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Sample records for bones

  1. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  2. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  3. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  4. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  5. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  6. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  7. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Bone Biopsy Sponsored by Please note ...

  9. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  10. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  11. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  12. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  13. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  14. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  16. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  17. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  18. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  19. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  20. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  1. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  2. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  3. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  4. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  5. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  6. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  7. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells. In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, wingless-type (Wnt genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX.

  8. Bone disease in hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L

    2014-07-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is responsible for the majority of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Bone disease occurs in hypoparathyroidism due to markedly reduced bone remodeling due to the absence or low levels of parathyroid hormone. Chronically reduced bone turnover in patients with hypoparathyroidism typically leads to higher bone mass than in age- and sex-matched controls. Whether this increased bone density reduces fracture risk is less certain, because while increased bone mineralization may be associated with increased brittleness of bone, this does not appear to be the case in hypoparathyroidism. Treatment of hypoparathyroidism with recombinant parathyroid hormone may reduce bone mineral density but simultaneously strengthen the mechanical properties of bone.

  9. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma.

  10. Macrophages and bone inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone metabolism is tightly regulated by the immune system. Accelerated bone destruction is observed in many bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, and particle-induced osteolysis. These pathological conditions are associated with inflammatory responses, suggesting the contribution of inflammation to bone destruction. Macrophages are heterogeneous immune cells and are polarized into the proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 phenotypes in different microenvironments. The cytokines produced by macrophages depend on the macrophage activation and polarization. Macrophages and macrophage-derived cytokines are important to bone loss in inflammatory bone disease. Recent studies have shown that macrophages can be detected in bone tissue and interact with bone cells. The interplay between macrophages and bone cells is critical to bone formation and repair. In this article, we focus on the role of macrophages in inflammatory bone diseases, as well as discuss the latest studies about macrophages and bone formation, which will provide new insights into the therapeutic strategy for bone disease.

  11. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  12. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  13. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  14. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  15. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  16. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  17. [Artificial bone substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníček, Petr

    Bone tissue substitutes are divided into basic classification with its pros and cons described. Arteficial bone grafts are especially pointed out in article, publishing our own experience with two specific synthetic preps. Finally there is a blink in the near future of bone tissue augmentation.

  18. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 and 14 years in. 80% of cases. The incidence is ...

  19. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  1. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction. PMID:22461825

  2. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  3. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  4. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  5. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  6. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  7. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-02-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion.

  8. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  9. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  10. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adul...... of this study it is believed the petrous bone may be a new useful bone element and a supplement or a proxy for teeth in the analysis of early dietary patterns as it may reflect diet in fetal stages and early years of life....

  11. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake a...

  12. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  13. Traumatic bone cyst, idiopathic origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic bone cyst (TBC) is an uncommon non-epithelial lined cavity of the jaws. Traumatic bone cysts have been reported in the literature under a variety of names: solitary bone cyst, haemorrhagic bone cyst, extravasation cyst and simple bone cyst. The multitude of names applied to this lesion implies ...

  14. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  17. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  18. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to optimize their bone mass. Teen pregnancy and bone health. Teenage mothers may be at especially high risk for bone loss during pregnancy and for osteoporosis later in life. Unlike older ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  20. Biologicals and bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krieckaert, C.L.M.; Lems, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory joint diseases are associated with extra-articular side effects including bone involvement.There is an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. The pathogeneses of local and generalized bone loss share a common pathway. Early and active rheumatoid arthritis is associated with

  1. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium supplement if necessary. • Vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium and move it into ... bone density test? • Should I take calcium and vitamin D supplements? How much do I need? • Do I need medication for my bone loss? • ...

  2. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Won-Jong; Mirra, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  3. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  4. Flexoelectricity in Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Sancho, Fabian; Abdollahi, Amir; Damjanovic, Dragan; Catalan, Gustau

    2018-03-01

    Bones generate electricity under pressure, and this electromechanical behavior is thought to be essential for bone's self-repair and remodeling properties. The origin of this response is attributed to the piezoelectricity of collagen, which is the main structural protein of bones. In theory, however, any material can also generate voltages in response to strain gradients, thanks to the property known as flexoelectricity. In this work, the flexoelectricity of bone and pure bone mineral (hydroxyapatite) are measured and found to be of the same order of magnitude; the quantitative similarity suggests that hydroxyapatite flexoelectricity is the main source of bending-induced polarization in cortical bone. In addition, the measured flexoelectric coefficients are used to calculate the (flexo)electric fields generated by cracks in bone mineral. The results indicate that crack-generated flexoelectricity is theoretically large enough to induce osteocyte apoptosis and thus initiate the crack-healing process, suggesting a central role of flexoelectricity in bone repair and remodeling. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  6. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  7. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  8. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  9. Aneurysmal bone cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangachari P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear Method: Fourteen out of 16 radiologically benign cystic lesions of bone were subjected to intra-cystic pressure recordings with spinal manometer. Other two cysts had displaced unimpacted pathological fractures and so their intra-cystic pressures could not be recorded. All 16 cysts were subjected to histo-pathological examination to confirm their diagnosis and to find out for any pre-existing benign pathology. All the cysts were surgically treated. Results: Fourteen benign cystic lesions of bone were diagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts preoperatively by recording raised intra-cystic pressures and confirmed by histo-pathology. In addition, histo-pathology revealed pre-existing benign pathology. All cysts were successfully treated surgically. Conclusions: Since, there is appreciable rise in intra-cystic dynamic pressures, the aneurysmal bone cyst is considered to be due to either sudden venous obstruction or arterio-venous shunt. Pre-operative intra-cystic pressure recordings help not only to diagnose aneurysmal bone cysts but also to assess the quantum of blood loss and its replacement during surgery.

  10. Autogenous tooth bone graft: Ingenious bone regeneration material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadalavada Sarala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth-derived bone graft material, which is proved to be rich in bone growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs, have been becoming a practical substitute to bone grafting. It can also be used as a carrier for growth factors and stem cells as reported in many recent studies. Autogenous-tooth bone grafting technique is significant as this biomaterial has excellent bone regeneration capacity and also relatively non-existent chances of antigenicity, genetic diseases and disease transmission. In this article, a broad overview of the published findings with regard to the properties and uses of tooth-derived regenerative bone grafting is discussed.

  11. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  12. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  13. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  14. Lutein Enhances Bone Mass by Stimulating Bone Formation and Suppressing Bone Resorption in Growing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Matsumoto, Chiho; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are known to prevent hypoxia-induced cell damage in the eye by removing free radicals. However, its role in other tissues is controversial, and the effects of lutein on bone tissues are unknown. To identify a possible role of lutein in bone tissues, we examined the effects of lutein on bone formation and bone resorption and on femoral bone mass in mice. Lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules in cultures of osteoblasts. On the other hand, lutein clearly suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced bone resorption as measured by pit formation in organ culture of mouse calvaria. In co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, lutein suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced osteoclast formation. In cultures of bone marrow macrophages, lutein suppressed soluble RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand, induced osteoclast formation. When five-week-old male mice were orally administered lutein for 4 weeks, the femoral bone mass was clearly enhanced in cortical bone, as measured by bone mineral density in dual X-ray absorptiometry and micro computed tomography (µCT) analyses. The present study indicates that lutein enhances bone mass in growing mice by suppressing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Lutein may be a natural agent that promotes bone turnover and may be beneficial for bone health in humans.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spinal deformity, or who have some types of disc herniations. In certain types of spinal fusion, bone grafts ... Specialist SEARCH Download Brochure ENGLISH Related Treatments Cervical Disc Herniation Fusion Lumbar Disc Herniation {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ## ...

  20. BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION. AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANTS: Oct 1986 - Dec 2007. Multiple Myeloma 90. NHL 39. Hodgkins lymphoma 19. AML 36. APML 9. ALL 2. Amyloidosis 2. Granulocytic Sarcoma 1.

  1. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute myeloid leukemia - adult Aplastic anemia Bone marrow transplant Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Graft-versus-host disease Hodgkin lymphoma Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Patient ...

  2. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test is used to diagnose leukemia, infections, some types of anemia, and other blood disorders. It may also be ... the bone marrow contains the proper number and types of blood-forming (hematopoietic) cells, fat cells, and connective tissues.

  3. Nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Pan, Yong Zheng; Li, Lin; He, Chao Bin

    2013-04-01

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure that provides appropriate physical and biological properties. For bone tissue regeneration, it is crucial for the biomaterial to mimic living bone tissue. Since no single type of material is able to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, nanocomposites are the best choice for bone tissue regeneration as they can provide the appropriate matrix environment, integrate desirable biological properties, and provide controlled, sequential delivery of multiple growth factors for the different stages of bone tissue regeneration. This article reviews the composition, structure and properties of advanced nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. It covers aspects of interest such as the biomimetic synthesis of bone-like nanocomposites, guided bone regeneration from inert biomaterials and bioactive nanocomposites, and nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. The design, fabrication, and in vitro and in vivo characterization of such nanocomposites are reviewed.

  4. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  5. Engineered vascularized bone grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsigkou, Olga; Pomerantseva, Irina; Spencer, Joel A.; Redondo, Patricia A.; Hart, Alison R.; O’Doherty, Elisabeth; Lin, Yunfeng; Friedrich, Claudia C.; Daheron, Laurence; Lin, Charles P.; Sundback, Cathryn A.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Neville, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Clinical protocols utilize bone marrow to seed synthetic and decellularized allogeneic bone grafts for enhancement of scaffold remodeling and fusion. Marrow-derived cytokines induce host neovascularization at the graft surface, but hypoxic conditions cause cell death at the core. Addition of cellular components that generate an extensive primitive plexus-like vascular network that would perfuse the entire scaffold upon anastomosis could potentially yield significantly higher-quality grafts. W...

  6. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan

    1998-01-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Bone mineral density and elemental composition of bone tissues in "red-boned" Guishan goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenchen; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Huarong; Wang, Weizhong; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Changrong; Gao, Shizheng

    2012-12-01

    Red-colored bones were first found in Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were subsequently designated red-boned Guishan goats. However, the difference remains unclear between the bone mineral density (BMD) or elemental composition in bones between red-boned Guishan goats and common Guishan goats. Analysis of femoral bone samples by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed an increase in bone mineral density in the femoral diaphysis and distal femur of red-boned Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The data revealed that BMD increased in both the red-boned and common Guishan goats from 18 to 36 months of age. The data also indicated that the ratio of the BMD values of red-boned to common Guishan goats was higher at 36 months of age than they were at 18 months of age. Furthermore, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, barium, zinc, manganese, and aluminum were significantly higher in red-boned Guishan goats than common Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The results indicate that the red-boned Guishan goats were linked to the elevated levels of mineral salts observed in the bones and that this in turn may be linked to the elevated BMD levels encountered in red-boned Guishan goats. These reasons may be responsible for the red coloration in the bones of red-boned Guishan goats.

  10. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  11. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  12. Horizontal bone augmentation by means of guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benic, Goran I; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2014-10-01

    The development of bone augmentation procedures has allowed placement of dental implants into jaw bone areas lacking an amount of bone sufficient for standard implant placement. Thus, the indications for implants have broadened to include jaw regions with bone defects and those with a bone anatomy that is unfavorable for implant anchorage. Of the different techniques, the best documented and the most widely used method to augment bone in localized alveolar defects is guided bone regeneration. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the successful use of guided bone regeneration to regenerate missing bone at implant sites with insufficient bone volume and the long-term success of implants placed simultaneously with, or after, guided bone regeneration. However, the influence of guided bone regeneration on implant survival and success rates, and the long-term stability of the augmented bone, remain unknown. Many of the materials and techniques currently available for bone regeneration of alveolar ridge defects were developed many years ago. Recently, various new materials and techniques have been introduced. Many of them have, however, not been sufficiently documented in clinical studies. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis of guided bone regeneration and the accepted clinical procedures. A classification of bone defects has been presented, aiming at simplifying the decision-making process regarding the choice of strategy for bone augmentation. Finally, an outlook into actual research and the possible future options related to bone augmentation has been provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Gene Expression in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  14. Temporal bone meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Robertson, J H; Gardner, G; Heilman, C B

    1999-01-01

    Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone.

  15. Bone anabolic versus bone anticatabolic treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyritis, George P; Georgoulas, Thomas; Zafeiris, Christos P

    2010-09-01

    Increased bone fragility after menopause is commonly associated with accelerated bone loss and aggressive osteoclastic function. This is attributed to increased RANKL production and impaired osteoprotegerin synthesis. Fast bone loss leads to trabecular perforations, dramatic diminution of bone strength, and unexpected fractures. To avoid osteoporotic fractures, elimination of fast bone loss is recommended. Antiosteoclastic drugs, apart from estrogens, are the selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonins, and amino-bisphosphonates. These drugs increase bone mass by 1-5%, but reduce the relative risk of a vertebral fracture by 30-70%. Long-term exposure to bisphosphonates may be related to low bone turnover. In elderly and severe osteoporosis, antiosteoclastic regimens hardly correct the depressed osteoblastic function. Intermittent teriperatide stimulates osteoblastic function, improves bone geometry, and has an additional analgesic effect. While both anticatabolic and anabolic agents increase bone mass and decrease the risk of spinal fractures and occasionally of the fracture of the femoral neck, there are differences in the mode of their action. These pathophysiological differences are tentative therapeutic tools for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. A fast bone loss, associated with increased biochemical markers, is the main indicator for anticatabolic agents, while impaired bone geometry, normal or low bone markers, and established bone architectural changes are in favor of the anabolic agents. Strontium ranelate combines the anticatabolic effect with an additional anabolic action. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  17. Calcar bone graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  18. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taconis, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  19. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  20. Is More Cortical Bone Decortication Effective on Guided Bone Augmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Alan, Hilal; Özgür, Cem; Vardi, Nigar; Asutay, Fatih; Güler, Çiğdem

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the possible effect of more cortical bone decortication (CBD) on guided bone augmentation. A total of 16 New Zealand rabbits and 32 titanium domes were used. No cortical bone decortication was applied to the control group and in the study groups, the cortical bones were decorticated with a round burr (Group A: 1 hole with bleeding, Group B: 5 holes with bleeding, Group C: a thin layer of compact bone was completely removed with no bleeding). Then 2 titanium domes were placed on the calvarium of each rabbit with hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate. After 3 months, the animals were sacrificed and specimens were sent for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological and histomorphometric analysis showed that bone decortication with burr significantly increased new bone regeneration in all the experimental groups compared with the control group (P guided bone augmentation. However, a greater amount of CBD does not have a greater effect.

  1. Percutaneous bone tumor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ionization (coblation) will be reviewed. For each modality, the principles, the indications, and the results will be presented. The technical choice depends on the therapeutic intent-curative or palliative-and the need for consolidation, but also on the general status of the patient and the other therapeutic options. For the most complex cases, combined treatments can be required. However, the less disabling technique should always be considered first.

  2. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  3. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  4. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  5. Tiludronate: bone pharmacology and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, J P; Ammann, P; Barbier, A; Caverzasio, J; Rizzoli, R

    1995-11-01

    The pharmacological properties of tiludronate (4-chlorophenyl)thiomethylene bisphosphonate), a sulfured bisphosphonate, have been characterized in a series of preclinical in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo, tiludronate exerts a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on bone resorption. This property was demonstrated in several animal models, including rats, ewes, and dogs, when bone resorption was induced by administration of retinoid acid or parathyroid hormone, or by immobilization, ovariectomy or orchidectomy. By uncoupling bone resorption from bone formation, tiludronate can induce a positive calcium and phosphate balance. When administered either continuously or intermittently to ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, tiludronate promotes a significant increase in bone mass. This positive effect is associated with an increase in mechanical resistance. Bone tolerance studies indicate that tiludronate is a safe compound with an appreciable therapeutic margin since it can effectively inhibit bone resorption without reducing bone mineralization and strength. In vitro, tiludronate added to bone tissue culture inhibits calcium release, lysosomal enzyme secretion and collagen matrix degradation when induced by various stimulators of bone resorption. At the cellular level, tiludronate does not appear to exert its inhibitory effect on bone resorption by impairing either the recruitment, the migration or the fusion of osteoclast precursors. Tiludronate could act on mature osteoclasts by reducing their capacity to secrete proton into the resorption space and also by favoring their detachment from the bone matrix. The available preclinical data indicate that tiludronate should be an efficacious bisphosphonate in the management of clinical conditions characterized by excessive bone resorption.

  6. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...

  7. Porcine bone marrow: extraction procedure and characterization by bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, C M; Schnell, T D; Mandigo, R W

    1998-12-01

    Data on porcine and bovine bone marrow composition indicate high calcium content, which may be erroneously elevated owing to the marrow recovery process. A method of bone marrow recovery was developed that involved passing marrow extracted from bone through a filter-press mechanism to remove very fine bone particles and dust, allowing a more accurate analysis of marrow. Calcium values were reduced approximately 90% and ash values reduced more than 50% compared to other reported data. The new recovery method did not require sawing away the hard bone and it removed particulate that may have interfered with analyses. Bone marrow was characterized by bone type. Rib bone marrow had higher protein, iron, non-heme iron and total pigment than scapula, aitch/hip bone or vertebrae marrow. Fat ranged from 17·81 to 26·76% and calcium ranged from 27·25 to 44·33mg 100g(-1) among bone types. The pH of bone marrow ranged from 7·14 to 7·53. Bone marrow appears to contribute to some of the properties of meat obtained from advanced meat recovery systems.

  8. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone implant. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of prawn (Pinaeus indicus, family Crustaceae) which is a by-product of seafood ...

  9. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x- ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  13. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  16. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  18. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English Espanol ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  19. Bone quality: the determinants of bone strength and fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Hélder; Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Coriolano, Hans-Joachim Appell; Duarte, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility is a major health concern, as the increased risk of bone fractures has devastating outcomes in terms of mortality, decreased autonomy, and healthcare costs. Efforts made to address this problem have considerably increased our knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate bone formation and resorption. In particular, we now have a much better understanding of the cellular events that are triggered when bones are mechanically stimulated and how these events can lead to improvements in bone mass. Despite these findings at the molecular level, most exercise intervention studies reveal either no effects or only minor benefits of exercise programs in improving bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic patients. Nevertheless, and despite that BMD is the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis, this measure is only able to provide insights regarding the quantity of bone tissue. In this article, we review the complex structure of bone tissue and highlight the concept that its mechanical strength stems from the interaction of several different features. We revisited the available data showing that bone mineralization degree, hydroxyapatite crystal size and heterogeneity, collagen properties, osteocyte density, trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, as well as whole bone geometry, are determinants of bone strength and that each one of these properties may independently contribute to the increased or decreased risk of fracture, even without meaningful changes in aBMD. Based on these findings, we emphasize that while osteoporosis (almost) always causes bone fragility, bone fragility is not always caused just by osteoporosis, as other important variables also play a major role in this etiology. Furthermore, the results of several studies showing compelling data that physical exercise has the potential to improve bone quality and to decrease fracture risk by influencing each one of these determinants are also reviewed. These findings have meaningful clinical

  20. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J.; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  1. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  2. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  3. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan [fr

  4. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  5. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, B

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow aspiration biopsies are carried out principally to permit cytological assessment but also for immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, molecular genetic, and other specialised investigations. Often, a trephine biopsy is carried out as part of the same procedure. Bone marrow aspirations should be carried out by trained individuals who are aware of the indications, contraindications, and hazards of the procedure. They should follow a standard operating procedure. The operator should have made an adequate assessment of clinical and haematological features to ensure both that appropriate indications exist and that all relevant tests are performed. For the patient's comfort and safety, the posterior iliac crest is generally the preferred site of aspiration. Films of aspirated marrow and, when appropriate, films of crushed particles should be made and labelled. Once thoroughly dry, films should be fixed and stained. As a minimum, a Romanowsky stain and a Perls' stain are required. A cover slip should be applied. The bone marrow films should be assessed and reported in a systematic manner so that nothing of importance is overlooked, using a low power, then intermediate, then high power objective. A differential count should be performed. An interpretation of the findings, in the light of the clinical and haematological features, should be given. The report should be signed or computer authorised, using a secure password, and issued in a timely manner. Key Words: bone marrow aspirate • haematological diagnosis PMID:11533068

  6. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  7. Making silent bones speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    Orphaned osseous tools very often perceived as having high aesthetical value but carrying minimal information. The article illustrates the research potential of these artefacts with a case study of Mesolithic stray finds from Lithuania. Four bone points from the Šventoji river, Vaikantonys, Obšrū...

