different heights (3 and 6 m above the ground). A total of 1,437 mosquitoes of the following 9 species were collected: Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus, Coquillettidia sp., Mansonia uniformis, Culex rubithoracis, Armigeres subalbatus, Lutzia fuscanus, Aedes daitensis, and Aedes togoi. Among them, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. albopictus, and Coquillettidia sp. were dominant. The high density and wide distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the island suggested the importance of this species as a principal vector of avian malaria on the island.

  1. Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, Y. [Osaka University (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Engineering


    Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5{sup o}C, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

  2. Heterogeneous stress state of island arc crust in northeastern Japan affected by hot mantle fingers (United States)

    Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Okada, Tomomi; Muto, Jun; Matsumoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Yoshida, Keisuke


    By considering a thermal structure based on dense geothermal observations, we model the stress state of the crust beneath the northeastern Japan island arc under a compressional tectonic regime using a finite element method with viscoelasticity and elastoplasticity. We consider a three-layer structure (upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle) to define flow properties. Numerical results show that the brittle-viscous transition becomes shallower beneath the Ou Backbone Range compared with areas near the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea. Moreover, several elongate regions with a shallow brittle-viscous transition are oriented transverse to the arc, and these regions correspond to hot fingers (i.e., high-temperature regions in the mantle wedge). The stress level is low in these regions due to viscous deformation. Areas of seismicity roughly correspond to zones of stress accumulation where many intraplate earthquakes occur. Our model produces regions with high uplift rates that largely coincide with regions of high elevation (e.g., the Ou Backbone Range). The stress state, fault development, and uplift around the Ou Backbone Range can all be explained by our model. The results also suggest the existence of low-viscosity regions corresponding to hot fingers in the island arc crust. These low-viscosity regions have possibly affected viscous relaxation processes following the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

  3. Job and life satisfaction and preference of future practice locations of physicians on remote islands in Japan. (United States)

    Nojima, Yoshiaki; Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kiyoshi


    The objective of this research is to investigate job and life satisfaction and preference of future practice locations of physicians in rural and remote islands in Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted for physicians who reside or resided on the Oki islands: isolated islands situated in the Sea of Japan between the Eurasian continent and the mainland of Japan. A questionnaire was sent to physicians on the Oki islands to evaluate physician satisfaction regarding job environment, career development, living conditions, salary, and support by local government. Data was analysed for 49 physicians; 47 were male and 2 were female, and the mean ± SD age was 44.3 ± 10.9 years. Among the variables related to physicians' satisfaction, most of the physicians (>90%) were satisfied with "team work" and "salary". On the other hand, the majority of physicians (approximately 70%) were not satisfied with the "opportunity to continue professional development". Age ≥ 50 years, graduates of medical schools other than Jichi Medical University (established in 1972 with the aim to produce rural physicians), self-selected the Oki islands as a practice location, and satisfaction in "work as a doctor", "opportunity to consult with peers about patients", "relationship with people in the community", and "acceptance by community" were found to be significant factors influencing the choice of the Oki islands as a future practice location. Factors influencing future practice locations on the remote islands were included in a self-reported questionnaire which illustrated the importance of factors that impact both the spouses and children of physicians. Improving work satisfaction, providing outreach support programmes for career development and professional support in rural practice, and building appropriate relationships between physicians and people in the community, which can in turn improve work satisfaction, may contribute to physicians' choices of practising medicine on rural and

  4. Lateral variation of differential stress in the uppermost mantle across the island arc of southwest Japan (United States)

    Toriumi, Mitsuhiro


    The dislocation density and the subgrain size of olivine in peridotite xenoliths in southwest Japan were investigated in order to draw out the lateral variation of the differential stress in the upper mantle of the island arc. Alkali basaltic and andesitic dykes including peridotite xenoliths of Dogo, Kikuma, and Shingu are situated about 200 km behind the Nankai Trough, and those of Oki-Dogo and Takashima located at the portions 400-500 km apart from the trough. The mean dislocation densities of olivine are 2 × 10 6 cm -2 for Oki-Dogo, 8 × 10 6 cm -2 for Takashima, 1 × 10 7 cm -2 for Hamada, 5 × 10 7 cm -2 for Aratoyama, 4 × 10 7 cm -2 for Kikuma, 3 × 10 7 cm -2 for Dogo, and 5 × 10 6 cm -2 for Shingu peridotites. It is concluded that the differential stress is high in the uppermost mantle beneath the island arc and low in the back-arc and the mantle wedge behind the plate boundary. The lateral variation of stress may be due to the diapiric upwelling of upper mantle materials under the island arc. The size of the diapir is suggested to be 200 km in width and 60-150 km in depth.

  5. Two new dwarfgobies of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae). (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi


    Two species of dwarfgoby are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota flebilis n. sp. belongs to cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only IT pore), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, the 5th pelvic-fin ray 12.9% of the 4th, a distinctive narrow, red-orange line under the eye, and a dark vertical line at the caudal-fin base. Eviota specca n. sp. has a cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 1 (complete), has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, the body heavily sprinkled with chromatophores, and a single dark spot on the upper pectoral-fin base.

  6. Inelastic strain rate in the seismogenic layer of Kyushu Island, Japan (United States)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takuya; Ohkura, Takahiro


    Seismic activity is associated with crustal stress relaxation, creating inelastic strain in a medium due to faulting. Inelastic strain affects the stress field around a weak body and causes stress concentration around the body, because the body itself has already released stress. Therefore, the understanding of inelastic deformation is important as it generates earthquakes. We investigated average inelastic strain in a spatial bin of Kyushu Island, Japan, and obtained the inelastic strain rate distribution associated with crustal earthquakes, based on the analysis of fault plane solutions and seismic moments. Large inelastic strains (>10-7 year-1) were found in the Beppu-Shimabara area, located in the center of Kyushu Island. The strain rate tensor was similar to that of the stress tensor except the absolute value in the area, implying that the inelastic strain was controlled by the stress field. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence (maximum magnitude 7.3) occurred in the Beppu-Shimabara area, with the major earthquakes located around the high inelastic strain rate area. Inelastic strain in the volume released the stress. In addition, the inelastic strain created an increment of stress around the volume. This indicates that the spatial heterogeneity of inelastic strain might concentrate stress.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Two new dwarfgobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: Eviota flavipinnata and Eviota rubrimaculata. (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Greenfield, David W; Motomura, Hiroyuki


    Two new species of Eviota from Yoron Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. Both species belong to the cephalic sensory-canal pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the H [IT] pore); have some pectoral-fin rays branched; have a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 9/8; no dark spot over the ural centrum; no prominent distinct dark spots on the pectoral-fin base; no postocular spots; and no strong dark spots on the caudal fin. The species share the most characters with E. afelei, E. bimaculata and E. punctulata, but differ from Eviota afelei and E. punctulata by having two versus three dark marks over the anal-fin base, and from Eviota bimaculata by lacking the two dark, prominent occipital spots present in that species. Both species differ from all other described species of Eviota in fresh coloration. Eviota flavipinnata has bright golden-yellow dorsal fins and an orange anal fin, and a fifth pelvic-fin ray that is 12% the length of the fourth ray. Eviota rubrimaculata has clear dorsal fins with red spots, large red spots on the body, and lacks the fifth pelvic-fin ray.

  8. Tomography of the subducting Pacific slab and the 2015 Bonin deepest earthquake (Mw 7.9) (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Fujisawa, Moeto; Toyokuni, Genti


    On 30 May 2015 an isolated deep earthquake (~670 km, Mw 7.9) occurred to the west of the Bonin Islands. To clarify its causal mechanism and its relationship to the subducting Pacific slab, we determined a detailed P-wave tomography of the deep earthquake source zone using a large number of arrival-time data. Our results show that this large deep event occurred within the subducting Pacific slab which is penetrating into the lower mantle. In the Izu-Bonin region, the Pacific slab is split at ~28° north latitude, i.e., slightly north of the 2015 deep event hypocenter. In the north the slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone, whereas in the south the slab is directly penetrating into the lower mantle. This deep earthquake was caused by joint effects of several factors, including the Pacific slab’s fast deep subduction, slab tearing, slab thermal variation, stress changes and phase transformations in the slab, and complex interactions between the slab and the ambient mantle. PMID:28295018

  9. Geochemistry of the Bonin Fore-arc Volcanic Sequence: Results from IODP Expedition 352 (United States)

    Godard, M.; Ryan, J. G.; Shervais, J. W.; Whattam, S. A.; Sakuyama, T.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Li, H.; Nelson, W. R.; Prytulak, J.; Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.


    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana intraoceanic arc system, in the western Pacific, results from ~52 My of subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. Four sites were drilled south of the Bonin Islands during IODP Expedition 352 and 1.22 km of igneous basement was cored upslope to the west of the trough. These stratigraphically controlled igneous suites allow study of the earliest stages of arc development from seafloor spreading to convergence. We present the preliminary results of a detailed major and trace element (ICPMS) study on 128 igneous rocks drilled during Expedition 352. Mainly basalts and basaltic andesites were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites at the two westernmost sites (U1439 and U1442). Sites U1440 and U1441 basaltic suites are trace element depleted (e.g. Yb 4-6 x PM); they have fractionated REE patterns (LREE/HREE = 0.2-0.4 x C1-chondrites) compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts. They have compositions overlapping that of previously sampled Fore-Arc Basalts (FAB) series. They are characterized also by an increase in LILE contents relative to neighboring elements up-section (e.g. Rb/La ranging from FAB generation into their mantle source.

  10. Tomography of the subducting Pacific slab and the 2015 Bonin deepest earthquake (Mw 7.9) (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Fujisawa, Moeto; Toyokuni, Genti


    On 30 May 2015 an isolated deep earthquake (~670 km, Mw 7.9) occurred to the west of the Bonin Islands. To clarify its causal mechanism and its relationship to the subducting Pacific slab, we determined a detailed P-wave tomography of the deep earthquake source zone using a large number of arrival-time data. Our results show that this large deep event occurred within the subducting Pacific slab which is penetrating into the lower mantle. In the Izu-Bonin region, the Pacific slab is split at ~28° north latitude, i.e., slightly north of the 2015 deep event hypocenter. In the north the slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone, whereas in the south the slab is directly penetrating into the lower mantle. This deep earthquake was caused by joint effects of several factors, including the Pacific slab’s fast deep subduction, slab tearing, slab thermal variation, stress changes and phase transformations in the slab, and complex interactions between the slab and the ambient mantle.

  11. Japan (United States)

    Hawkins, John N.


    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  12. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  13. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  14. Constraining the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) Bonin deep-focus earthquake using seismogram envelopes of high-frequency P waveforms: Occurrence of deep-focus earthquake at the bottom of a subducting slab (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige


    In this study, the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) deep-focus Bonin earthquake was constrained using P wave seismograms recorded across Japan. We focus on propagation characteristics of high-frequency P wave. Deep-focus intraslab earthquakes typically show spindle-shaped seismogram envelopes with peak delays of several seconds and subsequent long-duration coda waves; however, both the main shock and aftershock of the 2015 Bonin event exhibited pulse-like P wave propagations with high apparent velocities (~12.2 km/s). Such P wave propagation features were reproduced by finite-difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation in the case of slab-bottom source. The pulse-like P wave seismogram envelopes observed from the 2015 Bonin earthquake show that its source was located at the bottom of the Pacific slab at a depth of ~680 km, rather than within its middle or upper regions.

  15. Japan


    Kazujo Suzuki


    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  16. Wintertime urban heat island modified by global climate change over Japan (United States)

    Hara, M.


    Urban thermal environment change, especially, surface air temperature (SAT) rise in metropolitan areas, is one of the major recent issues in urban areas. The urban thermal environmental change affects not only human health such as heat stroke, but also increasing infectious disease due to spreading out virus vectors habitat and increase of industry and house energy consumption. The SAT rise is mostly caused by global climate change and urban heat island (hereafter UHI) by urbanization. The population in Tokyo metropolitan area is over 30 millions and the Tokyo metropolitan area is one of the biggest megacities in the world. The temperature rise due to urbanization seems comparable to the global climate change in the major megacities. It is important to project how the urbanization and the global climate change affect to the future change of urban thermal environment to plan the adaptation and mitigation policy. To predict future SAT change in urban scale, we should estimate future UHI modified by the global climate change. This study investigates change in UHI intensity (UHII) of major metropolitan areas in Japan by effects of the global climate change. We performed a series of climate simulations. Present climate simulations with and without urban process are conducted for ten seasons using a high-resolution numerical climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Future climate projections with and without urban process are also conducted. The future projections are performed using the pseudo global warming method, assuming 2050s' initial and boundary conditions estimated by a GCM under the RCP scenario. Simulation results indicated that UHII would be enhanced more than 30% in Tokyo during the night due to the global climate change. The enhancement of urban heat island is mostly caused by change of lower atmospheric stability.

  17. Endogenous growth of a Miocene submarine dacite cryptodome, Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan (United States)

    Goto, Yoshihiko; McPhie, Jocelyn


    Momo-iwa, Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan, is a dacite cryptodome 200-300 m across and 190 m high. The dome is inferred to have intruded wet, poorly consolidated sediment in a shallow marine environment. The internal structure of the dome is concentric, with a massive core, banded rim, and narrow brecciated border, all of which are composed of compositionally uniform feldspar-phyric dacite. Boundaries between each of the zones are distinct but gradational. The massive core consists of homogeneous coherent (unfractured) dacite and is characterized by radial columnar joints 60-200 cm across. The banded rim encircles the massive core and is 40 m wide. It is characterized by large-scale flow banding parallel to the dome surface. The flow banding comprises alternating partly crystalline and more glassy bands 80-150 cm thick. The outermost brecciated border is up to 80 cm thick, and consists of in situ breccia and blocky peperite. The in situ breccia comprises polyhedral dacite clasts 5-20 cm across and a cogenetic granular matrix. The blocky peperite consists of polyhedral dacite clasts 0.5-2 cm across separated by the host sediment (mudstone). The internal structures of the dome suggest endogenous growth involving a continuous magma supply during a single intrusive phase and simple expansion from the interior. Although much larger, the internal structures of Momo-iwa closely resemble those of lobes in subaqueous felsic lobe-hyaloclastite lavas.

  18. Japan


    World Bank Group


    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Japan. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing bus...

  19. Development of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the Seto Island Sea, Japan (United States)

    Kurosawa, K.; Uchiyama, Y.


    By optimally combined ocean models with observation data, numerical oceanic reanalysis and forecast systems allow us to predict the ocean more precisely. In general, data assimilation is exploited to prepare the initial condition for the forecast. This technique has widely been employed in atmospheric prediction, whereas oceanic prediction lags behind weather forecast. Accurate oceanic prediction systems have been demanded for operational purposes such as for fisheries, vessel navigation, marine construction, offshore platform management, marine monitoring, etc. In particular, in crowded harbors and estuaries including the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, data assimilation has seldom been adapted because data from satellites and Argo floats essential to successful oceanic predictions is desperately limited. In addition, although static data assimilation, typically three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR), is computationally cheap and statistically optimal, but is not physically balanced. For instance, 3DVAR is known to modify velocity and density fields merely mathematically, yet it does not adequately consider quasi-geostrophic balance, which is generally true in most cases. In the present study, we develop a 3DVAR system for Regional Oceanic Modeling Systems (ROMS) and apply to the high-resolution SIS model in a double nested configuration (Kosako et al., 2015). The SIS is the largest estuary in Japan with a number of autonomous in-situ monitoring of vertical profiles of temperature and salinity, tens of tidal gages, along with continuous surface current measurement using HF radars. We first present a theoretical framework of the 3DVAR algorithm by considering geostrophic and thermal-wind balance to find plausible relationships among physical variables to avoid undesirable modifications. Subsequently, the developed 3DVAR is coupled with the SIS ROMS model to compare the model outcomes against some observation data. The 3DVAR ROMS model for the SIS

  20. Operculina from the northwestern Pacific (Sesoko Island, Japan) Species Differentiation, Population Dynamics, Growth and Development (United States)

    Woeger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann


    During the last decades larger benthic foraminifera have gained importance as indicator species and are used in a variety of applications, from ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, or reconstructing paleoenvironments. They significantly contribute to the carbonate budget of costal areas and are invaluable tools in biostratigraphy. Even before their advancement as bioindicators, laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of various ecological parameters on community composition, biology of single species, or investigating the effects of salinity and temperature on stable isotope composition of the foraminiferal test, to name only a few. The natural laboratory approach (continuous sampling over a period of more than one year) was conducted at the island of Sesoko (Okinawa, Japan). in combination with µ-CT scanning was used to reveal population dynamics of 3 different morphotypes of Operculina. The clarification of reproductive cycles as well as generation and size abundances were used to calculate natural growth models. Best fit was achieved using Bertalanffy and Michaelis-Menten functions. Exponential-, logistic-, generalized logistic-, Gompertz-function yielded weaker fits, when compared by coefficient of determination as well as Akaike Information criterion. The resulting growth curves and inferred growth rates were in turn used to evaluate the quality of a laboratory cultivation experiment carried out simultaneously over a period of 15 months. Culturing parameters such as temperature, light intensities, salinity and pH and light-dark duration were continuously adapted to measurements in the field. The average investigation time in culture was 77days. 13 Individuals lived more than 200 days, 3 reproduced asexually and one sexually. 14% of 186 Individuals were lost, while 22% could not be kept alive for more than one month. Growth curves also represent an instrumental source of information for the various

  1. Japan


    Suzuki, Kazujo


    Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften...

  2. Helium and methane sources and fluxes of shallow submarine hydrothermal plumes near the Tokara Islands, Southern Japan (United States)

    Wen, Hsin-Yi; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Tomonaga, Yama; Ishida, Akizumi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Kagoshima, Takanori; Shirai, Kotaro; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yokose, Hisayoshi; Tsunogai, Urumu; Yang, Tsanyao F.


    Shallow submarine volcanoes have been newly discovered near the Tokara Islands, which are situated at the volcanic front of the northern Ryukyu Arc in southern Japan. Here, we report for the first time the volatile geochemistry of shallow hydrothermal plumes, which were sampled using a CTD-RMS system after analyzing water column images collected by multi-beam echo sounder surveys. These surveys were performed during the research cruise KS-14-10 of the R/V Shinsei Maru in a region stretching from the Wakamiko Crater to the Tokara Islands. The 3He flux and methane flux in the investigated area are estimated to be (0.99–2.6) × 104 atoms/cm2/sec and 6–60 t/yr, respectively. The methane in the region of the Tokara Islands is a mix between abiotic methane similar to that found in the East Pacific Rise and thermogenic one. Methane at the Wakamiko Crater is of abiotic origin but affected by isotopic fractionation through rapid microbial oxidation. The helium isotopes suggest the presence of subduction-type mantle helium at the Wakamiko Crater, while a larger crustal component is found close to the Tokara Islands. This suggests that the Tokara Islands submarine volcanoes are a key feature of the transition zone between the volcanic front and the spreading back-arc basin. PMID:27671524

  3. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. from the Miyako Islands, Japan: the first record of Neostygarctidae (Heterotardigrada: Arthrotardigrada) from the Pacific. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi


    A new species of the previously monospecific marine tardigrade family Neostygarctidae is described. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. was found from a submarine cave in Miyako Islands, Japan. This is the first record of Neostygarctidae from the Pacific. The new species is easily distinguished from the previously known N. acanthophorus by its number of dorsal spines, as N. lovedeluxe has two spines each on the three dorsal body plates in contrast to one in N. acanthophorus. Furthermore the morphology of the two clawed juvenile is reported for the first time in Neostygarctidae, providing new insights into the common sequence in some ontogenic traits.

  4. Contamination status and accumulation characteristics of metals and a metalloid in birds on Teuri Island, Hokkaido, Japan. (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Suzuki, Yuya; Watanuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    Teuri Island, Hokkaido in Japan is an important place for seabirds breeding. We measured the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) (n = 7), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) (n = 2), spectacled guillemot (Cepphus carbo) (n = 6), slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus) (n = 15), jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) (n = 3), Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonica) (n = 6) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus azonus) (n = 2). Spectacled guillemot had high As concentrations, with its source being their feeding habitat. Concentration of Hg in kidney of jungle crow was higher than other seabird species at Teuri.

  5. Salmonella infection in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis), an invasive alien species on Chichi Island of the Ogasawara archipelago in Japan. (United States)

    Sumiyama, Daisuke; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Kanazawa, Tomoko; Murata, Koichi


    We investigated the presence of Salmonella in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), an invasive alien species on Chichi Island, Japan. Samples were also collected from feral goats and public toilets on the island to examine infectious routes. Salmonellae were isolated from 27.1% of 199 samples; 32.6% of 141 cloacal samples from anoles, 62.5% of 8 intestinal samples from anole carcasses, 16.7% of 12 fecal samples from goats and 2.6% of 38 toilet bowl swabs. The serotype of most isolates was Salmonella Oranienburg (94.4% of 54). Although we did not confirm the infection pathways, our results indicated that green anoles are a risk factor as a source of Salmonella for public health. It is important to consider endemic pathogens that may be amplified by alien species within their introduced areas.

  6. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuteru Akiba

    Full Text Available Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  7. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan. (United States)

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei


    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  8. Coverage, Diversity, and Functionality of a High-Latitude Coral Community (Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan) (United States)

    Denis, Vianney; Mezaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Kouki; Kuo, Chao-Yang; De Palmas, Stéphane; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Chen, Chaolun Allen


    Background Seawater temperature is the main factor restricting shallow-water zooxanthellate coral reefs to low latitudes. As temperatures increase, coral species and perhaps reefs may move into higher-latitude waters, increasing the chances of coral reef ecosystems surviving despite global warming. However, there is a growing need to understand the structure of these high-latitude coral communities in order to analyze their future dynamics and to detect any potential changes. Methodology/Principal Findings The high-latitude (32.75°N) community surveyed was located at Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan. Coral cover was 60±2% and was composed of 73 scleractinian species partitioned into 7 functional groups. Although only 6% of species belonged to the ‘plate-like’ functional group, it was the major contributor to species coverage. This was explained by the dominance of plate-like species such as Acropora hyacinthus and A. solitaryensis. Comparison with historical data suggests a relatively recent colonization/development of A. hyacinthus in this region and a potential increase in coral diversity over the last century. Low coverage of macroalgae (2% of the benthic cover) contrasted with the low abundance of herbivorous fishes, but may be reasonably explained by the high density of sea urchins (12.9±3.3 individuals m−2). Conclusions/Significance The structure and composition of this benthic community are relatively remarkable for a site where winter temperature can durably fall below the accepted limit for coral reef development. Despite limited functionalities and functional redundancy, the current benthic structure might provide a base upon which a reef could eventually develop, as characterized by opportunistic and pioneer frame-building species. In addition to increasing seawater temperatures, on-going management actions and sea urchin density might also explain the observed state of this community. A focus on such ‘marginal’ communities should be a

  9. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.


    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  10. Japan unified hIgh-resolution relocated catalog for earthquakes (JUICE): Crustal seismicity beneath the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Yano, Tomoko E.; Takeda, Tetsuya; Matsubara, Makoto; Shiomi, Katsuhiko


    We have generated a high-resolution catalog called the ;Japan Unified hIgh-resolution relocated Catalog for Earthquakes; (JUICE), which can be used to evaluate the geometry and seismogenic depth of active faults in Japan. We relocated > 1.1 million hypocenters from the NIED Hi-net catalog for events which occurred between January 2001 and December 2012, to a depth of 40 km. We apply a relative hypocenter determination method to the data in each grid square, in which entire Japan is divided into 1257 grid squares to parallelize the relocation procedure. We used a double-difference method, incorporating cross-correlating differential times as well as catalog differential times. This allows us to resolve, in detail, a seismicity distribution for the entire Japanese Islands. We estimated location uncertainty by a statistical resampling method, using Jackknife samples, and show that the uncertainty can be within 0.37 km in the horizontal and 0.85 km in the vertical direction with a 90% confidence interval for areas with good station coverage. Our seismogenic depth estimate agrees with the lower limit of the hypocenter distribution for a recent earthquake on the Kamishiro fault (2014, Mj 6.7), which suggests that the new catalog should be useful for estimating the size of future earthquakes for inland active faults.

  11. Analysis of ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios for the pollution events observed at Hateruma Island, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maksyutov


    Full Text Available Pollution events extracted from the in situ observations of atmospheric CO2 and O2 mixing ratios at Hateruma Island (HAT, 24° N, 124° E during the period from October 2006 and December 2008 are examined. The air mass origins for the pollution events are categorized by using back trajectory analysis, and the oxidative ratios (OR = −O2:CO2 molar exchange ratio for selected pollution events are calculated. We find that there is a significant difference in the average oxidative ratios between events from China (OR = 1.14 ± 0.12, n = 25 and Japan/Korea (OR = 1.37 ± 0.15, n = 16. These values are in a good agreement with the national average oxidative ratios for the emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement production (FFBC in China (ORFFBC = 1.11 ± 0.03 and Korea/Japan (ORFFBC = 1.36 ± 0.02. Compared with the observation, simulations of the atmospheric O2 and CO2 mixing ratios using Lagrangian particle dispersion models do a good job in reconstructing the average oxidative ratio of the pollution events originating in China but tend to underestimate for events originating in Japan/Korea. A sensitivity test suggests that the simulated atmospheric oxidative ratios at HAT are especially sensitive to changes in Chinese fuel mix.

  12. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Fern Cyrtomium falcatum (Dryopteridaceae) from Dokdo Island, Sea of East Japan, Based on Chloroplast Genome Sequencing. (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo


    Cyrtomium falcatum is a popular ornamental fern cultivated worldwide. Native to the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Dokdo Island in the Sea of Japan, it is the only fern present on Dokdo Island. We isolated and characterized the chloroplast (cp) genome of C. falcatum, and compared it with those of closely related species. The genes trnV-GAC and trnV-GAU were found to be present within the cp genome of C. falcatum, whereas trnP-GGG and rpl21 were lacking. Moreover, cp genomes of Cyrtomium devexiscapulae and Adiantum capillus-veneris lack trnP-GGG and rpl21, suggesting these are not conserved among angiosperm cp genomes. The deletion of trnR-UCG, trnR-CCG, and trnSeC in the cp genomes of C. falcatum and other eupolypod ferns indicates these genes are restricted to tree ferns, non-core leptosporangiates, and basal ferns. The C. falcatum cp genome also encoded ndhF and rps7, with GUG start codons that were only conserved in polypod ferns, and it shares two significant inversions with other ferns, including a minor inversion of the trnD-GUC region and an approximate 3 kb inversion of the trnG-trnT region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Equisetum was found to be a sister clade to Psilotales-Ophioglossales with a 100% bootstrap (BS) value. The sister relationship between Pteridaceae and eupolypods was also strongly supported by a 100% BS, but Bayesian molecular clock analyses suggested that C. falcatum diversified in the mid-Paleogene period (45.15 ± 4.93 million years ago) and might have moved from Eurasia to Dokdo Island.

  13. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf (United States)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Group, Paleo Labo AMS Dating; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya


    In this study, a sea-surface water Δ14C record of AD 1966-2000 (i.e., after the atmospheric nuclear-bomb testing period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s) was reconstructed from a coral sample collected from Iki Island, western Japan. The island is located in the Tsushima Strait where the Tsushima Current flows from the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf into the Sea of Japan, indicating a strong influence of the ECS shelf water on the island. It is widely accepted that the Tsushima Current originates in the area between the ECS shelf break and the Nansei Islands further offshore as a branch of the Kuroshio Current, although another possible origin is the Taiwan-Tsushima Current System. The Δ14C record from Iki Island shows the following evidence of a response to the atmospheric nuclear testing: (1) an increase from ~55‰ in 1966 to ~133‰ in 1970, (2) a plateau ranging between ~123 and ~142‰ during the 1970s to the late 1980s, and (3) a gradual decrease from ~115‰ in 1990 to ~83‰ in 2000. Comparison of this record with coral Δ14C records from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island and Kikai Island), located ~160-280 km off the ECS shelf break and little influenced by the shelf water, suggests that the surface-water Δ14C around Iki Island was ~30-45‰ lower than that of the Nansei Islands from the mid-1960s to late 1970s, and that the Δ14C difference between Iki Island and the Nansei Islands decreased from the end of the 1970s to ~0-15‰ in the mid-1980s to 2000. The lower Δ14C around Iki Island can be explained as follows: (1) in contrast to the Nansei Islands area, the ECS shelf area is a vertically mixed, highly concentrated carbon reservoir significantly connected to subsurface and deeper waters outside the shelf area, strongly suggesting that the surface-water Δ14C of the shelf area (perhaps excepting very shallow innermost shelf areas) was significantly less sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear-bomb 14C spike than that of the

  14. Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc crust as a modern ophiolite analogue (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Tani, Kenichiro; Reagan, Mark; Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Harigane, Yumiko


    Recent geological and geophysical surveys in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc have revealed the occurrence on the seafloor of oceanic crust generated in the initial stages of subduction and embryonic island arc formation. The observed forearc section is composed of (from bottom to top): (1) mantle peridotite, (2) gabbroic rocks, (3) a sheeted dyke complex, (4) basaltic pillow lavas, (5) boninites and magnesian andesites, and (6) tholeiites and calc-alkaline arc lavas. The oldest magmatism after subduction initiation generated forearc basalts (FAB) between 52 and 48 Ma, and then boninitic and calc-alkaline lavas that collectively make up the extrusive sequence of the forearc oceanic crust. The change from FAB magmatism to flux melting and boninitic volcanism took 2-4 m.y., and the change to flux melting in counter-flowing mantle and "normal" arc magmatism took 7-8 m.y. This evolution from subduction initiation to true subduction occurred nearly simultaneously along the entire length of the IBM subduction system. One important characteristic feature of the common forearc stratigraphy in the IBM forearc is the association of sheeted dykes with basaltic pillow lavas, which strongly implies that the eruption of FAB was associated with seafloor spreading. This is supported by the seismic velocity structure of the Bonin Ridge area (Kodaira et al., 2010), showing it to have a thin ocean-ridge-like crust (spreading associated with subduction initiation along the length of the IBM forearc. A potential location of subduction nucleation along the Mesozoic-aged crust has been found along the margins of the West Philippine Basin. One possible scenario for subduction initiation at the IBM arc was that it was induced by overthrusting of the Mesozoic arc and backarc or forearc terranes bounding the east side of the Asian Plate over the Pacific Plate, followed by failure of the Pacific plate lithosphere and subduction initiation. Alternatively, subduction could have begun

  15. Formation of gas discharging from Taketomi submarine hot spring off Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan (United States)

    Toki, Tomohiro; Iwata, Daigo; Tsunogai, Urumu; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Hamasaki, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro


    Taketomi submarine hot spring lies off Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands and vents hot spring waters at temperatures up to 50 °C from the seafloor at a depth of 20 m. We investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of gases discharging from Taketomi hot spring. The gases were composed mainly of methane, with secondary nitrogen at higher than atmospheric concentration. Carbon and hydrogen isotope data suggest that the methane in the discharging gases was derived mainly from thermal decomposition of organic matter. Helium isotopes were enriched in 3He relative to the atmosphere, suggesting a supply of mantle-derived helium to the discharging gases. The mantle-derived gases transfer the deep-originated thermal energy to the hot spring and thermogenesis of organic matter. The hydrocarbons in the venting gas could be sourced from sedimentary rocks of the Yaeyama or Shimajiri Groups, or Yaeyama metamorphic rocks, and added to the ascending gases as they pass through those source rocks on their way to the surface. Because the Pleistocene rocks of the Ryukyu Group beneath the hot spring have been altered by the spring activity, the Taketomi hot spring began venting after the Pleistocene.