  8. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  9. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  10. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…

  11. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  12. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  13. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  14. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan.

  15. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Experts Home › Patients › Treatment for Osteoporosis › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz How do you get your ... above View Answers Loading ... Nutritional Guide View Now Food and Your Bones — Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  16. Electron Microscopy of Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; Hoeben, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized tissues like bone, dentin and mineralized cartilage are difficult to prepare for ultrastructural analysis. In general, the higher the level of mineralization is, the more difficult it is to obtain ultrathin sections of these tissue. Tissues with a low level of mineral, e.g. from young

  17. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    alveolar bone. Involvement of other bones is ruled out by nucleotide imaging study. CONCLUSION: EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever there is ... KEYWORDS: Eosinophilic granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis, oral manifestations, alveolar bone .... enough to initiate healing and spontaneous.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  19. Bone grafting options in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Randal R; Lavelle, William F; Samdani, Amer F

    2010-08-01

    Retrospective review of the literature. To review the current literature as well as recent trends in bone grafting techniques available for children. The currently accepted gold standard in bone grafting for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is autogenous iliac crest. Due to questions concerning complications such as donor site pain, other options have been explored, including various allograft sources, demineralized bone matrix, and bone morphogenetic protein. A review of the current medical literature was completed and additional case examples are presented. A review of the literature reveals that up to 31% of patients have persistent pain at 2 years post surgery when autogenous iliac crest bone graft is harvested. Allograft supplementation of local autograft has been demonstrated in the literature to be as effective as autogenous iliac crest bone grafting in contributing to a successful posterior spinal fusion in patients with AIS. Modern demineralized bone matrix formulations have been found in both animal models as well as in a recent retrospective clinical review to contribute to a successful posterior spinal fusion in AIS. Bone morphogenetic protein has been shown to contribute to a successful posterior spinal fusion in complex pediatric spinal deformity patients. At 2 years follow-up, patients who underwent a posterior instrumented spinal fusion that was not augmented with any bone graft appear to have successful spinal fusions. Although autogenous iliac bone graft remains the benchmark to which bone grafting materials are compared, other options including the placement of no bone graft at all provides similar fusion rates in patients with AIS.

  20. [Imaging diagnostics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J A; Gübitz, R; Beck, L; Heindel, W; Vieth, V

    2014-06-01

    Bone tumors and especially bone sarcomas are rare lesions of the skeletal system in comparison to the much more frequently occurring bone metastases. Despite the relative rarity they are important differential diagnoses of bone lesions. The aim of this article is to give the reader an insight into the fundamentals of the primary imaging of bone sarcomas and to illustrate this with the help of two examples (e.g. osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma). The foundation of the imaging of bone sarcomas is the radiograph in two planes. This method delivers important information on bone tumors. This information should be analyzed with the help of the Lodwick classification, the configuration of periosteal reactions and a possible reaction of the cortex. A possible tumor matrix and the localization within the skeleton or within long bones also provide important information for differential diagnostic delimitation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with specific adapted bone tumor sequences allows an exact local staging of a bone sarcoma. In addition to local imaging a compartmental MRI which illustrates the entire extent of tumor-bearing bone and the adjacent joints should be performed to rule out possible skip lesions. The most common distant metastases of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma occur in the lungs; therefore, a computed tomography (CT) of the chest is part of staging. Other imaging methods, such as CT of the tumor, positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT), bone scan and whole body MRI supplement the imaging depending on tumor type.

  1. Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, L.R.; Everts, V.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate in response to injury. During distraction osteogenesis, the renewal of bone is enhanced by gradual stretching of the soft connec- tive tissues in the gap area between two separated bone segments. This procedure has received much clinical atten- tion as a way to

  2. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  3. Bone formation using human demineralised bone matrix (Grafton) for the treatment of bone cysts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H-J; Krause, H; Kroker, S; Wagemann, W; Meyer, F

    2007-02-01

    Bone cysts, in particular solitary bone cysts, are the most frequent cause of pathological fractures in children. However, there is still a great variety of regimens used to treat these lesions. Since demineralised bone matrix (DBM) is commercially available, we aimed to use this material for the consolidation of bones diagnosed as fragile because of cyst formation. Each of the 7 bone cysts as well as one enchondroma filled with DBM showed a continuous decrease in bone transparency over a period of two years (mean 8 months). A significant decrease in bone transparency and simultaneous cortical remodelling was radiographically detected in these cases as the specific hallmark of an initiated graft incorporation after 3 to 4 months. It was demonstrated that it is possible to heal children within an acceptable period of time using DBM to fill the cystic lesion. DBM appears to be a reasonable and beneficial alternative for the treatment of bone cysts offering both osteoinduction and osteoconductive features.

  4. Osteoinduction of bone grafting materials for bone repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gareta, Elena; Coathup, Melanie J; Blunn, Gordon W

    2015-12-01

    Regeneration of bone defects caused by trauma, infection, tumours or inherent genetic disorders is a clinical challenge that usually necessitates bone grafting materials. Autologous bone or autograft is still considered the clinical "gold standard" and the most effective method for bone regeneration. However, limited bone supply and donor site morbidity are the most important disadvantages of autografting. Improved biomaterials are needed to match the performance of autograft as this is still superior to that of synthetic bone grafts. Osteoinductive materials would be the perfect candidates for achieving this task. The aim of this article is to review the different groups of bone substitutes in terms of their most recently reported osteoinductive properties. The different factors influencing osteoinductivity by biomaterials as well as the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are also presented, showing that it is very limited compared to osteoinductivity shown by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Therefore, a new term to describe osteoinductivity by biomaterials is proposed. Different strategies for adding osteoinductivity (BMPs, stem cells) to bone substitutes are also discussed. The overall objective of this paper is to gather the current knowledge on osteoinductivity of bone grafting materials for the effective development of new graft substitutes that enhance bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  6. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... patients, suggesting that BMD alone, and not the bone microarchitecture, is affected in MS. However, larger studies are needed to verify these findings and to establish the role of TBS in MS. As in the background population, physical activity and non-smoking habits are associated with better bone health...

  7. Bone scintigraphy in detection of bone invasion by oral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Kotaro; Wakao, Hiromi; Ikuta, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Isamu; Everhart, F.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Detecting osseous involvement is clinically important in the management of oral carcinoma. Thirty-one patients with osseous involvement due to oral carcinoma who underwent panoramic radiography and bone scintigraphy were evaluated retrospectively. Bone scintigraphy confirmed osseous involvement in all 31 (100%) of these patients. In 27 (87%) of 31 patients with osseous involvement, both the panoramic radiogram and bone scintigram were positive. In the remaining four patients (13%), bone scintigram was positive for mandibular or maxillary invasion, while panoramic radiogram was negative. There were no instances of an abnormal radiogram with a normal bone scintigram. These findings strongly suggest that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than panoramic radiography in detecting osseous involvement of the mandible and maxilla due to oral carcinoma. Furthermore, bone scintigraphy was a critical pre-surgical tool in determining the extent of the osseous involvement. (author)

  8. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.L.J.; Panicek, D.M.; Davies, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed

  9. Lrp5 functions in bone to regulate bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yajun; Niziolek, Paul J; MacDonald, Bryan T; Zylstra, Cassandra R; Alenina, Natalia; Robinson, Daniel R; Zhong, Zhendong; Matthes, Susann; Jacobsen, Christina M; Conlon, Ronald A; Brommage, Robert; Liu, Qingyun; Mseeh, Faika; Powell, David R; Yang, Qi M; Zambrowicz, Brian; Gerrits, Han; Gossen, Jan A; He, Xi; Bader, Michael; Williams, Bart O; Warman, Matthew L; Robling, Alexander G

    2011-06-01

    The human skeleton is affected by mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). To understand how LRP5 influences bone properties, we generated mice with osteocyte-specific expression of inducible Lrp5 mutations that cause high and low bone mass phenotypes in humans. We found that bone properties in these mice were comparable to bone properties in mice with inherited mutations. We also induced an Lrp5 mutation in cells that form the appendicular skeleton but not in cells that form the axial skeleton; we observed that bone properties were altered in the limb but not in the spine. These data indicate that Lrp5 signaling functions locally, and they suggest that increasing LRP5 signaling in mature bone cells may be a strategy for treating human disorders associated with low bone mass, such as osteoporosis.

  10. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  11. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

    OpenAIRE

    Rubenbauer Bianka; Löffler Thomas; Zaspel Johannes; Wittmann Alexandra; Pieske Oliver; Trentzsch Heiko; Piltz Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the marke...

  12. [Osteoporosis and quality of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpán, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The risk of osteoporotic fracture is determined collectively by bone mineral density, bone mass, architecture and properties of the mineral and organic matrix composite. Changes in these distinct aspects of quality of bone with age, estrogen deficiency, diseases leading to increased risk of fracture and differential mode of action of antiresorptive and bone anabolic treatments have to be considered in clinical therapeutic strategies. In patients at high risk of low impact fracture, sequential therapy switching to antiresorptives after patients have an adequate response to 2 years teriparatide may be the optimal strategy of long term therapy.Key words: aging - bone quality - osteoporosis - prevention - therapy.

  13. Metastases to bone in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, P.T.; Azouz, E.M.; Hoeffel, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a relatively common intracranial neoplasm in childhood. Its extraneural spread was, until recently, thought to be a rare occurrence. Metastases are most commonly to bone. Five patients with medulloblastoma metastatic to bone are presented, and findings are compared to those of previous reports. Two of the five cases showed patchy extensive osteosclerosis of the pelvis and/or proximal femora. One case had concurrent lymph node involvement. In patients with past or present medulloblastoma and bone pain, metastases to bone should be excluded. Medulloblastoma metastatic to bone is a rare cause of extensive osteosclerosis. (orig.)

  14. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  15. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  16. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  17. Electromechanical Properties of Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regimbal, Raymond L.

    Discrepancies between calculated and empirical properties of bone are thought to be due to a general lack of consideration for the extent and manner(s) with which bone components interact at the molecular level. For a bone component in physiological fluid or whenever two phases are in contact, there is a region between the bulk phases called the electrical double layer which is marked by a separation of electric charges. For the purpose of studying electrical double layer interactions, the method of particle microelectrophoresis was used to characterize bone and its major constituents on the basis of the net charge they bear when suspended in ionic media of physiological relevance. With the data presented as pH versus zeta (zeta ) potential, the figures reveal an isoelectric point (IEP) for bone mineral near pH 8.6, whereas intact and EDTA demineralized bone tissue both exhibit IEPs near pH 5.1. While these data demonstrate the potential for a significant degree of coulombic interaction between the bone mineral and organic constituent double layers, it was also observed that use of inorganic phosphate buffers, as a specific marker for bone mineral, resulted in (1) an immediate reversal, from positive to negative, of the bone mineral zeta potential (2) rendered the zeta potential of intact bone more negative in a manner linearly dependent on both time and temperature and (3) had no affect on demineralized bone (P load for a 3 day period. While it is thus demonstrated that the major inorganic and organic phases of bone are electromechanically coupled, a thermodynamic consideration of the data suggests that the nature of the bond is to preserve mineral and organic phase electroneutralities by participating in electrical double layer interactions. The results are discussed in terms of bone mechanical modeling, electrokinetic properties, aging, tissue-implant compatibility and the etiologies of bone pathologic conditions.

  18. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  19. Bone marrow macrophages support prostate cancer growth in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soki, Fabiana N; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Yeo Won; Jones, Jacqueline D; Park, Serk In; Koh, Amy J; Entezami, Payam; Daignault-Newton, Stephanie; Pienta, Kenneth J; Roca, Hernan; McCauley, Laurie K

    2015-11-03

    Resident macrophages in bone play important roles in bone remodeling, repair, and hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, yet their role in skeletal metastasis remains under investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of macrophages in prostate cancer skeletal metastasis, using two in vivo mouse models of conditional macrophage depletion. RM-1 syngeneic tumor growth was analyzed in an inducible macrophage (CSF-1 receptor positive cells) ablation model (MAFIA mice). There was a significant reduction in tumor growth in the tibiae of macrophage-ablated mice, compared with control non-ablated mice. Similar results were observed when macrophage ablation was performed using liposome-encapsulated clodronate and human PC-3 prostate cancer cells where tumor-bearing long bones had increased numbers of tumor associated-macrophages. Although tumors were consistently smaller in macrophage-depleted mice, paradoxical results of macrophage depletion on bone were observed. Histomorphometric and micro-CT analyses demonstrated that clodronate-treated mice had increased bone volume, while MAFIA mice had reduced bone volume. These results suggest that the effect of macrophage depletion on tumor growth was independent of its effect on bone responses and that macrophages in bone may be more important to tumor growth than the bone itself. In conclusion, resident macrophages play a pivotal role in prostate cancer growth in bone.

  20. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  1. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  2. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  3. Role of bone marrow macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simranpreet; Raggatt, Liza Jane; Batoon, Lena; Hume, David Arthur; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Pettit, Allison Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages, named for their phagocytic ability, participate in homeostasis, tissue regeneration and inflammatory responses. Bone and adjacent marrow contain multiple functionally unique resident tissue macrophage subsets which maintain and regulate anatomically distinct niche environments within these interconnected tissues. Three subsets of bone-bone marrow resident tissue macrophages have been characterised; erythroblastic island macrophages, haematopoietic stem cell niche macrophages and osteal macrophages. The role of these macrophages in controlling homeostasis and repair in bone and bone marrow niches is reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heritability of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S; Benmalek, A; Guaydier-Souquières, G; Sabatier, J P; Marcelli, C

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of genetic background as a determinant of peak bone mass. We compared lumbar spine bone mineral density in 175 girls with a bone age of 16 years or older and in their premenopausal mothers. We also investigated the influence of a family history of osteoporosis on lumbar spine bone mineral density in 275 women and their 559 daughters. In the 175 mother-daughter pairs, heritability (h2) was significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0001) for lumbar spine bone mineral density (h2 = 53%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 28.5-77.6%), bone mineral content (h2 = 62.3%; 95% CI = 37.7-86.8%), bone mineral density adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 56%; CI = 31.5-80.5%), and bone mineral content adjusted for body mass index (h2 = 68.2%; CI = 43.6-92.7%). However, the heritability estimations lacked accuracy, as shown by the wide 95% CIs. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were found in 16.4% and 1% of the mothers, respectively. In the subgroup defined by osteopenia or osteoporosis in the mother, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly higher in the daughters than in the mothers (0.994 +/- 0.095 g/cm2 versus 0.895 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P < 0.0001), whereas the opposite was true in the subgroup defined by normal bone mass in the mothers (1.068 +/- 0.110 g/cm2 versus 1.109 +/- 0.098 g/cm2; P = 0.0003). Nevertheless, lumbar spine bone mineral density was significantly lower in the daughters of low-bone-mass women than in those of normal-bone-mass women (0.994 +/- 0.009 g/cm2 versus 1.069 +/- 0.012 g/cm2; P = 0.0006). These findings suggest a role of genetic factors inherited from the father and also indicate that bone mass gains during adulthood contribute to achievement of the optimal peak bone mass. In the family history study, bone mass was lower in the subjects with a family history of osteoporosis (123 of the 559 daughters, Z-scores normalized for height, weight, and pubertal status: bone mineral density Z-score, -0.054 +/- 1.104; bone mineral

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    risk ?,” Equine Veterinary J., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 174– 180, Mar. 2010. [127] J. J. Sciote and T. J. Morris, “Skeletal muscle function and fibre...shear properties of fibrils, fibers, and lamellar layers. A layered composite model assessed cortical and trabecular bone while a simple finite element...to be assessed . It was found that the distribution of hydroxyapatite within the tropocollagen matrix at the fibril level influences the macroscale

  6. Battling Brittle Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The accuDEXA(R) Bone Mineral Density Assessment System, manufactured by Schick Technologies, Inc., utilizes "camera on a chip" sensor technology invented and developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Schick's accuDEXA system offers several advantages over traditional osteoporosis tests, which assess bone density loss in the hip and spine, and require specialized personnel to conduct. With accuDEXA, physicians can test the entire body's bone density at a peripheral site, such as the finger, without applying gels or having patients remove garments. Results are achieved in 30 seconds and printed out in less than a minute, compared to the estimated exam time of 15 minutes for hip and spine density analyses. Schick has also applied the CMOS APS technology to a new software product that performs dental radiography using up to 90 percent less radiation exposure than conventional X-rays. Called Computed Dental Radiography(R), the new digital imaging product utilizes an electronic sensor in place of X-ray film to generate sharp and clear images that appear on a computer screen within 3 seconds, and can be enlarged and enhanced to identify problems.

  7. HIV and bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dockrell, David; Bowman, Christine; McCloskey, Eugene

    2010-11-01

    Advances in management have resulted in a dramatic decline in mortality for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This decrease in mortality, initially the result of improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections but later mediated by the use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to the need to consider long-term complications of the disease itself, or its treatment. Bone disease is increasingly recognised as a concern. The prevalence of reduced BMD and possibly also fracture incidence are increased in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative controls. There are many potential explanations for this - an increased prevalence of established osteoporosis risk factors in the HIV-positive population, a likely direct effect of HIV infection itself and a possible contributory role of ARV therapy. At present, the assessment of bone disease and fracture risk remains patchy, with little or no guidance on identifying those at increased risk of reduced BMD or fragility fracture. Preventative and therapeutic strategies with bone specific treatments need to be developed. Limited data suggest bisphosphonates may be beneficial in conjunction with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients but larger studies of longer duration are needed. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these and other treatments needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  9. Denosumab for bone diseases: translating bone biology into targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourdi, Elena; Rachner, Tilman D; Rauner, Martina; Hamann, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2011-12-01

    Signalling of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) through RANK is a critical pathway to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and, hence, a master regulator of bone resorption. Increased RANKL activity has been demonstrated in diseases characterised by excessive bone loss such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteolytic bone metastases. The development and approval of denosumab, a fully MAB against RANKL, has heralded a new era in the treatment of bone diseases by providing a potent, targeted and reversible inhibitor of bone resorption. This article summarises the molecular and cellular biology of the RANKL/RANK system and critically reviews preclinical and clinical studies that have established denosumab as a promising novel therapy for metabolic and malignant bone diseases. We will discuss the potential indications for denosumab along with a critical review of safety and analyse its potential within the concert of established therapies.