  16. [原著]An epidemiological survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis in the Southwest Islands, Japan.


    Sato,Yoshiya; Otsuru, Masamitsu; Asato, Ryuji; Yamashita, Takao; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health; Department of Parasitology, Yamagata University School of Medicine


    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, primarilly a parasite of rodents, has attracted notice as an important agent of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis on many Pacific islands and in Southeast Asia. It is generally speculated in the pacific and Asian tropical and subtropical zones that the parasite has extended its geographic range to adjacent regions by introduction of the infected intermediate hosts, mainly Achatina fulica, or by the stowaway rats. The Southwest Islands are in an unique...

  17. Dike Intrusion Process of 2000 Miyakejima - Kozujima Event estimated from GPS measurements in Kozujima - Niijima Islands, central Japan (United States)

    Murase, M.; Nakao, S.; Kato, T.; Tabei, T.; Kimata, F.; Fujii, N.


    Kozujima - Niijima Islands of Izu Volcano Islands are located about 180 km southeast of Tokyo, Japan. Although the last volcano eruptions in Kozujima and Niijima volcanoes are recorded more than 1000 year before, the ground deformation of 2-3 cm is detected at Kozujima - Niijima Islands by GPS measurements since 1996. On June 26, 2000, earthquake swarm and large ground deformation more than 20 cm are observed at Miyakejima volcano located 40 km east-southeastward of Kozu Island, and volcano eruption are continued since July 7. Remarkable earthquake swarm including five earthquakes more than M5 is stretching to Kozushima Island from Miyakejima Island. From the rapid ground deformation detected by continuous GPS measurements at Miyakejima Island on June 26, magma intrusion models of two or three dikes are discussed in the south and west part of Miyakejima volcano by Irwan et al.(2003) and Ueda et al.(2003). They also estimate dike intrusions are propagated from southern part of Miyakejima volcano to western part, and finally dike intrusion is stretching to 20 km distance toward Kozujima Island. From the ground deformation detected by GPS daily solution of Nation-wide dense GPS network (GEONET), some dike intrusion models are discussed. Ito et al.(2002) estimate the huge dike intrusion with length of about 20 km and volume of 1 km3 in the sea area between the Miyake Island and Kozu Island. (And) Nishimura et al.(2001) introduce not only dike but also aseismic creep source to explain the deformation in Shikinejima. Yamaoka et al.(2002) discuss the dike and spherical deflation source under the dike, because of no evidence supported large aseismic creep. They indicate a dike and spherical deflation source model is as good as dike and creep source model. In case of dike and creep, magma supply is only from the chamber under the Miyakejima volcano. In dike and spherical deflation source model, magma supply is from under Miyakejima volcano and under the dike. Furuya et al

  18. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan]. (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi


    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  19. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the upper Miocene to Pliocene Shimajiri Group on Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan (United States)

    Imai, Ryo; Sato, Tokiyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi


    We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Shimajiri Group in two exploratory wells (depths, 1243 and 1800 m) drilled on southern Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Three late Miocene to Pliocene datum planes were identified: the first occurrence of Amaurolithus spp. (7.42 Ma), the last occurrence of Discoaster quinqueramus (5.59 Ma), and the first occurrence of Ceratolithus rugosus (5.12 Ma). These datum planes were also identified in two other deep wells on southern Okinawa-jima. Nutrient levels (reconstructed from the relative abundances of small Reticulofenestra spp., and the relative abundances of Discoaster spp. plus Sphenolithus abies) suggest that deposition of the Shimajiri Group (<8.29-3.50 Ma) occurred under conditions of increasing eutrophication. The eutrophication was likely caused by shallowing of the sedimentary basin, but a stepwise shift was associated with an abrupt eutrophication event that occurred in the northwestern Pacific Ocean at 5 Ma.

  20. Optimal Choice of Soil Hydraulic Parameters for Simulating the Unsaturated Flow: A Case Study on the Island of Miyakojima, Japan

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    Ken Okamoto


    Full Text Available We examined the influence of input soil hydraulic parameters on HYDRUS-1D simulations of evapotranspiration and volumetric water contents (VWCs in the unsaturated zone of a sugarcane field on the island of Miyakojima, Japan. We first optimized the parameters for root water uptake and examined the influence of soil hydraulic parameters (water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity on simulations of evapotranspiration. We then compared VWCs simulated using measured soil hydraulic parameters with those using pedotransfer estimates obtained with the ROSETTA software package. Our results confirm that it is important to always use soil hydraulic parameters based on measured data, if available, when simulating evapotranspiration and unsaturated water flow processes, rather than pedotransfer functions.

  1. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Takagi, Kozue [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kubota, Reiji [Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Anan, Yasumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic.

  2. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko


    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  3. A modified time-temperature relationship for titanomagnetite and its application to igneous erratic boulders in Hachijo Island, Japan (United States)

    Tonosaki, T.; Nakamura, N.; Goto, K.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, M.


    On land along shore line in an island all over the world, there are many huge boulders which seem that they had been broken and transported by errastic events (such as extreme waves). The presence of boulders on land provides geological evidence that the region had been suffered by ancient tsunami or storm waves, establishing the evaluation of risk-management policies for future disasters. In volcanic island of Hachijo, Japan, there are huge (>5000 kg) andesitic boulder (20 m altitude high), and basaltic boulders (4 m altitude high) which seem that they had been broken from an outcrop and emplaced from it. Because radiocarbon dating can not be applied to volcanic rocks, a magnetic viscous dating might be powerful tool to determine the rotation history of rocks. Tyson Smith and Vrosub (1994) succeeded in revealing the age of landslide basaltic rocks by geological evidence, using Pullaiah's time-temperature monogram by Neel's relaxation theory of single domain (SD) particles of magnetite (Pullaiah et al. 1975). However, our application of this monogram to igneous boulders fails to determine the age due to a different magnetic mineralogy including titanomagnetite. Therefore, by introducing a modified monogram for single domain particles of titanomagnetite, we tried to reveal a possible reworked age of the boulders. However, our boulders still fail to identify the reworked age. In this presentation, we will present our current situation of the problem and a working hypothesis to solve it.

  4. Assessing tsunami-induced groundwater salinization and its temporal change: a numerical modelling study on the Niijima Island, Japan (United States)

    Liu, Jiaqi; Tokunaga, Tomochika


    Groundwater is vulnerable to many natural hazards, including tsunami. As reported after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, the generated massive tsunami inundations resulted in unexpected groundwater salinization in coastal areas. Water supply was strongly disturbed due to the significantly elevated salinity in groundwater. Supplying fresh water is one of the prioritized concerns in the immediate aftermath of disaster, and during long-term post-disaster reconstruction as well. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of tsunami on coastal groundwater system and provide guidelines on managing water resources in post-tsunami period. We selected the study area as the Niijima Island, a tsunami-prone area in Japan, which is under the risk of being attacked by a devastated tsunami with its wave height up to 30 m. A three-dimension (3-D) numerical model of the groundwater system on the Niijima Island was developed by using the simulation code FEFLOW which can handle both density- dependent groundwater flow and saturated-unsaturated flow processes. The model was justified by the measured water table data obtained from the field work in July, 2015. By using this model, we investigated saltwater intrusion and aquifer recovery process under different tsunami scenarios. Modelling results showed that saltwater could fully saturate the vadose zone and come into contact with groundwater table in just 10 mins. The 0.6 km2 of inundation area introduced salt mass equivalent to approximately 9×104 t of NaCl into the vadose zone. After the retreat of tsunami waves, the remained saltwater in vadose zone continuously intruded into the groundwater and dramatically salinized the aquifer up to about 10,000 mg/L. In the worst tsunami scenario, it took more than 10 years for the polluted aquifer to be entirely recovered by natural rainfall. Given that the groundwater is the only freshwater source on the Niijima Island, we can provide suggestions

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan. (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Keiko; Masatani, Tatsunori


    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalent than in the urban area of the island. This finding indicates a possible risk to wildlife of infection from free-ranging and feral cats. Therefore, management of cats is important for wildlife conservation.

  6. Taxonomic study on the subgenus Uresipedilum (Diptera: Chironomidae: Polypedilum, with description of a new species from the Yaewyama Islands, Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Yamamoto


    Full Text Available As a result of a multi-year survey, we recognized four species including a new species of the subgenus Uresipedilum from the Yaeyama Islands, the Ryukyus, Japan. Polypedilum (Uresipedilum paraconvictum sp. nov. is described. P. (U. classiglobum Zhang et Wang (2004 P. (U. bingoparadoxum Kawai et al. (1998 and P. (U. iriofegeum Sasa et Suzuki (2000 are re-described. The first species is newly recorded from Japan, and the second species is new to the Ryukyus. The diagnostic characters of the subgenus are discussed.

  7. Analysis of ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios for the pollution events observed at Hateruma Island, Japan

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    S. Maksyutov


    Full Text Available In-situ observations of atmospheric CO2 and O2 concentrations at Hateruma Island (HAT, 24° N, 124° E often show synoptic scale pollution events when air masses are transported from East Asian source regions. We calculate the regression slopes (-ΔO2/ΔCO2 molar ratios of the correlation plots between O2 and CO2 for selected pollution events observed between October 2006 and December 2008. The observed -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios vary from 1.0 to 1.7. Categorizing the air mass origins for the pollution events by using back trajectory analysis, we find that there is a significant difference in the average -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios between events from China (1.14±0.12, n = 25 and Japan/Korea (1.37±0.15, n = 16. These values are comparable to the -O2:CO2 molar exchange ratios, which are estimated from the national fossil fuel inventories from CDIAC. Simulations using a particle dispersion model reveal that the pollution events at HAT are predominantly CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in East Asian countries, which is consistent with the above observational results. Although the average value of the model-predicted -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios for Japan/Korea origin is underestimated in comparison with the observation, that for China origin agree well with the observation. The sensitivity experiment suggests that the -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratio at HAT reflects about 90% of the change in the -O2:CO2 exchange ratio for the fossil carbon emissions from China.

  8. Analysis of ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios for the pollution events observed at Hateruma Island, Japan (United States)

    Minejima, C.; Kubo, M.; Tohjima, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Kita, K.; Mukai, H.


    In-situ observations of atmospheric CO2 and O2 concentrations at Hateruma Island (HAT, 24° N, 124° E) often show synoptic scale pollution events when air masses are transported from East Asian source regions. We calculate the regression slopes (-ΔO2/ΔCO2 molar ratios) of the correlation plots between O2 and CO2 for selected pollution events observed between October 2006 and December 2008. The observed -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios vary from 1.0 to 1.7. Categorizing the air mass origins for the pollution events by using back trajectory analysis, we find that there is a significant difference in the average -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios between events from China (1.14±0.12, n = 25) and Japan/Korea (1.37±0.15, n = 16). These values are comparable to the -O2:CO2 molar exchange ratios, which are estimated from the national fossil fuel inventories from CDIAC. Simulations using a particle dispersion model reveal that the pollution events at HAT are predominantly CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in East Asian countries, which is consistent with the above observational results. Although the average value of the model-predicted -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratios for Japan/Korea origin is underestimated in comparison with the observation, that for China origin agree well with the observation. The sensitivity experiment suggests that the -ΔO2/ΔCO2 ratio at HAT reflects about 90% of the change in the -O2:CO2 exchange ratio for the fossil carbon emissions from China.

  9. Origin of Japanese White-Eyes and Brown-Eared Bulbuls on the Volcano Islands. (United States)

    Sugita, Norimasa; Kawakami, Kazuto; Nishiumi, Isao


    The Ogasawara Archipelago comprises two groups of oceanic islands: the Bonin Islands, formed in the Paleogene, and the Volcano Islands, formed in the Quaternary. These groups are located within a moderate distance (ca. 160-270 km) of one another; thus, most land bird species are not distinguished as different subspecies. Two land birds, however, show unusual distribution. The Japanese white-eyes Zosterops japonicus originally inhabited only the Volcano Islands, but has been introduced to the Bonin Islands. The brown-eared bulbuls Hypsipetes amaurotis are distributed as a different subspecies. We investigated their genetic differences and divergences in the Ogasawara Archipelago using mitochondria DNA. The Volcano population of white-eyes had four endemic haplotypes that were divergent from one another, except for the Bonin population, which shared three haplotypes with the Volcano, Izu, and Ryukyu Islands and did not have any endemic haplotype. This is the first genetic suggestion that the Bonin population is a hybrid of introduced populations. With respect to bulbuls, the Volcano and Bonin Islands each had a single endemic haplotype. The Volcano haplotype is closest to a haplotype shared with Izu, the Japanese mainland, Daito and Ryukyu, whereas the Bonin haplotype is closest to one endemic to the south Ryukyu Islands. This indicates that the sources of the two bulbul populations can be geologically and temporally distinguished. The populations of the two species in the Ogasawara Archipelago are irreplaceable, owing to their genetic differences and should be regarded as evolutionarily significant units. In order to prevent introgression between the two populations, we must restrict interisland transfers.

  10. Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild Deer and Ticks on Two Major Islands in Japan


    Kawahara, Makoto; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lin, Quan; Isogai, Emiko; Tahara, Kenji; Itagaki, Asao; Hiramitsu, Yoshimichi; Tajima, Tomoko


    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma naturally infect deer in Japan. Blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major Japanese islands, Hokkaido and Honshu, were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by PCR assays and sequencing ...

  11. Onchocerca Dewittei Japonica N. Subsp., a common parasite from wild in Kyushu Island, Japan

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    Uni S.


    Full Text Available We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. This study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. Compared with Onchocerca dewittei dewittei from Sus scrofa jubatus in Malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. In addition, its microfilariae (from uteri are shorter (192-210 μm compared with 228-247 μm, and only the posterior third of the microfilarial body is coiled, instead of the entire body. The Onchocerca species parasitic in suids (these two subspecies and O. ramachandrini from the warthog in the Ethiopian region form a group sharing several characters. Among the most unusual characters are the body swellings (a specialized apparatus for mating, known in only a few other genera. In addition, longitudinal cuticular crests were found on males of both subspecies from wild boar and on females of O. ramachandrini.

  12. 日本窃取钓鱼岛的图谋及我国应对策略%Japan's Plot of Stealing the Diaoyu Islands and China's Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丹; 周山丹; 胡利明


      There is extensive oil and natural gas resources in the Diaoyu Islands,and the strategic location of Diaoyu Islands is also very important. The Japanese government tries to grab Chinese Diaoyu Islands through various means in recent years, from Japanese Tokyo Governor manufacturing "buying" of Diaoyu Islands to the Japanese government spending 2.05 billion yen completed the Diaoyu Islands "nationalization", from the Japanese right-wingers "landed on the islands to comfort the souls" to the US-Japan joint military exercises and the strengthening of diplomatic relations,Japan attempts to steal the Diaoyu Islands from the "actual control" to "actual occupation", and change "illegal con-trol" into the "lawful possession". The United States continued to increase its military presence in the Pacific, and tried to apply USA-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty to support Japan in the issue of the Diaoyu Islands,which makes the area an increasingly complex situation. China's Diaoyu Islands sovereignty and territorial integrity is facing a severe threat. Therefore, it is very significant to explore an effective way to solve the Diaoyu Islands dispute to defend the sovereignty of China's maritime territory.%  钓鱼岛拥着丰富的石油、天然气资源和重要的战略位置,日本政府为了改变其能源不足的现状和牵制中国的发展,今年动作不断,从日本东京都知事石原慎太郎制造“购买”钓鱼岛闹剧到日本政府花20.5亿日元完成钓鱼岛“国有化”、从日本右翼分子登岛“慰灵”到美日在联合军演、外交拉拢,日本图谋完成将钓鱼岛从“实际控制”到“实际占领”的转变,变“非法控制”为“合法占有”.美国近两年逐渐战略东移,不断加大在太平洋地区的军事存在,并提出《美日共同防御条约》适用于钓鱼岛偏袒日本,使得这一地区形势日益复杂化.我国钓鱼岛主权和领土完整正面临严峻威胁.因此,

  13. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain


    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  14. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species. (United States)

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki


    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  15. 韩日岛争与美国的态度%Island Dispute between Japan and South Korea as well as the U.S. Attitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    直到19世纪70年代,日本官方在各种文件中仍承认独岛为韩国的领土。20世纪初,日本军国主义在发动大规模侵略战争期间强行将独岛划归日本所有(日本称“竹岛”)。二战结束后,朴正熙执政期间,由日方提出的独岛归属问题成为韩日双方争论的焦点。整个冷战期间,由于韩日两国都是美国的重要盟国,每当韩日两国出现岛争问题时,美国表面上总是持中立态度,实际上存在着听信日本一面之词而混淆是非的问题。韩日岛争的问题不只是领土归属问题,也是一个是历史认识问题。同时,韩日岛争不仅是韩日两国间的问题,也应该加上美国因素,在东北亚国际关系的框架下考察这一历史遗留问题才是恰当的。美国作为调解者,理应选择历史上独岛主权归属韩国的立场,客观公正地解决韩日两国之间的岛争。%Japan had admitted that Dokdo belonged to Korea in various ocial documents until the 1870s. How-ever, in the early 20th century, Japanese militarism forcibly placed Dokdo into Japanese territory as“Takeshima”in a large-scale war of aggression. After World War II, under the government of Park Chung-hee, the ownership of Dokdo became a focus of debate between Korea and Japan. Throughout the Cold War, the United States kept a neutral stand seemingly whenever the island dispute appeared between South Korea and Japan, as the two of them were important U.S. allies by then; while in fact, it believed what Japan said one-sidedly that confused right and wrong. The island dispute between South Korea and Japan was not simply a territorial attribution but the understanding of history. Meanwhile, the island dispute was not simply the problem between South Korea and Japan, the U.S. should be taken into account; and it is proper only when the historical issue is taken into account under the framework of international relations in Northeast Asia

  16. Limited overwater dispersal and genetic differentiation of the snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus) in the Oceanic Ogasawara Islands, Japan. (United States)

    Hayashi, Fumio; Shima, Akina; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Kawakami, Kazuto; Segawa, Ryoko D; Aotsuka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Tadashi


    The genetic differentiation and speciation of lizards on oceanic islands may be affected by their rate of overwater dispersal. Cryptoblepharus is one of the most geographically widespread scincid lizards throughout the Indo-Pacific and Australian regions. Cryptoblepharus nigropunctatus is the northernmost species of the genus, dwelling on several small Pacific islands. To examine the colonization history of this lizard, mitochondrial 16S rDNA and D-loop sequences were compared among populations of the Ogasawara Islands consisting of four island groups (the Muko-jima, Chichi-jima, Haha-jima, and Kazan groups), and an isolated island, Minamitori-shima (Marcus Island). These four groups and Minamitori-shima have not been connected to each other because each is surrounded by deep sea (>100 m). DNA analyses showed that the lizard populations on individual islands had each representative haplotypes. The ancestors of C. nigropunctatus probably arrived on the islands from the southern Pacific Ocean via wave dispersal and differentiated to produce the present state. They appear to have dispersed from their origin along two independent pathways: one between Kitaiwo-to (Kazan group) and the Muko-jima and Chichi-jima groups, and the other among the Minamitori-shima, Minamiiwo-to (Kazan group), and Haha-jima groups. Limited long-distance overwater dispersal may be responsible for the genetic structure of the C. nigropunctatus populations on these oceanic islands. However, among the small islands within the same island group, D-loop haplotypes were shared and the local genetic diversity was usually high, suggesting frequent gene flow across the same group of islands.

  17. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of granite gneiss and paragneiss from Oki-Dogo island, southwest Japan, and their tectonic implications (United States)

    Cho, D.-L.; Takahashi, Y.; Yi, K.; Lee, S. R.


    The Hida belt, located in the northern part of southwest Japan, is considered to be a rarely preserved cratonic remnant originated from the easternmost continental margin of the Eurasian continent before the major build-up of the Japanese Islands. It is thus one of the key tectonic elements to unravel the continental accretion processes of the East Asia that have been almost accomplished at the end of the Permo-Triassic time. The gneiss in the Oki-Dogo Island is considered as a western extension of the Hida gneiss on the basis of similarities in both lithofacies and metamorphic ages. However, recent geochronologic investigations on these gneisses raised a question against the simple tectonic correlation between the Hida belt and Oki-Dogo Island (e.g., Tsutsumi et al., 2006). In this work we report new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages obtained from two granite gneiss and a paragneiss (Oki gneiss) from Oki-Dogo island. Samples include garnet-bearing granite gneiss (OKI8), granite gneiss (OKI14) and garnet-biotite gneiss (OKI13). Most of zircon grains in OKI8 and OKI14 show oscillatory zoning patterns. They give almost equivalent Late Paleoprotrozoic ages of 1867±16 Ma (n=20, MSWD=2.0) and 1881±17 Ma (n= 20, MSWD=4.4) which are interpreted to date the emplacement ages of the granite protoliths. A few of zircon grains from sample OKI8 show recrystallized rims yielding Triassic metamorphic age of 235.0±6.1 Ma (n=9, MSWD=1.8). Zircon grains from OKI13 have overgrowth rims with low Th/U ratio, and gave a Late Paleoprotrozoic metamorphic age of 1867±16 Ma (n=18, MSWD=3.3) marking the timing of the paragneiss. Most of inherited cores of OKI13 zircons showing magmatic zoning patterns with high Th/U ratio gave a spectrum ranging in ages from Late Archean (up to 2693 Ma) to Early Paleotroterozoic. The Permo-Triassic metamorphic age (~235 Ma) obtained here is well corroborated with those reported from the Hida belt. However, formation ages (~1.9 Ga) of the Oki Gneisses are clearly

  18. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori


    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  19. Island-enhanced cooling mechanism in typhoon events revealed by field observations and numerical simulations for a coral reef area, Sekisei Lagoon, Japan (United States)

    Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi


    While widely known for their destructive power, typhoon events can also bring benefit to coral reef ecosystems through typhoon-induced cooling which can mitigate against thermally stressful conditions causing coral bleaching. Sensor deployments in Sekisei Lagoon, Japan's largest coral reef area, during the summer months of 2013, 2014, and 2015 were able to capture local hydrodynamic features of numerous typhoon passages. In particular, typhoons 2015-13 and 2015-15 featured steep drops in near-bottom temperature of 5 °C or more in the north and south sides of Sekisei Lagoon, respectively, indicating local cooling patterns which appeared to depend on the track and intensity of the passing typhoon. This was further investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical simulations conducted for the summer of 2015. The modeling results showed a cooling trend to the north of the Yaeyama Islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-13, and a cooling trend that moved clockwise from north to south of the islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-15. These local cooling events may have been initiated by the Yaeyama Islands acting as an obstacle to a strong typhoon-generated flow which was modulated and led to prominent cooling of waters on the leeward sides. These lower temperature waters from offshore may then be transported to the shallower inner parts of the lagoon area, which may partly be due to density-driven currents generated by the offshore-inner area temperature difference.

  20. Cenozoic stratigraphy on the north of Saigo bay, southern part of Oki-Dogo island, southwest Japan. Oki-Dogo, Saigo wan hoppo no shinseikai so jo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, H. (Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Science)


    The Cenozoic strata, overlying the Oki Metamorphics, are widely distributed on the north of Saigo Bay, the Oki-Dogo Island, Southwest Japan. They are divided into the following seven stratigraphic units in ascending order: the Tokibariyama Formation, the Kori Formation, the Kumi Formation, the Oki Trachyte-Ryolite, the Togo Gravel Bed, the Saigo Basalt, and the Nijiyama Gravel Bed. The geology and the stratigraphy of the area reveal two horizons of basaltic rocks, i.e. the early Mioceno Togo Basalt Member within the Kori Formation and the Quaternary Saigo Basalt which has been thought to be the oldest alkaline volcanics, the Saigo Basalt Group.'' The stratigraphically defined two basaltic rocks also display different petrological and geochemical characteristics. Early Miocene basic volcanic activities, late early Miocene transgression, subsequent middle Miocene rapid subsidence, and late Miocene uplifts were the major geological events in the island during the Miocene Epoch. The Miocene stratigraphy and timing of the geological events such as transgression and subsidence suggests that the geological history of the Oki-Dogo Island is very much similar to that of the western margin of the Yamato Basin. 33 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Description of the Bivalve Littigiella pacifica n. sp. (Heterodonta: Galeommatoidea: Lasaeidae), Commensal with the Sipunculan Sipunculus nudus from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Kosuge, Takeharu


    In the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, Litigiella pacifica n. sp. lives attached to the body of the burrowing sipunculan Sipunculus nudus. The morphology of the shell and the soft parts are described and compared with other bivalve commensal with the same sipunculan. The new species is hermaphroditic, and...

  2. Reconstruction of the 500-year ground surface temperature history of northern Awaji Island, southwest Japan, using a layered thermal property model (United States)

    Goto, Shusaku; Yamano, Makoto


    Changes in the ground surface temperature (GST), propagating underground, can be recorded as thermal perturbations to the background thermal field. This paper presents a forward model of conductive propagation of GST in a layered material model with uniform thermal properties in each layer and a series of step functions as GST history. This model, which is expressed using the same mathematical form of that for a uniform thermal property model with a series of step functions as GST history, calculates subsurface temperature perturbations that originate from the GST change by superimposing numerically solved solutions of the model with surface boundary condition of a unit function. Using this model, we reconstruct the recent 500-year GST history from borehole temperature data in northern Awaji Island, southwest Japan, by Bayesian inversion. The reconstructed GST history shows the onset of warming in the mid-18th century to the early 19th century and an increase of 1.1-1.3 K up to the mid-20th century. From the middle to late 20th century, the GST decreased by about 0.2 K. The GST change in the 20th century fits the trend of mean annual surface air temperature records in Kobe, opposite the coast of northern Awaji Island. The GST history in northern Awaji Island differs from that in Ulsan, in the southeastern Republic of Korea, which is located at the same latitude as northern Awaji Island. Differences of the GST histories of these regions most likely reflect differences in sea surface temperatures in these regions.

  3. 日本和越南边远海岛管理政策探析%On the Management Policies of Remote Islands in Japan and Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓冬; 刘亮; 张凤成


    As China's surrounding marine countries,Japan and Vietnam have attached great importance to the management of the remote islands for island development and conservation management,and estab-lished an institutional system,which covers legislation and related policies.They used planning and man-agement,and other means to promote the development of competitive industries,resources and environ-mental protection in remote islands,increase the infrastructure investment,improve the development of social undertakings,encourage residents to settle in,improve the living environment and strengthen the actual control of remote islands etc.These experiences will help to promote the marine remote islands to be an important economic growth engine and maritime security strategy maintaining platform.The experi-ences will be valuable for the future improvement and strengthen the control ability of remote islands man-agement in China.%作为我国周边的海洋国家,日本和越南都非常重视对边远海岛的管理,针对包括边远海岛在内的海岛开发与保护管理,建立了涵盖立法及相关配套政策在内的制度体系.通过规划管理等手段,促进边远海岛优势产业发展和资源环境保护,不断加大对边远海岛基础设施建设的投入,提高社会事业发展水平,鼓励居民到边远海岛定居,改善边远海岛人居环境,加强对边远海岛的实际管控,将边远海岛作为推动海洋经济发展的重要增长点和维护国家海洋安全的战略平台.这些经验为我国今后提高边远海岛管理水平,强化对边远海岛管控能力等方面具有借鉴意义.

  4. Mercury and other trace metals (Ag, Cr, Co, and Ni) in soft tissue and byssus of Mytilus edulis from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan. (United States)

    Szefer, P; Ikuta, K; Frelek, K; Zdrojewska, I; Nabrzyski, M


    Concentrations of Hg and other metals such as Ag, Cr, Co and Ni in soft tissues and byssi of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from three sites along the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, were determined by a cold-vapor technique. Large inter-regional differences in metal concentrations in both soft tissues and byssi were observed. The tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly greater in M. edulis from the most contaminated locations (Saganoseki) compared to those from a non-industrialized area (Urashiro). It is evident that, compared to the soft tissue, byssus is a more sensitive biomonitor for Hg, Cr, Co and Ni. From the data obtained in the present study evidently results that the soft tissue and especially byssi of M. edulis appear to be good bioindicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to Hg contaminants.

  5. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan (United States)

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis


    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  6. Unusually deep Bonin earthquake of 30 May 2015: A precursory signal to slab penetration? (United States)

    Obayashi, Masayuki; Fukao, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Junko


    An M7.9 earthquake occurred on 30 May 2015 at an unusual depth of 680 km downward and away from the well-defined Wadati-Benioff (WB) zone of the southern Bonin arc. To the north (northern Bonin), the subducted slab is stagnant above the upper-lower mantle boundary at 660-km depth, where the WB zone bends forward to sub-horizontal. To the south (northern Mariana), it penetrates the boundary, where the WB zone extends near-vertically down to the boundary. Thus, the southern Bonin slab can be regarded as being in a transitional state from slab stagnation to penetration. The transition is shown to happen rapidly within the northern half of the southern Bonin slab where the heel part of the shoe-like configured stagnant slab hits the significantly depressed 660-km discontinuity. The mainshock and aftershocks took place in this heel part where they are sub-vertically aligned in approximate parallel to their maximum compressional axes. Here, the dips of the compressional axes of WB zone earthquakes change rapidly across the thickness of the slab from the eastern to western side and along the strike of the slab from the northern to southern side, suggesting rapid switching of the downdip compression axis in the shoe-shaped slab. Elastic deformation associated with the WB zone seismicity is calculated by viewing it as an integral part of the slab deformation process. With this deformation, the heel part is deepened relative to the arch part and is compressed sub-vertically and stretched sub-horizontally, a tendency consistent with the idea of progressive decent of the heel part in which near-vertical compressional stress is progressively accumulated to generate isolated shocks like the 2015 event and eventually to initiate slab penetration.

  7. Low-temperature thermochronometric data from the Japanese Islands and preliminary report on (U-Th)/He ages across NE Japan Arc (United States)

    Tagami, T.; Sueoka, S.; Kohn, B. P.; Fukuda, S.


    A paradox of the deformation pattern in the NE Japan Arc is that the short-term (104 years) deformation estimated from geomorphic and geologic evidence are different in both rate and/or direction. It has been proposed that elastic deformation released by a megathrust earthquake along the Japanese Trench, could resolve this paradox. However, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) has not compensated for the misfit. To understand the physical properties of the crust and mechanism of strain accumulation and release in the NE Japan Arc, more careful and detailed comparisons of deformation using various timescales and methods may provide a fundamental clue. For estimating long-term vertical deformation rates of NE Japan Arc, we performed 1) a compilation of previous low-temperature thermochronometric data in the Japanese Islands and 2) apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He (AHe and ZHe) thermochronometric analyses on the late Cretaceous and Paleogene granitoids across the NE Japan Arc. Both the previous fission-track (FT) and newly obtained AHe ages indicate an obvious contrast in cooling/denudation histories between the fore-arc and back-arc sides of the NE Japan Arc. FT ages of 100-46 Ma and AHe ages of 59-50 Ma in the Abukuma Mountains in the fore-arc side indicate relatively slow cooling/denudation and a stable tectonic setting during the Cenozoic. On the other hand, younger apatite FT ages of 6.1 and 4.6 Ma and AHe ages of 11-1.5 Ma in the Ou Backbone range, Iide-Asahi Mountains, and Echigo Mountains in the back-arc side may reflect rapid cooling/denudation since the latest Miocene or late Pliocene. ZHe ages in the back-arc side range between 54-11 Ma, which is generally consistent with their coexisting AHe ages considering the difference in their closure temperatures.