  10. Bone disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E.; Silva, Barbara C.; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047

  11. Bone tumors of the spine and sacral bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Bone tumors and tumorlike lesions of the spine are rare entities and may harbour diagnostic problems. In this article we discuss the epidemiology, topographic aspects, clinical and radiologic features as well as the diagnostic management of vertebral bone tumors. Entities that should be more familiar to the radiologist (i.e. osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, hemangioma, giant cell tumor, chordoma, aneurysmal bone cyst) are considered in more detail. (orig.)

  12. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  13. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  14. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Takao; Matsumura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Tadashi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2011-02-01

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  15. LONG TERM EVOLUTION OF BONE RECONSTRUCTION WITH BONE GRAFT SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Martynenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The review involves clinical and experimental data, constitutive modeling, and computational investigations towards an understanding on how mechanical cyclic loads for long periods of time affect damage evolution in a reconstructed bone, as well as, lifetime reduction of bone graft substitutes after advanced core decompression. The outcome of the integrated model discussed in this paper will be how damage growth in femur after advanced core decompression subjected to mechanical cyclic loading under creep and fatigue conditions may be controlled in order to optimize design and processing of bone graft substitutes, and extend lifetime of bone substitutes.

  16. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)

  17. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.

    1999-01-01

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  18. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  19. Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Suresh C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are utilized on the basis of the radionuclide?s particulate emissions (primarily low to intermediate beta emission. The requirements therefore are different from those of bone imaging agents that consist mainly of short-lived single photon emitters. Lately, the therapeutic bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have attained increasing importance due to their potential role in alleviating pain from osseous metastases in cancer patients, for the treatment of joint pain resulting from inflamed synovium (radiosynoviorthesis, or radiosynovectomy, or from various other forms of arthritic disease. There is, however, a paucity of published data on the bio-pharmacokinetics of these agents when used following intravenous administration for bone pain palliation. This paper will briefly review and summarize the presently available chemical and biopharmacokinetic information on the various clinically approved as well as experimental bone-localizing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, and make projections on their clinical application for the treatment of primary/metastatic cancer in bone.

  20. Trace elements and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofková, Ivana; Nemcikova, Petra; Matucha, Petr

    2013-08-01

    The importance of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well known. Moreover, bone health is positively influenced by certain elements (e.g., zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, magnesium, iron and boron). Deficiency of these elements slows down the increase of bone mass in childhood and/or in adolescence and accelerates bone loss after menopause or in old age. Deterioration of bone quality increases the risk of fractures. Monitoring of homeostasis of the trace elements together with the measurement of bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism should be used to identify and treat patients at risk of non-traumatic fractures. Factors determining the effectivity of supplementation include dose, duration of treatment, serum concentrations, as well as interactions among individual elements. Here, we review the effect of the most important trace elements on the skeleton and evaluate their clinical importance.

  1. Ultrasonic guided waves in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Petro

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has shown increasing interest toward measuring long bones by ultrasonic guided waves. This technology is widely used in the field of nondestructive testing and evaluation of different waveguide structures. Cortical bone provides such an elastic waveguide and its ability to sustain loading and resist fractures is known to be related to its mechanical properties at different length scales. Because guided waves could yield diverse characterizations of the bone's mechanical properties at the macroscopic level, the method of guided waves has a strong potential over the standardized bone densitometry as a tool for bone assessment. Despite this, development of guided wave methods is challenging, e.g., due to interferences and multiparametric inversion problems. This paper discusses the promises and challenges related to bone characterization by ultrasonic guided waves.

  2. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  3. Artificial composite bone as a model of human trabecular bone: the implant-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J A; Bishop, N E; Götzen, N; Sprecher, C; Honl, M; Morlock, M M

    2007-01-01

    The use of artificial bones in implant testing has become popular due to their low variability and ready availability. However, friction coefficients, which are critical to load transfer in uncemented implants, have rarely been compared between human and artificial bone, particularly for wet and dry conditions. In this study, the static and dynamic friction coefficients for four commercially used titanium surfaces (polished, Al(2)O(3) blasted, plasma sprayed, beaded) acting on the trabecular component of artificial bones (Sawbones) were compared to those for human trabecular bone. Artificial bones were tested in dry and wet conditions and normal interface stress was varied (0.25, 0.5, 1.0MPa). Friction coefficients were mostly lower for artificial bones than real bone. In particular, static friction coefficients for the dry polished surface were 20% of those for real bone and 42-61% for the dry beaded surface, with statistical significance (alphaartificial bone models for pre-clinical implant testing that rely on interface load transfer with trabecular bone for mechanical integrity can be particularly sensitive to surface finish and lubrication conditions.

  4. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...... or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine....

  5. Heterogeneity of spine bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskey, M.A.; Crisp, A.J.; Compston, J.E.; Khaw, K.-T. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author).

  6. Stress fractures and bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method

  7. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  8. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.

  9. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  10. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  11. Unifocal Bone Paracoccidioidomycosis, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-de-Castro, Bruna; Pompilio, Mauricio A.; Odashiro, Danilo N.; Odashiro, Maçanori; Arão-Filho, Adalberto; Paniago, Anamaria M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a 47 year-old man from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, with unifocal tibial paracoccidioidomycosis. A radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion on the tibial middle third diaphysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic analysis, and treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was started. After three months, the patient showed significant clinical improvement. Ten months after treatment, the patient showed lesion bone healing. This case describes the rare occurrence of an osteolytic lesion caused by endemic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Latin America. PMID:22403319

  12. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  13. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  14. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases...

  15. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  16. Bone Activity Biomarkers and Bone Mineral Density in Children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were subjected to biochemical assessment that included osteocalcin (OC), total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (tALP and bALP), isomerized beta form of type I collagen cross-linked telopeptide (β-Crosslaps) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Patients with CKD also had their bone mineral ...

  17. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  18. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  19. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  20. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  1. Bone SPECT/CT Localizes Increased Bone Metabolism and Subsequent Bone Resorption in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Hidetoshi; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kodama, Sayuri; Hisazumi, Hiromi; Tominaga, Shinichi; Ohkuma, Kiyoshi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    A 64-year-old man with lung cancer with a history of revascularization of the occluded right femoral artery underwent bone scintigraphy, which showed intense uptake in the distal side of the right leg. The additional SPECT/CT clarified that the uptake was predominantly increased in the epiphyses of the right ankle and foot with possible osteopenia. One month later, follow-up SPECT/CT showed the manifestation of periosteal resorption in the hypermetabolic sites with slight decrease in bone metabolism. Radiological correlation between bone metabolism and subsequent bone resorption in addition to clinical symptoms in this patient suggested the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

  2. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E. [University of Ioannina, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  3. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  4. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Dealing With Broken Bones Proximal Biceps Tendonitis Hamstring Strain Muscular Dystrophy Stress Fractures Scoliosis Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) Strains and Sprains Broken Bones Bones, Muscles, and Joints Achilles Tendonitis View more Partner Message ...

  5. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Test Do? The T-Score World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Low Bone Mass ... number, the more severe the osteoporosis. World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Level Definition Normal ...

  6. Blood and Bone MarrowTransplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic Cell Transplant , Autologous Transplant , Allogeneic Transplant A blood or bone marrow ...

  7. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been linked to low bone density in adolescents and is associated with other unhealthy behaviors, such ... Bone Health for Lupus Patients Bone Health and Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources Screening Tests and Immunizations Guidelines for ...

  8. False air-bone gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, F

    1983-01-01

    A single case is reported of a severely hearing-impaired child with a finding of a large air-bone gap on pure-tone audiometry on multiple tests. Exploratory surgery found normal middle ear function. Subsequent audiometry indicated the presence of a false air-bone gap resulting from vibrotactile responses. Test procedures for identifying vibrotactile responses are discussed.

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect ...

  11. Time Simulation of Bone Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The structural adaptation of a three-dimensional finite element model ofthe proximal femur is considered. Presuming the bone possesses the optimalstructure under the given loads, the bone material distribution is foundby minimizing the strain energy averaged over ten load cases with avolume...

  12. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  13. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  14. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum ...

  17. Roentgenologic bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Shang Yanning; Yu Weimin; Li Yongfa; Wang Yongchun; Wang Wu

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria

  18. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  19. Radiodiagnosis of hemophiliac bone pseudotumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.V.; Chantseva, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis

  20. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  1. Ultrasonic Needles for Bone Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Cleary, Rebecca; Li Li; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-02-01

    Bone biopsy is an invasive clinical procedure, where a bone sample is recovered for analysis during the diagnosis of a medical condition. When the architecture of the bone tissue is required to be preserved, a core-needle biopsy is taken. Although this procedure is performed while the patient is under local anaesthesia, the patient can still experience significant discomfort. Additionally, large haematoma can be induced in the soft tissue surrounding the biopsy site due to the large axial and rotational forces, which are applied through the needle to penetrate bone. It is well documented that power ultrasonic surgical devices offer the advantages of low cutting force, high accuracy, and preservation of soft tissues. This paper reports a study of the design, analysis, and test of two novel power ultrasonic needles for bone biopsy that operate using different configurations to penetrate bone. The first utilizes micrometric vibrations generated at the distil tip of a full-wavelength resonant ultrasonic device, while the second utilizes an ultrasonic-sonic approach, where vibrational energy generated by a resonant ultrasonic horn is transferred to a needle via the chaotic motion of a free-mass. It is shown that the dynamic behavior of the devices identified through experimental techniques closely match the behavior calculated through numerical and finite-element analysis methods, demonstrating that they are effective design tools for these devices. Both devices were able to recover trabecular bone from the metaphysis of an ovine femur, and the biopsy samples were found to be comparable to a sample extracted using a conventional biopsy needle. Furthermore, the resonant needle device was also able to extract a cortical bone sample from the central diaphysis, which is the strongest part of the bone, and the biopsy was found to be superior to the sample recovered by a conventional bone biopsy needle.

  2. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  3. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben; Odgaard, Anders; Vesterby, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone strength. It is questionable whether this per se increases fracture risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  5. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular, and the way they can alter the composition. As bone is a heterogeneous tissue, its composition must be discussed in terms of the chemical makeup, properties of its chemical constituents and their distributions in the ever-changing bone matrix. Emphasis, in this review, is placed on changes in composition as a function of age and various diseases of bone, particularly osteoporosis. It is suggested that while some of the antiosteoporotic drugs can and do modify composition, their positive effects on bone strength may be balanced by negative ones.

  6. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  7. Maxillary bone myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainine, R; Mizouni, H; El Korbi, A; Beltaief, N; Sahtout, S; Besbes, G

    2014-09-01

    Maxillary bone myxoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor, slow-growing but locally aggressive. Pathogenesis remains disputed. To study the clinical, radiological and histological features and treatment of maxillary myxoma, based on a pediatric case report. An infant of two and a half months presented with endonasal tumor extending to ethmoid. Surgical excision was performed on an endonasal approach. Myxoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of the surgical specimen, whereas initial biopsy had suggested fibrous dysplasia. No recurrence was observed after two and a half years' surveillance. Positive diagnosis of maxillary myxoma is histological. Treatment is primarily surgical. Strict long-term surveillance is required because of the high risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Bone position emission tomography with or without CT Is more accurate than bone scan for detection of bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Wom Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Na1{sup 8F} bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na1{sup 8F}, and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 9{sup 9mT}c-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p < 0.05). In the lesion-based analysis (43 lesions in 14 patients; 31 malignant and 12 benign), the sensitivity of bone PET (100% = 31/31) was significantly greater than that of bone scan (38.7% = 12/31) (p < 0.01), and the specificity of bone PET (75.0% = 9/12) was also significantly higher than that of bone scan (8.3% = 1/12) (p < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that bone PET was significantly more accurate than the bone scan in the patient (p = 0.0306) and lesion (p = 0.0001) based analyses. Na1{sup 8F} bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.

  9. Bone pain palliation: Philippines setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagsisihan, J.R.; Barrenechea, E.; San Luis, T.O.L.

    2008-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease is a major sequela of several solid cancers; the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid etc. Bone pain is a common symptom in advancing malignancy and often determines the quality of life in the later stages of disease. Management of bone pain remains palliative at present. With the improved cancer survival resulting from advances in cancer management, the population of patients seeking relief of bone pain has increased. Radiopharmaceutical therapy offers potential pain relief with minimal adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of radiopharmaceutical therapy for bone pain palliation in the Philippines. To date, no study has been done on bone pain palliation therapy. The study population included all cancer patients with bone metastasis presenting with chronic bone pain who were subjected to radiopharmaceutical therapy for bone pain palliation in the different medical centers and hospitals in the Philippines. The clinical histories of the patients were reviewed. The specific radiopharmaceutical and corresponding doses used for the said therapies were also noted. The respondents were inquired of the effectiveness of the therapy in relieving bone pain and duration of the response to the therapy. The complete blood count, before and after the therapy, were retrieved. The approximate cost of the therapy was also inquired and was then compared with the cost of different treatment modalities. Over the years only six radiopharmaceutical therapies have been performed in the Philippines (three male patients with prostate cancer, two female patients with breast cancer and one female patient with renal cancer). All had multiple bone metastases on bone scintigraphy and presented with chronic bone pain, which were not adequately controlled by other treatment modalities such as analgesics, bisphosphonates, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and radiation therapy. Four subjects were subjected to Strontium-89 chloride (Sr

  10. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  12. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone health in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220

  14. Today's understanding about bone aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzibovskis, Maris; Pilmane, Mara; Urtane, Ilga

    2010-01-01

    Patient's age is an important factor in orthodontic treatment. There are many studies about bone aging from the aspects of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Both, aging and osteoporosis are associated problems and have a great importance in relation to their incidence. But not only osteoporosis or other bone related diseases are issue for many studies, because the knowledge of bone pathophysiology and diagnostics with signaling molecules makes it possible to predict treatment outcome and specific cell targeted pharmacology. In recent years immunohistological studies had become very popular in all fields of medicine including orthodontics, too. The question we tried to answer in this literature mini-review was--what kind of immunohistological studies were done from the aspect of bone aging in relation to patient`s age and orthodontic treatment? Search on Cochrane Library, PubMed, Science Direct, and DynaMed data bases by keywords: Alveolar bone aging, RANK, RANKL, OPG, MMP-1, MMP-8, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-β, and BM, resulted with 147 full-text articles; from them 90 met the criteria, 30 were reviews, and only in 22 articles from 60 bone aging from the aspect of signaling molecules were discussed. Interestingly, only 2 articles (Cei 2006 and Zhang 2003) were related to alveolar bone, and none studied it from the orthodontic point of view. Patient`s age plays an important role in orthodontic treatment, because of the bone response to mechanical loading. It is in accordance to clinical studies, or alike, that tooth movement in younger patient occurs much faster than in adults, but the question which factors are responsible for the process still remains.

  15. Bone position emission tomography with or without CT Is more accurate than bone scan for detection of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Wom Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Na1 8F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na1 8F , and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 9 9mT c-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p 8F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.

  16. Myxoma of the nasal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Islam, Tahera; AlOulah, Mohammad; Bafaqeeh, Sameer; Faqeeh, Yasser

    2017-06-01

    Myxoma is a benign tumor that arises from mesenchymal tissue, and found in the soft tissue and less commonly in the bone. The majority of bony myxomas of the head and neck occur in the jaws and maxilla. We report an extremely rare case of nasal bone myxoma in a 52-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Due to the aggressive nature of the lesion the nasal bone was eroded by the disease. The patient underwent resection of the mass with reconstruction of the defect by septal cartilage. The patient remains tumor free after 5 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Blair, R.J.; Thomas, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    The review discusses the current status of available radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging. For skeletal imaging 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled diphosphonates as a group seem to be superior to other phosphorous compounds including pyrophosphate. Of the diphosphonates, 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled MDP is better than EHDP. The new compound 99 Tcsup(m)-IDP shows more skeletal uptake than MDP or EHDP in patients, but requires further clinical evaluation. Bone-marrow imaging has not received as much attention as bone imaging because of the lack of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. The erythropoietic marrow can be well visualized by using iron-52, an accelerator-produced positron emitter (511 keV gamma). However, availability (short half-life) and instrumentation problems limit its use to only a few institutions with access to an accelerator. The RES cell function of the bone marrow can be demonstrated by using colloids labelled with a suitable radionuclide. However, none of the available colloids of short-lived radionuclides ( 99 Tcsup(m) or 113 Insup(m)) localize to any great extent in the marrow - their localization often being limited to 10-15% of the injected dose in normal patients. Indium-111 chloride has been claimed to be useful as an erythropoietic cell marrow imaging agent by some investigators but others have disputed this claim. At the present time, we do not have an optimal agent for bone-marrow imaging and further work in this area is warranted. (author)

  19. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  20. Bone intake by vultures in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-01

    Sep 1, 2007 ... onwards (taken as the beginning of the breeding period). A rough estimate of bone ... associated with horses (Mönnig &. Veldman 1989) .... period (g). Mean mass of bones consumed per visiting vulture (g). Mean mass of bones per bone- consuming vulture. Non-breeding season. 700. 466. 225. 1.65. 49.4.

  1. Bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed. Two different entities are recognised: 1) a localised periarticular bone loss, due to inflammatory processes and 2) a generalised increased bone turnover, ultimately leading to a loss of axial bone mass. The mechanism of this loss of

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little ... stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x- ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... may also be asked to remove jewelry, removable dental appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  13. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths ... the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  16. Flavonoid intake and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M; Alekel, D Lee; Ward, Wendy E; Ronis, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption. Bioactive flavonoids are being assessed for properties beyond their chemical antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some have been reported to enhance bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption through their action on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Future research is needed to determine which of the flavonoids and their metabolites are most effective and at what dose, as well as the mechanism of modulating cellular events, in order to set priorities for clinical trials.

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there ... prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You will be asked to remove some of ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  19. Effects of radiation on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Rafael; Stock, Harlan

    2013-12-01

    Ionizing radiation produces its deleterious biologic effects by both direct (DNA strand breaks) and indirect processes (formation of free oxygen radicals). Mitotically active cells are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. These effects are most severe locally within the treatment field but can also occur systemically, possibly reflecting hormonal influences and inflammatory cytokine mediators. Specific bone complications of radiation include osteopenia, growth arrest, fracture and malignancy. Some of these complications, such as osteopenia, are reversible and severity is dose dependent. Insufficiency fractures are a common complication after radiation therapy and generally affect those bones under most physiologic stress and with the highest ratio of trabecular to cortical bone. Familiarity with the radiographic appearance of irradiated bone, including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), will improve image interpretation and facilitate accurate diagnosis.

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the ... Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the ... From (your name): Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. ...

  5. Understanding the Structure of Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or ... a defective blueprint is produced that tells the cell to produce deformed collagen, resulting in bad collagen ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  7. Treatment of Temporal Bone Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C.; Cervenka, Brian; Brodie, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the temporal bone can lead to significant morbidity or mortality and knowledge of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology of injury, and appropriate management strategies is critical for successful recovery and rehabilitation of such injured patients. Most temporal bone fractures are caused by motor vehicle accidents. Temporal bone fractures are best classified as either otic capsule sparing or otic capsule disrupting-type fractures, as such classification correlates well with risk of concomitant functional complications. The most common complications of temporal bone fractures are facial nerve injury, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, and hearing loss. Assessment of facial nerve function as soon as possible following injury greatly facilitates clinical decision making. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in the setting of CSF leak is controversial; however, following critical analysis and interpretation of the existing classic and contemporary literature, we believe its use is absolutely warranted. PMID:27648399

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Please ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x- ... examination itself is a painless procedure. You may experience discomfort from the cool temperature in the examination ...

  11. Paget disease of the bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , bone specific isoenzyme Serum calcium Treatment ... Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  12. Digital Astronaut: Bone Remodeling Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant progress has been made with regard to the plan outlined in the 2014 report for building in the effects of exercise induced loading on preserving bone...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum ... dislocations. In elderly or patients with osteoporosis, a hip fracture may be clearly seen on a CT ...

  17. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula, FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. National Osteoporosis Foundation. ... ...

  18. Insulin resistance and bone: a biological partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Caterina; Epstein, Solomon; Napoli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a bilateral relationship between bone and insulin resistance seems to exist that unites them in a biological partnership.

  19. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  20. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered

  1. Physiological Challenges of Bone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin D status and response to treatment in pos- menopausal osteoporosis . Osteoporos Int. 2009;20:239 244. 11. Sahni S, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, et al...to immunomodulate the environment and actually aid bone formation. Roszer published a comprehensive review of inflammation as it relates to fracture...systemic inflammation and are likely to delay bone repair. The mechanism for this delay appears to be related to the excessive inflammatory mediators

  2. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  3. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  4. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cas...

  5. Posttraumatic frontal bone osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S Heredero; Aniceto, G Sánchez; Rodríguez, I Zubillaga; Diaz, R Gutiérrez; Recuero, I I García

    2009-05-01

    We present the clinical case of a patient with open bilateral frontal sinus fractures who developed a frontal osteomyelitis. A review of the problem and management ascending to the different alternatives for central anterior skull base defects and fronto-orbital reconstruction is also presented. After extensive radical debridement of the necrotic bone, final reconstruction of the skull base was performed by using a rectus abdominis free flap. A custom-made hard tissue replacement implant was used for the fronto-orbital reconstruction. Extensive debridement is required for the treatment of frontal osteomyelitis. An appropriate isolation of the skull base from the upper aerodigestive system must be obtained to prevent continuous infectious complications. Free flaps are especially useful for skull base reconstruction when traditional methods are not available or have failed because of the lack of available tissue for vascularized reconstruction. Custom-made alloplastic implants are a good reconstructive option for large fronto-orbital defects once the infection is gone and vascularized tissue has been transferred.

  6. Bone culture research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  7. Bone health in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hoyos, Marta; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen

    2017-07-21

    Patients with Down syndrome have a number of risk factors that theoretically could predispose them to osteoporosis, such as early aging, development disorders, reduced physical activity, limited sun exposure, frequent comorbidities and use of drug therapies which could affect bone metabolism. In addition, the bone mass of these people may be affected by their anthropometric and body composition peculiarities. In general terms, studies in adults with Down syndrome reported that these people have lower areal bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) than the general population. However, most of them have not taken the smaller bone size of people with Down syndrome into account. In fact, when body mineral density is adjusted by bone size and we obtain volumetric body mineral density (g/cm 3 ), the difference between both populations disappears. On the other hand, although people with Down syndrome have risk factor of hypovitaminosis D, the results of studies regarding 25(OH)D in this population are not clear. Likewise, the studies about biochemical bone markers or the prevalence of fractures are not conclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K.; Nordvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1900?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective: This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy...

  9. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  10. Remnant Woven Bone and Calcified Cartilage in Mouse Bone: Differences between Ages/Sex and Effects on Bone Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ip

    Full Text Available Mouse models are used frequently to study effects of bone diseases and genetic determinates of bone strength. Murine bones have an intracortical band of woven bone that is not present in human bones. This band is not obvious under brightfield imaging and not typically analyzed. Due to the band's morphology and location it has been theorized to be remnant bone from early in life. Furthermore, lamellar and woven bone are well known to have differing mechanical strengths. The purpose of this study was to determine (i if the band is from early life and (ii if the woven bone or calcified cartilage contained within the band affect whole bone strength.In twelve to fourteen week old mice, doxycycline was used to label bone formed prior to 3 weeks old. Doxycycline labeling and woven bone patterns on contralateral femora matched well and encompassed an almost identical cross-sectional area. Also, we highlight for the first time in mice the presence of calcified cartilage exclusively within the band. However, calcified cartilage could not be identified on high resolution cone-beam microCT scans when examined visually or by thresholding methods.Subsequently, three-point bending was used to analyze the effects of woven bone and calcified cartilage on whole bone mechanics in a cohort of male and female six and 13 week old Balb/C mice. Three-point bending outcomes were correlated with structural and compositional measures using multivariate linear regression. Woven bone composed a higher percent of young bones than older bones. However, calcified cartilage in older bones was twice that of younger bones, which was similar when normalized by area. Area and/or tissue mineral density accounted for >75% of variation for most strength outcomes. Percent calcified cartilage added significant predictive power to maximal force and bending stress. Calcified cartilage and woven bone could have more influence in genetic models where calcified cartilage percent is double

  11. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  12. Interleukin-10 Inhibits Bone Resorption: A Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Periodontitis and Other Bone Loss Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  13. Interleukin-10 inhibits bone resorption: a potential therapeutic strategy in periodontitis and other bone loss diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua; Guo, Jianbin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shouzhi; Yang, Wenrong

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and other bone loss diseases, decreasing bone volume and strength, have a significant impact on millions of people with the risk of tooth loss and bone fracture. The integrity and strength of bone are maintained through the balance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively, so the loss of bone results from the disruption of such balance due to increased resorption or/and decreased formation of bone. The goal of therapies for diseases of bone loss is to reduce bone loss, improve bone formation, and then keep healthy bone density. Current therapies have mostly relied on long-term medication, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapies, and changing of the life style. However there are some limitations for some patients in the effective treatments for bone loss diseases because of the complexity of bone loss. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, and recent studies have indicated that IL-10 can contribute to the maintenance of bone mass through inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption and regulation of osteoblastic bone formation. This paper will provide a brief overview of the role of IL-10 in bone loss diseases and discuss the possibility of IL-10 adoption in therapy of bone loss diseases therapy.

  14. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  15. [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Junying; Wang, Yong; Yang, Xing; Zhu, Ershan

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the clinical application of grafting with bioactive glass (BG) and autologous bone marrow for defect after resection and curettage of benign bone neoplasm. From January 2004 to May 2007, 34 patients with bone defects were repaired. There were 21 males and 13 females with a mean age of 25.6 years (8 to 56 years). There were 14 cases of simple bone cysts, 6 cases of fibrous dysplasia, 3 cases of osteoid osteoma, 4 cases of non-ossifying fibroma, 2 cases of enchondroma and 3 cases of giant cell tumor of bone. Tumor sizes varied from 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 9.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 2.5 cm. Benign bone neoplasm was removed thoroughly with a curet or osteotome, bone defects ranged from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm to 11.0 cm x 3.5 cm x 3.0 cm, which was closed-up with the mixtures of BG and autogenous red bone marrow. Six cases of pathologic fracture were fixed with steel plate or intramedullary nail. The postoperative systemic and local reactions were observed, and the regular X-ray examinations were performed to observe the bone healing. All the patients had good wound healing after operation. There was no yellow effusion nor white crystal and skin rash appeared around wound, indicating no allergic reaction occurred. A follow-up of 1 to 4 years (mean 24.6 months) showed satisfactory healing without complications. At averaged 16 weeks after operation, patients with bone tumor in lower limbs resumed walking independently and those with bone tumor in upper limbs resumed holding object. There was no tumor recurrence during follow-up. Radiographically, the interface between the implanted bone and host bone became fuzzy 1 month after implantation. Two months after operation, the BG was absorbed gradually, new bone formation could be seen in the defects. Four months after operation, implanted bone and host bone merged together, bone density increased. Six to ten months after operation, the majority of the implanted BG was absorbed and substituted for new bone, bone

  16. [CHARACTERISTICS OF OSTEOCYTE CELL LINES FROM BONES FORMED AS A RESULT OF MEMBRANOUS (SKULL BONES) AND CHONDRAL (LONG BONES) OSSIFICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Doktorov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the literature data and the results of authors' own research, to answer the question--if the osteocytes of bone tissues resulting from membranous and chondral ossification, belong to one or to different cell lines. The differences between the cells of osteocyte lines derived from bones resulting from membranous and chondral ossification were established in: 1) the magnitude of the mechanical signal, initiating the development of the process of mechanotransduction; 2) the nature of the relationship between the magnitude of the mechanical signal that initiates the reorganization of the architecture of bone structures and the resource of their strength; in membranous bones significantly lower mechanical signal caused a substantially greater increment of bone strength resource; 3) the biological activity of bone structures, bone fragments formed from membranous tissue were more optimal for transplantation; 4) the characteristics of expression of functional markers of bone cells at different stages of their differentiation; 5) the nature of the reaction of bone cells to mechanical stress; 6) the sensitivity of bone cells to one of the factors controlling the process of mechanotransduction (PGI2); 7) the functioning of osteocytes during lactation. These differences reflect the functional requirements to the bones of the skeleton--the supporting function in the bones of the limbs and the shaping and protection in the bones of the cranial vault. These data suggest that the results of research conducted on the bones of the skull, should not be transferred to the entire skeleton as a whole.

  17. Bone Conduction Thresholds without Bone Vibrator Application Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Chordekar, Shai; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

    2015-01-01

    Osseous bone conduction (BC) stimulation involves applying the clinical bone vibrator with an application force of about 5 Newton (N) to the skin over the cranial vault of skull bone (e.g., mastoid, forehead). In nonosseous BC (also called soft tissue conduction), the bone vibrator elicits hearing when it is applied to skin sites not over the cranial vault of skull bone, such as the neck. To gain insight into the mechanisms of osseous and nonosseous BC. In general, thresholds were determined with the bone vibrator applied with about 5 N force directly to osseous sites (mastoid, forehead) on the head of the participants, as classically conducted in the clinic, and again without direct physical contact (i.e., 0 N force) achieved by coupling the bone vibrator to gel as in ultrasound diagnostic imaging, on the same or nearby skin sites (nonosseous BC). The participants were equipped with earplugs to minimize air-conducted stimulation. In the first experiment, 10 normal-hearing participants were tested with stimulation (5 and 0 N) at the forehead; in the second experiment, 10 additional normal-hearing participants were tested with stimulation at the mastoid (about 5 N) and at the nearby tragus and cavum concha of the external ear (0 N). The mean thresholds with 0 N were much better than might be expected from classical theories in response to stimulation by a bone vibrator, in the absence of any application force. The differences between the mean thresholds with the 0 N and the 5 N forces depended on condition, site, and stimulus frequency of the comparisons. The difference was 1.5 dB at 1.0 kHz on the forehead; ranged between 10 and 12.5 dB at 1.0 kHz on the cavum and tragus (versus on the mastoid) and at 2.0 and 4.0 kHz on the forehead; 17 and 19 dB at 2.0 kHz on the cavum and tragus (versus on the mastoid); reaching 32 dB only in a single condition (forehead at 0.5 kHz). As it is unlikely that threshold intensity stimulation delivered with 0 N application force could

  18. [Bone and Stem Cells. Cellular network in bone micro-environment - histological and ultrastructural aspects -].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amizuka, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2014-04-01

    Bone micro-environment appears to reflect bone turnover, i.e., frequency of bone remodeling. There are many bone-synthesizing mature osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and a thick cell layer of preosteoblasts overlying mature osteoblasts in the region which shows active bone remodeling. Bone lining cells, - flattened, resting form of osteoblasts cover the quiescent bone surface, in which, however, osteocyte-lacunar canalicular system tend to be geometrically well-arranged. Thus, bone micro-environment seems to be regulated by preosteoblasts, bone marrow stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells, as well as osteoblasts and osteoclasts. But, precious biological function of preosteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells are still under the investigation, e.g., due to many phenotypes of preosteoblasts. In this review, we will introduce histological and ultrastructural aspects on cellular involvement in bone micro-environment.

  19. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  20. Bone-Inspired Spatially Specific Piezoelectricity Induces Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Lin, Zefeng; Liu, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaolan; Yang, Haoqi; Li, Kang; Yi, Xin; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of bone can be pictured as a material made of parallel interspersed domains of fibrous piezoelectric collagenous materials and non-piezoelectric non-collagenous materials. To mimic this feature for enhanced bone regeneration, a material made of two parallel interspersed domains, with higher and lower piezoelectricity, respectively, is constructed to form microscale piezoelectric zones (MPZs). The MPZs are produced using a versatile and effective laser-irradiation technique in which K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 (KNN) ceramics are selectively irradiated to achieve microzone phase transitions. The phase structure of the laser-irradiated microzones is changed from a mixture of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (with higher piezoelectricity) to a tetragonal dominant phase (with lower piezoelectricity). The microzoned piezoelectricity distribution results in spatially specific surface charge distribution, enabling the MPZs to bear bone-like microscale electric cues. Hence, the MPZs induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo even without being seeded with stem cells. The concept of mimicking the spatially specific piezoelectricity in bone will facilitate future research on the rational design of tissue regenerative materials.

  1. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  2. Embalmed and fresh frozen human bones in orthopedic cadaveric studies: which bone is authentic and feasible?

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Tobias; Müller, Thorben; Huss, Sebastian; Kann, Peter Herbert; Weihe, Eberhard; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Zettl, Ralph Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The most frequently used bones for mechanical testing of orthopedic and trauma devices are fresh frozen cadaveric bones, embalmed cadaveric bones, and artificial composite bones. Even today, the comparability of these different bone types has not been established. Methods We tested fresh frozen and embalmed cadaveric femora that were similar concerning age, sex, bone mineral density, and stiffness. Artificial composite femora were used as a reference group. Testing para...

  3. Biomimetics of Bone Implants: The Regenerative Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current strategies for healing bone defects are numerous and varied. At the core of each bone healing therapy is a biomimetic mechanism, which works to enhance bone growth. These range from porous scaffolds, bone mineral usage, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan substitutes to transplanted cell populations. Bone defects face a range of difficulty in their healing, given the composite of dense outer compact bone and blood-rich inner trabecular bone. As such, the tissue possesses a number of inherent characteristics, which may be clinically harnessed as promoters of bone healing. These include mechanical characteristics, mineral composition, native collagen content, and cellular fraction of bone. This review charts multiple biomimetic strategies to help heal bony defects in large and small osseous injury sites, with a special focus on cell transplantation.

  4. Subtraction radiography of interradicular bone lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorf, B.; Groendahl, K.; Rohlin, M.; Nilsson, M. (Lund Univ., Malmoe (Sweden))

    1992-10-01

    Subtraction and conventional radiography were evaluated for their diagnostic potential to assess interradicular bone lesions in the mandibular premolar region. Both conventional radiographs and subtraction images were interpreted by 10 observers. The receiver-operating characteristic technique was used to compare the two techniques. The diagnostic validity was higher for the subtraction technique, both for lesions confined to cancellous bone and for lesions including the cortical bone, than for the conventional technique. For bone defects confined to cancellous bone the diagnostic accuracy was lower than those reported from periapical bone lesion irrespective of whether subtraction or conventional radiography was used. It is concluded that subtraction radiography improves the detectability of bone lesions, shallow ones in particular. Lesions in the interradicular bone are more difficult to detect than those in the periapical bone. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Subtraction radiography of interradicular bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorf, B.; Groendahl, K.; Rohlin, M.; Nilsson, M.

    1992-01-01

    Subtraction and conventional radiography were evaluated for their diagnostic potential to assess interradicular bone lesions in the mandibular premolar region. Both conventional radiographs and subtraction images were interpreted by 10 observers. The receiver-operating characteristic technique was used to compare the two techniques. The diagnostic validity was higher for the subtraction technique, both for lesions confined to cancellous bone and for lesions including the cortical bone, than for the conventional technique. For bone defects confined to cancellous bone the diagnostic accuracy was lower than those reported from periapical bone lesion irrespective of whether subtraction or conventional radiography was used. It is concluded that subtraction radiography improves the detectability of bone lesions, shallow ones in particular. Lesions in the interradicular bone are more difficult to detect than those in the periapical bone. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Dynamics of bone graft healing around implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Venkataraman

    2015-01-01

    A few questions arise pertaining to the use of bone grafts along with implants are whether these are successful in approximation with implant. Do they accelerate bone regeneration? Are all defects ultimately regenerated with new viable bone? Is the bone graft completely resorbed or integrated in new bone? Does the implant surface characteristic positively affect osseointegration when used with a bone graft? What type of graft and implant surface can be used that will have a positive effect on the healing type and time? Finally, what are the dynamics of bone graft healing around an implant? This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone graft healing in general and in vicinity of another foreign, avascular body, namely the implant surface, and further, the role of bone grafts in osseointegration and/or clinical success of the implants.

  7. Bone Grafting: Sourcing, Timing, Strategies, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egol, Kenneth A; Nauth, Aaron; Lee, Mark; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Watson, J Tracy; Borrelli, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Acute fractures, nonunions, and nonunions with bone defects or osteomyelitis often need bone graft to facilitate union. There are several factors to consider when it is determined that a bone graft is needed. These factors include the source of the bone graft (autograft vs. allograft), proper timing for placement of the bone graft, strategies to avoid further complications (particularly in the setting of osteomyelitis), and with the development of a variety of bone graft substitutes, whether alternatives to autograft are available and appropriate for the task at hand. Autograft bone has commonly been referred to as the "gold standard" of bone grafts, against which the efficacy of other grafts has been measured. The best timing for when to place a bone graft or substitute is also somewhat controversial, particularly after an open fracture or a potentially contaminated bed. The treatment of infected nonunions, particularly those that require a graft to facilitate healing, can be quite challenging. Typically, the infection is completely eradicated before placement of a bone graft, but achieving a sterile bed and the timing of a bone graft require strategic thinking and planning. This review outlines the benefits of autografts, the most suitable sites for harvesting bone grafts, the timing of bone graft procedures, the potential risks and benefits of grafting in the face of infection, and the currently available bone graft extenders.