  8. Geothermal structure of the Miura-Boso plate subduction margin, central Japan (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Hamada, Yohei; Kamiya, Nana; Ojima, Takanori; Chiyonobu, Shun; Saito, Saneatsu


    We have constrained the geothermal structure of the Miura-Boso plate subduction margin, located in central Japan, using maximum paleo-temperature data derived from vitrinite reflectance measurements. We established that higher maximum paleo-temperatures are restricted to the western part of the early Miocene Hota accretionary complex (Hota and Hayama groups), indicating a spatial difference in the amount of slip upon the out-of-sequence thrust potentially associated with the Izu-Bonin Island Arc collision. The weakly deformed sedimentary sequences overlying the highly deformed Hota Group strata have much lower vitrinite reflectance values than the latter. This variation indicates that the sedimentary sequences of the trench slope experienced a markedly lower maximum burial depth than the relatively deep-buried and uplifted Hota accretionary complex. Conversely, maximum paleo-temperatures obtained for tectonic blocks hosted by the neighboring Mineoka ophiolite complex are very high: ca. 140 °C for the large, early Miocene Haccho Formation blocks, and 65-90 °C for the other blocks. This result suggests that the individual tectonic blocks enclosed in the ophiolite complex were subjected exhumation from depths of 3-5 km.

  9. Avian haemosporidian parasites infection in wild birds inhabiting Minami-daito Island of the Northwest Pacific, Japan. (United States)

    Murata, Koichi; Nii, Ryosuke; Yui, Saori; Sasaki, Emi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Sato, Yukita; Matsui, Shin; Horie, Sayaka; Akatani, Kana; Takagi, Masaoki; Sawabe, Kyoko; Tsuda, Yoshio


    Haemosporidian parasites infection among wild birds inhabiting Minami-daito Island was studied. Blood films from 183 birds representing 4 species of 4 families were examined microscopically. Avian haemosporidian parasites were detected in 3 species with an overall prevalence of 59.6%. None of the 30 Daito scops owls (Otus scops interpositus) examined were infected. Either Haemoproteus sp. or Plasmodium sp. infection was found in 14 of 31 (45.2%) Borodino islands white-eyes (Zosterops japonicus daitoensis). Plasmodium spp. were found in 94 of 102 (92.2%) bull-headed shrikes (Lanius bucephalus) and 1 of 20 (5%) tree sparrows (Passer montanus).

  10. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area) (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji


    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  11. An Experimental Study of the Impact of Dynamic Electricity Pricing on Consumer Behavior: An Analysis for a Remote Island in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoa Thi Kim Nguyen


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate how consumer behavior changes after application of dynamic electricity pricing and the persistence of those changes. Based on the investigation results, the authors also discuss the policy implications of demand management to shift consumption to days that have more solar radiation, while at the same time reducing overall consumption. The dynamic pricing experiment was implemented on Nushima Island, located in the center of Japan, with the participation of 50 households. The methodologies used in this study are panel analysis with random effects, and the difference in differences method. Several linear regression analyses are performed to predict hourly electricity usage from a number of explanatory variables, such as life-style factors, the frequency of access to the visualization website, control for weather factors (wind speed and temperatures, and other attributes of the households to predict the log of hourly electric energy consumption. The results show that dynamic pricing brought about 13.8% reduction of electric energy consumption in comparison with the pre-experiment period. Also, by applying a new experimental design approach, this study finds data supportive of habit formation by participants. Based on the findings, this research tries to develop a policy for sustainable energy conservation in remote islands.

  12. Spatial and temporal behavior and acute ecotoxicological effects of Tributyltin (TBT) on coral reef and adjacent ecosystems around Okinawa Island, Japan. (United States)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Higuchi, T.; Imo, T. S.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.


    Spatial and temporal behavior of the tributyl tin (TBT) were investigated in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island, Japan. A seasonal monitoring study was conducted between February and October 2006. The effects of TBT on the carbon metabolisms (net production and calcification) on the intact coral-alga association Galaxea fascicularis were also investigated. Mean concentration of TBT (2.45 ng/L) found in the Manko estuary waters have exceeded some international permissible targets of waters quality guideline for TBT (1ng/L). The sediments in Manko estuary sediments can be considered lightly contaminated (0-20 ng/g dw) and Okukubi estuary as uncontaminated (below 3ng/g dw) with TBT. The seasonal concentration pattern of TBT at the Manko estuary was autumn > spring > summer > winter. The acute ecotoxicological results show that the photosynthesis rate and calcification rate were significantly reduced by 78 % and 72 % relative to the control (ANOVA, p0.05) were observed when corals were exposed to 1000 ng/LTBT. The present study reports the occurrence and continuous input of TBT in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island, even 16 years after legal restriction of TBT usage in coastal waters was implemented by the Japanese Environmental Authorities. However, the nominal sensitive concentration of TBT that causes alteration of carbon metabolisms of coral within 96 hrs exposure are much higher than those recently found in the coral reef waters and adjacent ecosystems.

  13. Crustal Evolution of a Paleozoic Intra-oceanic Island-Arc-Back-Arc Basin System Constrained by the Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Yakuno Ophiolite, Southwest Japan

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    Yoshimitsu Suda


    Full Text Available The Yakuno ophiolite in southwest Japan is considered to have been obducted by the collision between an intra-oceanic island-arc-back-arc basin (intra-OIA-BAB system and the East Asian continent during the late Paleozoic. New SIMS (SHRIMP zircon U-Pb determinations for amphibolite and metagabbro of BAB origin within the Yakuno ophiolite yield ages of 293.4 ± 9.5 Ma and 288 ± 13 Ma, respectively. These ages are slightly older (however, overlapping within analytical errors than the magmatic age of arc granitoids (ca. 285–282 Ma that intruded into the mafic rocks of BAB origin. Results from geochronological and geochemical data of the Yakuno ophiolite give rise to the following tentative geotectonic model for the Paleozoic intra-OIA-BAB system: the initial stage of BAB rifting (ca. 293–288 Ma formed the BAB crust with island-arc basalt (IAB signatures, which was brought to the OIA setting, and generated the arc granitoids (ca. 285–282 Ma by anatexis of the BAB crust. A later stage of BAB rifting (

  14. Tectonic implications of Early Miocene OIB magmatism in a near-trench setting: The Outer Zone of SW Japan and the northernmost Ryukyu Islands (United States)

    Kiminami, Kazuo; Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Ogura, Kazuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Hideo; Mori, Yasushi


    The Outer Zone of the SW Japan and northernmost Ryukyu arcs was affected by intense igneous activity during the Miocene, characterized by MORB-like basalts, alkaline basalts, and S-type (with subordinate I-type) felsic to intermediate volcano-plutonic complexes. These igneous rocks are inferred to be the products of near-trench magmatism. Early Miocene (∼18 Ma) alkaline basalt dikes from the Shingu-Otoyo area in central northern Shikoku, and an alkaline lamprophyre dike from Tanegashima, one of the northernmost Ryukyu Islands, pre-date the Middle Miocene felsic to intermediate igneous rocks. The basalts and lamprophyre have compositions of basanite, basalt, trachybasalt and phonotephrite. They are characterized by elevated large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Sr, Ba, and Th) and high concentrations of high-field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., TiO2, Nb, and Zr). The geochemical signatures of the basalts and lamprophyre suggest an ocean island basalt-type (OIB-type) mantle source. The occurrence of alkaline basalts and lamprophyre with OIB-type, intraplate geochemical signatures in a near-trench setting is unusual with regard to plate tectonic processes. We propose that trench-ward motion of the overriding plate during the period around the Early Miocene resulted in a shallowly dipping slab, and interplate coupling between the subducting Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and the overlying crust beneath most of the Outer Zone in the western part of SW Japan and the northernmost Ryukyu Islands. The OIB-type magmatism in the near-trench environment is most plausibly explained by the upwelling of asthenospheric material from beneath the subducting slab, which migrated through fractures and/or tears in the slab. We envisage two possible scenarios for the formation of these fractures or tears: (1) the shallowing dip angle of the subducted PSP resulted in concave-upwards flexure of the slab, generating fractures in the flexed region; and (2) differential motion within

  15. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan (United States)


    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  16. Recent cryptic extinction of squamate reptiles on Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, inferred from garbage dump remains

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    Yasuyuki Nakamura


    Full Text Available We report recent skeletal remains of squamate reptiles screened from an old garbage dump deposit found on Yoronjima Island, a small island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, in the subtropical northwestern Pacific. Identified remains include at least three species of terrestrial snakes, one sea snake, and seven species of lizards. Among these, the Ryukyu Short-legged Skink, Ateuchosaurus pellopleurus; Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae; and one unidentified Gekko species constitute entirely new findings. For a further two snake species and one lizard species, the evidence presented here is the first specimen-based documentation that these species existed on this island, where they are now evidently absent. The present absence of these species on Yoronjima is mainly attributable to predation by the Japanese Weasel, Mustela itatsi, introduced in the mid-1950s. Our results demonstrate a prominent case of recent, sizable deterioration of insular herpetofaunal diversity, which has never been documented with certainty in the Ryukyu Archipelago, and suggest that human influence should be taken into account in biodiversity research in this area.

  17. Prevalence of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Rural Island Town of Ama-cho, Japan

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    Kenji Wada-Isoe


    Full Text Available Aims: In order to determine the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we conducted a population-based study in Japan. Methods: Participants included 924 subjects aged 65 years or older who resided in the town of Ama-cho. In phase 1 of the study, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating were administered for screening purposes. In phase 2 of the study, the subjects who screened positive were further examined by neurologists. Dementia and MCI were diagnosed by means of DSM-IV and International Working Group on MCI criteria, respectively. Results: By the prevalence date of June 1, 2010, 24 subjects had deceased or lived outside the town. In total, 723 of the remaining 900 subjects received a phase 1 test. In phase 2, 98 subjects were diagnosed with amnestic MCI, 113 subjects with non-amnestic MCI, and 82 subjects with dementia. Of the subjects who did not receive the phase 1 test, 66 subjects were diagnosed as having dementia according to data from their town medical card or the Long-term Care Insurance System. The crude prevalence of amnestic MCI, non-amnestic MCI, and dementia were 10.9, 12.6, and 16.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Consistent with the striking increase in the number of elderly individuals, we report higher prevalence of MCI and dementia in Japan than previously described.

  18. Geology and tectonics of Japanese islands: A review - The key to understanding the geology of Asia (United States)

    Wakita, Koji


    complexes in the Japanese Islands are of Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene age. These accretionary complexes became altered locally to low-temperature and high-pressure metamorphic, or high-temperature and low-pressure metamorphic rocks. Medium-pressure metamorphic rocks are limited to the Unazuki and Higo belts. Major plutonism occurred in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Early Paleozoic Cambrian igneous activity is recorded as granites in the South Kitakami Belt. Late Paleozoic igneous activity is recognized in the Hida Belt. During Cretaceous to Paleogene time, extensive igneous activity occurred in Japan. The youngest granite in Japan is the Takidani Granite intruded at about 1-2 Ma. During Cenozoic time, the most important geologic events are back-arc opening and arc-arc collision. The major back-arc basins are the Sea of Japan and the Shikoku and Chishima basins. Arc-arc collision occurred between the Honshu and Izu-Bonin arcs, and the Honshu and Chishima arcs.

  19. Kozu-Matsuda fault system in northern Izu collision zone, western part of Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan (United States)

    Odawara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.


    Western area of Kanagawa Prefecture is techtonically highlighted by its geological setting that the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc collides with the Japan Island arc there. The Kozu-Matsuda fault system which consists of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, the Matsuda-kita fault, the Hinata fault and the Hirayama fault is a surface manifestation of the plate boundary. Research of the Kozu-Matsuda fault has advanced dramatically after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Having conducted a trench survey, Kanagawa Prefectural Government (2004) reported that the Kozu-Matsuda fault was activated at least four times in the past 4000 years and the latest activity occurred 650-950 years ago (AD. 1350-1050). However, details of the activity of the Hinata and Hirayama faults, the northern extension of the Kozu-Matsuda fault, are not well understood. The Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban areas (DaiDaiToku) made a 2040 m deep drilling in 2004 in Yamakita Town (Hayashi et al., 2006). DaiDaiToku also carried out the seismic reflection profiling along a route from Odawara to Yamanashi in 2005 (Sato et al., 2005). The study done by DaiDaiToku elucidated presence of two north-dipping thrusts. The northern thrust corresponds to the Hinata fault, and the southern one which is also considered to be a continuation of the Kozu-Matsuda fault probably represents a frontal thrust (Miyauchi et al., 2006). We have conducted paleoseismic investigations using data from boreholes across these thrusts.

  20. Regional evolution of venom-gland phospholipase A2 isoenzymes of Trimeresurus flavoviridis snakes in the southwestern islands of Japan. (United States)

    Chijiwa, T; Deshimaru, M; Nobuhisa, I; Nakai, M; Ogawa, T; Oda, N; Nakashima, K; Fukumaki, Y; Shimohigashi, Y; Hattori, S; Ohno, M


    Conventional chromatographic analysis showed that phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isoenzymes of the venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Habu snake) of Okinawa island are profoundly different in composition from those of T. flavoviridis of Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima islands. The most striking feature was that myotoxic [Lys(49)]PLA(2) isoenzymes, called BPI and BPII, which are expressed abundantly in the venoms of Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima T. flavoviridis, are missing from the venom of Okinawa T. flavoviridis. Northern blot analysis of Okinawa T. flavoviridis venom-gland mRNA species showed the absence of BPI and BPII mRNA species. Analysis by single-stranded conformational polymorphism-PCR of venom-gland mRNA species of T. flavoviridis from three islands, with reference to five DNA species each encoding different PLA(2) isoenzymes from Tokunoshima T. flavoviridis venom gland, also suggested that BPI and BPII mRNA species are not expressed in Okinawa T. flavoviridis venom gland. In contrast, genomic Southern blot analysis with a variety of probes showed that only the bands corresponding to the upstream and downstream regions of the genes for BPI and/or BPII can be detected in Okinawa T. flavoviridis. These results suggested that the genes for BPI and BPII in Okinawa T. flavoviridis genome had been inactivated to form pseudogenes. Differently from Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima T. flavovirdis genomic DNAs, PCR amplification of the segments of BPI and BPII genes between the 5' moiety of second exon and the middle portion of second intron failed for Okinawa T. flavoviridis genomic DNAs. In sequence analysis of the two segments involving polymorphism between BPI and BPII genes, which are located in first exon and third exon, respectively, only one base was detected at the polymorphic positions for pseudogene in Okinawa T. flavoviridis genome. Based on these facts, it became evident for pseudogene that the upstream region of BPI gene down to the 5' moiety of second exon

  1. Distribution and migration of aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 7.4 Ogasawara Islands intraplate normal-faulting earthquake related to a fracture zone in the Pacific plate (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; No, Tetsuo; Kaiho, Yuka; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yamashita, Mikiya; Sato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takeshi


    describe the aftershocks of a Mw 7.4 intraplate normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 150 km east Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, on 21 December 2010. It occurred beneath the outer trench slope of the Izu-Ogasawara trench, where the Pacific plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea plate. Aftershock observations using ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) began soon after the earthquake and multichannel seismic reflection surveys were conducted across the aftershock area. Aftershocks were distributed in a NW-SE belt 140 km long, oblique to the N-S trench axis. They formed three subparallel lineations along a fracture zone in the Pacific plate. The OBS observations combined with data from stations on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands revealed a migration of the aftershock activity. The first hour, which likely outlines the main shock rupture, was limited to an 80 km long area in the central part of the subsequent aftershock area. The first hour activity occurred mainly around, and appears to have been influenced by, nearby large seamounts and oceanic plateau, such as the Ogasawara Plateau and the Uyeda Ridge. Over the following days, the aftershocks expanded beyond or into these seamounts and plateau. The aftershock distribution and migration suggest that crustal heterogeneities related to a fracture zone and large seamounts and oceanic plateau in the incoming Pacific plate affected the rupture of the main shock. Such preexisting structures may influence intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes in other regions of plate flexure prior to subduction.

  2. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakama, M., E-mail: [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Nagano, Y. [Department of Radiological Science, Division of Biomedical Information Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Kitade, T. [Department of Laboratory, M and S Instruments Inc., Osaka 532-0005 (Japan); Shikino, O. [Department of Inorganic Analysis, PerkinElmer Japan Co. Ltd., Yokohama 240-0005 (Japan); Nakayama, S. [Department of Nuclear Science, Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)


    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  3. Bispinodinium angelaceum gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new sand-dwelling dinoflagellate from the seafloor off Mageshima Island, Japan(1). (United States)

    Yamada, Norico; Terada, Ryuta; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo


    A new athecate dinoflagellate, Bispinodinium angelaceum N. Yamada et Horiguchi gen. et sp. nov., is described from a sand sample collected on the seafloor at a depth of 36 m off Mageshima Island, subtropical Japan. The dinoflagellate is dorsiventrally compressed and axi-symmetric along the sulcus. The morphology resembles that of the genus Amphidinium sensu lato by having a small epicone that is less than one third of the total cell length. However, it has a new type of apical groove, the path of which traces the outline of a magnifying glass. The circular component of this path forms a complete circle in the center of the epicone and the straight "handle" runs from the sulcus to the circular component. Inside the cell, a pair of elongated fibrous structure termed here the "spinoid apparatus" extends from just beneath the circular apical groove to a point near the nucleus. Each of two paired structures consists of at least 10 hyaline fibers and this is a novel structure found in dinoflagellates. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU and LSU RNA genes did not show any high bootstrap affinities with currently known athecate dinoflagellates. On the basis of its novel morphological features and molecular signal, we conclude that this dinoflagellate should be described as a new species belonging to a new genus.

  4. Analysis of early bacterial communities on volcanic deposits on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan: a 6-year study at a fixed site. (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Nanba, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki


    Microbial colonization on new terrestrial substrates represents the initiation of new soil ecosystem formation. In this study, we analyzed early bacterial communities growing on volcanic ash deposits derived from the 2000 Mount Oyama eruption on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima), Japan. A site was established in an unvegetated area near the summit and investigated over a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Collected samples were acidic (pH 3.0-3.6), did not utilize any organic substrates in ECO microplate assays (Biolog), and harbored around 106 cells (g dry weight)(-1) of autotrophic Fe(II) oxidizers by most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and the Leptospirillum groups I, II and III were found to be abundant in the deposits by clone library analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The numerical dominance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also supported by analysis of the gene coding for the large subunit of the form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Comparing the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from samples differing in age, shifts in Fe(II)-oxidizing populations seemed to occur with deposit aging. The detection of known 16S rRNA gene sequences from Fe(III)-reducing acidophiles promoted us to propose the acidity-driven iron cycle for the early microbial ecosystem on the deposit.

  5. Distribution and association of trace metals in soft tissue and byssus of Mytilus edulis from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan. (United States)

    Szefer, P; Ikuta, K; Kushiyama, S; Szefer, K; Frelek, K; Geldon, J


    Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Cr, Co Ni, Mn, andFe in soft tissues and byssi of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) fromthree sites along the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, were determined byAAS method. Large inter-regional differences in metal concentrations in bothsoft tissues and byssi (Cu, Cd, and Pb and Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn, and Fe,respectively) were recorded. Highly significant correlations (pbyssus are useful in detectingsome areas of some metallic contaminants. The high concentrations of Cd, andespecially Pb and Cu, in Saganoseki mussels and moderately elevatedconcentrations of these metals in Akamizu mussels may be attributed to theanthropogenic emissions from a metallic refinery and an artificial fiberfactory, respectively. It is evident that, compared to the soft tissue, theincrease of Cu levels relative to Zn levels in the byssi of M.edulis are eight times higher, with a slope b (Cu/Zn) of 7.5 for byssusand 0.93 for soft tissue. This suggests that byssus, as compared to softtissue, is a more sensitive bioindicator for Cu. From the data obtained, thesoft tissue and especially byssi of M. edulis appear to be goodbioindicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to metalliccontaminants.

  6. Comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the Pacific hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan. (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Okuyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masato; Abe, Osamu; Arai, Nobuaki


    Mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. In this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the Yaeyama Islands, Japan. Phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and green turtles in the Pacific probably underwent very similar patterns and processes of population dynamics over the last million years, with population subdivision during the early Pleistocene and population expansion after the last glacial maximum. These significant contemporary historical events were suggested to have been caused by climatic and sea-level fluctuations. On the other hand, comparing our results to long-term population dynamics in the Atlantic, population subdivisions during the early Pleistocene were specific to Pacific hawksbill and green turtles. Therefore, regional differences in historical population dynamics are suggested. Despite limited sampling locations, these results are the first step in estimating the historical trends in Pacific sea turtles by using phylogenetics and population genetics.

  7. Continuous measurement of CO2 flux through the snowpack in a dwarf bamboo ecosystem on Rishiri Island, Hokkaido, Japan (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Nakayama, Momoko; Yoshikawa Inoue, Hisayuki


    To investigate the dynamics and environmental drivers of CO2 flux through the winter snowpack in a dwarf bamboo ecosystem (Hokkaido, northeast Japan), we constructed an automated sampling system to measured CO2 concentrations at five different levels in the snowpack, from the base to the upper snow surface. Using a gas diffusion approach, we estimated an average apparent soil CO2 flux of 0.26 μmol m-2 s-1 during the snow season (December-April); temporally, the CO2 flux increased until mid-snow season, but showed no clear trend thereafter; late-season snow-melting events resulted in rapid decreases in apparent CO2 flux values. Air temperature and subnivean CO2 flux exhibited a positive linear relationship. After eliminating the effects of wind pumping, we estimated the actual soil CO2 flux (0.41 μmol m-2 s-1) to be 54% larger than the apparent flux. This study provides new constraints on snow-season carbon emissions in a dwarf bamboo ecosystem in northeast Asia.

  8. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoji; Endo, Daisuke; Ikehata, Kei; Oshika, Junya; Shinmura, Taro; Mori, Yasushi


    We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths) in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899-955°C) and pressures (3.6-5.9 kbar) than the B-type gabbro (687-824°C and 0.8-3.6 kbar). These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic) magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  9. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints

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    Arakawa Yoji


    Full Text Available We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899–955°C and pressures (3.6–5.9 kbar than the B-type gabbro (687–824°C and 0.8–3.6 kbar. These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  10. Regionalized difference of the 660 km discontinuity beneath Izu-Bonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周元泽; 蒋志勇; 臧绍先


    Digital waveform data recorded by the vertical component short period stations at the American networks of SCSN, NCSN and PNSN and three components broadband stations at the Germany and Swiss networks and arrays of GRFN, GRSN and SDSNet for the events between 1981 and 2000 under Izu-Bonin are used as data sets. The N-th root slant stack method was used to pick up the SdP phase converted at the velocity interface beneath source and the regionalized difference of the 660 km discontinuity beneath Izu-Bonin is studied. It is found that while the dip angles of the subducting slab and the maximal depths of sources increase gradually from 35(N to 26(N, the 660 km discontinuity appears regionalized differences. The discontinuity exists at 660 km while there is no effect from subducting slab, but it is depressed to the depth of 720 km while there are obvious effects. The dispersion of converted points is still an unsolved problem which maybe result from the complex structure of the discontinuity, converted phases which were misjudged, or the assumption of one dimensional spherical earth model.

  11. Repeated magmatism at 34 Ma and 23-20 Ma producing high magnesian adakitic andesites and transitional basalts on southern Okushiri Island, NE Japan arc (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Shuto, Kenji; Nohara-Imanaka, Rikako; Takazawa, Eiichi; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko


    The southern part of Okushiri Island in the present-day back-arc margin of the NE Japan arc is one of the rare convergent plate boundaries where similar magma types (high-magnesian adakitic andesite (HMAA) and high-TiO2 basalt (HTB)) have been erupted concurrently at more than one time. Oligocene HMAA can be divided into two types: HMAA-I is characterized by high Sr/Y and low Y, and HMAA-II by relatively low Sr/Y and high Y. HMAA-I is primitive in terms of MgO (8.5 wt.%), Mg# (67), Ni (232 ppm) and Cr (613 ppm) contents, and the most Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts plot within the mantle olivine array in terms of Fo and NiO. The similar Cr versus Ni relations of types I and II HMAA indicate some interaction of slab-derived adakitic melts with mantle peridotite, whereas Ni contents are higher than those of most boninites derived by partial melting of mantle peridotite at a given Cr content. Types I and II HMAA have more enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than N-MORB. The petrography and geochemistry of these rocks, combined with published results on the genesis of high-magnesian andesite (HMA) indicate that types I and II HMAA could be produced by interaction of slab (N-MORB and sediment)-derived adakitic melts with mantle peridotite. The comagmatism of HMAA and HTB is ascribed to the following model. A cool, less hydrous, adakite magma (spherical diapir) would rise from the subducting slab (Pacific Plate) and become more hydrous as a result of its interaction with overlying hydrous peridotite. This hydrated adakitic diapir further ascends and is heated on entering the overlying mantle wedge. Subsequently, the temperature and H2O gradients in the ascending adakitic diapir and surrounding mantle peridotite would have been established. The HTB magma segregated from the surrounding mantle peridotite region (high temperature and low H2O content) at a depth of 60 km or more, whereas the adakitic diapir (low temperature and high H2O content) continued to rise, with its

  12. 3-D simulation for the tectonic evolution around the Kanto Region of Japan using the kinematic plate subduction model (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.


    In the Kanto region of Japan, we can observe one of the most active crustal deformations on the earth. In the southern part of the Boso peninsula to the south, the uplift rate is estimated to be 5 mm/yr from the height of marine terraces. From geological evidence, the Kanto mountains to the west are considered to uplift at 1mm/yr. In contrast, the center part of the Kanto region is stable or subsiding, covered by the Holocene sediments. The depth of the basement reaches 3 km at the deepest. Vertical deformation in the timescale of 1 Myr is being revealed by the analysis of the recent seismic reflection experiments compared with the heights of the dated sediment layers exposed on land. These crustal deformation occurs in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands due to the buoyancy of the arc crust. At the plate boundaries near the Izu-Bonin arc, large interplate earthquakes occurred at the Sagami trough in 1703 and 1923 (Kanto earthquake) and at the Nankai trough in 1707, 1854 and 1944. To reveal the crustal deformation under these plate-to-plate interactions, we use the kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend

  13. Incidence survey of acute otitis media in children in Sado Island, Japan--Sado Otitis Media Study (SADOMS.

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    Taketo Otsuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM is one of the most common forms of bacterial infection and cause for clinic visits in children. The incidence of AOM was 0.9-1.2 episodes per person-year during the first 2 years of life in previous reports conducted before 2000. The aim of this study was to 1 evaluate the latest AOM incidence in pediatric outpatients and 2 identify the bacterial pathogens from these patients and ascertain their serotypes and resistance. METHODS: The study was conducted in a closed population, involving all pediatricians and otolaryngologists in Sado Island allowing accurate determination of AOM incidence. In each month, one week was assigned as "surveillance week", and all outpatients with acute illness aged 0-18 years examined during the surveillance weeks were enrolled. AOM was diagnosed on the basis of otoscopic findings and clinical symptoms were recorded. Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx or middle ear cavity of AOM patients and examined for bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibilities, serotypes, and molecular typing for resistance were determined among Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. RESULTS: In total, 8,283 clinic visits were conducted, and 354 episodes (4.3%, 95% CI: 3.9-4.7% among 312 children were diagnosed as AOM. The incidence of AOM was highest in children of 1 year of age (0.54 episodes/child/year, 95% CI: 0.44-0.64. Serotype coverage of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in this study were 38.0% (95% CI: 29.3-47.3 and 62.8% (95% CI: 53.6-71.4, respectively. Of 122 H.influenzae isolates available for typing, 120 were nontypeable and 2 were type b. A high proportion of S. pneumoniae isolates (46% showed resistance to penicillin. Approximately half of H. influenzae isolates had genetic markers for beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 4-5% of pediatric outpatients, even without AOM-related symptoms, had AOM in our study. Pediatricians

  14. Long-term observations of black carbon mass concentrations at Fukue Island, western Japan, during 2009-2015: constraining wet removal rates and emission strengths from East Asia (United States)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Pan, Xiaole; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Taketani, Fumikazu; Uno, Itsushi; Kondo, Yutaka


    Long-term (2009-2015) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were performed using a continuous soot-monitoring system (COSMOS) at Fukue Island, western Japan, to provide information on wet removal rate constraints and the emission strengths of important source regions in East Asia (China and others). The annual average mass concentration was 0.36 µg m-3, with distinct seasonality; high concentrations were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring and were caused by Asian continental outflows, which reached Fukue Island in 6-46 h. The observed data were categorized into two classes, i.e., with and without a wet removal effect, using the accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) for the last 3 days as an index. Statistical analysis of the observed ΔBC / ΔCO ratios was performed to obtain information on the emission ratios (from data with zero APT only) and wet removal rates (including data with nonzero APTs). The estimated emission ratios (5.2-6.9 ng m-3 ppb-1) varied over the six air mass origin areas; the higher ratios for south-central East China (30-35° N) than for north-central East China (35-40° N) indicated the relative importance of domestic emissions and/or biomass burning sectors. The significantly higher BC / CO emission ratios adopted in the bottom-up Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2 (8.3-23 ng m-3 ppb-1) over central East China and Korea needed to be reduced at least by factors of 1.3 and 2.8 for central East China and Korea, respectively, but the ratio for Japan was reasonable. The wintertime enhancement of the BC emission from China, predicted by REAS2, was verified for air masses from south-central East China but not for those from north-central East China. Wet removal of BC was clearly identified as a decrease in the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio against APT. The transport efficiency (TE), defined as the ratio of the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio with precipitation to that without precipitation, was

  15. Eruption Depths, Magma Storage and Magma Degassing at Sumisu Caldera, Izu-Bonin Arc: Evidence from Glasses and Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.


    Island arc volcanoes can become submarine during cataclysmal caldera collapse. The passage of a volcanic vent from atmospheric to under water environment involves complex modifications of the eruption style and subsequent transport of the pyroclasts. Here, we use FTIR measurements of the volatile contents of glass and melt inclusions in the juvenile pumice clasts in the Sumisu basin and its surroundings (Izu-Bonin arc) to investigate changes in eruption depths, magma storage and degassing over time. This study is based on legacy cores from ODP 126, where numerous unconsolidated (250 m), massive to normally graded pumice lapilli-tuffs were recovered over four cores (788C, 790A, 790B and 791A). Glass and clast geochemistry indicate the submarine Sumisu caldera as the source of several of these pumice lapilli-tuffs. Glass chips and melt inclusions from these samples were analyzed using FTIR for H2O and CO2 contents. Glass chips record variable H2O contents; most chips contain 0.6-1.6 wt% H2O, corresponding to eruption depths of 320-2100 mbsl. Variations in glass H2O and pressure estimates suggest that edifice collapse occurred prior-to or during eruption of the oldest of these samples, and that the edifice may have subsequently grown over time. Sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from two units record variably degassed but H2O-rich melts (1.1-5.6 wt% H2O). The lowest H2O contents overlap with glass chips, consistent with degassing and crystallization of melts until eruption, and the highest H2O contents suggest that large amounts of degassing accompanied likely explosive eruptions. Most inclusions, from both units, contain 2-4 wt% H2O, which further indicates that the magmas crystallized at pressures of ~50-100 MPa, or depths ~400-2800 m below the seafloor. Further glass and melt inclusion analyses, including major element compositions, will elucidate changes in magma storage, degassing and evolution over time.