  8. Cancer Cell Colonisation in the Bone Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casina Kan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases are a common complication of epithelial cancers, of which breast, prostate and lung carcinomas are the most common. The establishment of cancer cells to distant sites such as the bone microenvironment requires multiple steps. Tumour cells can acquire properties to allow epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, extravasation and migration. Within the bone metastatic niche, disseminated tumour cells may enter a dormancy stage or proliferate to adapt and survive, interacting with bone cells such as hematopoietic stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cross-talk with the bone may alter tumour cell properties and, conversely, tumour cells may also acquire characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment, in a process known as osteomimicry. Alternatively, these cells may also express osteomimetic genes that allow cell survival or favour seeding to the bone marrow. The seeding of tumour cells in the bone disrupts bone-forming and bone-resorbing activities, which can lead to macrometastasis in bone. At present, bone macrometastases are incurable with only palliative treatment available. A better understanding of how these processes influence the early onset of bone metastasis may give insight into potential therapies. This review will focus on the early steps of bone colonisation, once disseminated tumour cells enter the bone marrow.

  9. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieske, Oliver; Wittmann, Alexandra; Zaspel, Johannes; Löffler, Thomas; Rubenbauer, Bianka; Trentzsch, Heiko; Piltz, Stefan

    2009-12-15

    Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG) or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM). From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10) or DBM-augmentation (n = 10). At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014). Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group) and 41.2 months (DBM-group). All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20%) whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146). No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20%) (p = 0.146). Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326). However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031). With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160 euro/case). Nevertheless, this study demonstrated that the

  10. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. The effect of parathyroid hormone and teriparatide on bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Continuous exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to hypercalcemia and a decrease in bone volume, which is referred to as its catabolic effect, while intermittent exogenously administered PTH leads to an anabolic effect on bone. Intermittent administration of PTH dramatically increases bone remodeling and modeling through their direct and indirect effects on the functional cells of bone remodeling units and their precursors. These effects on bone metabolism differ according to dosing frequency of PTH. Therefore, different dosing frequency of PTH shows different therapeutic effects on bone in terms of bone volume and bone quality in patients with osteoporosis.

  11. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  13. Biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, R; McArdle, A; Atashroo, D; Walmsley, G G; Senarath-Yapa, K; Zielins, E R; Paik, K J; Longaker, M T; Wan, D C

    2014-12-01

    Conditions such as congenital anomalies, cancers, and trauma can all result in devastating deficits of bone in the craniofacial skeleton. This can lead to significant alteration in function and appearance that may have significant implications for patients. In addition, large bone defects in this area can pose serious clinical dilemmas, which prove difficult to remedy, even with current gold standard surgical treatments. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and serves important functional demands. The necessity to develop new approaches for craniofacial reconstruction arises from the fact that traditional therapeutic modalities, such as autologous bone grafting, present myriad limitations and carry with them the potential for significant complications. While the optimal bone construct for tissue regeneration remains to be elucidated, much progress has been made in the past decade. Advances in tissue engineering have led to innovative scaffold design, complemented by progress in the understanding of stem cell-based therapy and growth factor enhancement of the healing cascade. This review focuses on the role of biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering, highlighting key advances in scaffold design and development. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  14. Osteosarcoma of the jaw bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindia, M L

    2001-10-01

    Currently, it has been established that osteosarcoma (OS) of bone is not a stereotyped disease, and several varieties have been identified by clinical findings, radiographic and histopathologic appearances. Generally, it is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm that accounts for at least 30% of all primary tumours of bone. In the jaw bones, OS accounts for about 4% of all the primary malignant neoplasms. In the general skeleton, the highest incidence is observed in the second decade of life; the neoplasm is said to be unusual before the age of 5 years and very rare after age 50 years. The aetiology and precise pathogenesis of this disease remain unknown. A diagnosis of clinically and radiologically suspicious OS requires meticulous histologic examination. However, histologic diagnosis may also be difficult since the different varieties of OS may have different morphological patterns in different sample sites. Currently, the two therapeutic modalities used in the primary treatment of OS include radical surgery and cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the general skeleton, the use of surgery alone results in a 90% rate of recurrence of OS. Notably, the advent of adjuvant and neoadjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjunct to radical surgery has greatly improved the prognosis of many cases of OS of the jaw bones.

  15. [Bone and Men's Health. Bone selective androgen receptor modulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki

    2010-02-01

    Androgen, one of the sex steroid hormones shows various biological activities on the corresponding various tissues. Many efforts to produce novel drug materials maintaining a desired biological activity with an adequate tissue selectivity, which is so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) , are being performed. As one of such efforts, studies on SARMs against bone tissues which possess a significant potential to stimulate a bone formation with reducing undesirable androgenic virilizing activities are in progress all over the world. This review focuses on the research and development activities of such SARMs and discuses their usefulness for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  17. CT diagnosis of occipital bone pacchionian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianguo; Xu Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To improve the recognition of the CT findings of occipital bone pacchionian depression, in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods: occipital bone pacchionian depression underwent CT with plain scan and intravenous contrast enhancement in 11 cases, and then the CT findings were analyzed. Results: Occipital bone pacchionian depression situated beside the torcular herophilia in 11 cases. The depression or bone defect were found at occipital bone inner plate, they can reach diploe or outer plate and had no enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusions: CT scans play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of occipital bone pacchionian depression

  18. Bone disease of primary hyperoxaluria in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, E.; Wendler, H.; Zobel, G.; Ratschek, M.

    1989-01-01

    A patient with primary hyperoxaluria type I in infancy is reported. He had renal insufficiency, but urolithiasis was absent. Demonstration of diffuse nephrocalcinosis by renal ultrasound contributed to early diagnosis. Prolonged survival leads to extensive extrarenal oxalate deposition. Repeated skeletal surveys showed the development and the progression of severe hyperoxaluria-related bone disease. Translucent metaphyseal bands with sclerotic margins, wide areas of rarefaction at the ends of the long bones, and translucent rims around the epiphyses and the tarsal bones were signs of disordered bone growth. Bone density generally increased with time indicating progressive sclerosis due to oxalate deposition in the previously normal bone structure. (orig.)

  19. Mechanisms of Guided Bone Regeneration: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Kerns, David G

    2014-01-01

    Post-extraction crestal bone resorption is common and unavoidable which can lead to significant ridge dimensional changes. To regenerate enough bone for successful implant placement, Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is often required. GBR is a surgical procedure that uses barrier membranes with or without particulate bone grafts or/and bone substitutes. There are two approaches of GBR in implant therapy: GBR at implant placement (simultaneous approach) and GBR before implant placement to increase the alveolar ridge or improve ridge morphology (staged approach). Angiogenesis and ample blood supply play a critical role in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24894890

  20. [The endocannabinoid system and bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pura, Mikuláš; Vaňuga, Peter

    Recent studies suggest an important role for the skeletal endocannabinoid system in the regulation of bone mass in both physiological and pathological conditions. Both major endocannabinoids (anandamid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), endocannabinoid receptors - CB1-receptor (CB1R) a CB2-receptor (CB2R) and the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes are present or expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Previous studies identified multiple risk and protective variants of CNR2 gene dealing with the relationship to bone density and/or osteoporosis. Selective CB1R/ CB2R-inverse agonists/antagonists and CB2R-inverse agonists/antagonists are candidates for prevention of bone mass loss and combined antiresorptive and anabolic therapy for osteoporosis.Key words: cannabinoid receptors - endocannabinoids - marijuana - osteoporosis.

  1. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99 sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.) [de

  2. Nuclear medicine in bone diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feine, U.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    This book on nuclear medicine in bone diagnostics and other complementary imaging methods is composed out of the 51 presentations of the 2nd Tuebinger bone symposium held on the 11th and 12th January 1985; it gives an overview of newer methods of nuclear medicine and other imaging methods such as magnetic-resonance tomography and sonography. While the 1st Tuebinger Symposium in January 1981 dealt with the clinical application of classical bone scintigraphy and the possibilities of the results of differential diagnosis, the present book is concerned with indications, alternative radiopharmaceuticals for skeleton scintigraphy and other techniques. The intention is to give a survey of the developments made over the last few years. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  4. Functional adaptation to loading of a single bone is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Susannah J; Behan, Mary; Smith, Lesley; Oldenhoff, William E; Markel, Mark D; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; Miletic, Vjekoslav; Muir, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be neuronally regulated. Load-induced responses in the left and right ulnas and humeri were determined after loading of the right ulna in male Sprague-Dawley rats (69 +/- 16 days of age). After a single period of loading at -760-, -2000-, or -3750-microepsilon initial peak strain, rats were given calcein to label new bone formation. Bone formation and bone neuropeptide concentrations were determined at 10 days. In one group, temporary neuronal blocking was achieved by perineural anesthesia of the brachial plexus with bupivicaine during loading. We found right ulna loading induces adaptive responses in other bones in both thoracic limbs compared with Sham controls and that neuronal blocking during loading abrogated bone formation in the loaded ulna and other thoracic limb bones. Skeletal adaptation was more evident in distal long bones compared with proximal long bones. We also found that the single period of loading modulated bone neuropeptide concentrations persistently for 10 days. We conclude that functional adaptation to loading of a single bone in young rapidly growing rats is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones. Persistent changes in bone neuropeptide concentrations after a single loading period suggest that plasticity exists in the innervation of bone.

  5. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Assessment of bone quality using Raman and infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Hiromi Kimura

    2015-10-01

    Bone quality, which was defined as "the sum total of characteristics of the bone that influence the bone's resistance to fracture" at the National Institute of Health (NIH) conference in 2001, contributes to bone strength in combination with bone mass. Bone mass is often measured as bone mineral density (BMD) and, consequently, can be quantified easily. On the other hand, bone quality is composed of several factors such as bone structure, bone matrix, calcification degree, microdamage, and bone turnover, and it is not easy to obtain data for the various factors. Therefore, it is difficult to quantify bone quality. We are eager to develop new measurement methods for bone quality that make it possible to determine several factors associated with bone quality at the same time. Analytic methods based on Raman and FTIR spectroscopy have attracted a good deal of attention as they can provide a good deal of chemical information about hydroxyapatite and collagen, which are the main components of bone. A lot of studies on bone quality using Raman and FTIR imaging have been reported following the development of the two imaging systems. Thus, both Raman and FTIR imaging appear to be promising new bone morphometric techniques.

  6. Palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koswig, S.; Buchali, A.; Boehmer, D.; Schlenger, L.; Budach, V.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The effect of the palliative irradiation of bone metastases was explored in this retrospective analysis. The spectrum of primary tumor sites, the localization of the bone metastases and the fractionation schedules were analyzed with regard to palliation discriminating total, partial and complete pain response. Patients and Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients are included in this retrospective quantitative study from April 1992 to November 1993. Two hundred fifty-eight localizations of painful bone metastases were irradiated. The percentage of bone metastases of the total irradiated localizations in our department of radiotherapy in the Carite-Hospital, the primary tumor sites, the localizations and the different fractionation schedules were explored. The total, partial and complete pain response was analyzed in the most often used fractionation schedules and by primary tumor sites. Results: Eight per cent of all irradiated localizations in the observation period were bone metastases. There were irradiated bone metastases of 21 different tumor sites. Most of the primary tumor sites were breast cancer (49%), lung cancer (6%) and kidney cancer (6%). The most frequent site of metastases was the vertebral column (52%). The most often used fractionation schedules were: 4x5 Gy (32%), 10x3 Gy (18%), 6x5 Gy (9%), 7x3 Gy (7%), 10x2 Gy (5%) and 2x8 Gy. The total response rates in this fractionation schedules were 72%, 79%, 74%, 76%, 75% and 72%, the complete response rates were 35%, 32%, 30%, 35%, 33% and 33%. There were no significant differences between the most often irradiated primary tumor sites, the most frequent localizations and the palliation with regard to total, partial and complete pain response. (orig.) [de

  7. The effect of antiresorptives on bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Robert R; Armas, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Currently, antiresorptive therapy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis includes bisphosphonates, estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene), and denosumab (a human antibody that inactivates RANKL). The original paradigm driving the development of antiresorptive therapy was that inhibition of bone resorption would allow bone formation to continue and correct the defect. However, it is now clear increases in bone density account for little of the antifracture effect of these treatments. We examined the antifracture benefit of antiresorptives deriving from bone quality changes. We searched the archive of nearly 30,000 articles accumulated over more than 40 years in our research center library using a software program (Refman™). Approximately 250 publications were identified in locating the 69 cited here. The findings document antiresorptive agents are not primarily anabolic. All cause a modest increase in bone density due to a reduction in the bone remodeling space; however, the majority of their efficacy is due to suppression of the primary cause of osteoporosis, ie, excessive bone remodeling not driven by mechanical need. All of them improve some element(s) of bone quality. Antiresorptive therapy reduces risk of fracture by improving bone quality through halting removal of bone tissue and the resultant destruction of microarchitecture of bone and, perhaps to some extent, by improving the intrinsic material properties of bone tissue. Information presented here may help clinicians to improve selection of patients for antiresorptive therapy by avoiding them in cases clearly not due to excessive bone remodeling.

  8. Appropriate use of bone densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genant, H.K.; Block, J.E.; Steiger, P.; Glueer, C.C.; Ettinger, B.; Harris, S.T.

    1989-03-01

    The authors discuss current capabilities of three common bone densitometry techniques--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomography--and potential capabilities of new innovations of each of these techniques. They believe that use of bone densitometry is valid in the following four clinical applications and recommend its usage to (a) assess patients with metabolic diseases known to affect the skeleton, (b) assess perimenopausal women for initiation of estrogen replacement therapy, (c) establish a diagnosis of osteoporosis or assess its severity in the context of general clinical care, and (d) monitor the efficacy of treatment interventions or the natural course of disease.

  9. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  10. Measurement of fluoride in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrision, J.E.; Hancock, R.; McNeill, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The fluorine concentration in bone biopsy samples was measured by neutron activation analysis. The fluorine content was expressed in terms of the calcium content. Samples were irradiated in a reactor to induce the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reactions and after rapid transport from the reactor the resulting activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Reproducibility was better than 10% for the F/Ca ratio. The detection limit for F is 50 μg. This nondestructive technique will be used to assess the effect of fluoride therapy on bone metabolism of patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. (author)

  11. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presents a complex behaviour involving heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties. Moreover, bone is a living tissue; therefore, its microstructure and mechanical .... It is familiar in the consumer market as a simple instrument for estimating body fat. Due to its benefits and features, it is used for calculating muscle ...

  12. Aneurysmal bone cysts treated by curettage, cryotherapy and bone grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, HWB; Veth, RPH; Pruszczynski, M; Lemmens, JAM; Molenaar, WM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    We treated 26 patients with 27 aneurysmal bone cysts by curettage and cryotherapy and evaluated local tumour control. complications and functional outcome. The mean follow-up time was 37 months (19 to 154), There was local recurrence in one patient. Two patients developed deep wound infections and

  13. Causes of Bone Injuries and Patronage of Traditional Bone Setters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study as an opinion survey identified Road Traffic Accidents (RTA), falling from height and gunshots/matchets as the causes of bone injuries in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Injuries sustained include fracture and dislocation. Structured Interview Schedule (SIS) and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) were the instruments used to ...

  14. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the bone and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Mikou, Asmaa; Inrhaoun, Hanane; Ennouhi, Amine; Gamra, Lamiae; Errihani, Hassan

    2009-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common carcinoma in the community, but the incidence of metastatic events is exceedingly low. The few reported cases most often appear in regional nodes or the lungs, and patients usually exhibit multiple concurrent organs of spread at the time of diagnosis. We report a case of primary BCC located on the left forehead of a 48-year-old man, which metastasized exclusively to the bone and bone marrow, associated with hematologic disorders. A short review of the literature is included. Pathologic examination of the tumor located on the left forehead showed BCC. The patient underwent two surgical excisions because of local recurrence. Three years later, the patient developed a bicytopenia (anemia and thrombocytopenia). The bone marrow biopsy revealed metastasis of BCC. There were no abnormal findings in the other routine laboratory tests and radiologic investigations, except for the bone scan which showed multifocal skeletal metastases. The patient received two cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) before he died as a result of hemorrhagic complications and progressive disease. Metastasis of BCC is a very rare condition that should not be overlooked. The prognosis remains very poor. We emphasize the importance of long-term follow-up of such patients.

  15. Vitamin D - Prevalence, mortality and bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the pain syndrome in patients with vitamin D deficiency and bone pain. Furtherme, development of a non-cancer animal model of bone pain, was carried out, to enable investigations of bone pain threshold, bone microenvironment and endocrinology parameters involved in this debilitating disease. A unique...... deficiency. These subjects might be prone to bone pain. Characterization and quantification of bone pain in patients suffering from vitamin D deficiency is being investigated and might provide clues to the nature of bone pain and assist in evaluating the results from the animal model. So far the study...... of pain questionnaires and quantified by the use of pressure algometry. The pain will decrease by normalization of vitamin D. To invent an animal model for clinical osteomalacic bone pain, fifty seven-month-old, female Spraque-Dawley rats were maintained four months on synthetic diets containing...

  16. Bone and Joint Problems Associated with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone metabolism (diabetic osteodystrophy): Time for recognition. Osteoporosis International. 2016;27:1931. Hull B, et al. Diabetes and bone. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2016;351:356. What people with diabetes need ...

  17. B vitamins, homocysteine and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratoni, Valentina; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-03-30

    Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors involved in the development and maintenance of good bone health. Calcium and Vitamin D have confirmed and established roles in the maintenance of proper bone health. However, other nutritional factors could also be implicated. This review will explore the emerging evidence of the supporting role of certain B Vitamins as modifiable factors associated with bone health. Individuals with high levels of homocysteine (hcy) exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD), alteration in microarchitecture and increased bone fragility. The pathophysiology caused by high serum homocysteine is not completely clear regarding fractures, but it may involve factors, such as bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone blood flow and collagen cross-linking. It is uncertain whether supplementation with B Vitamins, such as folate, Vitamin B1, and Vitamin B6, could decrease hip fracture incidence, but the results of further clinical trials should be awaited before a conclusion is drawn.

  18. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing features ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are given ...

  19. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe May 2014 Print this issue Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last En español Send ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  20. Augmentation of bone healing in delayed and atrophic nonunion of fractures of long bones by partially decalcified bone allograft (decal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The partially decalcified bone allograft is an effective modality for augmentation of bone healing without complication associated with autograft like donor site morbidity, increased blood loss and increase in the surgical time.

  1. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use

  2. Current treatment approach of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez Cabrera, Erasmo Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The document deals with the cancer situation in Cuba; the factors that produce and causes destruction of bone metastases. It also describes osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions; and details the different treatments for bone metastases

  3. Current understanding of osteoconduction in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C N; Lane, J M

    1998-10-01

    Bone tissue is osteoconductive. In particular, cancellous bone with its porous and highly interconnected trabecular architecture allows easy ingrowth of surrounding tissues. When placed in an osseous environment, living tissue for the host bed migrates into the cancellous structure, which results in new bone formation and incorporation of that structure. This is the process of osteoconduction. The mineral and collagenous components of bone are osteoconductive. Osteoconduction also is observed in fabricated materials that have porosity similar to that of bone structure. Corallin ceramics, hydroxyapatite beads, and combinations of hydroxyapatite and collagen all have osteoconductive properties, and porous metals and biodegradable polymers. Osteoconduction appears to be optimized in devices that mimic not only bone structure, but also bone chemistry. The incorporation of calcium salts and collagen by osteoconductive matrices leads to more complete ingrowth with new bone formation.

  4. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  5. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    ... conduction transmission, and the use of the bone conduction pathway for communication. Bone conduction for the transmission of communication is effective and feasible for Soldiers because it provides a means of providing radio communication in combination with hearing protection devices.

  6. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  7. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  8. Isolated lytic bone lesion in tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor C Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of lytic bone lesions include benign, malignant, and infectious processes. Lytic lesions due to tuberculosis (TB may closely mimic those due to tumors such as bone cyst, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, and metastatic bone disease radiologically. Histopathology and culture help in definitive diagnosis and prompt management. We describe an immunocompetent patient with isolated lytic bone lesion in the distal part of ulna due to TB to make the readers aware of such unusual presentations of TB.

  9. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Kazuyuki, Takahashi

    2017-06-06

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  10. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  11. Determinants of bone mass and bone geometry in adolescent and young adult women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Hoorneman, G.; Väänänen, K.; Charles, P.; Ando, S.; Maggiolini, M.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Deloraine, A.; Heikkinen, J.; Juvin, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    2000-01-01

    Bone mass and bone geometry are considered to have independent effects on bone strength. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on bone mass and geometry in young female populations and how they are influenced by body size and lifestyle factors. In a cross-sectional, observational study in six

  12. Printing bone : the application of 3D fiber deposition for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Bone chips are used by orthopaedic surgeons for treating spinal trauma and to augment large bone defects. A potential alternative to autologous bone is regeneration of bone tissue in the lab by developing hybrid implants consisting of osteogenic (stem) cells seeded on supportive matrices.

  13. Joint cartilage thickness and automated determination of bone age and bone health in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twilt, Marinka; Pradsgaard, Dan; Spannow, Anne Helene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BoneXpert is an automated method to calculate bone maturation and bone health index (BHI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Cartilage thickness can also be seen as an indicator for bone health and arthritis damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate...

  14. Pathological Bones Fragility: Drug Treatment of Bone Tissue and Surgical Correction of Bones Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Guk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a current approach to treatment of patients with orthopaedic pathology associated with imperfect osteogenesis as well as a promising trend of drug therapy of bone tissue and surgical treatment of pathological fractures and axial deformation of long bones. The authors analyzed the results of treatment of 22 patients with imperfect osteogenesis using a new method consisted of pathogenetic antiosteoporosis therapy and «growing» telescope-type intramedullary constructions. The effectiveness and potential of the mentioned method for treatment and prevention have been determined and approved through objective evidence.

  15. Bone fractures: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L; Sirichai, P

    2016-03-01

    Severe dental traumatic injuries often involve the supporting bone and soft tissues. This article outlines the current concepts in the management of dentoalveolar fractures for the general dental practitioner with case reports to illustrate management principles and techniques. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  17. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  18. Chemistry of Bone Remodeling Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Mařík, I.; Klika, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, 1+2 (2005), s. 51-61 ISSN 1212-4575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/03/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bone remodelling * RANKL/RANK/OPG chain * mechanical stimuli Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Chondroblastoma of the sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrocíni, Tomas Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondroblastoma is an uncommon cartilaginous benign neoplasm, highly destructive, which specifically appears in the epiphysis of long bones in young patients. Its occurrence is extremely rare in the cranial base, normally occurring in the temporal bone. Objective: To describe a rare case in a patient presenting with a sphenoid bone chondroblastoma that invaded the middle cranial cavity, submitted to a successful surgical resection, without recurrence after 2 years. Case Report: W.J.S, 37 years old, male, forwarded to the otorhinolaryngology service with persistent and strong otalgia for 3 months. He had normal otoscopy and without visible tumorations. The computerized tomography confirmed tumor mass in the left infra-temporal cavity, invading the middle cranial cavity. The biopsy suggested giant cells tumor. After wide resection by frontal approach via orbitozygomatic osteotomy. During the surgery, we confirmed tomographic statements and didn't find temporal bone involvement. The histopathological exam confirmed chondroblastoma. After 18 months after the surgery, he doesn't present with complaints, without motor, sensitive deficits or of cranial nerves and without recurrence tomographic signals. Conclusion: The importance of differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma is remarkable in the cranial base lesions and its therapeutic approach, whose objective must always be the major possible resection with the maximum function conservation.

  20. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient ... a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is ...

  2. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized usin...

  3. Bone Metabolism after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elaine W.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277

  4. Different approaches to bone densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, I; Blake, G M

    2000-12-01

    From 1990 to 2000, several effective new treatments were introduced for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures; these treatments were proven effective in large, international, clinical trials. At the same time, there was rapid technologic innovation, with the introduction of new radiologic methods for the noninvasive assessment of patients' bone density status. These developments led to the publication of guidelines for the clinical use of bone densitometry that include criteria for the referral of patients for investigation as well as recommendations for intervention thresholds for the initiation of preventive treatment of osteoporosis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning of the spine and hip remains the technique of choice for bone densitometry studies, although there is now a wider appreciation of the need for smaller, cheaper devices for scanning the peripheral skeleton if the millions of women most at risk of a fragility fracture are to be identified and treated. This article reviews these developments, concentrating in particular on the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of equipment available for performing bone densitometry investigations, the guidelines for the referral of patients, and the principles for the interpretation of the scan findings.

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  6. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harcke, H.T. (Alfred I. du Pont Institute, Wilmington, DE (USA))

    1983-12-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing.

  7. Glucocorticoids, bone and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S; Seibel, Markus J; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to excessive levels of endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids is associated with serious clinical features including altered body composition and the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. It had been assumed that these adverse effects were mediated by direct effects of glucocorticoids on tissues such as adipose or liver. Recent studies have however indicated that these effects are, at least in part, mediated through the actions of glucocorticoids on bone and specifically the osteoblast. In mice, targeted abrogation of glucocorticoid signalling in osteoblasts significantly attenuated the changes in body composition and systemic fuel metabolism seen during glucocorticoid treatment. Heterotopic expression of osteocalcin in the liver of normal mice was also able to protect against the metabolic changes induced by glucocorticoids indicating that osteocalcin was the likely factor connecting bone osteoblasts to systemic fuel metabolism. Studies are now needed in humans to determine the extent to which glucocorticoid induced changes in body composition and systemic fuel metabolism are mediated through bone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Bone X-ray ( ...

  9. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  11. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  12. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  13. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing [fr

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x- ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  16. Eldercare at Home: Bone Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stones. Be sure to ask your healthcare professional about taking calcium supplements before you start. Smoking and alcohol. If possible, the older person should give up smoking which weakens bones. An occasional glass of wine or a beer with dinner is fine for ...

  17. BeagleBone media center

    CERN Document Server

    Lewin, David

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional, this book will get you fully equipped to resolve the most commonly occurring media-related challenges. If you want to expand your horizons beyond lighting an LED and push the limits of your board, this is just the book for you. Working knowledge of BeagleBone is assumed.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest way for a ...

  19. Rhabdomyolysis detected by bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis involves necrosis of skeletal muscle and may arise from multiple conditions both traumatic and nontraumatic. Bone imaging with Technetium-99m phosphates is a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and may be used to visualize the extent of rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. A case of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis is presented

  20. Rhabdomyolysis detected by bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis involves necrosis of skeletal muscle and may arise from multiple conditions both traumatic and nontraumatic. Bone imaging with Technetium-99m phosphates is a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and may be used to visualize the extent of rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. A case of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis is presented.

  1. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, H.T.; Ru, J.A. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed

  2. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of lead residues among avian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Braune, B.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 μg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 μg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. - Variability in Pb concentrations among avian bones

  4. Current bone substitutes for implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiro; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2017-09-15

    Alveolar ridge augmentation is essential for success in implant therapy and depends on the biological performance of bone graft materials. This literature review aims to comprehensively explain the clinically relevant capabilities and limitations of currently available bone substitutes for bone augmentation in light of biomaterial science. The biological performance of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes was categorized according to space-making capability, biocompatibility, bioabsorption, and volume maintenance over time. Each category was reviewed based on clinical studies, preclinical animal studies, and in vitro studies. Currently available bone substitutes provide only osteoconduction as a scaffold but not osteoinduction. Particle size, sensitivity to enzymatic or chemical dissolution, and mechanical properties affect the space-making capability of bone substitutes. The nature of collagen fibers, particulate size, and release of calcium ions influence the biocompatibility of bone substitutes. Bioabsorption of bone substitutes is determined by water solubility (chemical composition) and acid resistance (integrity of apatite structure). Bioabsorption of remnant bone substitute material and volume maintenance of the augmented bone are inversely related. It is necessary to improve the biocompatibility of currently available bone substitutes and to strike an appropriate balance between bioabsorption and volume maintenance to achieve ideal bone remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities incident... convalescence, and progress of recovery with development of permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone...

  6. Low bone turnover phenotype in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Petersen, Janne; Ravn, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Background:Patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at risk of having low bone mass and low-energy fractures.Methods:We characterised bone metabolism by both bone formation and resorption markers in blood in a RTT population of 61 girls and women and 122 well-matched healthy controls. Levels of N...

  7. Bone metastasis risk factors in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227

  8. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    Bone turnover is a highly regulated process, where bone resorption in the normal healthy individual always is followed by bone formation in a manner referred to as coupling. Patients with osteopetrosis caused by defective acidification of the resorption lacuna have severely decreased resorption......, in face of normal or even increased bone formation. This suggests that osteoclasts, not their resorptive activity, are important for sustaining bone formation. To investigate whether osteoclasts mediate control of bone formation by production of bone anabolic signals, we collected conditioned media (CM...

  9. Early Diagnosis of Avascular Necrosis of Bone Following Renal Transplantation By Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Ho; Kim, Han Su; Ihn, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Myung Jae

    1982-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of bone has become a well-recognized complication of renal transplantation. While preexisting metabolic bone disease, especially hyperparathyroidism, and metabolic disturbances induced by steroids have been implicated as etiological factors, the pathogenesis is controversial. The diagnosis of avascular necrosis of bone had been based on a history of joint pain and radiographic demonstration of bone necrosis. Recently the bone scan using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate is helpful in determining the early stage of bone necrosis. We report two cases of avascular necrosis of femur head, of which diagnosis was made by the bone scan using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate.

  10. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  11. Imatimid-induced bone marrow necrosis detected on MRI examination and mimicking bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Pechoux, C. le; Cioffi, A.; Domont, J.; Cesne, A. le [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2007-09-15

    Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In contrast to liver and/or abdominal involvement, bone metastases are an uncommon event in GIST. We report here two patients with metastatic GIST who developed pelvic bone marrow focal lesions visible on MRI examinations, while Imatinib dramatically improved other tumor sites. A biopsy in one patient diagnosed bone marrow necrosis. The other patient had a favorable follow-up over several years, without bone metastases. Focal bone marrow abnormalities, detected on MRI examinations and mimicking bone metastases in patients who were otherwise responding, should be considered as probable bone marrow necrosis. (orig.)

  12. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  13. Identifying A Molecular Phenotype for Bone Marrow Stromal Cells With In Vivo Bone Forming Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kenneth H; Frederiksen, Casper M; Burns, Jorge S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The ability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts is being exploited in cell-based therapy for repair of bone defects. However, the phenotype of ex vivo cultured BMSCs predicting their bone forming capacity is not known. Thus, we employed DNA microarrays...... comparing two human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) populations: one is capable of in vivo heterotopic bone formation (hBMSC-TERT(+Bone)) and the other is not (hBMSC-TERT(-Bone)). Compared to hBMSC-TERT(-Bone), the hBMSC-TERT(+Bone) cells had an increased over-representation of extracellular matrix genes...... (17% versus 5%) and a larger percentage of genes with predicted SP3 transcription factor binding sites in their promoter region (21% versus 8%). On the other hand, hBMSC-TERT(-Bone) cells expressed a larger number of immune-response related genes (26% versus 8%). In order to test for the predictive...

  14. 3D artificial bones for bone repair prepared by computed tomography-guided fused deposition modeling for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Ye, Xiaojian; Wei, Daixu; Zhong, Jian; Chen, Yuyun; Xu, Guohua; He, Dannong

    2014-09-10

    The medical community has expressed significant interest in the development of new types of artificial bones that mimic natural bones. In this study, computed tomography (CT)-guided fused deposition modeling (FDM) was employed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL 3D artificial bones to mimic natural goat femurs. The in vitro mechanical properties, in vitro cell biocompatibility, and in vivo performance of the artificial bones in a long load-bearing goat femur bone segmental defect model were studied. All of the results indicate that CT-guided FDM is a simple, convenient, relatively low-cost method that is suitable for fabricating natural bonelike artificial bones. Moreover, PCL/HA 3D artificial bones prepared by CT-guided FDM have more close mechanics to natural bone, good in vitro cell biocompatibility, biodegradation ability, and appropriate in vivo new bone formation ability. Therefore, PCL/HA 3D artificial bones could be potentially be of use in the treatment of patients with clinical bone defects.

  15. [Metabolic status and bone mineral density in patients with pseudarthrosis of long bones in hyperhomocysteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezsmertnyĭ, Iu O

    2013-06-01

    In article described research of the metabolic status and bone mineral density in 153 patients with with pseudarthrosis of long bones, in individuals with consolidated fractures and healthy people. The violations of reparative osteogenesis at hyperhomocysteinemia are accompanied by disturbances of the functional state of bone tissue, inhibition of biosynthetic and increased destruction processes, reduced bone mineral density in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The degree and direction of change of bone depends on the type of violation of reparative osteogenesis.

  16. Osseointegration of dental implants placed into canine mandibular bone regenerated by bone transport distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E; Zakhary, Ibrahim; Nagy, William W; Dechow, Paul C; Opperman, Lynne A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the osseointegration of dental implants placed in canine mandibular bone and in regenerated bone produced by bone transport distraction osteogenesis. Ten adult foxhounds were divided into two groups of five animals each. In all animals, a 40-mm defect was created on one side of the mandible. A bone transport reconstruction plate was used to stabilize the mandible and regenerate bone. Six weeks after the distraction period was finished, dental implants were placed in regenerated and native mandibular bone. The animals were sacrificed after another 6 and 12 weeks of healing, respectively. Microcomputed tomographic evaluation showed that bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was greater at the coronal regions of the implants and decreased toward the apical regions. There was an increase in BV/TV around implants placed in regenerated bone from 6 to 12 weeks of healing. The regenerated group showed lower BV/TV at 6 weeks versus implants placed in native bone but had reached the same levels as the native bone at 12 weeks. Histology showed that direct bone-to-implant contact was greater for implants placed in native bone than for those placed in regenerated bone for both time periods. The removal torque of the implants placed in native bone was higher at 6 weeks than that of implants placed in regenerated bone. At 12 weeks, there were no statistically significant differences in removal torque between the groups. Bone was successfully regenerated in all animals. The implants placed entirely in regenerated bone were osseointegrated. The regenerated bone around the implants became denser over time. This finding suggests that implants placed entirely in regenerated bone will be as well integrated as implants in native mandibular bone by 12 weeks after placement.

  17. The usefulness of bone marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Rikushi

    1985-01-01

    A combination study of bone and bone marrow scintigraphy was performed on 25 pts with prostatic cancer, and, in order to study the usefulness in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, the findings of 2 scintigraphies were compared with those of skeletal roentgenography. Out of the 18 cases with the hot spots of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in the lower lumbar spine or/and the pelvic bone, 8 showed normal bone marrow scintigrams which were eventually proved to have degenerative changes of the spine accompanied by aging. On the other hand, nine cases of the ten, who had accumulation defects on the bone marrow scintigrams were finally proved having bone metastasis. All six cases with extensive bone metastases shown by bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP, demonstrated multiple accumulation defects on bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. In conclusion, bone marrow scintigraphy was thought to be helpful in distinguishing the metastatic lesions from the benign spinal degenerative changes in the cases with suspicions bone involvement and in evaluating equivocal lesions in the pelvis. Therefore, it was shown that, in the detection and diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer, bone scintigraphy alone was insufficient, and that combination with bone marrow scintigraphy was found to be useful. (author)

  18. [New methods for the evaluation of bone quality. Bone anabolic agents and bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    Teriparatide(TPTD)products that can be used clinically in Japan include a daily subcutaneous injection form produced by genetic engineering and a weekly subcutaneous injectable TPTD acetate form produced by chemical synthesis. Published reports indicate that both forms exhibit excellent antifracture efficacy, and as the only anabolic agents that promote osteogenesis, TPTD products now occupy a prominent position. However, the two forms differ considerably, not only in frequency of administration, but also in mechanism of action. The daily form stimulates osteogenesis and accompanying resorption through more radical high bone turnover, and early in the course of treatment, intracortical porosity and apatite crystallization decrease, while immature collagen crosslinking increases. However, because daily formulations also produce an increase in cortical surface area or cortical thickness, the effects are counterbalanced, and bone strength is maintained. In contrast, the weekly form prioritizes osteogenesis, and by concurrently lowering turnover below pretreatment levels, improves trabecular bone mass and structure, and enhances strength without leading to cortical porosity and other undesirable phenomena. Abaloparatide, a PTHrP(1-34)analog that is homologous with the biologically active site of PTH drugs, is currently under development, and we eagerly anticipate further clarification of the mechanism of action of each formulation on bone.

  19. Chondromyxoid bone fibroma in combination with angiolipoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, J.; Krajcovic, L.

    1987-01-01

    A case is demonstrated combined chondromyxoid bone fibroma with angiolipoma with an unusual angiographic picture of this benign bone lesion which expresses signs of malignancy and does not correspond to the clinical course of the disease nor does it correspond to histopathological diagnosis. The authors also show that despite the characteristic X-ray picture of this lesion which generally indicates benign character of the process, it is necessary to differentiate it from other bening processes in which enchondromas should be considered first followed by non-ossifying fibromas, aneurysmatic bone cysts, solitary primary bone cysts, giant-cellular bone tumors, bening osteoblastomas and fibrous dysplasias. 7 figs., 30 refs

  20. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  1. The osteoimmunology of alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    The mineralized structure of bone undergoes constant remodeling by the balanced actions of bone-producing osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). Physiologic bone remodeling occurs in response to the body's need to respond to changes in electrolyte levels, or mechanical forces on bone. There are many pathological conditions, however, that cause an imbalance between bone production and resorption due to excessive OCL action that results in net bone loss. Situations involving chronic or acute inflammation are often associated with net bone loss, and research into understanding the mechanisms regulating this bone loss has led to the development of the field of osteoimmunology. It is now evident that the skeletal and immune systems are functionally linked and share common cells and signaling molecules. This review discusses the signaling system of immune cells and cytokines regulating aberrant OCL differentiation and activity. The role of these cells and cytokines in the bone loss occurring in periodontal disease (PD) (chronic inflammation) and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) (acute inflammation) is then described. The review finishes with an exploration of the emerging role of Notch signaling in the development of the immune cells and OCLs that are involved in osteoimmunological bone loss and the research into Notch signaling in OTM and PD.