  16. A pilot study of tele-anaesthesia by virtual private network between an island hospital and a mainland hospital in Japan. (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuya; Mizuno, Yusuke; Sugawara, Yo; Nagamine, Yusuka; Koyama, Yukihide; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Uchimoto, Kazuhiro; Iketani, Yasuhiro; Tojo, Kentaro; Goto, Takahisa


    We studied the use of tele-anaesthesia between Sado General Hospital (SGH) located on Sado Island and Yokohama City University Hospital (YCUH) located in mainland Japan. The two sites were connected via a virtual private network (VPN). We investigated the relationship between the bandwidth of the VPN and both the frame rate and the delay time of the tele-anaesthesia monitoring system. The tool used for communication between the two hospitals was free videoconferencing software (FaceTime), which can be used over Wi-Fi connections. We also investigated the accuracy of the commands given during teleanaesthesia: any commands from the anaesthetist at the YCUH that were not carried out for any reason, were recorded in the anaesthetic records at the SGH. The original frame rate and data rate at the SGH were 5 fps and approximately 18 Mbit/s, respectively. The frame rate at the transmission speeds of 1, 5 and 20 Mbit/s was 0.6, 1.6 and 5.0 fps, respectively. The corresponding delay time was 12.2, 4.9 and 0.7 s. Twenty-five adult patients were enrolled in the study and tele-anaesthesia was performed. The total duration of anaesthesia was 37 hours. All 888 anaesthetic commands were completed. There were 7 FaceTime disconnections, which lasted for 10 min altogether. Because no commands needed to be given during the FaceTime disconnection, the telephone was not used. The anaesthesia assistance system might form part of the solution to medical resource shortages.


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    Yu. L. Rebetsky


    Full Text Available The article presents results of tectonophysical methods applied to reconstruct tectonic stress field of the north-western flank of the Pacific Ocean seismic focal zone in the region wherein the 2011 Tohoku earthquake was prepared. The reconstructions are based on earthquake foci data for the time period before the catastrophic seismic event. The field of stresses, wherein the Tohoku earthquake focus was formed, had a high gradient along the dip of the seismic focal zone. It is revealed that the focus developed in the junction area of the crust segments with high and low levels of effective pressure. A wide area of lower effective pressure was located at depths close to 30 km, and it was the most susceptible to brittle fracture. In our opinion, the area impacted by the Tohoku earthquake is large due to a large length of the crustal segments with the high gradient of stresses, which are located along the eastern part of the crust of the Honshu Island.The stress reconstruction also shows that the axis of the Japan oceanic trough divides the seismic focal zone into areas of horizontal compression (westward and horizontal extension (eastwards. According to our calculations, lateral compression is the highest at the crustal depths up to 20 km westward of the trough’s axis, where maximum lateral compression axes are oriented orthogonally to the trough’s strike. Eastward of the trough’s axis, minimum horizontal compression axes are oriented orthogonally to the trough’s strike. At the crossing point of the Japan trough, a sharp changing of stress is by a factor of 5 to 8 of internal cohesion of rocks, τf. This sharp changing of stress is lower for the Izu-Bonin trough and varies from 3 to 5 τf. 

  18. Rapid sedimentation of iron oxyhydroxides in an active hydrothermal shallow semi-enclosed bay at Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island, Kagoshima, Japan (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Ueshiba, Takuya


    Hydrothermal activity is common in the fishing port of Nagahama Bay, a small semi-enclosed bay located on the southwest coast of Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island (38 km south of Kyushu Island, Japan). The bay contains red-brown iron oxyhydroxides and thick deposits of sediment. In this work, the high concentration and sedimentation rates of oxyhydroxide in this bay were studied and the sedimentary history was reconstructed. Since dredging work in 1998, a thickness of 1.0-1.5 m of iron oxyhydroxide-rich sediments has accumulated on the floor of the bay. To estimate the volume of iron oxyhydroxide sediments and the amount discharged from hydrothermal vents, sediment traps were operated for several years and 13 sedimentary core samples were collected to reconstruct the 10-year sedimentary history of Nagahama Bay. To confirm the timing of sedimentary events, the core data were compared with meteorological records obtained on the island, and the ages of characteristic key beds were thus identified. The sedimentation rate of iron oxyhydroxide mud was calculated, after correcting for sediment input from other sources. The sediments in the 13 cores from Nagahama Bay consist mainly of iron oxyhydroxide mud, three thick tephra beds, and a topmost thick sandy mud bed. Heavy rainfall events in 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004-2005 coincide with tephra beds, which were reworked from Iwo-Dake ash deposits to form tephra-rich sediment. Strong typhoon events with gigantic waves transported outer-ocean-floor sediments and supplied quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and albite sands to Nagahama Bay. These materials were redeposited together with bay sediments as the sandy mud bed. Based on the results from the sediment traps and cores, it is estimated that the iron oxyhydroxide mud accumulated in the bay at the relatively rapid rate of 33.3 cm/year (from traps) and 2.8-4.9 cm/year (from cores). The pore water contents within the sediment trap and core sediments are 73%-82% and 47%-67%, respectively

  19. Inland stress accumulation in the Southwest Japan arc due to interseismic coupling along the Nankai trough and slab rollback under the Ryukyu trench (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya


    In the last 20 years, Southwest (SW) Japan has experienced M7 inland earthquakes, such as the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake. Korean Peninsula, which is regarded as a stable region, also suffered by the largest earthquake (Mw5.4) ever observed in 2016. The historical earthquake catalog based on paleographical studies implies that M7-class inland earthquakes were activated from 50 years before interplate earthquakes beneath the Nankai Trough, which repeatedly occurred with the interval of 100-200 years. Considering that 70 years has passed since the last interplate ruptures in 1944 and 1946, the recent M7 inland earthquakes appear related with stress accumulation before an interplate earthquake. We attempt to reveal this relation between the inland activity and the interplate earthquakes using a 3-D finite element model (FEM) including the viscoelastic feature in the mantle. Our FEM considers a region of 3700 km x 4600 km x 700 km, incorporating the Pacific and the Philippine sea slabs by interpolating models for the Northeast (NE) and SW Japan arcs, as well as the Ryukyu, Kuril and Izu-Bonin arcs. In particular, the complex geometry of the Philippine Sea slab with the large bend due to the subduciton of the Kyushu-Palau ridge is crucial to creat the stress field in SW Japan. The model region is divided into about 1000,000 tetrahedral elements with dimension ranging from 5-100 km. Using a distribution of interplate coupling on the plate interface from previous studies, we calculated velocity field and stress accumulation rate. Calculated velocity field and stress accumulation pattern well reproduced the observed velocity field and the mechanism of the recent inland earthquakes, respectively, in the middle region of the SW Japan. However, these results cannot explain the velocity and stress fields in the southern part of the Kyushu island, which is affected by the slab rollback occurring in the Ryukyu trench. We calculate the effect of slab rollback by assigning

  20. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven


    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  1. On the Relationship between Liuchiu Islands and 30 Degrees North Latitude Line as China-Japan Islands Territorial Boundary according to FRUS%美国外交档案中琉球群岛与中日岛屿领土分界北纬30°线问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    中美英反法西斯盟国在《开罗宣言》中对处置日本海外领地进行了原则规定,盟国的立场和态度充分体现在“三个所有”的规定上。处置日本海外领土中,琉球群岛的地位和定性非常关键,直接关系到战后处置日本本土问题。西方国家对琉球群岛的立场是清晰的,即琉球群岛不是日本固有领土。《波茨坦公告》是《开罗宣言》处置日本的原则规定的逻辑发展,其对战后日本领土主权作出明确规定,即战后日本领土主权仅限于其本土四岛及盟国决定的临近小岛礁。将日本所有武装力量及附属民事机构从北纬30°线以南地区驱逐出去是《开罗宣言》、《波茨坦公告》的法律文件的实施要求,也是日本战败的必然,由此北纬30°线成为战后中日海上岛屿领土的分界线。%In Cairo Communiquéthe three great Allies declared that Japan should be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which it seized or occupied since the beginning of World War I in 1914,and that all the territories Japan has stolen from China,such as Manchuria,Formosa,and the Pescadores,should be restored to the Republic of China,Japan would also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed.The western countries are familiar with the history of Liuchiu islands and know Liuchiu islands are not Japan's inherent territories.Japan's sovereignty in the post World War Ⅱ is limited to four native islands and its adjacent minor off-lying islands north of 30 degrees north latitude line Potsdam Declaration stipulates that all Japanese armed forces personnel and their civilian auxiliaries shall be evacua-ted from all land and water areas south of 30 degrees north latitude.It is not only requirements but also im-plementation results of Cairo Communique and Potsdam Proclamation.As a result,30 degrees north latitude line became the dividing line of islands territory between

  2. Fate of an Oceanic Island-arc at the Collision Zone: Insight From a Modern Case at the Izu Collision Zone, Central Japan (United States)

    Aoike, K.


    Arc-arc or arc-continent collision zone, which separates an arc crust into materials to be left on the earth_fs surface and to be returned to the mantle, is regarded as the final disposal place of the subduction factory product. Mass balance across the collision boundary, therefore, should have great significance in the processes of continental growth and mantle evolution. The Izu Collision Zone (ICZ) located at the conjunction of the Honshu arc and the Izu-Bonin arc (IBA), is a place of ongoing orthogonal arc-arc collision, where the middle to upper crust of the northern IBA is exposed on land as accretionary terranes. The IBA-ICZ system is much advantageous for elucidating the mass balance, because that the product is simple and fresh and the flow from manufacture to disposal is quite clear. Across arc variation of buoyancy and rheological state of the lithosphere controlled principally by geothermal gradient would regulate the regime of collision tectonics. Crust-scale accretion is taking place associated with conspicuous crustal shortening and thickening in the central ICZ where the active arc that is about 100 km wide and 20 km thick is colliding. By contrast, almost the whole arc crust is subducting, leaving the off-scraped sediments as accretionary prisms in the eastern and western areas where the inactive forearc and backarc, totally 200 km wide and averagely 14 km thick, are colliding. Based on the land geology and existing seismic structure, crustal volume of the accreted IBA is estimated for the line along the axis of the ICZ and another line passing through the Tanzawa Terrane situated eastward 30 km apart from the axis. The estimation indicates that the volume of the Tanzawa line is significantly smaller (16 %) than that of the axis, in spite of being very close. This difference is explainable, if the Philippine Sea Plate slab including expected aseismic part is accompanied with 7 km thick subducted arc crust. This result of calculation implies that

  3. The Role of Philippine Sea Plate to the Genesis of Quaternary Magmas of Northern Kyushu Island, Japan, Inferred from Along-Arc Geochemical Variations (United States)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, J.; Ujike, O.; Miyoshi, M.; Takemura, K.


    Quaternary volcanoes on Kyushu Island comprise volcanoes Himeshima, Futagoyama, Yufu-Tsurumi, Kuju, Aso, Kirishima and Sakurajima from north to south alongstrike the volcanic front. Adakitic lavas are observed from Yufu-Tsurumi and Kuju volcanoes in northern Kyushu (Kita et al., 2001; Sugimoto et al., 2007), whereas no Quaternary adakites were observed at Aso (e.g., Hunter, 1998) and the volcanoes south of Aso along the entire Ryukyu arc. Sugimoto et al. (2007) suggested that the trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of adakitic magmas from Yufu-Tsurumi volcano indicate derivation of the magmas by partial melting of the subducting PSP. In contrast, Zellmer et al. (2012) suggested that these adakites may have formed by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas within the garnet stability field in the crust. The Honshu-Kyushu arc transition is a particular favorable setting to address these controversial models for the origin of the adakitic lavas, because of the potential relationship between the PSP materials and the alongstrike variation of the lava chemistry. The Palau-Kyushu ridge divides the oceanic crust of the PSP into northeastern and southwestern segments with ages of 26-15 (Shikoku Basin) and 60-40 Ma (West Philippine Basin), respectively (Mahony et al., 2011). Although there are no clear plate images beneath northern Kyushu, the northern extension of the Palau-Kyushu ridge potentially corresponds to the boundary between the SW Japan and Ryukyu arcs. If adakite genesis was related to the subducted slab rather than the overlying crust, then the spatial distribution of Quaternary adakites should correlate with the age of the subducted PSP. In order to test such correlation and elucidate the petrogenesis of the northern Kyushu adakites, we compiled major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from volcanoes along the arc front that includes the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic arc volcanism. Comprehensive

  4. S-wave attenuation structure beneath the northern Izu-Bonin arc (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi


    To understand temperature structure or magma distribution in the crust and uppermost mantle, it is essential to know their attenuation structure. This study estimated the 3-D S-wave attenuation structure in the crust and uppermost mantle at the northern Izu-Bonin arc, taking into account the apparent attenuation due to multiple forward scattering. In the uppermost mantle, two areas of high seismic attenuation (high Q -1) imaged beneath the volcanic front were mostly colocated with low-velocity anomalies. This coincidence suggests that these high- Q -1 areas in low-velocity zones are the most likely candidates for high-temperature regions beneath volcanoes. The distribution of random inhomogeneities indicated the presence of three anomalies beneath the volcanic front: Two were in high- Q -1 areas but the third was in a moderate- Q -1 area, indicating a low correlation between random inhomogeneities and Q -1. All three anomalies of random inhomogeneities were rich in short-wavelength spectra. The most probable interpretation of such spectra is the presence of volcanic rock, which would be related to accumulated magma intrusion during episodes of volcanic activity. Therefore, the different distributions of Q -1 and random inhomogeneities imply that the positions of hot regions in the uppermost mantle beneath this arc have changed temporally; therefore, they may provide important constraints on the evolutionary processes of arc crust and volcanoes.

  5. Submarine canyon development in the Izu-Bonin forearc: A SeaMARC II and seismic survey of Aoga Shima Canyon (United States)

    Klaus, Adam; Taylor, Brian


    SeaMARC II sidescan (imagery and bathymetry) and seismic data reveal the morphology, sedimentary processes, and structural controls on submarine canyon development in the central Izu-Bonin forearc, south of Japan. Canyons extend up to 150 km across the forearc from the trench-slope break to the active volcanic arc. The canyons are most deeply incised (1200 1700 m) into the gentle gradients (1 2°) upslope on the outer arc high (OAH) and lose bathymetric expression on the steep (6 18°) inner trench-slope. The drainage patterns indicate that canyons are formed by both headward erosion and downcutting. Headward erosion proceeds on two scales. Initially, pervasive small-scale mass wasting creates curvilinear channels and pinnate drainage patterns. Large-scale slumping, evidenced by abundant crescent-shaped scarps along the walls and tributaries of Aoga Shima Canyon, occurs only after a channel is present, and provides a mechanism for canyon branching. The largest slump has removed >16 km3 of sediment from an ˜85 km2 area of seafloor bounded by scarps more than 200 m high and may be in the initial stages of forming a new canyon branch. The northern branch of Aoga Shima Canyon has eroded upslope to the flanks of the arc volcanoes allowing direct tapping of this volcaniclastic sediment source. Headward erosion of the southern branch is not as advanced but the canyon may capture sediments supplied by unconfined (non-channelized) mass flows. Oligocene forearc sedimentary processes were dominated by unconfined mass flows that created sub-parallel and continuous sedimentary sequences. Pervasive channel cut-and-fill is limited to the Neogene forearc sedimentary sequences which are characterized by migrating and unconformable seismic sequences. Extensive canyon formation permitting sediment bypassing of the forearc by canyon-confined mass flows began in the early Miocene after the basin was filled to the spill points of the OAH. Structural lows in the OAH determined the

  6. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

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    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  7. Forearc oceanic crust in the Izu-Bonin arc - new insights from active-source seismic survey - (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Noguchi, N.; Takahashi, N.; Ishizuka, O.; Kaneda, Y.


    Petrological studies have suggested that oceanic crust is formed in forearc areas during the initial stage of subduction. However, there is little geophysical evidence for the formation of oceanic crust in those regions. In order to examine crustal formation process associated with a subduction initiation process, we conducted an active-source seismic survey at a forearc region in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic arc. The resultant seismic image shows a remarkably thin crust (less than 10 km) at the northern half of the Bonin ridge (at the north of the Chichi-jima) and abrupt thickening the crust (~ 20 km thick) toward the south (at the Haha-jima). Comparison of velocity-depth profiles of the thin forearc crust of the Bonin ridge with those of typical oceanic crusts showed them to be seismologically identical. The observed structural variation also well corresponds to magmatic activities along the forearc. Boninitic magmatism is evident in the area of thin crust and tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic volcanism in the area of thick crust. Based on high precision dating studies of those volcanic rocks, we interpreted that the oceanic-type thin crust associated with boninitic volcanism has been created soon after the initiation of subduction (45-48 Ma) and and that the nonoceanic thick crust was created by tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic magmatism after the boninitic magmatism was ceased. The above seismological evidences strongly support the idea of forearc oceanic crust (or phiolite) created by forearc spreading in the initial stage of subduction along the intra-oceanic arc.

  8. Discovery of an active shallow submarine silicic volcano in the northern Izu-Bonin Arc: volcanic structure and potential hazards of Oomurodashi Volcano (Invited) (United States)

    Tani, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Nichols, A. R.; Hirahara, Y.; Carey, R.; McIntosh, I. M.; Masaki, Y.; Kondo, R.; Miyairi, Y.


    Oomurodashi is a bathymetric high located ~20 km south of Izu-Oshima, an active volcanic island of the northern Izu-Bonin Arc. Using the 200 m bathymetric contour to define its summit dimensions, the diameter of Oomurodashi is ~20 km. Oomurodashi has been regarded as inactive, largely because it has a vast flat-topped summit at 100 - 150 meters below sea level (mbsl). During cruise NT07-15 of R/V Natsushima in 2007, we conducted a dive survey in a small crater, Oomuro Hole, located in the center of the flat-topped summit, using the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) Hyper-Dolphin. The only heat flow measurement conducted on the floor of Oomuro Hole during the dive recorded an extremely high value of 4,200 mW/m2. Furthermore, ROV observations revealed that the southwestern wall of Oomuro Hole consists of fresh rhyolitic lavas. These findings suggest that Oomurodashi is in fact an active silicic submarine volcano. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted detailed geological and geophysical ROV Hyper-Dolphin (cruise NT12-19). In addition to further ROV surveys, we carried out single-channel seismic (SCS) surveys across Oomurodashi in order to examine the shallow structures beneath the current edifice. The ROV surveys revealed numerous active hydrothermal vents on the floor of Oomuro Hole, at ~200 mbsl, with maximum water temperature measured at the hydrothermal vents reaching 194°C. We also conducted a much more detailed set of heat flow measurements across the floor of Oomuro Hole, detecting very high heat flows of up to 29,000 mW/m2. ROV observations revealed that the area surrounding Oomuro Hole on the flat-topped summit of Oomurodashi is covered by extensive fresh rhyolitic lava and pumice clasts with minimum biogenetic or manganese cover, suggesting recent eruption(s). These findings strongly indicate that Oomurodashi is an active silicic submarine volcano, with recent eruption(s) occurring from Oomuro Hole. Since the summit of Oomurodashi is in shallow water, it

  9. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Mitsuru, E-mail: [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); AIG Collaborative Research Institute for International Study on Eruptive History and Informatics, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, 464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Geshi, Nobuo [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, 305-8567 Tsukuba (Japan); Kimura, Katsuhiko [Division of Environment System Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296 Fukushima (Japan); Saito-Kokubu, Yoko [Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 959-31 Jorinji, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuo [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 890-0065 Kagoshima (Japan)


    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained {sup 14}C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  10. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo


    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  11. A novel cluster of mariner-like elements belonging to mellifera subfamily from spiders and insects: implications of recent horizontal transfer on the South-West Islands of Japan. (United States)

    Yamada, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Yamada, Akinori; Tokuda, Gaku; Gurung, Raj Deep; Sasaki, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Maekawa, Hideaki


    Mariner-like elements (MLEs) have been isolated from various eukaryotic genomes and they are divided into 15 subfamilies, including main five subfamilies: mauritiana, cecropia, mellifera/capitata, irritans, and elegans/briggsae. In the present study, MLEs belonging to mellifera subfamily were isolated from various spiders and insects (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) inhabiting the South-West Islands of Japan and neighboring regions. MLEs isolated from 15 different species formed a distinct novel cluster in mellifera subfamily. MLEs obtained from three different species [i.e., the bee Amegilla senahai subflavescens (Amsmar1), the wasp Campsomeris sp. (Casmar1), and the swallowtail butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae (Paamar1)] contained an intact open reading frame that encoded a putative transposase. These transposases exhibited high similarity of 97.9% among themselves. In case of Casmar1, the presence of an intact ORF was found in high frequencies (i.e., 11 out of 12 clones). In addition, these transposases also showed the presence of a terminal inverted repeat-binding motif, DD(34)D and two highly conserved amino acid motifs, (W/L)(I/L)PHQL and YSP(D/N)L(A/S)P. These two motifs differed from previously known motifs, WVPHEL and YSPDLAP. MLEs isolated from these three different species may have been inserted into their genomes by horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the presence of an intact ORF suggests that they are still active in habitats along these isolated islands.

  12. [原著]Helminth Fauna of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan : 3. Gnathostoma doloresi larvae from Rana (Babina) subaspera in Amami-oshima Island


    Hasegawa, Hideo; Otsuru, Masamitsu; Asato, Ryuji; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Laboratory of Medical Zoology, Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health


    Gnathostomiasis is a famous zoonotic disease caused by the larval nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. Almost all of the causative agents recovered from the human cases in the past Japan have been identified with Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1936. However, some of the recent cases were demonstrated to be due to some other gnathostome species, and attentions have been attracted to these non-spinigerum species. This report will cover the larvae of a non-spinigerum gnathostome collected from a sp...

  13. Faszination Japan


    Árokay, Judit


    Japan ist ein Ausnahmeland. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg stieg Japan rasand schnell zu einer Wirtschaftsmacht auf, heute ist es das westlichste Land im Fernen Osten. Über das Leben im modernen Japan sowie über Einschätzungen und Fehleinschätzungen dieses faszinierenden Landes in Deutschland sprach der Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann mit der Professorin für Japanologie an der Universität Heidelberg, Frau Prof. Dr. Judit Árokay. Der Beitrag "Faszination Japan" erschien in der Sendereihe "Camp...

  14. Residence time of submarine fresh groundwater discharge in Hachijo Island, Japan: Application of dating tracers of Tritium, CFCs and SF6 (United States)

    MOGI, K.; Asai, K.


    Hachijo is a volcanic Island in the Western Pacific Ring of Fire. Submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SGD) distribute around the coastal area of Hachijo Island. In this study, we estimate the residence time of the SGD using the multi age tracer method, to understand the mechanism of SGD. Water samples were collected from 1 SGD, 5 mountain springs and 6 costal wells, and were measured in Tritium, CFCs and SF6 concentrations. All water samples contain detectable tritium, indicating that these waters are mainly recharged at post-bomb period. CFC-12 and SF6 concentration of water samples show wide variations from 163 to 247 pg/kg and from 1.06 to 2.61 fmol/kg, respectively. The SF6-based apparent ages for the mountain springs and shallow well were estimated at less than 6 years, and ranged from 12 to 20 years in the deep wells. Estimated SF6 age of the SGD (13 years) coincide with the age of the deep wells, suggesting that the SGD play a role of outlet of deep groundwater.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio


    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  16. Update Japan. (United States)

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  17. Exploring Factors Affecting Farmers’ Implementation of Wildlife-friendly Farming on Sado Island, Japan%影响日本佐渡岛农民实施野生动物友好型耕作的因素探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中村慧; 柘植隆宏; 大久保悟; 武内和彦; 西川潮


    野生动物友好型耕作(Wildlife-friendly Farming,WFF)实践是一种维持农田生态恢复的良好方式。本研究的目的在于探讨影响日本佐渡岛农民实施WFF的因素和提出影响这种实践传播的政策。对佐渡岛上把大米销售给日本农业合作社(Japan Agricultural Cooperatives,JA)的5010个农户进行了问卷调查,总共收到2231农户反馈问卷(反馈率45%)。通过与未经认证农民的态度和属性对比,我们确定了影响农民实施WFF的关键因素。与未经认证的农民相比,已认证的农民:(1)对生物多样性和WFF的经济效益表现出更高的兴趣;(2)拥有更多的已认证农民朋友;(3)感受到了来自消费者的更多的压力和期望;(4)当实施WFF时,不受恶劣劳动力或农田条件的限制。为了在佐渡岛进一步宣传WFF,我们建议把WFF实践对稻田生物多样性的有效性信息应用到公共教育中,并在非认证农民和已认证农民之间、农民与消费者之间创建交流的机会。%Implementing wildlife-friendly farming (WFF) practices is a sound approach to sustain ecological restoration of farmland. The aims of the study were to explore factors affecting farmers’ implementation of WFF practices on Sado Island, Japan and to consider the policy implications of disseminating such practices. All 5010 farming households on Sado Island, who are distributing rice to Japan Agricultural Cooperatives (JA), were surveyed. In total, 2231 households responded to the questionnaire (response 44.5%). By comparing the attitudes, beliefs, and attributes of non-certiifed versus certiifed farmers, we identiifed key factors affecting farmers’ implementation of WFF practices. Compared with non-certified farmers, certified farmers: (i) showed a greater interest in biodiversity and the ifnancial beneifts of WFF; (i) had a larger number of certiifed farmer friends; (ii) felt many more pressures and

  18. Origin of the latest miocene alkaline rocks from Oki-dogo island, SW-Japan; Oki togo ni okeru makkichushinsei oki arukari kazanganrui no seiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)] Sawada, Y. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)


    Volcanic rocks, which erupted in later stage Cenozoic, are distributed widely in Oki-Dogo located at 60 km off Simane peninsular in the sea of Japan. In advanced stage Miocene, alkaline volcanic group rocks such as shoshonite, trachybasalt and rhyolite had erupted. These rocks are classified into Oki-trachyte, rhyolite, Hei-tracyte and quartz rhyolite from the bottom of the stratum. Rhyolite group rocks are classified into two groups on geological features, rock`s descriptions and chemical compositions. It was clarified that the rhyolite group had a unique composition change that the components such as Fe, Y, Ce, Pb, Ba, Nb, Rb, Zr, Th, changed from 1.1 times to several times in spite of the Si content almost without changing. On the basis of these results, the author of this paper proposed the models for partial melting and magma mixing of the earth`s crust materials at the lowest co-melting point to solve the origin of two groups of rhyolite. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Morphometric comparisons of plant-mimetic juvenile fish associated with plant debris observed in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, southern Japan (United States)


    The general morphological shape of plant-resembling fish and plant parts were compared using a geometric morphometrics approach. Three plant-mimetic fish species, Lobotes surinamensis (Lobotidae), Platax orbicularis (Ephippidae) and Canthidermis maculata (Balistidae), were compared during their early developmental stages with accompanying plant debris (i.e., leaves of several taxa) in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, closely facing the Kuroshio Current. The degree of similarity shared between the plant parts and co-occurring fish species was quantified, however fish remained morphologically distinct from their plant models. Such similarities were corroborated by analysis of covariance and linear discriminant analysis, in which relative body areas of fish were strongly related to plant models. Our results strengthen the paradigm that morphological clues can lead to ecological evidence to allow predictions of behavioural and habitat choice by mimetic fish, according to the degree of similarity shared with their respective models. The resemblance to plant parts detected in the three fish species may provide fitness advantages via convergent evolutionary effects. PMID:27547571

  20. Morphometric comparisons of plant-mimetic juvenile fish associated with plant debris observed in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, southern Japan. (United States)

    de Queiroz, Alexya Cunha; Sakai, Yoichi; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Barros, Breno


    The general morphological shape of plant-resembling fish and plant parts were compared using a geometric morphometrics approach. Three plant-mimetic fish species, Lobotes surinamensis (Lobotidae), Platax orbicularis (Ephippidae) and Canthidermis maculata (Balistidae), were compared during their early developmental stages with accompanying plant debris (i.e., leaves of several taxa) in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, closely facing the Kuroshio Current. The degree of similarity shared between the plant parts and co-occurring fish species was quantified, however fish remained morphologically distinct from their plant models. Such similarities were corroborated by analysis of covariance and linear discriminant analysis, in which relative body areas of fish were strongly related to plant models. Our results strengthen the paradigm that morphological clues can lead to ecological evidence to allow predictions of behavioural and habitat choice by mimetic fish, according to the degree of similarity shared with their respective models. The resemblance to plant parts detected in the three fish species may provide fitness advantages via convergent evolutionary effects.

  1. Rearming Japan (United States)


    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  2. Recognition of `cryptochron' in the polarity subchron C3Ar: Palaeomagnetic results of the Late Miocene lava sequence from Noma Peninsula (Kyushu Island), Japan (United States)

    Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Zaman, Haider; Shimoda, Makiko; Aihara, Kazuyoshi; Kani, Munemoto; Yokoyama, Masahiko; Ikeda, Satoru; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Wada, Yutaka


    This study presents a newly discovered geomagnetic excursion in the andesitic lava sequence of the Kamegaoka Mountain (31°21'N, 130°13'E), Noma Peninsula, Kyushu Island. About 170 oriented samples were collected from 13 consecutive lava flows, covering an area from mountain top to sea shore. Thermal and alternating field demagnetizations of the studied samples generally revealed a univectorial magnetization, however, two components structure with minor viscous overprints is also observed in some samples. Remanent magnetization is generally unblocked between 560 and 590 °C, indicating magnetite as dominant remanence carrier. Reversed polarity directions are detected in the bottom and uppermost parts of the sequence, whereas anomalous directions with positive inclination are observed in the middle part of the sequence. This newly discovered anomalous palaeomagnetic direction, named as Noma excursion (C3Ar-1), has a well-defined K-Ar age of 6.66 ± 0.45 Ma. Comparison with the geomagnetic polarity timescale allow us to place this event within the polarity subchron C3Ar, in which no such cryptochron has been observed before by high resolution ODP study of the sedimentary cores. The virtual geomagnetic poles estimated for the studied lava sequence moved from Antarctica to Kamchatka Peninsula (60°N), swung back to New Guinea equatorial region and then followed a path to Antarctica again. These poles followed a swath between the 90°E and 140°E longitudes, which are almost identical to one of the preferred longitudinal bands for transitional poles at the times of polarity reversals and excursions in the Brunhes and Matuyama chrons. According to this study, this preferred pathway may have started prior to 6.7 Ma. If properly emphasized, identification of Noma excursion in the studied lava flows can facilitate more such discoveries in the Late Miocene.

  3. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  4. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  5. Rock magnetic signature of paleoenvironmental changes in the Izu Bonin rear arc over the last 1 Ma (United States)

    Kars, Myriam; Vautravers, Maryline; Musgrave, Robert; Kodama, Kazuto


    During April and May 2014, IODP Expedition 350 drilled a 1806.5 m deep hole at Site U1437 in the Izu-Bonin rear arc, in order to understand, among other objectives, the compositional evolution of the arc since the Miocene and track the missing half of the subduction factory. The good recovery of mostly fine grained sediments at this site enables a high resolution paleontological and rock magnetic studies. Particularly, variations in magnetic properties and mineralogy are well documented. Natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility vary with a saw-tooth pattern. Routine rock magnetic measurements performed on about 400 samples in the first 120 meters of Hole U1437B showed that pseudo single domain to multidomain magnetite is the main carrier of the remanence. The origin of magnetite is likely detrital. The magnetic susceptibility variations depend on many factors (e.g. lithology, magnetic mineralogy, and also dilution by the carbonate matrix). The magnetic susceptibility is also used as a proxy, at first order, for magnetic minerals concentration. In order to highlight changes in magnetic minerals concentration, it's necessary to correct for the carbonate dilution effect. Onboard and onshore carbonate measurements by coulometry show that the carbonate content of the samples can be up to ~60%. About 70 samples were measured onshore. After correcting the susceptibility by the carbonate content measured on the same samples, it appears that the pattern of the magnetic susceptibility before and after correction is similar. Then the magnetic susceptibility variations do not result from carbonate dilution but reflect fluctuating influx of the detrital sediment component. The delta O18 variations obtained on foraminifers (N. dutertrei) show MIS 1 to MIS 25 over the studied interval covering the last 1 Ma (see Vautravers et al., this meeting). Rock magnetic properties, concentration and grain size variations of the magnetic minerals will be compared to

  6. Community structures of soil animals and survival of land snails on an island of the Ogasawara Archipelago Estruturas de comunidades de animais de solo e sobrevivência dos caracóis terrestres numa ilha do Arquipélago Ogasawara


    Motohiro Hasegawa; Shinji Sugiura; Masamichi T. Ito; Aska Yamaki; Keiko Hamaguchi; Toshio Kishimoto; Isamu Okochi


    On Chichijima, one of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands located in the Western Pacific Ocean, land snails have declined, the suggested cause being predation pressure by an invasive flatworm (Platydemus manokwari). Soil fauna were investigated in areas where the snail survives, and where it has become extinct. Much of the fauna, dominated by introduced earthworms and ants, was undiminished, however, one undescribed but endemic carabid (Badister sp.), which selectively feeds on land snails, was abs...

  7. Musterland Japan?


    Weidner, Helmut


    Im Gegensatz zu Japan ist in den westeuro­päischen Ländern die Umweltpolitik erst seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre in heftige Bewe­gung geraten. Den Anstoß hierzu gaben wie in Japan in den sechziger Jahren vor allem Umweltschadensfälle größeren Ausmaßes, wodurch Regierungen, Verwaltungen und umweltbelastende Betriebe unter starken Handlungsdruck gesetzt wurden. Seitdem gehören Umweltfragen in nahezu allen Indu­strieländern zu den zentralen politischen Themen. Trotz teilweise beeindrucken...

  8. Major earthquake of Friday March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 at 5:46 UT, off Honshu island (Japan); Seisme majeur au large de l'Ile d'Honshu (Japon) du vendredi 11 mars 2011 Magnitude = 8,9 a 5h46 (TU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On Friday March 11, 2011, at 5:46 UT (2:46 PM local time), a magnitude 8.9 earthquake took place at 80 km east of Honshu island (Japan). The earthquake affected a large part of the Honshu territory and led to the automatic emergency shutdown of all nuclear power plants of the east coast. This paper recalls first the seismo-tectonic and historical seismic context of the Japan archipelago and the first analyses of the Tohoku earthquake impact on nuclear facilities. At the time of publication of this information report, no radioactive release in the environment and no anomaly at the Tokai-Mura and Rokkasho-Mura sites were mentioned. However, the evacuation of populations in a 3 to 10 km area around the Fukushima-Dai-ichi power plant had been ordered by the Governor as preventive measure, which made one think that the situation at this specific site was particularly worrying. (J.S.)

  9. Tohoku's earthquake of Friday March 11, 2011 (5:46 UT), magnitude 9.0, off Honshu island (Japan); Seisme de Tohoku au large de l'Ile d'Honshu (Japon) du vendredi 11 mars 2011 (5h46 TU) Magnitude = 9,0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On Friday March 11, 2011, at 5:46 UT (2:46 PM local time), a magnitude 9.0 earthquake took place at 80 km east of Honshu island (Japan). The earthquake generated a tsunami which led to the loss of the cooling systems of the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Daini power plants. This paper describes the seismo-tectonic and historical seismic context of the Japan archipelago and the first analyses of the Tohoku earthquake impact: magnitudes of first shock and of aftershocks, impact on nuclear facilities (maximum acceleration values detected with respect to design basis values, subsidence of coastal areas and submersion of power plant platforms). (J.S.)

  10. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  11. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn


    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  12. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn


    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  13. The Flores Island tsunamis (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  14. Geochemical Variation of Subducting Pacific Crust Along the Izu-Bonin Arc System and its Implications on the Generation of Arc Magmas (United States)

    Durkin, K.; Castillo, P.; Abe, N.; Kaneko, R.; Straub, S. M.; Garcia, E. S. M.; Yan, Q.; Tamura, Y.


    Subduction zone magmatism primarily occurs due to flux melting of the mantle wedge that has been metasomatized by the slab component. The latter is enriched in volatiles and fluid-mobile elements and derived mainly from subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC). Subduction input has been linked to arc output in many studies, but this relationship is especially well documented in sedimented arc-trench systems. However, the Izu-Bonin system is sediment-poor, therefore the compositional and latitudinal variations (especially in Pb isotopes) of its arc magmas must be sourced from the subduction component originating primarily from the AOC. Pb is a very good tracer of recycled AOC that may contribute 50% or more of arc magma Pb. Izu-Bonin arc chemistry suggests a subduction influx of Indian-type crust, but the subducting crust sampled at ODP Site 1149 is Pacific-type. The discrepancy between subduction input and arc output calls into question the importance of the AOC as a source of the subduction component, and raises major concerns with our understanding of slab input. During the R/V Revelle 1412 cruise in late 2014, we successfully dredged vertical fault scarps at several sites from 27.5 N to 34.5 N, spanning a range of crustal ages that include a suggested compositional change at ~125 Ma. Major element data show an alkali enrichment towards the north of the study transect. Preliminary incompatible trace element data (e.g. Ba, Zr and Sr) data support this enrichment trend. Detailed mass balance calculations supported by Sr, Nd, Hf and especially Pb isotope analyses will be performed to evaluate whether the AOC controls the Pb isotope chemistry of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc.

  15. Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands. (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio


    DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity.

  16. Source Evolution After Subduction Initiation as Recorded in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore-arc Crust (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Shimizu, K.


    Drilling in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc during IODP Expedition 352 and DSDP Leg 60 recovered consistent stratigraphic sequences of volcanic rocks reminiscent of those found in many ophiolites. The oldest lavas in these sections are "fore-arc basalts" (FAB) with ~51.5 Ma ages. Boninites began eruption approximately 2-3 m.y. later (Ishizuka et al., 2011, EPSL; Reagan et al., 2013, EPSL) and further from the trench. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB at Sites U1440 and U1441 were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Temperatures appear to have been unusually high and pressures of melting appear to have been unusually low compared to mid-ocean ridges. Spreading rates at this time appear to have been robust enough to maintain a stable melt lens. Incompatible trace element abundances are low in FAB compared to even depleted MORB. Nd and Hf Isotopic compositions published before the expedition suggest that FAB were derived from typical MORB source mantle. Thus, their extreme deletion resulted from unusually high degrees of melting immediately after subduction initiation. The oldest boninites from DSDP Site 458 and IODP Sites U1439 and U1442 have relatively high concentrations of fluid-soluble elements, low concentrations of REE, and light depleted REE patterns. Younger boninites, have even lower REE concentrations, but have U-shaped REE patterns. Our first major and trace element compositions for the FAB through boninite sequence suggests that melting pressures and temperatures decreased through time, mantle became more depleted though time, and spreading rates waned during boninite genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured.

  17. Tectonic evolution of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: initial results from IODP Expedition 352 (United States)

    Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.; Robertson, A. H. F.; Avery, A. J.; Kutterolf, S.


    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352, a section through the volcanic stratigraphy of the outer fore arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system was drilled to trace magmatism, tectonics, and crustal accretion associated with subduction initiation. Structures within drill cores, borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer IBM fore arc is mainly post-magmatic. Extension generated asymmetric sediment basins such as half-grabens at sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442 on the upper trench slope. Along their eastern margins the basins are bounded by west-dipping normal faults. Deformation was localized along multiple sets of faults, accompanied by syn-tectonic pelagic and volcaniclastic sedimentation. The lowermost sedimentary units were tilted eastward by ~20°. Tilted beds were covered by sub-horizontal beds. Biostratigraphic constraints reveal a minimum age of the oldest sediments at ~ 35 Ma; timing of the sedimentary unconformities is between ~ 27 and 32 Ma. At sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 on the outer fore arc strike-slip faults are bounding sediment basins. Sediments were not significantly affected by tectonic tilting. Biostratigraphy gives a minimum age of the basement-cover contact between ~29.5 and 32 Ma. The post-magmatic structures reveal a multiphase tectonic evolution of the outer IBM fore arc. At sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442, shear with dominant reverse to oblique reverse displacement was localized along subhorizontal fault zones, steep slickensides and shear fractures. These were either re-activated as or cut by normal-faults and strike-slip faults. Extension was also accommodated by steep to subvertical mineralized veins and extensional fractures. Faults at sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 show mainly strike-slip kinematics. Sediments overlying the igneous basement(maximum Late Eocene to Recent age), document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds.

  18. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.


    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  19. Japan Report. (United States)


    its warers unless Japan withdraws its objections to the IWC by April i. Abe pointed to the strong American influence on world-wide support of a...squadron of five SH-3 Sea King antisubmarine helicopters which it carries for a squadron of six model H [helicopters] equipped with radar for monitoring ...which appeared in the American newspaper The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR on 3 May 1983, introduced a statement by Commander (Holcomb) to the effect that

  20. Japan Report. (United States)


    said Monday. In return, Japan has obtained the right to extend its air service beyond Kuala Lumpur to any further point of its choosing, the...System (MAS) and Northwest Orient Airlines will be dropped, the sources said. JAL and MAS will be allowed to begin new services via Kuala Lumpur and...secondary wood manufacturing and tourism , the leader of a state investment mission said Monday. James M. Root, leader of the 19-member mission, said

  1. Japan Report (United States)


    Japan Socialist Party General Secretary Tsuruo Yamaguchi: "The Deceptiveness of Breaking Through the Defense - Spending Limit of 1 Percent of GNP...Agency Budget Proposal 22 Defense Facilities Administration Agency Budget Proposal 41 Breaking of Defense - Spending Limit Criticized (Tsuruo...such as the high yen and decline in the price of oil. (1) Total Amount Fiscal 1987 defense related expenditures are 3,517.4 billion yen, an

  2. Revisiting the Metaphor of the Island: Challenging "World Culture" from an Island Misunderstood (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy


    This article revisits the newly "discovered" island that world culture theorists have repeatedly utilised to explain their theoretical stance, conceptual preferences and methodological approach. Yet, it seeks to (re)connect world culture with the real world by replacing their imagined atoll with a real one--the island-nation of Japan. In…

  3. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan. (United States)

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin


    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)


    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  5. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge


    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  6. Differences between boninite and tholeiite primary magmas in Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc: constraints from an Os isotope perspective (United States)

    Senda, R.; Shimizu, K.; Suzuki, K.


    Geochemical data of arc primary magmas provide information on how elements behave in the subduction system. In order to constrain Os behavior in a subduction system, Os isotope ratios of whole rock and chromium spinels (Cr-spinels) in boninites, a type of high-Mg andesite, and tholeiites from Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, have been determined. Cr-spinel crystallizes at an early stage of fractional crystallization and therefore can preserve primary information of its magma source. Furthermore Os is highly compatible in Cr-spinels, and thus Os isotope ratios determined from Cr-spinel in volcanic rocks provide information on the magmatic history and origin. We investigated the difference in Os isotopic compositions between the primary boninite and primary tholeiite in IBM arc to understand the behavior of Os during arc magma generation. The whole rock Os isotope ratios of both boninites (187Os/188Os = 0.1240-0.1828) and tholeiites (187Os/188Os = 0.1658-0.2832) are higher and more variable than those of Cr-spinels (from boninites: 187Os/188Os = 0.1229-0.1242, from tholeiites: 187Os/188Os = 0.1429-0.1512). In both cases, this is likely to be due to the rock assimilating crustal materials with more radiogenic Os isotope ratios than the mantle during magma ascent after Cr-spinel crystallization. The initial Os isotope ratios of Cr-spinel from boninites (187Os/188Os(i) = 0.1206-0.1242) are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from the forearc region of IBM [1]. This suggests that the Os in the boninite primary magma originates from unradiogenic depleted mantle, not from radiogenic fertile mantle or subducted materials. On the other hand, Os isotope ratios of Cr-spinels from tholeiites are higher than those from boninites. Crustal contamination possibly contributed to the more radiogenic Os isotopic composition of the tholeiite magma. The difference in Os isotope ratios between boninite and tholeiites indicate that they have a different origin and evolutionary history

  7. Behavior of trace metals in the hydrothermal plume at two sites on the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc (United States)

    Shitashima, K.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal systems play an important role in the oceanic geochemical cycles of trace metals. High concentration of trace metals of the basalt origin is discharged into the deep sea via the hydrothermal plume. The hydrothermal plume is widely diffused to the ocean by mixing with ambient seawater. The processes of input and removal in the diffusing hydrothermal plume differ by individual hydrothermal systems. In this presentation, the behavior of trace metals in the hydrothermal plume of two sites on the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc is compared. This study was funded by the O`Archaean ParkO_L project of MEXT. The hydrothermal plume samples were taken from the Suiyo Seamount and the southern Mariana Trough (Pika Site). The mini CTDT-RMS mounted twelve 1.2L Niskin bottles was installed onto the manned submersible. And the hydrothermal plume samples were collected with monitoring the anomaly of temperature and turbidity. The samples were immediately filtered in an onboard clean bench. Unfiltered sample for analysis of total (particulate + dissolved) trace metal and filtered sample for analysis of dissolved trace metal were acidified. Trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) in the hydrothermal plume samples were analyzed by GFAAS. The ranges of concentration of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in the hydrothermal plume samples collected from two sites are _`15uM, _`5uM, _`5uM, _` 0.2uM and _`0.6uM, respectively. The particulate phase is predominant form in Al, Fe, Cu and Zn, and Mn shows the superiority of dissolved form. At the Suiyo Seamount, the hydrothermal active site is located in the bottom of caldera. On the other hand, the hydrothermal active site exists on the top of off-ridge seamount at the southern Mariana Trough. The diffusion process of trace metals in the hydrothermal plume to the ocean differed by the topographic factor in two sites. It suggests that trace metals discharged from the vents are hardly diffused to the ocean surmounting the Suiyo Seamount caldera

  8. Susceptibility of Aedes flavopictus miyarai and Aedes galloisi mosquito species in Japan to dengue type 2 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raweewan Srisawat


    Conclusions: Ae. albopictus is a well-known candidate for dengue transmission in Japan. However, our data suggest that Ae. f. miyarai from Ishigaki Island (near Okinawa Island and Ae. galloisi from Hokkaido (Northern Japan should also be regarded as potential vectors for dengue transmission in these regions. Further studies on these mosquitoes should be conducted.

  9. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  10. Segmentation of the Izu-Bonin and Mariana slabs based on the analysis of the Benioff seismicity distribution and regional tomography results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jaxybulatov


    Full Text Available We present a new model of P and S velocity anomalies in the mantle down to a depth of 1300 km beneath the Izu-Bonin and Mariana (IBM arcs. This model is derived based on tomographic inversion of global travel time data from the revised ISC catalogue. The results of inversion are thoroughly verified using a series of different tests. The obtained model is generally consistent with previous studies by different authors. We also present the distribution of relocated deep events projected to the vertical surface along the IBM arc system. Unexpectedly, the seismicity forms elongated vertical clusters instead of horizontal zones indicating phase transitions in the slab. We propose that these vertical seismicity zones mark zones of intense deformation and boundaries between semi-autonomous segments of the subducting plate. The P and S seismic tomography models consistently display the slab as prominent high-velocity anomalies coinciding with the distribution of deep seismicity. We can distinguish at least four segments which subduct differently. The northernmost segment of the Izu-Bonin arc has the gentlest angle of dipping which is explained by backward displacement of the trench. In the second segment, the trench stayed at the same location, and we observe the accumulation of the slab material in the transition zone and its further descending to the lower mantle. In the third segment, the trench is moving forward causing the steepening of the slab. Finally, for the Mariana segment, despite the backward displacement of the arc, the subducting slab is nearly vertical. Between the Izu-Bonin and Mariana arcs we clearly observe a gap which can be traced down to about 400 km in depth. Based on joint consideration of the tomography results and the seismicity distribution, we propose two different scenarios of the subduction evolution in the IBM zone during the recent time, depending on the reference frame of plate displacements. In the first case, we

  11. Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Fangyuan


    <正>The eight-day visit to Japan seemed to be a beautiful dream that ended before I woke up. However, in the dream I saw the future of China-Japan friendship. On March 4, flying to Japan, I thought all the way: "What kind of a country is Japan? Is it really as orderly and

  12. A Rearmed Japan: Implications. (United States)


    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  13. Ingested plastic as a route for trace metals in Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) from Midway Atoll. (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L


    Seabirds are declining faster than any other group of birds, with plastic ingestion and associated contaminants linked to negative impacts on marine wildlife, including >170 seabird species. To provide quantitative data on the effects of plastic pollution, we sampled feathers and stomach contents from Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) on Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean, and assessed our ability to detect change over time by synthesizing previous studies. Between 25 and 100% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds. High levels of ingested plastic were correlated with increased concentrations of chlorine, iron, lead, manganese, and rubidium in feathers. The frequency of plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross and concentration of some elements in both species is increasing, suggesting deterioration in the health of the marine environment. Variability in the frequency of plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross may limit their utility as an indicator species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peridotites of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc and the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite (Albania) : implications for igneous activity during subduction initiation (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Tani, K.; Dilek, Y.


    There have been few studies of the mantle evolution related to igneous activity in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. We examined peridotites recovered from an exhumed crust/mantle section exposed along the landward slopes of the northern Izu-Bonin Trench (Morishita et al., Geology, 2011) and peridotite bodies in the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite, Albania (Morishita et al., Lithos, 2011). Based on the Cr# (=Cr/(Cr+Al) atomic ratio) of spinel in the IBM, two distinctive groups, (1) High-Cr# (> 0.8) dunite and (2) Medium-Cr# (0.4-0.6) dunite, occur close to each other and are associated with refractory harzburgite. Two distinctive melts were in equilibrium with these dunites. In the case of the Eastern Mirdita ophiolite, cpx porphyroclast-bearing harzburgite (Cpx-harzburgite) occurs structurally in the lower parts of the peridotite massifs, whereas harzburgite and dunite are more abundant towards the upper parts. The Cpx-harzburgite was formed as the residue of less-flux partial melting, which are similar to those in abyssal peridotites from MOR systems. On the other hand, harzburgite was produced as a result of enhanced partial melting of depleted peridotites due to infiltration of hydrous LREE-enriched fluids/melts. The wide range of variation in dunites from the IBM forearc and the uppermost section of the EMO probably reflects changing melt compositions from MORB-like melts to boninitic melts in the forearc setting due to an increase of slab-derived hydrous fluids/melts during subduction initiation. This scenario is consistent with the temporal and spatial variation of volcanic rocks in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (Reagan et al., G-cubed, 2010). If the "MORB-like" FAB is a ubiquitous phenomenon during the initiation of subduction, we should reconsider our interpretation of the ophiolites.

  15. Meso- and microscale structures related to post-magmatic deformation of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352 (United States)

    Micheuz, P.; Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.


    IODP Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Bonin fore arc. Four sites were drilled, two on the outer fore arc and two on the upper trench slope. Analysis of structures within drill cores, combined with borehole and site survey seismic data, indicates that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic, associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement, deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones, and the formation of tension fractures, hybrid (tension and shear) fractures, and shear fractures. Veins commonly form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and, generally, show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. The vein filling generally consists of (Low Mg-) calcite and/or various types of zeolite as well as clay. Vein frequency varies with depth but does not seem to correlate with the proximity of faults. This may indicate that these veins are genetically related to hydrothermal activity taking place shortly after magma cooling. Host-rock fragments are commonly embedded within precipitated vein material pointing to a high fluid pressure. Vein thickness varies from < 1 mm up to 15 mm. The wider veins appear to have formed in incremental steps of extension. Calcite veins tend to be purely dilational at shallow depths, but gradually evolve towards oblique tensional veins at depth, as shown by the growth of stretched calcite and/or zeolites (idiomorphic and/or stretched) with respect to vein margins. With increasing depth, the calcite grains exhibit deformation microstructures more frequently than at shallower core intervals. These microstructures include thin twinning (type I twins), increasing in width with depth (type I and type II twins), curved twins, and subgrain boundaries indicative of incipient plastic deformation.

  16. Galapagos Islands (United States)


    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation within alternating deep-sea clays and volcanic ashes (Miura Peninsula, Japan) (United States)

    Mazumder, Rajat; van Loon, A. J. (Tom); Malviya, Vivek P.; Arima, Makoto; Ogawa, Yujuro


    The Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation of the Miura Group (Miura Peninsula, Japan) shows an extremely wide variety of soft-sediment deformation structures. The most common deformation structures are load casts and associated flame structures, dish-and-pillar structures, synsedimentary faults, multilobated convolutions, chaotic deformation structures, sedimentary veins and dykes, and large-scale slides and slump scars. The formation, which accumulated in a deep-sea environment (2000-3000 m), is well exposed in and around Jogashima; it consists of relative thin (commonly dm-scale) alternations of deep-marine fine-grained sediments and volcanic ejecta that are, as a rule, coarse-grained. Since the formation represents fore-arc deposits of the Izu-Bonin and the Honsu arc collision zone, it might be expected that tectonic activity also played a role as a trigger of the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in these sediments. This is indicated, indeed, by the abundance of soft-sediment deformations over large lateral distances that occur in numerous beds that are sandwiched between undeformed beds. On the basis of their characteristics and the geological context, these layers can be explained satisfactorily only by assuming deformation triggered by seismicity, which must be related to the Izu-Bonin and Honsu arc collision. The layers thus form deep-marine seismites.

  18. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji


    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  19. Temporal-spatial heterogeneity of under-recording of volcanic events in Japan (United States)

    Kiyosugi, Koji


    Under-recording of events must be taken into account in estimating recurrence rates of explosive eruptions using volcanic eruption record. In the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database (Crosweller et al., 2012, Brown et al., 2014), Japanese events account for about 39 % of the entire set of eruptive events (Kiyosugi et al., 2015). An analysis of the Japanese eruption events show an inverse correlation between VEI and degree of under-reporting suggesting that even larger VEI eruptions are under-recorded in the Quaternary. For example, 89 % of VEI 4 events, 65-66 % of VEI 5 events, 46-49 % of VEI 6 events and 36-39 % of VEI 7 events are missing from the record at 100 ka, 200 ka, 300 ka, and 500 ka, respectively (Kiyosugi et al., 2015). Comparison of frequencies of Japanese and global eruptions suggests that under-recording of the global database is 7.9-8.7 times larger than in the Japanese dataset (Kiyosugi et al., 2015). In addition to the analysis of the entire Japanese eruption events, temporal-spatial heterogeneity of the dataset must be considered in modeling the under-recording of events. The main mechanisms of under-recording are absence of historical records, erosion and alteration of tephra deposits, burial of tephra deposits by younger deposits and disappearance of the source volcano itself due to burial or erosion. Therefore, under-recording of events varies temporally and spatially, reflecting geological and historical backgrounds. For example, an analysis of the Japanese eruption events suggest that many large eruptions are missing in the Izu-Bonin arc because the volcanic arc consists of small volcanic islands where wide-spread tephra deposits are less likely preserved. Understandings of the under-recording in different geological settings improve the estimation of recurrence rate of volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, Koyama (1999) pointed out that the historical record of Japanese volcanic eruptions increases in two time periods

  20. Epidemiology of pediatric allergic diseases in the Ogasawara Islands


    Yuki Okada; Hideki Kumagai; Yoshihiko Morikawa; Akira Akasawa


    Background: The Ogasawara Islands, away from mainland Japan, belong to a subtropical area. Although the daily eating habits and food are relatively similar to that on the mainland, the living environment is quite different. The prevalence of allergic diseases in the Ogasawara Islands is unknown. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of allergic diseases in the Ogasawara Islands. Methods: A survey was conducted among all children belonging to preschool, elementary school, and junior h...

  1. Statement of CPAFFC and China-Japan Friendship Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Disregarding repeated solemn representations of the Chinese side,the Japanese Government announced on September 10, 2012, the implementation of the so-called "nationalization" of China’s Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands. This is a flagrant encroachment onto China’s sacred territory. The move has brought grave damage to China-Japan relations and hurt the feelings of the 1.3 billion Chinese people. The Chinese People’s Association for Friendship

  2. Ultrastructure of Lobosphaera reniformis (Watanabe) Komárek et Fott (Chlorellales) from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica


    A. Massalski; T. Mrozińska; Olech, M.


    Lobosphaera reniformis (Wat.) Kom. et Fott (=Chlorella reniformis Wat.) so far known only from Japan, and Papua Island, was for the first time found in Antarctica (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). In laboratory cultures a complete life cycle was obtained, and most of its stages were followed by the electron microscopy. Reproduction is by morphologically different autospores. In some large vegetative cells two Golgi apparatuses lying side by side were observed.

  3. Ultrastructure of Lobosphaera reniformis (Watanabe Komárek et Fott (Chlorellales from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massalski


    Full Text Available Lobosphaera reniformis (Wat. Kom. et Fott (=Chlorella reniformis Wat. so far known only from Japan, and Papua Island, was for the first time found in Antarctica (King George Island, South Shetland Islands. In laboratory cultures a complete life cycle was obtained, and most of its stages were followed by the electron microscopy. Reproduction is by morphologically different autospores. In some large vegetative cells two Golgi apparatuses lying side by side were observed.

  4. Academic Libraries in Japan (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki


    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  5. Academic Libraries in Japan (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki


    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  6. Get Oriented: Study Japan. (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.


    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  7. Divergence and long-distance overseas dispersals of island populations of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus (Scincidae: Squamata), in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA phylogeography. (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Hikida, Tsutomu


    We assessed the historical biogeography of the Ryukyu five-lined skink, Plestiodon marginatus, and related species (P. stimpsonii and P. elegans). Our specific aims were to reveal the origin, tim- ing, and route of the colonization to three volcanic islands in the northern Tokara Group of the northern Ryukyus: Kuchinoshima, Nakanoshima, and Suwanosejima. We conducted phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimation using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for P. marginatus collected from across its whole range (the northern and central Ryukyus), and for P. stimpsonii (from the Yaeyama Group of the southern Ryukyus) and P. elegans (from Taiwan). Our results suggest three major clades (A, B, and C). Clades A and B consist of P. marginatus, excluding the Kuchinoshima population, and Clade C consisted of the Kuchinoshima population, P. stimpsonii, and P. elegans. These clades are estimated to have diverged during the Late Miocene to the Late Pliocene. Among the three examined northern Tokara populations, the Kuchinoshima population was shown to be a sister group of P. stimpsonii. The two other populations from Nakanoshima and Suwanosejima Islands were closely related to P. marginatus from the northern part of the Okinawa Group and that from Kodakarajima Island in the southern Tokara Group, respectively. These populations are estimated to have diverged from their respective related spe cies in various ages of the Early to Late Pleistocene, suggesting that they colonized the islands by independent overseas dispersals of approximately 50-850 km via the Kuroshio Current. Taxonomic implications for P. marginatus are also discussed.

  8. Climate change and size evolution in an island rodent species: new perspectives on the island rule. (United States)

    Millien, Virginie; Damuth, John


    As stated by the island rule, small mammals evolve toward gigantism on islands. In addition they are known to evolve faster than their mainland counterparts. Body size in island mammals may also be influenced by geographical climatic gradients or climatic change through time. We tested the relative effects of climate change and isolation on the size of the Japanese rodent Apodemus speciosus and calculated evolutionary rates of body size change since the last glacial maximum (LGM). Currently A. speciosus populations conform both to Bergmann's rule, with an increase in body size with latitude, and to the island rule, with larger body sizes on small islands. We also found that fossil representatives of A. speciosus are larger than their extant relatives. Our estimated evolutionary rates since the LGM show that body size evolution on the smaller islands has been less than half as rapid as on Honshu, the mainland-type large island of Japan. We conclude that island populations exhibit larger body sizes today not because they have evolved toward gigantism, but because their evolution toward a smaller size, due to climate warming since the LGM, has been decelerated by the island effect. These combined results suggest that evolution in Quaternary island small mammals may not have been as fast as expected by the island effect because of the counteracting effect of climate change during this period.

  9. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  10. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of thermal regime and slab dehydration beneath Kanto and Tohoku, Japan (United States)

    Ji, Yingfeng; Yoshioka, Shoichi; Manea, Vlad Constantin; Manea, Marina; Matsumoto, Takumi


    Although the thermal regime of the interface between two overlapping subducting plates, such as those beneath Kanto, Japan, is thought to play an important role in affecting the distribution of interplate and intraslab earthquakes, the estimation of the thermal regime remains challenging to date. We constructed a three-dimensional (3-D) thermal convection model to simulate the subduction of the Pacific plate along the Japan Trench and Izu-Bonin Trench, including the subduction of the Philippine Sea beneath Kanto and investigated the slab thermal regime and slab water contents in this complex tectonic setting. Based on the subduction parameters tested in generic models with two flat oceanic plates, a faster or thicker plate subducting in a more trench-normal direction produces a colder slab thermal regime. The interplate temperature of the cold anomaly beneath offshore Kanto was approximately 300°C colder than that beneath offshore Tohoku at a same depth of 40 km and approximately 600°C colder at a depth of 70 km. The convergence between the two subducting plates produces an asymmetric thermal structure in the slab contact zone beneath Kanto, which is characterized by clustered seismicity in the colder southwestern half. The thermo-dehydration state of the mid-ocean ridge basalt near the upper surface of the subducted Pacific plate controls the interplate seismicity beneath the Kanto-Tohoku region according to the spatial concurrence of the thermo-dehydration and seismicity along the megathrust fault zone of the subducted Pacific plate.

  11. From vein precipitates to deformation and fluid rock interaction within a SSZ: Insights from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc (United States)

    Micheuz, Peter; Quandt, Dennis; Kurz, Walter


    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions 352 and 351 drilled through oceanic crust of the Philippine Sea plate. The two study areas are located near the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore arc and in the Amami Sankaku Basin. The primary objective was to improve our understanding of supra-subduction zones (SSZ) and the process of subduction initiation. The recovered drill cores during IODP expedition 352 represent approximately 50 Ma old fore arc basalts (FAB) and boninites revealing an entire volcanic sequence of a SSZ. Expedition 351 drilled FAB like oceanic crust similar in age to the FABs of expedition 352. In this study we present data on vein microstructures, geochemical data and isotopic signatures of vein precipitates to give new insights into fluid flow and precipitation processes and deformation within the Izu-Bonin fore arc. Veins formed predominantly as a consequence of hydrofracturing resulting in the occurrence of branched vein systems and brecciated samples. Along these hydrofractures the amount of altered host rock fragments varies and locally alters the host rock completely to zeolites and carbonates. Subordinately extensional veins released after the formation of the host rocks. Cross-cutting relationships of different vein types point to multiple fracturing events subsequently filled with minerals originating from a fluid with isotopic seawater signature. Based on vein precipitates, their morphology and their growth patterns four vein types have been defined. Major vein components are (Mg-) calcite and various zeolites determined by Raman spectra and electron microprobe analyses. Zeolites result from alteration of volcanic glass during interaction with a seawaterlike fluid. Type I veins which are characterized by micritic infill represent neptunian dykes. They predominantly occur in the upper levels of drill cores being the result of an initial volume change subsequently to crystallization of the host rocks. Type II veins are

  12. Metal Concentrations in the Liver and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Muscle of Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Culled off Ishigaki Island, Japan: Changes with Growth. (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Yukiko; Haraguchi, Koichi


    We analyzed Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in liver samples as well as the Hg concentration and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) in muscle samples from silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) in Japan. Muscular and hepatic Hg concentrations increased with increased body length. However, these increases were more prominent in the liver than in the muscle samples, and appeared to occur after maturation. Hepatic Zn and Cu concentrations decreased during the growth stage, and then increased concomitantly thereafter with increases in Cd burden. Hepatic Fe concentration from males increased proportionally with increases in body length, whereas no increase was observed in samples from females, probably due to the mother-to-embryo transfer of Fe. The δ13C values tended to decrease with increases in body length, whereas no decrease in the δ15N values was observed.