  2. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  3. Biomaterial scaffolds for treating osteoporotic bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Healing fractures resulting from osteoporosis or cancer remains a significant clinical challenge. In these populations, healing is often impaired not only due to age and disease, but also by other therapeutic interventions such as radiation, steroids, and chemotherapy. Despite substantial improvements in the treatment of osteoporosis over the few decades, osteoporotic fractures are still a major clinical challenge in the elderly population due to impaired healing. Similar fractures with impaired healing are also prevalent in cancer patients, especially those with tumor growing in bone. Treatment options for cancer patients are further complicated by the fact that bone anabolic therapies are contraindicated in patients with tumors. Therefore, many patients undergo surgery to repair the fracture, and bone grafts are often used to stabilize orthopaedic implants and provide a scaffold for ingrowth of new bone. Both synthetic and naturally occurring biomaterials have been investigated as bone grafts for repair of osteoporotic fractures, including calcium phosphate bone cements, resorbable polymers, and allograft or autograft bone. In order to re-establish normal bone repair, bone grafts have been augmented with anabolic agents, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP2). These developing approaches to bone grafting are anticipated to improve the clinical management of osteoporotic and cancer-induced fractures. PMID:24458428

  4. Bone remodeling in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, U H

    2006-07-01

    Bone mass in the skeleton is dependent on the coordinated activities of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts in discrete bone multi-cellular units. Remodeling of bone in these units is important not only for maintaining bone mass, but also to repair microdamage, to prevent accumulation of too much old bone, and for mineral homeostasis. The activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are controlled by a variety of hormones and cytokines, as well as by mechanical loading. Most importantly, sex hormones are very crucial for keeping bone mass in balance, and the lack of either estrogen or testosterone leads to decreased bone mass and increased risk for osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteoporotic fractures is increasing dramatically in the Western part of the world and is a major health problem in many countries. In the present review, the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling bone remodeling and the influence of sex hormones on these processes are summarized. In a separate paper in this issue, the pathogenesis of post-menopausal osteoporosis will be compared with that of inflammation-induced bone remodeling, including the evidence for and against the hypothesis that concomitant post-menopausal osteoporotic disease influences the progression of periodontal disease.

  5. Endopelvic Approach for Iliac Crest Bone Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Sebastien; Gauthe, Remi; Du Pouget, Laure; Gille, Olivier; Vital, Jean-Marc; Ould-Slimane, Mourad

    2017-10-01

    The anterior approach to lumbar spine surgery has grown in popularity in the past few years; spinal fusion of the last 2 lumbar levels is often required. Although alternatives to bone grafting are available, including recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 or bone substitutes, only cancellous autologous bone has all the required factors for bone growth. To avoid the use of bone substitutes, remote iliac crest bone harvesting remains the gold standard. However, this technique may lead to some unfavorable outcomes. The patient was a 46-year-old man with severe back and left leg pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an inflammatory discopathy of L5-S1 associated with a left posterior lateral herniated disc. Conservative treatment failed, and surgical treatment of the lumbar disk disease and the herniated disc was scheduled. A novel iliac crest bone harvesting method was performed during the retroperitoneal approach to the anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. There were no adverse outcomes related to the bone donor site. This is the first in vivo report of endopelvic iliac crest bone harvesting. This technique allows bone graft harvesting to be performed with the same retroperitoneal approach used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion. It avoids many common complications associated with the remote approach to the iliac crest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating disorders and bone metabolism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lauren; Micali, Nadia; Misra, Madhusmita

    2017-08-01

    Eating Disorders are psychiatric disorders associated with a high risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Low BMD is a consequence of undernutrition, changes in body composition, and hormonal alterations. This review summarizes recent findings regarding novel strategies for assessing bone outcomes in patients with eating disorders, factors contributing to altered bone metabolism, and possible therapeutic strategies. Emerging research in this field suggests that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa results in lower BMD compared to controls. To date studies of bone structure, and all randomized controlled trials examining the impact of various therapies on bone outcomes in anorexia nervosa, have focused on adolescent girls and women. We discuss the impact of anorexia nervosa on bone structure, and associations of resting energy expenditure, marrow adipose tissue (including the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat), and cold activated brown adipose tissue with BMD and bone structure. Promising strategies for treatment include physiological estrogen replacement (rather than oral contraceptives) in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa, and bisphosphonates, as well as teriparatide, in adult women with anorexia nervosa. Recent data on (i) BMD and bone structure in adolescent girls and women with eating disorders, (ii) factors that contribute to altered bone metabolism, and (iii) randomized controlled trials reporting positive effects of physiologic estrogen replacement, bisphosphonates and teriparatide on bone health, provide us with a greater understanding of the impact of eating disorders on bone and novel management strategies.

  7. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  8. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells can rescue osteogenic capacity of devitalized autologous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Morishita, Toru; Dohi, Yoshiko; Tadokoro, Mika; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takakura, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    In clinical cases, many orthopaedists have been troubled with bone fragility, such as fractures after devitalization therapy for bone tumour, pathological fractures and metastatic tumours. The aim of this study was to determine whether loss of osteogenic capacity of devitalized autologous bones can be rescued using cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. A devitalized bone model was produced from rat femur by irradiation and three groups were prepared: intact bone, irradiated bone and irradiated bone combined with cultured mesenchymal cells. Each bone was transplanted subcutaneously into a syngeneic rat. At 2 or 4 weeks after transplantation, biochemical analyses [alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression] and histological measurement were performed. Moreover, we verified the origin of newly formed bone, using the sex-determining region Y (sry) gene as a marker to distinguish between donor and recipient. In both intact bone and irradiated bone with mesenchymal cells, ALP activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression were detected and living osteoblasts together with newly formed bone were clearly seen histologically. Furthermore, analysis of the origin of de novo formed bone indicated that newly formed bone in irradiated bone with mesenchymal cells was derived from cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. These results proved that the osteogenic capacity of devitalized autologous bone can be rescued using tissue-engineering techniques. This procedure should contribute to various clinical treatments, such as local metastatic tumours, pathological fracture after devitalization therapy and reconstruction after wide-margin tumour resection. The benefits would be applicable to all types of devitalized bone. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A short account of metastatic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmer Johan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In adults, bone is the preferential target site for metastases from primary cancers of prostate, breast, lungs and thyroid. The tendency of these cancers to metastasize to bone is determined by the anatomical distribution of the blood vessels, by the genetic profile of the cancer cells and by the biological characteristics of the bone microenvironment that favour the growth of metastatic cells of certain cancers. Metastases to bone may have either an osteolytic or an ostoblastic phenotype. The interaction in the bone microenvironment between biological factors secreted by metastatic cells, and by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and the osteolytic and osteoblastic factors released from the organic matrix mediate a vicious cycle characterized by metastatic growth and by ongoing progressive bone destruction. This interaction determines the phenotype of the metastatic bone disease.

  10. MR imaging of normal bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author)

  11. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. (author)

  12. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, H.G.; Bartl, R.; Koischwitz, D.; Rodermund, O.E.

    1982-12-01

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatory granulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequently occurring bone lesions (half of all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy.

  13. Magnetic resonance microscopy of osteoporotic bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Renato; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Jellúš, Vladimír; Cova, Maria; Pozzi-Mucelli, Roberto S.; Vittur, Franco

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) may be very useful in the ex vivo study of osteoporosis as non destructive technique able to provide three dimensional information of the bone architecture. However, the trabecular width appears larger in conventional MR images, as the susceptibility effect at the bone-marrow interface causes signal dephasing. Such an effect can be minimized if the echo-time (TE) or voxel size are reduced. The purpose of our research was the development of new MRM techniques that have a potential role in the characterization of trabecular bone architecture. In this study we describe the use of short-TE projection reconstruction MRM for the study of normal and osteoporotic bone explants. This method promises to be more accurate than conventional MRM in the analysis of trabecular bone. In vivo projection reconstruction MR imaging could be applied to evaluate bone architecture and bone quality evolution after space flight exposure. .

  14. Findings of skin and bones in mastocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohner, H.G.; Bartl, R.; Koischwitz, D.; Rodermund, O.E.

    1982-01-01

    The syndrome of mastocytosis can include isolated urticaria pigmentosa, systemic mastocytosis, or the extremely rare form of mast cell leucemia. Our investigations of many patients have shown more frequently than earlier suspected, that the mastocytosis is a systemic disease. The frequency of attacked bone marrow is noteworthy. Because of the inflammatorygranulomatous manifestation in bone marrow, considerations of the pathogenesis of an immune and reactive event are taken into account. The mast cell granulomas are mostly found in the endosteal region, which is the reason for frequenctly occurring bone lesions (half on all patients show bone lesions). The bone changes can develop generalized (osteoporosis-osteosclerosis) or localized (osteolytic-osteosclerotic foci). In clinical work bone biopsies and skeletal radiology are supplementing each other: bone biopsy and skin biopsy give the first diagnosis of mastocytosis and reveal the systemic disease; X-ray pictures give information of shape and dimension of the induced osteopathy. (orig.)

  15. Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim; Kristensen, Helene Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing...... these lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined...... physiological status. Their prevalence correlated with decreased trabecular bone volume and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces in postmenopausal osteoporosis. They were, however, virtually absent in primary hyperparathyroidism, in which the transition between bone resorption and formation occurs optimally...

  16. Bone scintigraphy in lesions of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Wasilewski, A.; Deitmer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The value of 3-phase-scintigraphy in bone lesions of the skull with a new seeking agent 99mTc-2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD) is studied. A high soft tissue-bone-ratio of DPD is emphasized. For this reason DPD is used for bone scintigraphy of the skull, because the mass of soft tissue in relation to bone is high and a higher clearance improves the interpretation of the images of the first two phases. An increased tracer uptake is found for skeletal neoplasms (malignant and benign lesions) and for acute osteomyelitis. By contrast, the chronic inflammatory bone lesions showed normal tracer uptake. This new bone seeking agent allows to localize and differentiate tumorous or acute inflammatory lesions and chronic inflammatory bone lesions of the skull

  17. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  18. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  19. Bioactivity And Bone Formation In Silicon-Substituted Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulvan Ozad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity and successful bone formation in silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite bone grafts were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Areas of bone formation have been detected in scanning electron microscopy; and, arranged lamellar collagen has been observed. 20.8% average carbon content rise has been detected between bone graft and the produced bone; and, this has been confirmed to be a gradual increase throughout the interphase. Obvious bone formation and maturation were observed in the samples. Carbon content gradually increased from bone graft to the bone formed, confirming formation of new bone and dissociation of silicon-substituted bone graft.

  20. A Bone-Thickness Map as a Guide for Bone-Anchored Port Implantation Surgery in the Temporal Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Jérémie; Arnold, Andreas; Weisstanner, Christian; Caversaccio, Marco; Stieger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    The bone-anchored port (BAP) is an investigational implant, which is intended to be fixed on the temporal bone and provide vascular access. There are a number of implants taking advantage of the stability and available room in the temporal bone. These devices range from implantable hearing aids to percutaneous ports. During temporal bone surgery, injuring critical anatomical structures must be avoided. Several methods for computer-assisted temporal bone surgery are reported, which typically add an additional procedure for the patient. We propose a surgical guide in the form of a bone-thickness map displaying anatomical landmarks that can be used for planning of the surgery, and for the intra-operative decision of the implant’s location. The retro-auricular region of the temporal and parietal bone was marked on cone-beam computed tomography scans and tridimensional surfaces displaying the bone thickness were created from this space. We compared this method using a thickness map (n = 10) with conventional surgery without assistance (n = 5) in isolated human anatomical whole head specimens. The use of the thickness map reduced the rate of Dura Mater exposition from 100% to 20% and suppressed sigmoid sinus exposures. The study shows that a bone-thickness map can be used as a low-complexity method to improve patient’s safety during BAP surgery in the temporal bone. PMID:28788390

  1. [Effect of SSRIs on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, H; Bahadori, S; Léger, J; Carel, J-C; Purper Ouakil, D

    2014-02-01

    SSRIs have been shown to affect bone health in adults, but this has been poorly studied in children. Given the frequency of SSRI prescription in children and adolescents, it is crucial to evaluate the impact of SSRIs on bone growth because the bone mass attained early in life is the most important predictor of a normal bone constitution. Experimental studies have demonstrated a direct functional role of serotonin in bone metabolism, independently of hyperprolactinemia or growth hormone levels. We have reviewed the literature on serotonin and bone metabolism, including experimental studies, clinical studies in adults as well as in the pediatric population. Experimental studies have shown that 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is expressed in all kind of bone cells and is highly specific of the 5-HT recapture. 5-HTT inhibition by the SSRIs in these cells affects their function in vitro. Even though a few studies have suggested exposure to SSRIs could be beneficial by an anabolic effect on the trabecular bone, more concluding studies have demonstrated that SSRIs negatively affect bone growth, resulting in a specific bone phenotype including a reduction in bone mass, an altered bone architecture, and decreased mechanical properties. This phenotype is most probably the consequence of a decrease in bone formation, rather than an increase in bone resorption and is a direct and dose-dependent effect. However, many aspects of this bone effect of 5-HTT inhibition need to be further clarified, including the signal ways for 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors, origins of 5-HT in bone, and methods to isolate the inhibitory effect of 5-HTT specifically on bone. Metabolic and neuroendocrine side effects have been documented in children and adolescents taking SSRIs but the specific and direct effect of these molecules on bone metabolism has been poorly studied in this population. In adults, clinical studies have shown an association between the use of SSRIs and bone demineralization as well as

  2. [Clinical application of biological bone carrier in repair of long bone defect of femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, L; Chen, J; Hu, X

    1997-05-01

    It is difficult to repair long defect of bone. Biological bone carrier (BBC) was one of the artifical bone substitutes. It was obtained from human or swine bone after a series of biochemical treatment. It had good histocompatibility. It had the same components and structure of bone, and its biological strength was samiliar to bone. In clinic, BBC was applied to repair of long defect of bone in two cases. The lengths of defect were 13 cm and 11 cm, respectively. After followed up for 2 to 3 years, it was found that the implanted BBC had been combined with the femur with new bone. It had the same metabolism and density as that of the normal bone.

  3. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment....... Interestingly, fractures occurring at both cancellous and cortical sites can be treated successfully, indicating that both osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fractures can be the target of PTH-induced healing. Finally, the data suggest that PTH partly prevents the delay in fracture healing caused by aging...

  4. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  5. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  6. Bone and marrow dose modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear medicine therapy is being used increasingly in the treatment of cancer (thyroid, leukemia/lymphoma with RIT, primary and secondary bone malignancies, and neuroblastomas). In all cases it is marrow toxicity that limits the amount of treatment that can be administered safely. Marrow dose calculations are more difficult than for many major organs because of the intricate association of bone and soft tissue elements. In RIT, there appears to be no consensus on how to calculate that dose accurately, or of individual patients ability to tolerate planned therapy. Available dose models are designed after an idealized average, healthy individual. Patient-specific methods are applied in evaluation of biokinetic data, and need to be developed for treatment of the physical data (dose conversion factors) as well: age, prior patient therapy, disease status. Contributors to marrow dose: electrons and photons

  7. Effect of intraoperative bone quality testing on bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Palarie, Victor; Nacu, Viorel; Krafft, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A novel diagnostic device (BoneProbe) for evaluating alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery has recently been developed. The underlying measurement principle is based on a compressive test of bone, which may subsequently affect bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants. Six implant sites each were created in the rear left tibia of four sheep and used for bone quality testing with the BoneProbe, while empty osteotomies and implants placed without testing served as controls. Maximum insertion torque and primary implant stability (Osstell) were determined additionally. After 5 and 20 weeks, the animals were sacrificed followed by histomorphometric and microradiographic analysis quantifying bone implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) as parameters. Statistical analysis was conducted applying one-sample t tests, two-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients (α = .05). Implants placed following application of the BoneProbe differed from the control treatments only in one case, where BIC was greater (P = .02) at the control implant after 20 weeks of healing. With the exception of the combinations of Osstell/BoneProbe measurement in trabecular bone (0.29) and Osstell/insertion torque (0.34), good correlations of all clinically conducted measurements were found. Based on the results obtained, it appears that intraoperative testing of bone quality applying the BoneProbe does not jeopardize bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants.