  13. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  14. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Japan and Vicinity (United States)

    Rhea, Susan; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Benz, Harley


    This map shows details of Japan and vicinity not visible in an earlier publication, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3064. Japan and its island possessions lie across four major tectonic plates: Pacific plate, North America plate; Eurasia plate; and Philippine Sea plate. The Pacific plate is subducted into the mantle, beneath Hokkaido and northern Honshu, along the eastern margin of the Okhotsk microplate, a proposed subdivision of the North America plate (Bird, 2003). Farther south, the pacific plate is subducted beneath volcanic islands along the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. This 2,200 km-long zone of subduction of the Pacific plate is responsible for the creation of the deep offshore Ogasawara and Japan trenches as well as parallel chains of islands and volcanoes, typical of the Circumpacific island arcs. Similarly, the Philippine Sea plate is itself subducting under the Eurasia plate along a zone, extending from Taiwan to southern Honshu, that comprises the Ryuku Islands and the Nansei-Shonto trench.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić


    % of consumption fish is exported to Italy and bluefin tuna to Japan exclusively. It’s expected that demand for mariculture products, fish and shellfish, will increase on domestic market. These expectations are based on a possibility of new local investments and a market perspectives on account of tourism revival which seems to be the most important for the small island producers. The reasons for having implemented farms on islands are unexploited good environmental conditions, less risk from the coastal and industrial pollution, less users conflicts and less comptetition for locations and concessions. Island mariculture is a part of political or socio-demografic orientation of the government, but regarding producers this option is voluntary.

  16. Magma genesis of the acidic volcanism in the intra-arc rift zone of the Izu volcanic arc, Japan (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Tokuyama, H.; Ishii, T.


    The Izu volcanic arc extends over 550 km from the Izu Peninsula, Japan, to the Nishinoshima Trough or Sofugan tectonic line. It is the northernmost segment of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system, which is located at the eastern side of the Philippine Sea Plate. The recent magmatism of the Izu arc is bimodal and characterized by basalt and rhyolite (e.g. Tamura and Tatsumi 2002). In the southern Izu arc, volcanic front from the Aogashima to the Torishima islands is characterized by submarine calderas and acidic volcanisms. The intra-arc rifting, characterized by back-arc depressions, small volcanic knolls and ridges, is active in this region. Volcanic rocks were obtained in 1995 during a research cruise of the R/V MOANA WAVE (Hawaii University, cruise MW9507). Geochemical variation of volcanic rocks and magma genesis was studied by Hochstaedter et al. (2000, 2001), Machida et al (2008), etc. These studies focused magma and mantle dynamics of basaltic volcanism in the wedge mantle. Acidic volcanic rocks were also dredged during the curies MW9507. However, studies of these acidic volcanics were rare. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these acidic rocks, and compare these results with those of other acidic rocks in the Izu arc and lab experiments, and propose a model of magma genesis in a context of acidic volcanism. Dredge sites by the cruise MW9507 are 120, and about 50 sites are in the rift zone. Recovered rocks are dominated by the bimodal assemblage of basalt-basaltic andesite and dacite-rhyolite. The most abundant phase is olivine basalt, less than 50 wt% SiO2. Andesites are minor in volume and compositional gap from 56 to 65 wt% SiO2 exists. The across-arc variation of the HFSE contents and ratios, such as Zr/Y and Nb/Zr of rhyolites exhibit depleted in the volcanic front side and enriched in reararc side. This characteristic is similar to basaltic volcanism pointed out by Hochstaedter et al (2000). The petrographical features of rhyolites

  17. Lessons From Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ In the mid-to late 1980s, Japan experienced a prolonged bubble economy and entered a decadelong recession after it burst. The economy in China currently has several things in common with Japan's economy before its bubbles burst, such as a large foreign exchange reserve, an international dispute over currency revaluation, excess liquidity, and soaring asset prices.

  18. The Kuril Islands: Russian-Japanese Relations (1920–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of Russian-Japanese relations on the Kuril Islands. A number of international documents, determining national ownerships of those islands are reviewed in the article. In particular, it analyzes the provisions of the Convention on basic principles of relations between the USSR and Japan of 1925. It denotes that the Yalta Agreement of 1945 established the territorial boundaries of Japan. From the international law perspective, which was back then effective, the provisions of the Potsdam Declaration of 1945 are considered. Potsdam Declaration (as well as the Yalta Agreement is an integral part of a unified system of political and legal decisions made by the Allied Powers. The author points out that by signing the Act of Surrender of September 2, 1945, Japan agreed on the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The provisions of the acts of the United States and Japan are reviewed, as well as the position of their representatives in the 40-50s of last century, which showed the Japan's renunciation of claims for Kuril Islands. Comprehensive investigation exposed to provisions of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951. А due attention is paid to the analysis of the Joint Soviet-Japanese Declaration of 1956. The article represents international legal arguments supporting the affiliation of Kuril Islands to the Russian Federation. The author characterizes a current state of Russian-Japanese territorial issue.

  19. Mantle contamination and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) 'high-tide mark': evidence for mantle extrusion caused by Tethyan closure (United States)

    Flower, M. F. J.; Russo, R. M.; Tamaki, K.; Hoang, N.


    Western Pacific basins are characterized by three remarkable attributes: (1) complex kinematic histories linked to global-scale plate interactions; (2) DUPAL-like contaminated mantle; and (3) rapid post-Mesozoic rollback of the confining arc-trench systems. The coincidence of slab steepening, extreme arc curvature, and vigorous basin opening associated with the Mariana convergent margin suggests that rollback continues in response to an east-directed mantle 'wind'. Against a backdrop of conflicting kinematic and genetic interpretations we explore the notion that eastward asthenospheric flow driven by diachronous Tethyan closure caused stretching of eastern Eurasia and concomitant opening of western Pacific basins. Marking the eastern boundary of the latter, the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc may be regarded as a litho-tectonic 'high-tide mark' comprising igneous and metamorphic products from successive episodes (since ca. 45 Ma.) of arc sundering and backarc basin opening. The forearc also forms an isotopic boundary separating contaminated western Pacific mantle from the N-MORB Pacific Ocean reservoir. While the isotopic composition of western Pacific mantle resembles that feeding Indian Ocean hotspot and spreading systems, its spatial-temporal variation and the presence of subduction barriers to the south appear to preclude northward flow of Indian Ocean mantle and require an endogenous origin for sub-Eurasian contaminated mantle. It is concluded that the extrusion of Tethyan asthenosphere, contaminated by sub-Asian cratonic lithosphere, was a major cause of western Pacific arc rollback and basin opening. The model is consistent with paleomagnetic and geologic evidence supporting independent kinematic histories for constituent parts of the Philippine Sea and Sunda plates although interpretation of these is speculative. Compounded by effects of the Australia-Indonesia collision, late-Tethyan mantle extrusion appears to have produced the largest DUPAL domain in the

  20. Impact of Japan Nuclear Disaster upon World's Energy Mix%Impact of Japan Nuclear Disaster upon World's Energy Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yue; Chen Jianchong; Chen Jiaru


    An earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 hit the east coast of Houshu Island, Japan, on March.l lth, 2011. It caused a severe tsunami, which induced leakage of nuclear power station and then further changed the energy mix in Japan. Many countries around the world started to reconsider the safety of nuclear power and possible changes in energy framework of the world could be expected in a foreseeable future.

  1. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Groundwater contamination in Japan (United States)

    Tase, Norio


    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  3. null Kirishima, Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  4. Japan's radiant architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruairí O'Brien


    .... If Japanese architecture in the last century could be seen as an expression of fast growth, destruction, rebirth and expansion, today's Japan promises to deliver a new hybrid of high and low tech...

  5. Occupational asthma in Japan


    Dobashi, Kunio


    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  6. Japan; Selected Issues


    International Monetary Fund


    Japan has a universal public pension system. Social security spending is a key fiscal policy challenge in Japan. The 2004 pension reforms have increased the ratio of the government subsidy to the basic pension benefit. Three reform measures are necessary to improve pension finances: an increase in pension eligibility age, a reduction in the pension benefit, and an increase in contributions. Eliminating the preferential tax treatments of pension income and collecting pension contributions from...

  7. Phylogeographic Study of Whip Scorpions (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Thelyphonida) in Japan and Taiwan. (United States)

    Karasawa, Shigenori; Nagata, Satomi; Aoki, Jun-ichi; Yahata, Kensuke; Honda, Masanao


    Whip scorpions (Thelyphonida), comprising an order in the class Arachnida, are distributed from tropical to temperate zones. Two species occur exclusively in Japan and Taiwan, but the border of their distributional ranges is ambiguous in the Central Ryukyus (Japan). We collected new specimens from the Central Ryukyus and revealed that the border of distribution of the two species lies between the Central and Southern Ryukyus, i.e., the Kerama Gap. Moreover, the estimated divergence time (15.8 Mya) of the two species, based on the mitochondrial COI gene, was older than the recently estimated time (1.55 Mya) of formation of the Kerama Gap. These results highlight the risks of a priori assumption solely on the basis of geological data for applying it as a calibration point to some terrestrial animals in this region. Typopeltis stimpsonii was genetically divided into four lineages, two of which turned out to be endemic to the Okinawa Islands. All specimens from the main island of Japan and Shikoku were in one lineage, which was also found in the Amami Islands and Hachijojima Island. This suggests that these specimens may have been dispersed by human activity. Typopeltis crucifer included five genetic lineages. Species collected from Ishigakijima and Iriomotejima Islands were genetically diversified not between the borders of these islands but within Ishigakijima Island. This study also suggests that phylogenetic diversity of the species in the Southern Ryukyus have increased through two times of invasions from Taiwan.

  8. The Upper- to Middle-Crustal Section of the Alisitos Oceanic Arc, (Baja, Mexico): an Analog of the Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM) Arc (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Busby, C.; DeBari, S. M.; Morris, R.; Andrews, G. D.; Brown, S. R.; Schmitt, A. K.


    The Rosario segment of the Cretaceous Alisitos arc in Baja California is an outstanding field analog for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, because it is structurally intact, unmetamorphosed, and has superior three-dimensional exposures of an upper- to middle-crustal section through an extensional oceanic arc. Previous work1, done in the pre-digital era, used geologic mapping to define two phases of arc evolution, with normal faulting in both phases: (1) extensional oceanic arc, with silicic calderas, and (2) oceanic arc rifting, with widespread diking and dominantly mafic effusions. Our new geochemical data match the extensional zone immediately behind the Izu arc front, and is different from the arc front and rear arc, consistent with geologic relations. Our study is developing a 3D oceanic arc crustal model, with geologic maps draped on Google Earth images, and GPS-located outcrop information linked to new geochemical, geochronological and petrographic data, with the goal of detailing the relationships between plutonic, hypabyssal, and volcanic rocks. This model will be used by scientists as a reference model for past (IBM-1, 2, 3) and proposed IBM (IBM-4) drilling activities. New single-crystal zircon analysis by TIMS supports the interpretation, based on batch SIMS analysis of chemically-abraded zircon1, that the entire upper-middle crustal section accumulated in about 1.5 Myr. Like the IBM, volcanic zircons are very sparse, but zircon chemistry on the plutonic rocks shows trace element compositions that overlap to those measured in IBM volcanic zircons by A. Schmitt (unpublished data). Zircons have U-Pb ages up to 20 Myr older than the eruptive age, suggesting remelting of older parts of the arc, similar to that proposed for IBM (using different evidence). Like IBM, some very old zircons are also present, indicating the presence of old crustal fragments, or sediments derived from them, in the basement. However, our geochemical data show that the magmas are

  9. Life cycle reversion of Laodicea undulata (Hydrozoa, Leptomedusae) from Japan


    久保田, 信


    A mature medusa of Laodicea undulata collected at Okinawa Island, Japan, displayed life cycle reversion, i. e. direct transformation to the polyp stage. The morphology of the reverted polyp is briefly described. This species appears to be the second potentially immortal animal in the Metazoa, after another hydromedusa Turritopsis nutricula, although the present polyp colony, comprising a maximum of 4 zooids despite a wide extension of stolons, degenerated after 5 months without producing a ne...

  10. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  11. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  12. He Came with the Fragrance of Rice from Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>From June 20 to 27,Song Jian,President of the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA) led a delegation to visit Japan.On June 23,he and his party especially went to the city of Iwamizawa,on the northern island of Hokkaido,to hold a memorial ceremony for an old friend of the Chinese people,Shoichi Hara,buried there.They were warmly welcomed by city Mayor Koichi Watanabe,relatives of Shoichi Hara and friends from the local Japan-China Friendship Association(JCFA),who accompanied them to the cemetery.It was a drizzling rainy day with thick clouds.President Song Jian took slow steps to the tomb to present flowers,and,together with all the delegation,paid silent tribune to the deceased showing the long memory and high respect they cherished for the Chinese people’s old friend.

  13. Psychology in Japan. (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko


    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  14. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...... political focus on moral education in Japan, particularly by the two Abe-administrations. Changes include for example increased emphasis on patriotism, on respect for life and the environment, on individual responsibility, on respecting differences and other countries and on a general strengthening of moral...

  15. Cultural Astronomy in Japan (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  16. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  17. Divorce in contemporary Japan. (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J


    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  18. Populism Orientation in Political Communication In perspective of Japan's purchase of disputed islands and American general election%论政治传播中的民粹导向——日本“购岛”与美国“大选”的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文结合日本“购岛”和美国“大选”等实证,考察其政治传播中的民粹导向及其社会效应。政治人物往往以“人民”为依托和旗帜,通过利用民粹主义对“大多数人”的普遍动员而对大众实施高度的操纵和导引。或将民粹主义变为对选民蛊惑人心的变相讨好,或者把民粹主义变成政治博弈中攻击对手的政治暗箭。拥有更多话语权和影响力的政治精英引领“民众”团体,将民粹运动崇高化、文明化、组织化、持续化。而被“刺激”和“调动”起来的“民意”,则又释放一种裹挟政治力量的滚雪球效益,形成巨大规模,不仅直接影响政府行为,将民粹主义的旨意转化为国家政策;而且推动社会走向集体非理性,对国家造成不利影响,甚至不惜损害国家长远利益。无论日本“购岛”还是美国“大选”,给人们呈现的是,“民粹”操弄所形成的巨大力量。它令我们深思的问题是,无论美国还是日本,为什么越“右”越“民粹”却越能得到“民众”的支持。%This article analyzes the populism orientation and its social effects in political communication, demonstrated by Japan's purchase of disputed islands and American general election. The political elite have more speech rights and larger influence, and they lead the "public" groups to make the Populist Movement noble, civilization, organized and sustained. Public opinion stimulated and aroused once again released a snowballing-style effect mixed with political forces, which not only influenced the governmental behavior and transferred the populist will into national policies, but also impelled the society toward collective irrationality, caused the adverse effects to the state, and even damaged the long-term interests of the state. Whether in the United States of America or in Japan, why the extremists with right deviation or populism tendency can

  19. 环境整治与农业经营矛盾中的农户行为和行政调控——基于日本佐渡岛农户调查%Farm households behaviors and executive regulations under the compromise of environmental renovation and agricultural business: A case study on SADO Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岱; 张文忠; 余建辉


    随着我国经济的高速发展,生态环境问题越来越突出。在推进国内区域研究的同时,从微观的角度,研究发达国家面临的促进持续发展和保护环境的实际问题对完善我国区域发展理论和施政思路意义重大。本研究基于2006~2008年在日本佐渡岛的实地调研和深度访谈,揭示了政府推进朱鹳野生环境治理的过程中,农户农业经营条件的恶化以及农户的意识和应对行为,从而说明了在推行人与自然协调发展的过程中,关注欠发达地区发展权和弱势群体生存权的必要性,以民众利益为落脚点进行利益展示的重要性,加快扭转生态效益及相关经济效益分配不公平的局面,建立生态补偿机制的紧迫性。%Eco-environmental problems, especially those caused by resource shortage and excessive utilization, have become increasingly severe in China along with the high-speed economic development during the past few decades. Therefore, from a microscopic stand- point to analyze the practical problems of sustainable development and environment protec- tion in the developed countries is of great significance to our amendment of regional devel- opment theory and implementation of policies and methods. Through four investigations on SADO Island, which is the last habitat for ibis in Japan, and deep interviews with the local government and residents, this paper reveals that after the announcement of ibis rein- troduction promotion and creation of wild environment governance for ibis in SADO Is- land, a considerably large number of local peasants are against this due to the deterioration of agricultural production conditions and an increase in farm business cost. Therefore, the contradiction between environmental governance and regional development emerged and grew over time. The empirical study of Japan indicates that it is imperative to consider the development rights of less developed areas and the living


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi KUBOTA; Takao YANO


    @@ 1 Introduction It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi; KUBOTA; Takao; YANO


    1 Introduction  It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).……

  2. Globalization and Education in Japan (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako


    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  3. Globalization and Education in Japan (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako


    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  4. Sapovirus in Water, Japan (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo


    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters. PMID:17370528

  5. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund


    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  6. 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  7. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development


    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  8. Photovoltaics in Japan (United States)

    Shimada, K.


    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  9. [[Interregional marriage in Japan (United States)

    Suzuki, T


    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  10. Moral Education in Japan. (United States)

    Klaus, Luhmer


    Explores how religion is a pervasive influence in moral education in both the home and school in Japan, despite an official secular policy. Points out that after 1945 nationalism was replaced by secular social studies. Finds western thought included with Buddhism and Confucianism in government decrees on the curriculum. Places newly reemerging…

  11. Teacher Education in Japan. (United States)

    Shimahara, Nobuo

    A discussion is presented on the education of Japanese teachers, their roles in the schools, and proposed reforms in their education. In describing the pre-World War II background of teacher education in Japan, three ideological forces are discussed: Western thought that impacted upon early Meiji reforms, Confucianism, and nationalism. Western…

  12. Japan Hadron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S


    Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is a high-intensity proton accelerator complex consisting of a 200 MeV linac, a 3 GeV booster and a 50 GeV main ring. Its status and future possibilities of realizing a versatile antiproton facility at JHF are presented.

  13. Technical Communication in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiraku Amemiya


    @@ 1.Characteristics of Japanese Technical Communication(TC) The visual orientation of information characterizes Japanese technical communication.Manuals that have won Japan Manual Awards in the past have employed various designs with graphical presentations that evoke the style of popular magazines.

  14. Sapovirus in Water, Japan


    Hansman, Grant S.; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo


    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

  15. Political Corruption in Japan. (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others


    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  16. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan. (United States)

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki


    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  17. Occurrence of human respiratory syncytial virus in summer in Japan. (United States)

    Shobugawa, Y; Takeuchi, T; Hibino, A; Hassan, M R; Yagami, R; Kondo, H; Odagiri, T; Saito, R


    In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007-2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.

  18. Hawaiian Island Archipelago (United States)


    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  19. 2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan (United States)

    Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.


    On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For

  20. Analysis of the interdecadal variability of summer precipitation in central Japan using a reconstructed 106 year long oxygen isotope record from tree ring cellulose (United States)

    Kurita, Naoyuki; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Keiko; Mitsutani, Takumi; Kumagai, Tomo'omi


    We present a unique proxy for reconstructing the interannual variability of summer precipitation associated with the quasi-stationary front (Baiu front) in central Japan. The rainfall from the Baiu front has a relatively lower oxygen isotopic composition than other types of nonfrontal precipitation. The variability in the oxygen isotopes in summer rainfall is closely related to the Baiu frontal activity. In this study we used a mechanistic tree ring isotope model to reconstruct a 106 year long oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation during the early rainy season (June) based on the oxygen isotopic compositions of the annual rings of Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl trees from central Japan. The year-to-year variations of the isotopes over the most recent 25 years are associated with several teleconnection patterns that often lead to the Baiu precipitation anomalies in central Japan (such as the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern, Silk Road pattern, and wave train pattern along the polar jet). Yet none of these external forcing mechanisms apply further back in time. From the 1950s to 1980s, the interannual isotopic variability is predominantly related to local factors such as anomalous intensification/weakening of the Bonin High. Before the 1950s, the variability of the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation is mainly associated with a wave train pattern along the polar jet. The isotopic variability is predominantly linked to the PJ pattern, while the PJ index is correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation. These findings suggest that the teleconnection patterns influencing Baiu precipitation variability vary according to interdecadal time scales during the twentieth century.

  1. DPAL activities in Japan (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio


    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  2. [Gambling disorder in Japan]. (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi


    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  3. Insuetifurca austronipponica, a New Tardigrade(Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae) from Kagoshima, Southern Japan(Taxonomy)


    Wataru, Abe; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University


    A new semiterrestrial tardigrade, Insuetifurca austronipponica, is described from Kakeroma Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan. This is the third species known for the genus. It is distinguished from I. fujiensis primarily by a narrower buccopharyngeal tube and a longer pharyngeal tube, and from I. arrowsmithi primarily by a microplacoid clearly shorter than the macroplacoids.

  4. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan. (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki


    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  5. Japan Report No. 173. (United States)


    Also, when Mr Nikaido visited China, his statements regarding Japan’s present situation and the Nakasone cabinet were filled with polite sarcasm . In...t— o Ov ON OS UJ o cu O OS Q > X eS UJ o a. O ei a >• X cu D OS UJ O a. J < S in fN OS OS n OS < «r z UJ w Z JL1 -J -J J Ou

  6. Marital Dissolution in Japan


    James M. Raymo; Bumpass, Larry L.; Miho Iwasawa


    Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marria...

  7. China-Japan Friendship Association Delegation in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Invited by the Shorinji Kem-po Group and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JC-FA), the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA) delegation led by Vice President Jing Dun-quan visited Tokyo, Miyazaki and Fukuoka from November 2 to 9, 2007. During its stay in Japan, from November 2 to 4, the delegation attended a series of activities celebrating the 60th

  8. Shemya Island prehistory (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  9. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  10. Classifying Pacific islands (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.


    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  11. Investing in Japan? Statistics Speak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin


    @@ Is investing in Japan a good choice for ambitious Chinese enterprises? Xiong Lin, partner at the Beijing DaDi Law firm, reminded potential investors that understanding Sino-Japan cultural differences, local policies and the procedures concerning investment, as well as protecting intellectual property and prompt communication with local con-sulting finns are the keys to good prepa-ration. She gave this advice at the "2009 Investment in Japan Seminar" on March 5, a seminar co-hosted by CCPIT (China Council for the promotion of International Trade) and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) as the follow-up to a session held in 2007.

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan (United States)


    This is Japan Report with Science and Technology. It contains the issues with different topics on biotecnology , defense industry, nuclear engineering, Marine technology, science and technology policy.

  13. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.


    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole


    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  15. Microsatellite markers derived from Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) expressed sequence tags. (United States)

    Setsuko, Suzuki; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Sugai, Kyoko; Hanaoka, So; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi


    Robust markers are required (inter alia) for assessing origins of Calophyllum inophyllum populations on the Bonin Islands, Japan. Therefore, informative expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers in the species were sought. Using 135378 ESTs derived from de novo pyrosequencing, primers for 475 EST-SSRs were developed, 48 of which were tested for PCR amplification. Thirty-six of the 48 primers showed clear amplification, with 23 displaying polymorphism in sampled populations. Expected heterozygosity in the samples from the Bonin Islands and Ryukyu Islands populations ranged from 0.041 to 0.697 and from 0.041 to 0.773, respectively. As EST-SSRs are potentially tightly linked with functional genes, and reportedly more transferable to related species than anonymous genomic SSRs, the developed primers have utility for future studies of the origins, genetic structure, and conservation of C. inophyllum and related species.

  16. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.


    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  17. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens


    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  18. Gems of japanized English

    CERN Document Server

    Kenrick, Miranda


    If you've ever had the uneasy feeling that the Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as ""a Specialist in the Decease of Children""; eggs were sold as ""extract of fowl""; and a notice advised that ""Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water."" Fortunately, things are improving,

  19. Early Paleozoic subduction initiation volcanism of the Iwatsubodani Formation, Hida Gaien belt, Southwest Japan (United States)

    Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Koshi; Gantumur, Onon; Nuramkhaan, Manchuk


    In placing Japanese tectonics in an Asian context, variation in the Paleozoic geological environment is a significant issue. This paper investigates the geochemistry of the lower Paleozoic basalt formation (Iwatsubodani Formation) in the Hida Gaien belt, Japan, to consider its tectonic setting. This formation includes the following two types of rock in ascending order: basalt A with sub-ophitic texture and basalt B with porphyritic texture. Basalt A has a high and uniform FeO*/MgO ratio, moderate TiO2, high V, and low Ti/V. The HFSE and REE are nearly the same as those in MORB, and all the data points to basalt A being the "MORB-like fore-arc tholeiitic basalt (FAB)" reported, for example, from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. By contrast, basalt B has a low FeO*/MgO ratio, low TiO2, and low V and Ti/V. It has an LREE-enriched trend and a distinct negative Nb anomaly in the MORB-normalized multi-element pattern and a moderately high LREE/HREE. All these factors suggest that basalt B is calc-alkaline basalt. It is known that FAB is erupted at the earliest stage of arc formation—namely, subduction initiation—and that boninitic/tholeiitic/calc-alkaline volcanism follows at the supra-subduction zone (SSZ). Thus, the occurrence of basalts A (FAB) and B (calc-alkaline rock) is strong evidence of early Paleozoic arc-formation initiation at an SSZ. Evidence for an early Paleozoic SSZ arc is also recognized from the Oeyama, Hayachine-Miyamori, and Sergeevka ophiolites. Hence, both these ophiolites and the Iwatsubodani Formation probably coexisted in a primitive SSZ system in the early Paleozoic.

  20. Safety Concerns of Tourism Business in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Karavaeva


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state of tourism industry in Japan after the nuclear disaster of 2011. A focus is made on networking activities of Japan Government aimed at boosting leisure travel flows to Japan.

  1. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  2. Toxicokinetics in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The word ‘toxicokinetics’ is a comparatively new word,but it was being generally practiced in Japanese pharmaceutical industry over 6 years ago.Note for guidance on toxicokinetics(ICH S3A):the assessment of systemic exposure in toxicity studies was harmonized internationally and was essential as the data package for the NDA of a new drug in Japan since 1996.Toxicokinetics is a combination of toxicology and pharmacokinetics.It was to develop a tool which could be most helpful in the interpretation of toxicity data.Using “exposure” as indicated by AUC and/or cmax for parent drug or major metabolite in laboratory animals and man,one can calculate a human safety margin.This human safety margin is the ratio of the AUC of the “no effect dose” in animals in the toxicology studies to the AUC to the therapeutic dose in man.I would like to introduce the actual practice of toxicolinetics in Japan.

  3. Nutrition trends in Japan. (United States)

    Matsumura, Y


    The National Nutrition Survey (NNS) in Japan has been undertaken annually since 1946. It was originally intended to provide information on the food and nutrient intake of the Japanese people, with a view to acquiring emergency food supplies from other countries when food shortages caused malnutrition in many Japanese. The food balance sheet (FBS) has been drawn up since 1949 to show the food supply available to the Japanese people. The trends and figures shown by both approaches were similar until the mid-1970s. Since then, however, the disparity between the food supply and the intake of foods and nutrients has been getting larger. National food security means that a country has enough food for everyone. This does not mean, however, that every family has enough food, because the food may not be evenly distributed. In fact, marginal deficiencies in iron and calcium are thought to still exist and there is considerable variation among households in energy intake. In Japan, nutrition and diet are now considered to play important roles in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension etc., because of excessive energy intake and deficiency or excessive intake of certain nutrients.

  4. Legalized Abortion in Japan (United States)

    Hart, Thomas M.


    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  5. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  6. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way. (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen


    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  7. Higher Education Studies in Japan (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa


    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  8. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay


    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  9. The Southern Kurile Islands: Shrouded in Eternal Fog (United States)


    unrealistic due to being overly complicated and prone to be very time consuming. Markku Heiskanen draws insights from the Åland resolution for autonomy...2012). 143 An assessment in 2007 was that the islands had lost their former military significance. See Markku Heiskanen , “Solving the Territorial...Kurillian Knot, ed. Kimie Hara and Geoffrey Jukes (New York, NY: Routledge, 2009), 118. 240 Heiskanen , “Solving the Territorial Dispute Between Japan and

  10. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  11. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  12. Electrochemical island growth (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  13. Japan's BSE program (United States)

    Imai, N.; Matsushita, M.; Kajikawa, M.


    An overview of the program for Japan's Medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purpose (BSE), placed in orbit in 1978, is presented. The BSE was developed in order to provide useful technical data for establishing the fundamental technology of satellite broadcasting systems, the controlling and operational techniques of the broadcasting satellite, and the reception of broadcasting satellite radio waves. The satellite system and the ground facilities are discussed, and tables are included which list the system parameters and subsystems of the BSE. In addition, an outline is presented of the various experiments conducted utilizing the BSE, including the evaluation of the broadcasting service area, the transmission methods and their characteristics, controlling technique of the satellite, multiple access from different stations, and the improvement of receiving systems

  14. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  15. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.


    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  16. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.


    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  17. Japan (country/area statements). (United States)


    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  18. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,


    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  19. Multiple personality disorder in Japan. (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T


    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  20. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests? (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon


    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  1. Teaching about Japan in the Elementary School. (United States)

    Cogan, John J.


    Focuses on ideas for teaching about Japan which elementary school classroom teachers can use to supplement a textbook unit on Japan. Suggestions are intended to allow for reflection by students on their own culture, as well as the culture of Japan. Topics are children's perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, developing a geographical perspective,…

  2. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  3. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony


    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number...... of Indians in Japan is the highest. Also, the preconditions in the Japanese economy suggest a historic opportunity to forge a long-term, mutually beneficial, bilateral partnership between the two countries. For India, this means reducing its dependence on the US market and availing new learning opportunities...

  4. 1983 Akita, Honshu, Japan Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The tsunami generated by a magnitude 7.9 (Mw) earthquake destroyed 700 boats and 59 houses for a total of $800 million in property damage in Japan (1983 dollars)....

  5. The Social Sciences in Japan (United States)

    Watanuki, Joji


    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  6. Layered anisotropy within the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan (United States)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Deschamps, F.; Chen, Q.-F.


    Continental rifting during the Oligocene to mid-Miocene caused the opening of the Sea of Japan and the separation between the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian Plate. The tectonic evolution in the Sea of Japan is important for understanding the evolution of back-arc regions in active convergent margins. Here, we use data from the seismic stations surrounding the Sea of Japan to map the Rayleigh-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan. We explore the variations of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity beneath the Sea of Japan in a broad period range (30-80 s). Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves are measured by the two-station technique for a total of 231 interstation paths using vertical-component broad-band waveforms at 22 seismic stations around the Sea of Japan from 1411 global earthquakes. The resulting maps of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy allow the examination of azimuthal anisotropy at specific periods. They exhibit several regions with different isotropic and anisotropic patterns: the Japan Basin displays fast velocities at shorter periods (30 and 40 s) with NNE-SSW anisotropy, whereas at 60 s and longer, the velocities become slow even if the anisotropy remains NE-SW; the East China Sea shows fast velocities at all periods (30-80 s) with constant NW-SE anisotropy. Trench-normal anisotropy beneath the Japanese Islands is found at short periods (30-40 s) and become trench-parallel at periods of 60 s and longer. Overall, our model resolves two layers of anisotropy, the shallowest and deepest layers being potentially related to frozen deformation due to recent geodynamic events, and asthenospheric flow, respectively.



    Creina Day


    Fertility and per capita income are now positively associated across most high income OECD countries. Low fertility and a gender wage gap persist in Japan. This paper presents an original model where endogenous increases in childcare prices and gender equity in capital allocation play important roles in the effect of per capita income growth and rising female relative wages on fertility. Results suggest Japan has cause for optimism. Economic growth will raise female relative wages where capit...

  8. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova


    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  9. Japan Report, Science and Technology. (United States)


    include water temperature, water quality, ocean currents, sea ice, wave conditions, coastal conditions, and marine resources. Environmental polution ... air , and food supplies (procured in Japan) to the station for use by its crew. It is also a real possibility that Japan’s data relay satellite (DRTS...the pressurized unit via a mechanical manipulator and an air lock to permit the exchange of equipment and samples and the assembly of space

  10. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan]. (United States)

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto


    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  11. Fusion Studies in Japan (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi


    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  12. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund


    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... of development and discourse on morality, values and identity. I propose seeing the contents of moral education as a reaction to the challenges of globalization, as a reaction to the risks experienced in modern globalized society and to the anxiety born out of the challenges, ‘real’ or ‘imagined,’ perceived...... to be posed by globalization. I would suggest that a productive point of departure would be to look at initiatives concerning moral education as ‘gate-keeping’, where those in a position of influence try to safeguard what is considered basic and inalienable in Japanese culture and morality, while also...

  13. Global update: Japan. (United States)

    Sipp, Doug


    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro.

  14. Dysphagia Rehabilitation in Japan. (United States)

    Inoue, Makoto


    In Japan, one of the most common causes of death in elderly people is aspiration pneumonia. Maintenance of oral hygiene and feeding functions are important elements, especially in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke, neurological diseases, and after operations on the head and neck cancer, as well as in the elderly to prevent aspiration pneumonia. It should also be noted that not only oral health care and physical therapy related to feeding functions but also dental treatment is included in the clinical management during interventions whenever needed. On the other hand, for the patients and/or elderly in need of assistance in maintaining a safe diet, it is recommended that a specialized team comprising physicians, dentists, and speech therapists in functional rehabilitation observes meal conditions of the subjects and evaluates such factors as meal contents, posture during meals, usage of dishes and cutlery, meal times, status of consciousness, perception, and motivation. First, I will present the clinical interventions to those patients, which include oral health care, dental treatment, physical therapy and meal assistance, as well as team approaches in those circumstances. In addition, clinical and basic research results will be introduced, which are expected to foster the understanding of physiology in chewing and swallowing. These results are also expected to develop the clinical technology to maintain or recover the feeding functions.

  15. St. Vincent Island Tour (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  16. Marine and Island Ecology. (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others


    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  17. Making and breaking an Island arc: a new perspective from the Oligocene Kyushu-Palau arc (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Taylor, R. N.; Yuasa, M.; Ohara, Y.


    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a 2000km long remnant island arc that is separated from the active Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system by a series of spreading and rift basins. In this study we present 40Ar/39Ar ages and geochemical data for new samples taken from the entire length of the Kyushu-Palau arc. As such, this data provides the first comprehensive evaluation of temporal and spatial changes that are present in an Eocene-Oligocene island arc. Kyushu-Palau arc geochemistry is evaluated alongside new data from the conjugate arc which is stranded within the IBM fore-arc. Boninitic magmatism gave way to transitional arc suites including high-Mg andesites at c. 45 Ma (Ishizuka et al., 2006). After the transitional 45-41 Ma period, a mature arc system developed through the Eocene-Oligocene time: This volcanism is now preserved as the KPR. Dating results from 33 sites indicate that the KPR was active between 25 and 43 Ma, but the majority of the exposed volcanism occurred in the final phase of this arc, between 25 and 27 Ma. Unlike the IBM, the KPR has only limited systematic along-arc trends and does not include any of the strongly HIMU lavas found to the south of Izu-Bonin. Two components found along the KPR are found to have geochemistry that suggests an origin in the supra-subduction mantle rather than from the descending ocean crust. Firstly, in the south of the arc, EM-2-like lavas are present where the West Philippine Basin was in the final stages of spreading. Secondly, EM-1-like lavas are present in a restricted section of the arc, suggesting a localised heterogeneity. Subduction flux beneath the KPR generally imparted a Pb isotope vector towards low Δ8/4 (19). This is a similar trend to the Eocene/Oligocene lavas found on the eastern side of the basins which split the arc at 25Ma. Another geochemical heterogeneity is found at the KPR-Daito Ridge intersection where arc magmatism occurred on pre-existing Daito Ridge crust: a Cretaceous remnant arc

  18. 10Be concentrations of Red soils in Southwest Japan and its possibility of dating (United States)

    Maejima, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nakano, C.


    10Be concentrations of six Red soils distributed in Southwest Japan ranged from 0.8 × 108 to 2.7 × 109 atoms g-1, and minimum absolute ages were estimated by inventory of meteoric 10Be. The results are follows: Red soils on Toyota derived from granite (⩽25 ka), Kashii derived from Tertiary shale (⩽24 ka), Akiyoshidai derived from limestone (⩽110 ka), Okinawa Island derived from Kunigami gravel bed (⩽9 ka) and Ogasawara Island derived from agglomerate and Boninite (⩽22 and ⩽7 ka) were obtained, respectively. Soil age except with Akiyoshidai indicated younger age. It suggested that the loss of 10Be from the soil was caused by leaching of 10Be or by soil erosion, and 10Be is susceptible to leaching out from these Red soils under the humid climate condition such as Southwest Japan.

  19. Operational simulation and forecast of the Aige 2002 oil spill in the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukouka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics


    A quick-response oil spill prediction and analysis system has been developed in response to concerns about several oil spills from damaged tankers which have impacted the environment in the Sea of Japan in recent years. The system includes a meteorological data processing module, ocean circulation models for the Sea of Japan, and an oil spill fate and drift model. Physical changes resulting from the weathering process are also considered. This paper describes the application of the newly developed system in forecasting oil drifts following a spill of Bunker C fuel oil from the Belizean cargo ship Aige on March 31, 2002 near the Oki Islands. The model successfully predicted that the oil slick would drift south-east to the coast of Hyogo. It also successfully predicted that the oil leaking from the sunken vessel would spread by April 6-7 in the opposite direction and impact the shores of Dogo Island. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan. (United States)

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the sea turtles from Japan. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were the highest in all the turtle samples. PBDEs were ubiquitously present in all the turtle species. Comparing with the other two species, concentrations of organohalogens in green turtle were relatively low and decreasing trend in the concentrations were noted with increasing carapace length. Concentrations of OCs in sea turtles from the coasts of Ishigaki Island and Kochi were relatively low as compared to those from other locations in the world.

  1. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García


    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  2. Climatotherapy in Japan: a pilot study (United States)

    Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hirai, Takayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko; Schuh, Angela


    Twenty-nine urban inhabitants participated in a half-day climatotherapy programme at the moderate mountain area and lowland area in the northwest part of the main island of Japan. The current study was aimed to investigate physically and mentally the objective and subjective influence of our short programme, which was a prospective pilot study of single intervention. Blood pressure was significantly descended during terrain cure at the uphill mountain path and returned after fresh-air rest cure, while there was no significant change throughout the programme at lowland flat path. Heart rate was significantly ascended and descended at both area, and more clearly changed at the mountain path. Profile of Mood Status brief form Japanese version administered before and after our half-day programme. Age adjusted T score of negative subscales, `tension-anxiety', `depression', `anger-hostility', `fatigue' and `confusion' were significantly lower after climatotherapy at both sites. Whereas, there was no significant change concerning `vigour' score. This short-version climatotherapy programme has been designed for people without enough time for long stay at health resort. It turned out our half-day climatotherapy programme contribute to mood status improvement. In addition, repeated practice of our short-version programme including endurance exercise with cool body shell using uphill path can be expected that blood pressure will go toward the normal range and heart rate will decrease both in usual time and during exercise. Therefore, health benefits can be expected of this climatotherapy programme.

  3. Interannual variability of Dissolved Oxygen values around the Balearic Islands (United States)

    Balbín, R.; Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Flexas, M. M.


    Waters (LIW) and underneath, the Western Mediterranean Deep Waters (WMDW) show a slight increase of these values (> 4.5 ml /l). Interannual variability of DO at the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins and in the different water masses will be presented. A systematic difference (> 0.10 ml/l) is observed at intermediate and deep waters between the oxygen con- tent in the Balearic and Algerian sub-basins. This could be explained in terms of the longer path these water masses have to cover around the Mallorca and Menorca Islands, which implies a longer residence time and consumption as a result of respiration and decay of organic matter. During some campaigns minimum DO values (≈ 3.8 ml/l) were found in this area which are smaller that the values usually reported for the Mediterranean [2, 3, 4]. Different possible causes as the influence of the Easter Mediterranean Transient, the reported increase of surface temperature or just the interannual variability, will be discussed. [1] J. L. López-Jurado, J. M. García-Lafuente, L. Cano, et al., Oceanologica acta, vol. 18, no. 2, 1995. [2] T. Packard, H. Minas, B. Coste, R. Martinez, M. Bonin, J. Gostan, P. Garfield, J. Christensen, Q. Dortch, M. Minas, et al., Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, vol. 35, no. 7, 1988. [3] B. Manca, M. Burca, A. Giorgetti, C. Coatanoan, M. Garcia,and A. Iona, Journal of marine systems, vol. 48, no. 1-4, 2004. [4] A. Miller, "Mediterranean sea atlas of temperature, salinity, and oxygen. profiles and data from cruises of RV Atlantis and RV Chain," tech. rep., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, 1970.

  4. Meso- and microscale vein structures in fore-arc basalts and boninites related to post-magmatic tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: preliminary results from IODP Expedition 352 (United States)

    Quandt, Dennis; Micheuz, Peter; Kurz, Walter


    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 aimed to drill through the entire volcanic sequence of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc. Two drill sites are situated on the outer fore arc composed of fore arc basalts (FAB) whereas two more sites are located on the upper trench slope penetrating the younger boninites. First results from IODP Expedition 352 and preliminary post-cruise data suggest that FAB were generated by decompression melting during near-trench sea-floor spreading, and that fluids from the subducting slab were not involved in their genesis. Subduction zone fluids involved in boninite genesis appear to have been derived from progressively higher temperatures and pressures over time as the subducting slab thermally matured. Structures within the drill cores combined with borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc is mainly post-magmatic associated with the development of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins. Within the magmatic basement deformation was accommodated by shear along cataclastic fault zones and the formation of tension fractures, shear fractures and hybrid (tension and shear) fractures. Veins form by mineral filling of tension or hybrid fractures and show no or limited observable macroscale displacement along the fracture plane. (Low Mg-) Calcite and/or various types of zeolite are the major vein constituents, where the latter are considered to be alteration products of basaltic glass. Micrite contents vary significantly and are related to neptunian dikes. In boninites calcite develops mainly blocky shapes but veins with fibrous and stretched crystals also occur in places indicating antitaxial as well as ataxial growth, respectively. In FAB calcite forms consistently blocky crystals without any microscopic identifiable growth direction suggesting precipitation from a highly supersaturated fluid under dropping fluid pressure conditions. However, fluid pressure

  5. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation (United States)


    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  6. Both China and Japan Are Winners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Di


    @@ In recent years, there have been comments or predictions from ,both official and folk circles in Japan about when Chinas GDP will surpass that of Japan. In the middle of August, Japans official statistics showed that in the second quarter this year, Japan fell behind China in GDP, which was reported by Japan's major media. This is not a novel topic, so the media did not show any sign of shock. Even so, we can still sense different and completed reactions from Japan's public opinion on its "being surpassed".

  7. Designation of a neotype and redescription of Hesione reticulata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan (Annelida, Hesionidae) (United States)

    Jimi, Naoto; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.; Kajihara, Hiroshi


    Abstract The hesionid polychaete Hesione reticulata von Marenzeller, 1879 was described from Enoshima Island, Japan and has been recorded also from the Red Sea. Depending on researchers, it has been regarded as either a distinct species or synonymous with older established ones. The type specimen has been lost. In order to clarify its taxonomic status, Hesione reticulata is herein redescribed, illustrated, and a neotype is proposed based on recent material collected near the type locality. The diagnostic features include the presence of several dorsal, discontinuous longitudinal bands, interrupted by pale segmental spots; prostomium with tiny antennae; a tuberculated dorsal integument; acicular lobes double; and neurochaetal blades with guards approaching the distal tooth. The dorsal color pattern in life enables a clear distinction from similar species such as Hesione intertexta Grube, 1878 amongst others. Mitochondrial COI barcoding sequences are deposited in the DNA Data Bank of Japan. A key to Hesione species from Japan is also included.

  8. Transition of magma genesis estimated by change of chemical composition of Izu-bonin arc volcanism associated with spreading of Shikoku Basin (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Ishii, T.


    Arc volcanism in the Izu-Ogasawara arc is separated into first and latter term at the separate of Shikoku Basin. Middle to late Eocene early arc volcanism formed a vast terrane of boninites and island arc tholeiites that is unlike active arc systems. A following modern-style arc volcanism was active during the Oligocene, along which intense tholeiitic and calc-alkaline volcanism continued until 29Ma, before spreading of the back- arc basin. The recent arc volcanism in the Izu-Ogasawara arc have started in the middle Miocene, and it is assumed that arc volcanism were decline during spreading of back-arc basin. In the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, submarine bottom materials were dredged during the KT95-9 and KT97-8 cruise by the R/V Tansei-maru, Ocean Research Institute, university of Tokyo, and basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks were recovered during both cruise except for Komahashi-Daini Seamount where recovered acidic plutonic rocks. Komahashi-Daini Seamount tonalite show 37.5Ma of K-Ar dating, and this age indicates early stage of normal arc volcanism. These volcanic rocks are mainly cpx basalt to andesite. Two pyroxene basalt and andesite are only found from Miyazaki Seamount, northern end of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Volcanic rocks show different characteristics from first term volcanism in the Izu-Ogasawara forearc rise and recent arc volcanism. The most characteristic is high content of incompatible elements, that is, these volcanics show two to three times content of incompatible elements to Komahashi-Daini Seamount tonalite and former normal arc volcanism in the Izu outer arc (ODP Leg126), and higher content than recent Izu arc volcanism. This characteristic is similar to some volcanics at the ODP Leg59 Site448 in the central Kyushu- Palau Ridge. Site448 volcanic rocks show 32-33Ma of Ar-Ar ages, which considered beginning of activity of Parece Vela Basin. It is considered that the dredged volcanic rocks are uppermost part of volcanism before spreading of

  9. Editorial : islands : objects of representation


    Baldacchino, Godfrey


    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  10. Cryptic diversity of the eel goby, genus Taenioides (Gobiidae: Amblyopinae), in Japan. (United States)

    Kurita, Takaki; Yoshino, Tetsuo


    The eel goby, genus Taenioides (Gobiidae: Amblyopinae), inhabits muddy bottoms of estuaries or shallow areas of seas in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Among congeners, T. cirratus ( Blyth, 1860 ) has been thought to be distributed in Japan, but taxonomic confusions remain as to which scientific names are applicable to Japanese Taenioides species, or more fundamentally, how many Taenioides species are distributed in Japan, due in part to the rarity of this group in museum collections and the morphological similarity among species. To clarify the species diversity of the genus Taenioides in Japan, we conducted phylogenetic analysis on the basis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological observation of more than 100 specimens. As a result, four distinct species were distinguished from each other, on the basis of both genetic divergences (2.9-5.7%, 16S rRNA gene) and morphological differences (i.e., degree of development of dermal folds on the head, numbers of barbels and vertebrae). Although the identifications of four species need additional verifications, they were identified as T. anguillaris, T. snyderi, T. gracilis and T. cf. kentalleni, and the species name T. cirratus does not seem to be appropriate to any of four detected species. Museum collections indicate that the two species, which are distributed in the main islands of Japan, were collected frequently and treated as a single species. The other two were each collected only from a single locality of Okinawa Island in this study, of which one seems to be uncommon worldwide as well.

  11. Conceptions of CSR in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang


    The objective of this paper is to advance an analysis of different conceptions of CSR in Japan after the Fukushima accident. The literature on CSR suggests that CSR is a complex term that has been open to a variety of interpretations. Until recently, CSR was mainly incorporated into Japanese...... concerns have raised crucial questions about environmental issues with regards to CSR. How do Japanese companies incorporate environmental issues into their CSR aims and achievements? What is the next strategic challenge for CSR in Japan? This paper will analyze the conceptualization of CSR in TEPCO...... used to understand CSR and the strategic challenges for CSR in Japan. Such a conceptual analysis provides important insight into how Japanese companies conceive of environmental issues and incorporate these into their CSR aims and achievements. As such, this paper will argue, part of the next strategic...

  12. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart


    are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  13. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan. (United States)

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu


    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Seiichi


    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  15. Heat Island Compendium (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  16. Nunivak Island muskox studies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  17. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to...

  18. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers


    Machida, Yuya; SHINOHARA, MASANAO; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; KANAZAWA, Toshihiko; KANEDA, YOSHIYUKI; Mikada, Hitoshi; SAKAI, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; TAKAHASHI, NARUMI; NISHINO, Minoru


    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estim...

  19. Melville Island, Australia (United States)


    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  20. Japan's lost decade: Lessons for other economies


    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad


    Japan has suffered from sluggish economic growth and recession since the 1990s, a phenomenon dubbed "Japan's Lost Decade." The People's Republic of China, many countries in the eurozone, and the United States may face similar problems in future and they have been concerned by Japan's long-term recession. This paper will address why Japan's economy has stagnated since the bursting of its economic bubble. Our empirical analysis challenges the beliefs of some western economists, such as Paul Kru...

  1. Textile Exports to Japan Witnessing a Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China textile and apparel exports to Japan was witnessing a downturn in all statistics of China Customs and Japan METI in the Jan.-Apr. 2010 period. Exports to Japan this year later will face more pressure as gains in Japan’s consumption could moderate due to a lackluster jobs market and debt crisis.

  2. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan... antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  3. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy (United States)

    Kumano, Ruriko


    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  4. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana


    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  5. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Tominaga


    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan (United States)


    8 MOX to Undergo Post-Irradiation Test for Plutonium Thermal Use [GENSHIR YOKU SANGYO SHIMB UN, I Mar 90...Irradiation Testing of MOX Fuel Rods for Water Reactors: Thermal Behavior of IFA-529 Fuel Rods [K. Kamimura, et al; ATOMIC ENERGY SOCIETY OF JAPAN, 2...Apr 90] ........................................... 16 Irradiation Testing of MOX Fuel Rods for Water Reactors: Mechanical Behavior of IFA-529 Fuel

  7. Modernization of Education in Japan. (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

  8. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan (United States)


    three-dimensional mensuration engineering, and with Charmilles Technologies S.A. (Switzerland) in electronic discharging machines. This international...RATE MOVEMENT IN A DAY Spot rate; March 31, 1987; Japan time Citibank hikes prime rats Baker worries about Dollar drop Baldridge sayi market

  9. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover,

  10. Exploring Home Education in Japan


    Christopher, Bozek


    Homeschooling is very unusual in Japan and therefore many Japanese people are not familiar with the idea at all. This paper presents the definition of homeschooling and some basic principles such as why parents decide to teach at home and what group of people homeschool the most. It also explores the advantages of teaching children at home instead of sending them to school.

  11. Human sapovirus in clams, Japan. (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Oka, Tomoichiro; Okamoto, Reiko; Nishida, Tomoko; Toda, Schoichi; Noda, Mamoru; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Omura, Tatsuo; Nishio, Osamu; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Naokazu


    Human sapovirus was detected in 4 of 57 clam packages by reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analysis. This represents the first finding of sapovirus contamination in food. Closely matching sequences have been detected in stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis in Japan, which indicates a possible food-to-human transmission link.

  12. Japan and America: Culture Counts. (United States)

    Cooney, Barry D.


    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  13. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.


    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of entrepre

  14. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth


    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning teachers…

  15. The Japan of Today, 1982. (United States)

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  16. Japan's Eco-School Programme (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki


    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  17. Small store presence in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe determinants of the development of small store presence in Japan are investigated using a fixed effects multinomial logit market share model. Large stores tend to have higher market shares in shop-types with increasing shares in consumer expenditures, increasing inventory turnover, a

  18. [Marriage and divorce in Japan]. (United States)

    Haderka, J


    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  19. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  20. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan (United States)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki


    The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day

  1. Volcanisme, activité anthropique et circulation des masses océaniques : leur influence respective sur la distribution des populations d'ostracodes dans la baie de Kagoshima (île de Kyushu, Japon)Impact of volcanism, human activities, and water mass circulation on the distribution of ostracod populations in Kagoshima Bay (Kyushu Island, southern Japan) (United States)

    Bodergat, Anne-Marie; Oki, Kimihiko; Ishizaki, Kunihiro; Rio, Michel


    The distribution of ostracod populations in Kagoshima Bay (Japan) is analysed with reference to different environmental parameters. The bay is an area of volcanic activity of Sakurajima volcano under the influence of the Kuroshio Current. Most of the Head environment is occupied by an acidic water mass. Numbers of individual and species decrease from the Mouth of the bay towards the Basin and Head environments. In this latter, acidic water mass has a drastic effect on ostracod populations, whereas volcanic ashes and domestic inputs are not hostile. Ostracod distribution is influenced by the quality and structure of water masses. To cite this article: A.-M. Bodergat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1053-1059.

  2. Bathymetry Mapping Using Hyperspectral Data: a Case Study of Yamada Bay, Northeast Japan (United States)

    Ariyasu, E.; Kakuta, S.; Takeda, T.


    This study aims to examine if the inversion method using hyperspectral data is applicable in Japan. Nowadays, overseas researchers are mainly applied an inversion method for accurately estimating water depth. It is able to gain not only water depth, but also benthic spectral reflection and inherent optical properties (IOPs) at the same time, based on physics-based radiative transfer theory for hyperspectral data. It is highly significant to understand the possibility to develop the application in future for coastal zone of main island, which is a common water quality in Japan, but there is not any case study applied this method in Japan. The study site of Yamada bay in Iwate Prefecture is located in northeast of Japan. An existed analytical model was optimized for mapping water depth in Yamada bay using airborne hyperspectral image and ground survey data which were simultaneously acquired in December, 2015. The retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) is basically qualitatively appropriate result. However, when compared with all ground survey points, the retrieved water depth showed low correlation, even though ground points which are selected sand bottom indicates high relationship. Overall, we could understand the inversion method is applicable in Japan. However, it needs to challenge to improve solving error-caused problems.

  3. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines


    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.


    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  4. Genetic diversity and stock identification of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) in Taiwan and Japan. (United States)

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan


    Small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is a commercially valuable species for both fisheries and aquaculture. The production of annual farmed small abalone in Taiwan, once the highest in the world, has dramatically decreased in the past 15 years, and currently, the industry is close to collapse. Understanding the genetic diversity of small abalone and developing stock identification methods will be useful for genetic breeding, restoring collapsed stocks, managing stocks, and preventing illegal trade. We investigated 307 cultured and wild individuals from Taiwan, Japan, and Bali Island (Indonesia) by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis of mtDNA COI gene sequences revealed that the individuals collected from Taiwan, Japan, and Indonesia could be identified, and showed significant genetic divergence. In addition, the Indonesian population (Haliotis diversicolor squamata) was significantly different from the other populations and might need to be considered a separate species. We discovered a single nucleotide polymorphism marker in the mtDNA COI gene that can be used to distinguish the Taiwan population from the Japan population. We also developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection. Furthermore, we could identify the cultured stocks, wild population, and hybrid stocks by using 6 microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism. This study contributes useful tools for stock identification and the production of high-disease resistant small abalone strains (Japan × Taiwan or Taiwan × Japan). Efforts should be made to avoid unintentional random genetic mixing of the Taiwan population with the Japan population and subsequent breakdown of population differentiation, which impair local adaptation of the Taiwan wild population. Molecular markers revealed a split between the Taiwan and Japan populations, and the existence of a possible barrier to the free

  5. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  6. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino


    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  7. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar


    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  8. Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan. (United States)

    Nagamine, T


    Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan were investigated by means of a questionnaire. One hundred and sixty out of the 319 families residing on a small island were randomly chosen and 94 percent of them (average age 48 years, male 57 percent; living with parents 41 percent) responded. The respondents did not clearly distinguish the dead from the living in their life-styles. They seemed to recognize a continuity between living and death. They reported having confronted death as members of a family or small local community rather than individually. Community or family is seen as playing a more important role in determining respondents' attitudes toward death than their personal feelings.

  9. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  10. Takarajima: A Treasured Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward


    Full Text Available This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology’s interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific ‘treasure hunting’.

  11. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence (United States)



    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  12. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert


    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  13. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  14. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.


    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  15. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  16. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  17. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  18. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan (United States)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  19. Toshiba viste os Japans svaghed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen


    Corporate governance (selskabsledelse, red.) er blevet moderne i Japan som led i Shinzo Abe-regeringens forsøg på at revitalisere landets økonomi. Krav om øget rentabilitet gjorde det endnu sværere at indrømme problemerne. Direktøren tager skyldenI en dansk eller amerikansk virksomhed ville en ny...... direktør givetvis straks have afskrevet så meget som muligt af forgængernes fejltagelser, men den går ikke i Japan, hvor den afgåede direktør sidder med ved bordet, og den tiltrædende direktør måske har været med i beslutningerne. Umiddelbart virker de japanske corporate governance-reformer utilstræk...

  20. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  1. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe


    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  2. Distribution patterns of Babesia gibsoni infection in hunting dogs from nine Japanese islands. (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro


    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control.

  3. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan. (United States)

    Nagayama, T


    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  4. JPRS Report. East Asia: Japan. (United States)


    made abroad, are being imported into the United States. In other words, the United States has thoroughly become an " information society ." It an Information Society Sekimoto: It will be difficult for the United States to revert to the industrial structure by bucking the tide of...history running from an agrarian society to an industrial society and then to an information society . For its part, Japan should figure out how it can

  5. Japan Report - Science and Technology (United States)


    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...secretes a large volume of pro- tein. Thus it is used industrially. By using this bacillus subtilis as a base, an ambitious research concerning (1...the said secretion vector were tried. Follow- ing results were obtained. (1) Neutral proteazoa genes of bacillus subtilis were processed to suit the

  6. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  7. Dermatological legal claims in Japan. (United States)

    Ogawa, Sachiko; Isogawa, Naoyuki; Ushiro, Shin; Ayuzawa, Junko; Furue, Masutaka


    Health-care safety management has recently been highlighted for patient safety. However, specialist-based risks in clinical settings have hardly been discussed in Japan so far. A review of dermatological legal claims may delineate these risks. This study examined court precedents from the databases "Courts in Japan" and LEX/DB. Thirty-four dermatology-related civil cases were found from 1968-2006. Of the 34 cases, 32 (94%) were judged and two (6%) were retried. Of these 32 cases, 11 (34%) were appealed to higher courts. Among the 34 litigations, the defendants of eight (23%) were dermatology specialists, 20 (59%) were non-dermatologists and six (18%) of unknown specialty. The defendants' negligence was determined at either level in court in 25 of the 34 cases. The negligence in these 25 cases was categorized into five groups: (i) delayed diagnosis (none); (ii) complication during diagnosis procedure (one, 4%); (iii) inappropriate treatment (nine, 36%); (iv) complication during treatment procedure (10, 40%); and (v) insufficient informed consent (five, 20%). The present study may help to improve strategies for health-care safety management in the dermatological field in Japan.

  8. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan... (United States)


    ... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson County Central Library, Lopez Island Public Library, North Olympic Public Library, Oak Harbor Public...

  9. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  10. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour


    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  11. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island (United States)

    Levinson, Steven


    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  12. Kampen om idémessige forklaringer på japansk sikkerhetspolitikk: Kina i Japans identitetskonstruksjon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Yennie Lindgren


    Full Text Available The Senkaku islands dispute between Japan and China underwent a period of heightened tension between 2010–2014. In this article we study the official and dominant Japanese discourse on the Senkaku islands dispute between Japan and China during this period. The objective is to contribute to the relational studies literature with an in-depth case study of China’s role as the ‘other’ in Japan’s identity construction during a critical period in East Asia. The article’s case study is based on a reading of texts from the Japanese government, elite politicians, academics, intellectuals and others engaged in Japan’s public sector. We present the most central signs that are used to contrast Japan and China and discuss the connection between these signs and their role in Japanese identity making. Our case study findings support those of other relational studies which suggest that Japan’s identity has undergone significant change since the end of the Cold War. The emergence of a Japanese identity where the use of military power for deterrence purposes seems more legitimate than in the postwar period is one of the most important changes today.

  13. Chinese University Students’ Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Editor’s Note: At the invitation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the Japan-China Friendship Center, a 77-member delegation of Chinese university students led by Wang Xiuyun, Vice President of the China-Japan Friendship Association, visited Tokyo, Miyagi and Kyoto from March 4 to 11, 2013. Members of the delegation consisted of students from Peking University, Renmin University of China, Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing Normal University, Beijing International Studies

  14. Green Cooperation Underway between China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun


    @@ The China-Japan Green Expo 2011, held in early June, marks the first large-scale cooperation between the two countries, after Japan's devastating earthquake and tsunami. Companies based in China and Japan, Chinese government ministries and other organizations attended the expo to exhibit products and technologies that promote environmental conservation.In addition, experts from industry, government and academia hosted seminars to introduce environment-related technologies.

  15. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA


    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  16. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbiota of kusaya gravy obtained from Izu Islands. (United States)

    Fujii, Tateo; Kyoui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon; Washizu, Yukio; Emoto, Eiji; Hiramoto, Tadahiro


    Kusaya is a salted, dried fish product traditionally produced on the Izu Islands in Japan. Fish are added to kusaya gravy repeatedly and intermittently, and used over several hundred years, which makes unique microbiota and unique flavors. In this study, we performed a metagenomic analysis to compare the composition of the microbiota of kusaya gravy between different islands. Twenty samples obtained from a total of 13 manufacturers on three islands (Hachijojima, Niijima, and Oshima Islands) were analyzed. The statistical analysis revealed that the microbiota in kusaya gravy maintain a stable composition regardless of the production steps, and that the microbiota are characteristic to the particular islands. The bacterial taxa common to all of the samples were not necessarily the dominant ones. On the other hand, the genera Halanaerobium and Tissierella were found to be characteristic to the microbiota of one or two islands. Because these genera are known to be present in the natural environment, it is likely that the bacterial strains peculiar to an island had colonized kusaya gravy for many years. The results of this study revealed an influence of geographical conditions on the microbiota in fermented food.

  17. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons. (United States)

    Asamoto, Shunji


    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Fitness and health promotion in Japan. (United States)

    Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I


    Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts.

  19. Profile of China-Japan Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yong


    @@ There are many important changes in the China-Japan economic relation since 2000.Generally speaking,the economic relation between China and Japan is becoming closer and more interdependent than ever.China trade to Japan has increased at the rate of 16.2%,31.1% and 25.7% in the year of 2002,2003 and 2004.In 2006,the sum of the bilateral trade between China and Japan reached US$210 billion with the increasing rate of 11.5%.

  20. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan (United States)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  1. Dunhuang Friendship Delegation Visits Japan and ROK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A friendship delegation of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province paid a visit to Japan and the ROK from January 12 to 25, 2007. During its visit to Japan and the ROK, the delegation signed agreements on establishing friendship-city ties between Dunhuang and Nikko City of Japan and between Dunhuang and Namhae County of the ROK, and visited Kamakura and Usuki, Dunhuang’ s two friendship cities in Japan, and held meetings in Tokyo and Seoul to advertise Dunhuang’s tourist products.

  2. Educational Differences in Divorce in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James M. Raymo; Setsuya Fukuda; Miho Iwasawa


    BACKGROUND Evidence of a negative relationship between educational attainment and divorce in Japan is not consistent with predictions derived from standard theoretical emphases on the costs of divorce...

  3. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.


    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  4. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands


    Hoes, O. A. C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; R. J. van der Ent


    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have been inconsistent and incomplete. In this study we identified all locations on East Asian islands (from Japan, Taiwan Phillipines to Indonesia) which are suitable for hydropower. For this we combin...

  5. New record of the genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916 (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from Hainan Island, China (United States)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng


    The monotypic genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916, which was established based on material from the Indian Ocean and previously only known from the type localities, Australia and Japan, is now newly recorded from the South China Sea. A detailed description of Phycocaris simulans Kemp, 1916 based on the specimen collected from Hainan Island is presented. Specific features and the differences between the Indian Ocean and the present material are described.

  6. Opportunities in Understanding China’s Approach to the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands (United States)


    States retained administrative control and Yasukuni Shrine JFQ 75, 4th Quarter 2014 Davis 55 eventually returned the Ryukyu Islands, including the...official ceremonies at the Yasukuni Shrine , where individuals convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal of the Far East are...Japan.6 Third, American corporations have eco- nomic interests in keeping the sea lines open to international shipping and ensur- ing access for

  7. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication (United States)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu


    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  8. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya


    ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States.

  9. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan (United States)

    Matsubara, Y.


    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  10. High Technology Ceramics in Japan (United States)


    of evolutionary charoge T’LE i a Markt She of tlh-T o Japan. 1m (in 4min t4 dolkla)" Japaman Percer""g Sector Appkhi DoamiC Sale" of Total Etcvo... segments populated by buyers willing to acquire products embodying the new technology, even though the cost ma, he somewhat grcmterthan that of...looking for new ways to segment the market in order ,o rekindle consumer interest. New technology like ceramics may well be onewa, to do this. for there is

  11. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos


    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  12. Japan between tradition and renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    architecture had on the outcome of the congress. In conversation with Viktoria Diemer Bennetzen, the sociologist Professor Anni Greve will take a closer look ‘beyond metabolism’ - the last architectural avantgarde from Japan. They will examine the transition from Metabolism to contemporary architecture and ask....... What is the status and function of tradition in today’s Japanese society? How does it manifest in architecture and urban life? And what specific role does it play in the differences between rural and urban architecture?"...

  13. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...... production via SSDG. Furthermore, the paper gives an update on the implementation in Mauritius of the proposed incentives.......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...

  14. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac


    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  15. 3.11: disaster and change in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Richard J


    .... Japan, 2011-Political aspects. 3. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, Japan, 2011-Political aspects. 4. Japan-Politics and government-21st century. I. Title. II. Title: Three eleven. HV555.J3S26 2013 363.34'9...

  16. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  17. Atmospheric fallout of (129)I in Japan before the Fukushima accident: regional and global contributions (1963-2005). (United States)

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki


    Atmospheric (129)I deposition was studied in different locations of Japan (Akita, Tsukuba, Tokyo, and Ishigaki Island) with samples collected between 1963 and 2005 in order to understand the distribution and sources of this nuclide and provide a reference deposition level prior to the Fukushima accident. Over this time period, the deposition pattern of (129)I in Tsukuba and Tokyo (on the Pacific side) differed from that of Akita (on the Japan Sea side). The primary source of deposition in Tsukuba and Tokyo is related to the (129)I discharge from domestic reprocessing in Tokai-mura. In contrast, the time-series pattern of deposition in Akita seems to have been influenced by (129)I discharges from reprocessing facilities in Europe and the transport of this radionuclide by westerly winds to coastlines of the Japan Sea. The (129)I deposition in Ishigaki (one of the southernmost islands in Japan) is influenced primarily by oceanic air masses (easterly winds), and deposition was 1 order of magnitude lower than that observed in Tsukuba and Tokyo. Cumulative (129)I deposition in Tokyo before the Fukushima accident was estimated at 13 mBq/m(2). The results of this study on deposition contribute to understanding the deposition levels of (129)I prior to the accident.

  18. Status of Animal Experiments on International Space Station, and Animal Care Activities in Japan (United States)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ishioka, Noriaki; Yumoto, Akane; Ito, Isao; Shirakawa, Masaki

    We would like to introduce animal experiments status on International Space Station (ISS) of Japan. Aquatic Habitat (AQH) was launched at 2012 July, by H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV, ‘Kounotori’) from Tanegashima island in Japan, which could house small fish (Medaka, or Zebrafish) at most three months. First experiment using AQH was carried out for two months from Oct. 26, 2012, and second experiment would start from February, 2014. Mice housing hardware is now under development. For animal care activities, current topic in Japan is self-estimation for animal experiment status by each institute, and to open the result for public. JAXA conducted self-estimation of fiscal year 2011 (from 2011 April until 2012 March) for the first time, and would continue every fiscal year. JAXA already have its own animal care regulation, under animal care law and policy in Japan, and also referred COSPAR animal care guideline. And this year, JAXA made handbook for animal experiments in space (only Japanese).

  19. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast. (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu


    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  20. US-Japan relationship in the 1980s: achievements, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The critical importance for the political economic, and security interests of the two countries is stressed. A healthy and productive association between them contributes in fundamental ways to the security and economic growth of the Asian region. And it provides the basis for more rapid restructuring of the world's two most dynamic and advanced economies. The military power of the Soviet Union has grown inexorably over the past decade, as have Moscow's deployments in Asia of naval, air, and ground forces. These developments increase the need to strengthen and broaden the coordination of long-term US and Japanese strategic policy toward the Soviet Union and especially the US-Japan defense relationship within the context of the Mutual Security Treaty. The United States and Japan must remain sensitive to the increasing strains within the Soviet empire, while pursuing political, economic, and military policies toward the Soviet Union consistent with unified and firm resistance to Soviet expansionism. Of particular concern in providing for the joint defense of US and Japanese mutual interests is the need to expand Japan's role in such fields as surveillance, air defense, and anti-submarine warfare that contribute to the security of the Japanese home islands and the sea lanes in the waters surrounding Japan. Japanese and US leadership in militarily relevant fields of technology provide an important asset for needed improvements in their joint defense capabilities.

  1. Full Waveform Seismic Inversion for the Japan Region (United States)

    Žukauskaitė, Saulė; Steptoe, Hamish; Fichtner, Andreas


    We present a seismic tomography model for the Japan archipelago obtained using full waveform inversion and adjoint methods. A high-resolution seismic velocity model is essential for Japan as means to comprehend and characterize the complexity of the tectonic setting, and to further our understanding of earthquake sources and rupture propagation. The study area covers the Japanese islands - an area between 20°-50°N and 130°-160°E - and extends to a maximum depth of 500 km. In virtue of complicated tectonics and resulting high seismicity, dense seismic networks are present in Japan and surrounding countries. We make use of broadband data from three networks - F-net in Japan, BATS in Taiwan, and notably, the National Earthquake Network in South Korea. Due to access difficulties, data from this network had not been used in the preceding tomographic study of the same area. We use >50 carefully selected earthquakes, located within the model area and occurring between 1999 and the present. Magnitudes of the events are restricted to 5≤Mw≤6.9 for a point source approximation to be valid. A spectral-element method is used for forward waveform calculation, which comes with the geometric flexibility of finite-elements method and the accuracy of spectral methods. To quantify differences between the observed and synthetic waveforms, we use time-frequency misfits, which exploit the evolution of the frequency content of the data in time. The sensitivities (Fréchet kernels) are then calculated using adjoint methods. The employed methodology allows us to explain the data of dominant period as low as 10 s. To prevent possible over-fitting of the data, we ensure that final misfits are not lower than those obtained if additional (not yet used) data are incorporated. The final results of this study will contribute to the 'Comprehensive Earth Model' being developed by the Computational Seismology group at ETH, with the aim to represent the snapshot of the current knowledge of

  2. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands]. (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin


    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  3. Cushion plants as islands. (United States)

    Tepedino, V J; Stanton, N L


    The acarine fauna of two abundant species of cushion plant on the high, short-grass prairie of S.E. Wyoming were used to test The MacArthur-Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography. Multiple regression analysis using area, distance and percent moisture as independent variables and number of mite species and number of mite individuals were run for the two sampling dates. Results showed area alone to be consistently and highly correlated (r=0.84-0.94) with both species and individuals for one cushion species. The slopes of the species-area and individuals-area curves are among the highest recorded and were significantly higher on the second sampling date. Selective seasonal changes in the fauna were shown by increases both in numbers of species and individuals, mainly on larger cushions, for the later sampling period. It is hypothesized that seasonal changes are due to an increase in the number of predator species in response to an increase in the number of prey items. The slopes of the species-area curves are compared with those in the literature and it is argued that slope values are more dependent upon the taxonomic group being studied than on whether the island is insular or oceanic. Finally, we suggest that The MacArthur-Wilson Theory is not applicable to islands which 1) exhibit continuous growth, 2) lack a discrete species source, and 3) are relatively transitory.

  4. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan


    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  5. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush


    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  6. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush


    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  7. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.


    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  8. The Role of German in Japan. (United States)

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  9. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.


    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  10. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  11. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan


    World Bank


    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  12. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  13. Marine Geography of the Sea of Japan (United States)


    Reconnaissance Geography of Japan," University of Wisconsin Studies in the Social Sciences and History, No. 22, 283 pp., 1934. , "Japan, A Physical...Vol. 2. pp 2 Inlleiol dMoine Obsetvotory0 Kobe, (&r, Japone ’). RESTRICTED 3 Ref erences: Korea, Fishery Experimental Station, "Report on the Drift

  14. Should Japan Become a Normal Country (United States)


    Katzenstein and Tsujinaka, 80. 139 Chalmers Johnson, “Japan in Search of a ‘Normal’ Role,” IGCC Policy paper 3, July 1992. 48...Chalmers. “Japan in Search of a ‘Normal’ Role,” IGCC Policy paper, 3 July 1992. Johnson, Chalmers. MITI and The Japanese Miracle: The Growth of

  15. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>To further exchanges and cooperation between the people of China and Japan and enhance ties between the CPAFFC and Japanese non-governmental friendly organizations, President Chen Haosu visited Japan at the head of a CPAFFC delegation from February 7 to 12.

  16. Japan Seeks Balance in Global Bioscience Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jocelyn Kaiser


    ... five times its $4 million contribution. "There is a tendency for other governments to see Japan's support as a small return on their trade imbalance with Japan," says Michel Cuenod, secretary-general of the Strasbourg, France-based program. But Japanese officials, he says, "are growing impatient with continuing the program" if the funding issue is n...

  17. China's Crude Exports to Japan Suspended

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The stalemate of the trade negotiation between China and Japan has recently aroused extensive attention in the two nations. China has suspended oil exports to Japan due to the divergences arising from in the sales negotiation, risking the future of a three-decade long oil shipment program.

  18. Teaching about Japan in Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Richardson, Helen W.


    Suggests that a good starting point for social studies curriculum units on Japan at the secondary school level is an analysis of the interrelationships between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on population figures, industrialization, standard of living indicators, consumer price indexes, and crude birth and death rates for…

  19. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers. (United States)

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

  20. Tachinidae Parasitic on the Lymantriidae in Japan


    Paul W., Schaefer; Hiroshi, SHIMA; Asian Parasite Laboratory, Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture:(Present address)Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory; Biological Laboratory, College of General Education, Kyushu University


    Recorded tachinid parasites and 23 new host records are listed for 15 lymantriid species in Japan. A parasite-host list is included and a new species of Carcelia parasitic on Leucoma candida in Hokkaido is described and illustrated. A key to adult tachinid parasites of the Lymantriidae in Japan is provided.

  1. Temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan as revealed by mussel watch and specimen bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y.; Yoshinaga, J.; Horiguchi, T.; Uehiro, T.; Morita, M. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Mussel watch program coupled with a pilot specimen bank at NIES was conducted from 1983 to 1987, and also from 1993 to 1994, and their results were compared to reveal temporal trends of coastal environment along Japan. Special emphasis was paid to reveal the change of ``background`` level of pollutants by collecting bivalves in remote islands. Several species of mussels (Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis, M. coruscus, Septifer virgatus, Pema viridis), oysters (Saxostrea mordax, Crassostrea gigas) and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum, Tridacna crocea) were collected to cover subfrigid to subtropical zones along Japan islands. The level of TBT decreased considerably between the above two intervals, i.e., from 0.12--0.01 {micro}g/g in mid 80`s to 0.03-n.d. (less than 0.01) {micro}g/g in 1993. This decrease may reflect the start of the regulation in 1990. The clam samples collected at Tokyo bay and stored in specimen bank were found to contain considerable levels (near 0.3 {micro}g/g) of TBT and TPT in 1980, and their levels were almost constant through mid and late 1980`s. Several heavy metals, including Cd, showed interesting spatial distribution patterns; their concentrations tend to be higher in less populated remote islands in western part of Japan than in densely populated areas. Cd concentrations, however, also show apparent correlation with Zn status of each organism (especially evident in Septifer sp.), and the interpretation of the results is not straightforward at this stage. Interestingly, a tropical green mussel, P. viridis, was found to be spreading in some densely populated area including Tokyo and Osaka bays.

  2. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  3. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.


    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  4. Late colonization of Easter Island. (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P


    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  5. Upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, estimated from ScSp phase


    Osada, Kinue; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; YOMOGIDA, Kiyoshi


    Three-dimensional geometry of the upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, was obtained using the ScSp phase: the phase converted from ScS (S wave reflected at the core-mantle boundary) to P wave at the plate boundary. Taking the advantage of a dense seismic network, "Hi-net", recently deployed across the Japanese islands, we applied several seismic array analyses to the recorded waveform data for a large nearby deep earthquake, in order to enhance very weak ScS...

  6. Association of an alphasatellite with tomato yellow leaf curl virus and ageratum yellow vein virus in Japan is suggestive of a recent introduction. (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W; Natsuaki, Keiko T


    Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Japan; the virus previously having been shown to be present on the Okinawa Islands. The plant harboring AYVV was also shown to contain the betasatellite Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite (ToLCJaB), a satellite not previously shown to be present in Japan. No betasatellite was associated with the TYLCV infected tomato plants analyzed here, consistent with earlier findings for this virus in Japan. Surprisingly both plants were also found to harbor an alphasatellite; no alphasatellites having previously been reported from Japan. The alphasatellite associated with both viruses was shown to be Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite which has previously only been identified in the Yunnan Province of China and Nepal. The results suggest that further begomoviruses, and their associated satellites, are being introduced to Japan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  7. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  8. Recent damaging earthquakes in Japan, 2003-2008 (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E


    During the last six years, from 2003-2008, Japan has been struck by three significant and damaging earthquakes: The most recent M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu Oki earthquake of July 16, 2007 off the coast of Kashiwazaki City, Japan; The M6.6 Niigata Chuetsu earthquake of October 23, 2004, located in Niigata Prefecture in the central Uonuma Hills; and the M8.0 Tokachi Oki Earthquake of September 26, 2003 effecting southeastern Hokkaido Prefecture. These earthquakes stand out among many in a very active period of seismicity in Japan. Within the upper 100 km of the crust during this period, Japan experienced 472 earthquakes of magnitude 6, or greater. Both Niigata events affected the south-central region of Tohoku Japan, and the Tokachi-Oki earthquake affected a broad region of the continental shelf and slope southeast of the Island of Hokkaido. This report is synthesized from the work of scores of Japanese and US researchers who led and participated in post-earthquake reconnaissance of these earthquakes: their noteworthy and valuable contributions are listed in an extended acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. During the Niigata Chuetsu Oki event of 2007, damage to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, structures, infrastructure, and ground were primarily the product of two factors: (1) high intensity motions from this moderate-sized shallow event, and (2) soft, poor performing, or liquefiable soils in the coastal region of southwestern Niigata Prefecture. Structural and geotechnical damage along the slopes of dunes was ubiquitous in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa region. The 2004 Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake was the most significant to affect Japan since the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Forty people were killed, almost 3,000 were injured, and many hundreds of landslides destroyed entire upland villages. Landslides were of all types; some dammed streams, temporarily creating lakes threatening to overtop their new embankments and cause flash floods and mudslides. The numerous

  9. Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Tsunami Runup and Inundation Data for Sites Around the Island of Hawaiʻi (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Chadderton, Amy; Hinchliffe, Graham; Hara, Andrew; Patenge, Brent; Weber, Tom


    At 0546 U.t.c. March 11, 2011, a Mw 9.0 ("great") earthquake occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, generating a large tsunami that devastated the east coast of Japan and impacted many far-flung coastal sites around the Pacific Basin. After the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami alert for the State of Hawaii, followed by a tsunami-warning notice from the local State Civil Defense on March 10, 2011 (Japan is 19 hours ahead of Hawaii). After the waves passed the islands, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) measured inundation (maximum inland distance of flooding), runup (elevation at maximum extent of inundation) and took photographs in coastal areas around the Island of Hawaiʻi. Although the damage in West Hawaiʻi is well documented, HVO's mapping revealed that East Hawaiʻi coastlines were also impacted by the tsunami. The intent of this report is to provide runup and inundation data for sites around the Island of Hawaiʻi.

  10. Evaluation of the ecological state of the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk using the DNase test system (United States)

    Menzorova, N. I.; Rasskazov, V. A.


    A study of the state of the Russian coastal marine ecosystems of the Sea of Japan (the Tumen River mouth) and the Sea of Okhotsk (the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island and the Sakhalin Gulf) and Kraternya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands) was carried out during the 29th expedition of the R/V Akademik Oparin. A highly sensitive express analysis using the DNase of the Strongylocentrotus intermedius sea urchin was utilized in order to evaluate the quality of the natural marine water of the areas experiencing different degrees of anthropogenic impact. The marine water quality was evaluated according to the degree of the DNase inhibition in the samples. The presence of ecological stress was shown at the aforementioned sites excluding Kraternya Bight. The method allows the fast (1 hour) analysis of the pollution of marine areas and, coupled with data on the hydrological, hydrochemical, and microbiological studies of water samples, provides the possibility to make an ecological forecast.

  11. Islands of the Arctic (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael


    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  12. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  13. History of neurophysiology in Japan. (United States)

    Oomura, Y


    The progress of the neurophysiological research in Japan during the past 45 years is related. Modern Japanese neurophysiology started immediately after the end of World War 2. The introduction of microelectrode techniques contributed greatly to most fields of Japanese neurophysiology. These techniques were used to study most neurophysiological phenomena: sensory physiology including vision, audition, chemical sensitivity, and other modalities; learning and memory. These techniques plus lesions, transplants, and behavioral physiology were used to study circadian rhythm, posture and motor control, and sex. These and other techniques were used to study neural plasticity, immunity, membrane excitability, pain and other psychophysiological functions. The disciplines advanced quickly into multidiscipline approaches into not only electrophysiological, but biophysical, biochemical and immunological research fields. From the past research results our neurophysiologists can be expected to advance rapidly toward further development in the future of Japanese neurophysiology.

  14. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.


    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  15. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  16. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim


    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  17. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean


    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete


    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  18. The submental island flap. (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F


    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  19. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi


    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  20. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica (United States)


    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  1. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  2. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  3. Rain on small tropical islands (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.


    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  4. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan. (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko


    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  5. Lateral structural change of the subducting Pacific plate beneath Japan inferred from high-frequency body wave analysis (United States)

    Padhy, S.; Furumura, T.; Maeda, T.


    We studied the detailed lateral structure of the subducting Pacific plate near Honshu by analyzing waveforms from deep earthquakes recorded at fore-arc Hi-net dense high-gain network and F-net broadband stations in Japan. Such waveforms explain the low-frequency precursors followed by high-frequency energies due to the multiple scattering and diffractions of seismic waves in the stochastic waveguide of the Pacific slab (Furumura and Kennett, 2005). However, recent analysis shows that for some particular source-receiver paths, the waveforms exhibit loss of high frequency energy in P-coda, loss of low-frequency precursor and presence of P-to-P or P-to-S converted phases in P-coda for deep earthquakes occurring in the subeducting Pacific plate. Such complexities in the observed waveforms indicate sudden lateral change in the wave guiding properties of the subducting slab, such as expected to be caused by the thinning or tearing the slab in deeper part. To explain the observations, we employ two-dimensional finite-difference method (FDM) simulations of complete high-frequency P-SV wave propagation taking thinning of the Pacific slab into account. We expect that the observed guided wave energy must decouple from waveguide where the slab is deformed or thin. Low frequency energy leaks out of the slab and travels to the receivers along paths in the low velocity and low-Q mantle surrounding the slab, while high frequency signal of shorter wavelength can travel through thin plate. The results of this study, along with the evidence for weak velocity anomaly as inferred from seismic tomography (Obayashi et al., 2009) and observations of slab tear in the Pacific plate (Kennett and Furumura, 2010), we expect a local velocity anomaly or thinning in the oceanic lithosphere along the junction between Izu-Bonin and Honshu arc. It is necessary to examine these effects further with a 3D FDM simulation for different slab geometries and source depths.

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas. (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma


    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although H. canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks.

  7. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez


    Full Text Available Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan.

  8. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi


    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:27956767

  9. Infection control in healthcare settings in Japan. (United States)

    Morikane, Keita


    In Japan, the practice of infection control in healthcare settings has a short history of less than 3 decades. Before that, infection control practices were far from perfect and even ignored. This review summarizes changes in infection control in Japan since the 1980s and offers some comparisons with practices in foreign countries, especially the United States. Infection control is far better now than 25 years ago, but there remain fundamental issues that limit the development of better infection control practices. These problems include insufficient funding and human resources due to the socialized healthcare insurance system in Japan and the lack of interest in infection control research.

  10. Winners of the Japan Chinese Speech Contest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yui Tanaka; Yuka Goto


    <正>Editor’s Note:This year marks the 40th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations. The final of the 29th Japan Chinese Speech Contest sponsored by the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA) was held in Tokyo on January 8. The 28 contestants came from 17 Japanese prefectures. They spoke about their experience in learning Chinese language, their contacts with Chinese people and their views on removing misunderstanding and enhancing mutual understanding and friendship between the two countries.

  11. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  12. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  13. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.


    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  14. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan (United States)

    Demets, Charles


    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  15. Faster and more efficient [maritime technology in Japan]; Hoe sneller hoe zuiniger [maritieme technologie in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroeks, R.


    By means of technological innovations marine superpower Japan anticipates a growing market for sea ships that are both fast and efficient. The combinations of fast and efficient offers Japan large benefits. Next to political motives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, fuel savings also mean lower costs and smaller dependency on foreign energy sources. Moreover, the maritime transport sector is positioning itself as a better alternative for road and air transport and the international competitive position of Japan on the maritime market is strengthened. [Dutch] Met technologische vernieuwingen anticipeert marinegrootmacht Japan op een groeiende markt voor zeeschepen die tegelijkertijd snel en zuinig zijn. Voor Japan levert de combinatie van snel en zuinig grote voordelen op. Naast politieke motieven om de emissie van broeikasgassen terug te dringen, betekent brandstofbesparing lagere kosten en minder afhankelijkheid van buitenlandse energiebronnen. Daarnaast positioneert de maritieme transportsector zich beter als alternatief voor weg- en luchttransport en versterkt de internationale concurrentiepositie van Japan op de maritieme markt.

  16. Miocene reef and nonreef carbonate rocks in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, K.


    Japan's main islands experienced temperature climates throughout the Neogene with a tropical invasion around 16 Ma (early middle Miocene). This climatic warming, accompanied by a eustatic sea level rise, caused the unusual occurrence of reef facies, mangrove deposits, and lateritic beds in Japan. In cooler climates both before and after reef growth, sediments rich in bryozoan and algal material were widespread. Reef rocks emplaced as penecontemporaneous olistoliths in deep-water clastics at the Pacific coast of central Honshu are characterized by a wide lithologic spectrum, ranging from grainstone to bindstone. These rocks include rudstone and floatstone, which are rich in coralline algae (encrusting forms such as Lithophyllum and Mesophyllum and articulate forms such as Amphiroa) and codiacean algae (Halimeda) with hermatypic corals and large benthic formainifera (e.g., Nephrolepidina and Miogypsina) being less common. Two types of dolomite occur: (1) limpid dolomite with O/sup 18/ = -5.77 and with bipyramidal quartz and (2) microcrystalline dolomite with O/sup 18/ = 2.00 and with length-slow chalcedony. While microcrystalline dolomite tends to predominate in muddy matrix material, limpid dolomite appears to fill pores, some of which are moldic. Younger nonreef carbonate rocks, as occur on the Noto Peninsula of central Honshu, are commonly cross-bedded, contain Bryozoa, mollusks, small foraminifera, and echinoids, and are locally dolomitized. These dolomites are ascribed to a mixed-water origin. A different type of nonreef, yet reservoir-forming, dolostone occurs in the late middle Miocene of northeast Honshu and is interpreted to have formed as a transformation from bathyal opal.

  17. PCR detection of Babesia ovata from questing ticks in Japan. (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki


    Babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle. In the present study, we analyzed tick DNA samples (n=1459) prepared from questing ticks collected from various cattle pastures in Hokkaido (Shibecha, Taiki, Otofuke, Memuro, and Shin-Hidaka districts) and Okinawa (Yonaguni Island) prefectures of Japan for B. ovata. When all the tick DNA samples were screened by a previously described B. ovata-specific apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, none of the DNA samples was positive. Therefore, we developed a PCR assay based on the protozoan beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) gene to detect B. ovata from ticks in Japan. In the specificity test, the PCR assay amplified the expected 444-bp target gene fragment from B. ovata DNA. No PCR products were amplified from DNA samples from other blood pathogens, bovine blood, or ticks. In addition, the PCR assay detected 100 fg of B. ovata-genomic DNA extracted from an in vitro culture of the parasites. Subsequently, when all the tick DNA samples were screened by this new PCR assay, 18 were positive for B. ovata. Positive samples were found only in the Yonaguni and Memuro areas. In Okinawa, where all the ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, 9.7% of the samples were PCR-positive, while a single tick (Ixodes ovatus) from Memuro was infected with B. ovata. When the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed, they formed a separate clade containing a previously described β-tubulin gene sequence from B. ovata (Miyake strain), confirming that the PCR assay had detected only B. ovata from the tick DNA samples. This is the first report that describes the PCR detection of B. ovata in ticks. The findings warrant transmission experiments to evaluate I. ovatus as a potential vector of B. ovata.

  18. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  19. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan (United States)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.


    Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  1. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan (United States)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  2. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.


    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia dorotocepha

  3. [[Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1992 (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K


    Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1992 are analyzed. Topics covered include marriage by nationality of bride and groom, marriage rates by age, first marriage and remarriage rates, and divorces and divorce rates by age.

  4. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling


    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  5. Japan’s Rearmament Dilemma: Obstacles to Rearmament. (United States)


    world, surely Japan could afford to spend more for her defense if she needed to, but the fact remains Japan has chosen not to rearm massively. The last...upon the military power of the U.S., relieved Japan of costly military expenditures . Zbigniew Brezezinski has pointed out that Japan’s low defense ...first" policy, which has been supported in a large measure by the minimal defense spendings , is under severe strain. As Japan saw a continuing U.S

  6. Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan


    Shoko Yoneyama


    This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the 'west': Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now re...

  7. Revitalizing US electronics lessons from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Sprague, John


    Written by one of the few executives who have extensive experience in the electronics industry in both the US and Japan, this book compares market research, design, and manufacturing techniques as used in both countries. Unlike other books on theJapanese business culture, Sprague gives specific advice and recommendations about what companies can do now to compete with Japan, clearly pointing out what is and what is not adaptable from the Japanese approach to business.

  8. ICT Productivity in Japan: Another Puzzle?


    Shinozaki, Akihiko


    This study is intended to examine whether information and communications technology (ICT) has contributed to aggregate productivity growth in Japan over the last two decades. Growth accounting analysis yields two observations. First, investment in ICT accelerated in Japan in the 1980s and slowed down in the 1990s. Second, the periodical changes of multifactor productivity growth and the contribution of ICT capital assets have always run in a parallel direction since the 1980s. Therefore, the ...

  9. Influence of Japan Earthquake Upon Shipbuilding Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jianmiao


    On March 11,the strong earthquake of 9.0 magnitude and the tsunami in Japan made its entire social life,production and communication systems into chaos.As the world third largest economy.Japan is also a large trade,shipbuilding and marine equipment manufacturing country.The earthquake has not only greatly affected the Japanese shipbuilding industry,but also the international shipping industry and Chinese shipbuilding industry.

  10. Japan's Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reconstruction


    Ihori, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi


    This paper investigates the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy and the fiscal reconstruction movement in Japan. We first summarize Japan's fiscal policy in recent years and discuss advantages and disadvantages of government deficits. Next, we investigate the macroeconomic effects of Japanese fiscal policy and evaluate the plausibility of non-Keynesian effects. We also analyze the possibility of the crowding-in effect of fiscal policy and investigate the spillover effects of deregulation. ...

  11. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan


    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez; Hisashi Inokuma


    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause cli...

  12. Observations on Japan's New Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jiping


    @@ On December 10, 2004, Japan's Security Council (also called Defense Council before 1986, which is composed of Prime Minister and several important Cabinet members) and Cabinet approved and published a new National Defense Program Guideline ("Defense Guideline" in short), which elaborated not only Japan's defense force construction objectives and its detailed development program in the coming 10 years, but also great changes in its basic defense principles, concept of security threats, security objectives and their corresponding measure.

  13. Notes on a Trip to Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "WHAT’S your impression of Japan? How has it advanced?" I was repeatedly asked the same questions by my friends and colleagues after I returned to Beijing. As a neighboring country of China and a world economic superpower, Japan is still a remote and unfamiliar place to most Chinese. In November of 1996, I was invited by the Japanese government to participate in the Asian-Pacific Journalist’s Seminar on Women and Media. My one-week schedule

  14. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan




    Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

  15. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan (United States)

    Yamamoto, C


    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  16. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W.G.; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L.R.


    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  18. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro


    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  19. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21. (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo


    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  20. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013 (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.


    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.