  8. Bone Repair and Military Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation...osseointegration/osseoinduction, this material has potential to be used for screw augmentation, total hip/knee joint replacement, and other orthopedic and dental ...silorane bone cement with commercial cement in a swine femoral implant model Kathleen V Kilway, Donna Pacicca, Rachel A Weiler, Elizabeth M. Menuey

  9. Benign bone-forming tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Staebler, A.; Steinborn, M.; Woertler, K.

    2001-01-01

    Benign bone-forming tumors include osteomas, enostomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. These lesions are often characterized by typical imaging findings on radiographs, CT and MR imaging studies. Radiologic findings and additional clinical information allow for a specific diagnosis in most cases. This review article emphasizes the radiological patterns of benign boneforming tumors as well as their epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics. In addition, minimally invasive interventional procedures for the therapy of osteoid osteoma are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  10. In vitro simulation of pathological bone conditions to predict clinical outcome of bone tissue engineered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Thuy Thi

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, the geriatric population of ≥65 years of age will increase to 51.5 million in 2020; 40% of white women and 13% of white men will be at risk for fragility fractures or fractures sustained under normal stress and loading conditions due to bone disease, leading to hospitalization and surgical treatment. Fracture management strategies can be divided into pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and non-unions. Compromised innate bone healing reactions of patients with bone diseases are exacerbated with protective bone therapy. Once these patients sustain a fracture, bone healing is a challenge, especially when fracture stabilization is unsuccessful. Traditional stabilizing screw and plate systems were designed with emphasis on bone mechanics rather than biology. Bone grafts are often used with fixation devices to provide skeletal continuity at the fracture gap. Current bone grafts include autologous bone tissue and donor bone tissue; however, the quality and quantity demanded by fragility fractures sustained by high-risk geriatric patients and patients with bone diseases are not met. Consequently, bone tissue engineering strategies are advancing towards functionalized bone substitutes to provide fracture reconstruction while effectively mediating bone healing in normal and diseased fracture environments. In order to target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should be tailored to allow bone regeneration and fracture stabilization with bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. The clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted

  11. Bone and motor organ diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    1992-01-01

    Osteosarcoma arising from X-ray radiation therapy has first been reported in the 1920s. The 1950-1965 ABCC-RERF Life Span Study using the sample population of approximately 76,000 persons have revealed no evidence of correlation between osteosarcoma and A-bomb radiation. There is a relative paucity of data supporting the statistical correlation between A-bomb radiation and osseous cancer. This paper deals with the correlation between A-bomb exposure and bone and motor organ diseases. In prenatally exposed children using the Nagasaki's sample (n=74) and the Hiroshima's sample (n=219), there was no difference in skeletal abnormalities between the exposed and control groups in both cities. In the ABCC-study using 264 A-bomb survivors, the incidence of osteoporosis was found to be high in women aged 50 years or older at the time of A-bombing who were exposed at 2,000 m or less from the hypocenter. The RERF Adult Health Study using approximately 14,000 persons have revealed no evidence of correlation between the incidence of lumbar vertebral bone fractures and radiation doses. There was no correlation between the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis and distance from the hypocenter in A-bomb survivors. Continuing studies are expected to confirm the delayed effects of A-bomb radiation on the bone and motor organs with aging in A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  12. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  13. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  14. Radioisotopic studies of bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ell, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Consideration is given to the study of bone diseases. The most used radionuclides in the skeletal investigation are analysed and a table of radiopharmaceuticals of localization in the skeleton is showed. Emphasis is given to the use of Strontium 85 and 87m, fluorine 18 and technetium 99m. The phosphate compounds labelled with Technetium 99m are studied in detail and the structures of these organic and inorganic compounds are given. A table with values of the blood clearance of those compounds is presented. The skeletal distribution of the phosphate compounds-sup(99m)Tc, as well as the abnormal scintigraphy of skeleton by means of them, are analysed. Referring to bone diseases, the benign and malignant ones are studied: a table is given of bone diseases with positive imaging to the skeleton scintigraphy in the former case and the main applications of this scintigraphy in the latter one. Emphasis is given, in all the cases, to the clinical applications of the method, with recommendations in each one. Scintigraphic imagings are presented referring to each item studied [pt

  15. [Bone-anchored auricular prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille, M; Homøe, P; Vesterhauge, S; Rixen, M; Bretlau, P

    1994-10-03

    During the period February 1989-September 1991, 15 patients with absent or defective pinna were treated with a bone-anchored auricular prosthesis at the ENT-department, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. These patients were followed up from the hospital records and by means of a questionnaire. Altogether 40 titanium implants have been inserted, of which one implant was found not to be integrated at the time of the second-stage surgery. Five patients underwent additional surgery, one patient because of non-integration of a screw, and four patients on account of soft-tissue reactions. From the questionnaire replies it appears that all patients found the cosmetic result and the technique concerning mounting of the prosthesis very satisfactory. Nearly half the patients found that the care of the skin around the abutments caused considerable problems. Three patients had experienced unintended losses of the prosthesis. In conclusion, treatment with a bone anchored auricular prosthesis has considerable advantages compared to treatment with a prosthesis attached by adhesive. Furthermore the use of a bone-anchored prosthesis should be considered a viable alternative to surgical reconstruction because of the outstanding aesthetic result and because the surgical procedure puts less strain on the patient. The disadvantage of the method is the lifelong daily care of the skin and the dependence on the health services.

  16. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  17. Sex Differences and Bone Metastases of Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancers: Do Bone Homing Cancers Favor Feminized Bone Marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Farach-Carson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ. Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a “feminization” of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males

  18. Sex Differences and Bone Metastases of Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancers: Do Bone Homing Cancers Favor Feminized Bone Marrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach-Carson, Mary C; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Nalty, Theresa; Satcher, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Sex-associated differences in bone metastasis formation from breast, lung, and prostate cancer exist in clinical studies, but have not been systematically reviewed. Differences in the bone marrow niche can be attributed to sexual dimorphism, to genetic variations that affect sex hormone levels, or to the direct effects of sex hormones, natural or exogenously delivered. This review describes the present understanding of sex-associated and sex hormone level differences in the marrow niche and in formation of bone metastasis during the transition of these three cancers from treatable disease to an often untreatable, lethal metastatic one. Our purpose is to provide insight into some underlying molecular mechanisms for hormonal influence in bone metastasis formation, and to the potential influence of sexual dimorphism, genetic differences affecting sex assignment, and sex hormone level differences on the bone niche and its favorability for metastasis formation. We reviewed publications in PubMed and EMBASE, including full length manuscripts, case reports, and clinical studies of relevance to our topic. We focused on bone metastasis formation in breast, lung, and prostate cancer because all three commonly present with bone metastases. Several clear observations emerged. For breast cancer bone metastasis formation, estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways indicate a role for ER beta (ERβ). Estrogen influences the bone microenvironment, creating and conditioning a favorable niche for colonization and breast cancer progression. For lung cancer, studies support the hypothesis that females have a more favorable bone microenvironment for metastasis formation. For prostate cancer, a decrease in the relative androgen to estrogen balance or a "feminization" of bone marrow favors bone metastasis formation, with a potentially important role for ERβ that may be similar to that in breast cancer. Long-term estrogen administration or androgen blockade in males may feminize the bone

  19. Mechanical and morphological properties of trabecular bone samples obtained from third metacarpal bones of cadavers of horses with a bone fragility syndrome and horses unaffected by that syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Jennifer E; Entwistle, Rachel C; Arens, Amanda M; Garcia, Tanya C; Christiansen, Blaine A; Fyhrie, David P; Stover, Susan M

    2012-11-01

    To determine morphological and mechanical properties of trabecular bone of horses with a bone fragility syndrome (BFS; including silicate-associated osteoporosis). Cylindrical trabecular bone samples from the distal aspects of cadaveric third metacarpal bones of 39 horses (19 horses with a BFS [BFS bone samples] and 20 horses without a BFS [control bone samples]). Bone samples were imaged via micro-CT for determination of bone volume fraction; apparent and mean mineralized bone densities; and trabecular number, thickness, and separation. Bone samples were compressed to failure for determination of apparent elastic modulus and stresses, strains, and strain energy densities for yield, ultimate, and failure loads. Effects of BFS and age of horses on variables were determined. BFS bone samples had 25% lower bone volume fraction, 28% lower apparent density, 18% lower trabecular number and thickness, and 16% greater trabecular separation versus control bone samples. The BFS bone samples had 22% lower apparent modulus and 32% to 33% lower stresses, 10% to 18% lower strains, and 41 % to 52% lower strain energy densities at yield, ultimate, and failure loads, compared with control bone samples. Differences between groups of bone samples were not detected for mean mineral density and trabecular anisotropy. Results suggested that horses with a BFS had osteopenia and compromised trabecular bone function, consistent with bone deformation and pathological fractures that develop in affected horses. Effects of this BFS may be systemic, and bones other than those that are clinically affected had changes in morphological and mechanical properties.

  20. Sequential analysis of biochemical markers of bone resorption and bone densitometry in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Niels; Brixen, Kim; Eriksen, Erik Fink

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bone lesions often occur in multiple myeloma (MM), but no tests have proven useful in identifying patients with increased risk. Bone marker assays and bone densitometry are non-invasive methods that can be used repeatedly at low cost. This study was performed to evaluate...... 6 weeks, DEXA-scans performed every 3 months, and skeletal radiographs were done every 6 months as well as when indicated. RESULTS: Serum ICTP and urinary NTx were predictive of progressive bone events. Markers of bone formation, bone mineral density assessments, and M component measurements were...

  1. The ultrastructure and processing properties of Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, S; Bayerlein, T; Proff, P; Hoffmann, A; Gedrange, T

    2006-02-01

    The ultrastructure, fundamental chemistry, and processing modes of fully synthetic bone grafting materials are relevant to the reconstruction of osseous defects. Rapid progress in the profitable market of biomaterials has led to the development of various bone substitutes. Despite all these efforts, an ideal and full substitute of autologous bone is not yet in sight. With regard to anorganic calcium phosphate ceramics, Straumann Bone Ceramic and NanoBone are compared. These have a similar composition and are osteoconductive, which indispensably requires contact with well-vascularised bone.

  2. FSH and TSH in the Regulation of Bone Mass: The Pituitary/Immune/Bone Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Colaianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidences have highlighted that the pituitary hormones have profound effects on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis is now becoming an important issue in the skeletal biology. Here, we discuss the topical evidence about the dysfunction of the pituitary-bone axis that leads to osteoporotic bone loss. We will explore the context of FSH and TSH hormones arguing their direct or indirect role in bone loss. In addition, we will focus on the knowledge that both FSH and TSH have influence on proinflammatory and proosteoclastogenic cytokine expression, such as TNFα and IL-1, underlining the correlation of pituitary-bone axis to the immune system.

  3. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  4. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Snoeckx, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  5. Petrous bone fracture: a virtual trauma analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montava, Marion; Deveze, Arnaud; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Bidal, Samuel; Brunet, Christian; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The temporal bone shields sensorineural, nervous, and vascular structures explaining the potential severity and complications of trauma related to road and sport accidents. So far, no clear data are available on the exact mechanisms involved for fracture processes. Modelization of structures helps to answer these concerns. Our objective was to design a finite element model of the petrous bone structure to modelize temporal bone fracture propagation in a scenario of lateral impact. A finite element model of the petrous bone structure was designed based on computed tomography data. A 7-m/s lateral impact was simulated to reproduce a typical lateral trauma. Results of model analysis was based on force recorded, stress level on bone structure up to induce a solution of continuity of the bony structure. Model simulation showed that bone fractures follow the main axes of the petrous bone and occurred in a 2-step process: first, a crush, and second, a massive fissuration of the petrous bone. The lines of fracture obtained by simulation of a lateral impact converge toward the middle ear region. This longitudinal fracture is located at the mastoid-petrous pyramid junction. Using this model, it was possible to map petrous bone fractures including fracture chronology and areas of fusion of the middle ear region. This technique may represent a first step to investigate the pathophysiology of the petrous bone fractures, aiming to define prognostic criteria for patients' care.

  6. Measures of Complexity to quantify Bone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparin, Peter; Gowin, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    1998-03-01

    We propose a technique to assess structure of the bone in its spatial distribution by describing and quantifying the structural architecture as a whole. The concept of measures of complexity based on symbolic dynamics is applied to computed tomography (CT) - images obtained from human lumbar vertebra. CT-images have been transformed into images consisting of 5 different symbols, whereby both statical and dynamical coding are included. Different aspects of the bone structure are quantified by several measures which have been introduced: index of global ensemble of elements composing the bone; complexity, homogeneity and dynamics within the bone architecture; complexity and inhomogeneity of the trabecular net. This leads to new insides to the understanding of bone's internal structure. The results give the first experimental and quantitative evidence of the theoretical prediction that complexity of bone structure declines rapidly with the increased disintegration of bone structures leading to the loss of bone mass and specify experimentally that bone structure is exponentially related to its density. Especially, osteoporotic vertebrae are less complex organized than normal ones. In addition, this method is significantly sensitive to changes in bone structure and provides improvements of diagnostic of pathological structural loss.

  7. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  8. Guided bone regeneration using individualized ceramic sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, J; Anderud, J; Abrahamsson, P; Wälivaara, D-Å; Isaksson, S G; Adolfsson, E

    2016-10-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) describes the use of membranes to regenerate bony defects. A membrane for GBR needs to be biocompatible, cell-occlusive, non-toxic, and mouldable, and possess space-maintaining properties including stability. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe a new method of GBR using individualized ceramic sheets to perfect bone regeneration prior to implant placement; bone regeneration was assessed using traditional histology and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric changes in the bone and soft tissue. Three patients were included. After full-thickness flap reflection, the individualized ceramic sheets were fixed. The sites were left to heal for 7 months. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 7 months postoperative using cone beam computed tomography and 3D optical equipment. Samples of the regenerated bone and soft tissue were collected and analyzed. The bone regenerated in the entire interior volume of all sheets. Bone biopsies revealed newly formed trabecular bone with a lamellar structure. Soft tissue biopsies showed connective tissue with no signs of an inflammatory response. This was considered to be newly formed periosteum. Thus ceramic individualized sheets can be used to regenerate large volumes of bone in both vertical and horizontal directions independent of the bone defect and with good biological acceptance of the material. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648

  10. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  11. Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyl Katherine

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1 diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2. An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss.

  12. Maxillary sinus lift with solely autogenous bone compared to a combination of autogenous bone and growth factors or (solely) bone substitutes. A systematic review : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Slater, J. J. R. Huddleston; Meijer, H. J. A.; Vissink, A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    Literature regarding the outcome of maxillary sinus floor elevation to create sufficient bone fraction to enable implant placement was systematically reviewed. Bone fraction and implant survival rate were assessed to determine whether grafting material or applied growth factor affected bone

  13. Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

    2009-09-01

    We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Sclerostin Antibody Reverses Bone Loss by Increasing Bone Formation and Decreasing Bone Resorption in a Rat Model of Male Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Villasenor, Kelly S; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Frank J; Xia, Xuechun; Grisanti, Mario; Wronski, Thomas J; Simonet, W Scott; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis. We treated 9-month-old ORX Sprague Dawley rats (3 months after ORX) subcutaneously twice weekly with vehicle or Scl-Ab (5 or 25 mg/kg) for 6 weeks (n = 10 per group). Both doses of Scl-Ab fully reversed the BMD deficit in the lumbar spine and femur and tibia in ORX rats. Microcomputed tomography showed that the bone mass in the fifth lumbar vertebral body, femur diaphysis, and femoral neck were dose-dependently restored by Scl-Ab. The bone strength at these sites increased significantly with Scl-Ab to levels matching those of sham-operated controls and correlated positively with improvements in bone mineral content, demonstrating bone quality maintenance. Dynamic histomorphometry of the tibial diaphysis and second lumbar vertebral body demonstrated that Scl-Ab significantly increased bone formation on periosteal, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces and significantly decreased bone resorption on endocortical and trabecular surfaces. The effects of Scl-Ab on increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption led to restoration of bone mass and strength in androgen-deficient rats. These findings support the ongoing evaluation of Scl-Ab as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in men. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  15. Sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Warmington, Kelly S; Morony, Sean; Gong, Jianhua; Cao, Jin; Gao, Yongming; Shalhoub, Victoria; Tipton, Barbara; Haldankar, Raj; Chen, Qing; Winters, Aaron; Boone, Tom; Geng, Zhaopo; Niu, Qing-Tian; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kostenuik, Paul J; Simonet, W Scott; Lacey, David L; Paszty, Chris

    2009-04-01

    The development of bone-rebuilding anabolic agents for potential use in the treatment of bone loss conditions, such as osteoporosis, has been a long-standing goal. Genetic studies in humans and mice have shown that the secreted protein sclerostin is a key negative regulator of bone formation, although the magnitude and extent of sclerostin's role in the control of bone formation in the aging skeleton is still unclear. To study this unexplored area of sclerostin biology and to assess the pharmacologic effects of sclerostin inhibition, we used a cell culture model of bone formation to identify a sclerostin neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-AbII) for testing in an aged ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and left untreated for 1 yr to allow for significant estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, at which point Scl-AbII was administered for 5 wk. Scl-AbII treatment in these animals had robust anabolic effects, with marked increases in bone formation on trabecular, periosteal, endocortical, and intracortical surfaces. This not only resulted in complete reversal, at several skeletal sites, of the 1 yr of estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, but also further increased bone mass and bone strength to levels greater than those found in non-ovariectomized control rats. Taken together, these preclinical results establish sclerostin's role as a pivotal negative regulator of bone formation in the aging skeleton and, furthermore, suggest that antibody-mediated inhibition of sclerostin represents a promising new therapeutic approach for the anabolic treatment of bone-related disorders, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Bone Substitute Functionalized with Bone Active Molecules for Enhanced Cranial Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Arun Kumar; Raina, Deepak Bushan; Singh, Chandan; Sinha, Neeraj; Isaksson, Hanna; Tägil, Magnus; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize a nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP) and calcium sulfate bone substitute (NC) for cranioplasty. The NC was functionalized with low concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and zoledronic acid (ZA) and characterized both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies included MTT, ALP assays, and fluorescent staining of Saos-2 (human osteoblasts) and MC3T3-E1 (murine preosteoblasts) cells cultured on NC. An in vivo study divided 20 male Wistar rats into four groups: control (defect only), NC, NC + ZA, and NC + ZA + rhBMP-2. The materials were implanted in an 8.5 mm critical size defect in the calvarium for 12 weeks. Micro-CT quantitative analysis was carried out in vivo at 8 weeks and ex vivo after 12 weeks. Mineralization was highest in the NC + ZA + rhBMP-2 group (13.0 ± 2.8 mm 3 ) compared to the NC + ZA group (9.0 ± 3.2 mm 3 ), NC group (6.4 ± 1.9 mm 3 ), and control group (3.4 ± 1.0 mm 3 ) after 12 weeks. Histological and spectroscopic analysis of the defect site provided a qualitative confirmation of neo-bone, which was in agreement with the micro-CT results. In conclusion, NC can be used as a carrier for bioactive molecules, and functionalization with rhBMP-2 and ZA in low doses enhances bone regeneration.

  17. Repair of large segmental bone defects: BMP-2 gene activated muscle grafts vs. autologous bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Oliver B; Betz, Volker M; Schröder, Christian; Penzkofer, Rainer; Göttlinger, Michael; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Augat, Peter; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E

    2013-08-08

    Common cell based strategies for the treatment of osseous defects require the isolation and expansion of autologous cells. Since this makes such approaches time-consuming and expensive, we developed a novel expedited technology creating gene activated muscle grafts. We have previously shown that large segmental bone defects in rats can be regenerated by implantation of muscle tissue fragments activated by BMP-2 gene transfer. In the present study, we compared the bone healing capacities of such gene activated muscle grafts with bone isografts, mimicking autologous bone grafting, the clinical gold standard for treatment of bone defects in patients. Two of 14 male, syngeneic Fischer 344 rats used for this experiment served as donors for muscle and bone. Muscle tissue was harvested from both hind limbs and incubated with an adenoviral vector carrying the cDNA encoding BMP-2. Bone was harvested from the iliac crest and long bone epiphyses. Bone defects (5 mm) were created in the right femora of 12 rats and were filled with either BMP-2 activated muscle tissue or bone grafts. After eight weeks, femora were evaluated by radiographs, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and biomechanical testing. In the group receiving BMP-2 activated muscle grafts as well as in the bone-grafting group, 100% of the bone defects were healed, as documented by radiographs and μCT-imaging. Bone volume was similar in both groups and biomechanical stability of the two groups was statistically indistinguishable. This study demonstrates that treatment of large bone defects by implantation of BMP-2 gene activated muscle tissue leads to similar bone volume and stability as bone isografts, mimicking autologous bone grafting.

  18. Dietary pseudopurpurin improves bone geometry architecture and metabolism in red-bone Guishan goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChenChen Wu

    Full Text Available Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone.

  19. Bone and bone marrow pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines are up-regulated in osteoporosis fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, P; Roato, I; D'Amico, L; Veneziano, L; Suman, E; Sassi, F; Bisignano, G; Ferracini, R; Gargiulo, G; Castoldi, F; Pescarmona, G P; Isaia, G C

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluates cytokines production in bone and bone marrow of patients with an osteoporotic fracture or with osteoarthritis by real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that the cytokine pattern is shifted towards osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition in patients with osteoporotic fractures. Fragility fractures are the resultant of low bone mass and poor bone architecture typical of osteoporosis. Cytokines involved in the control of bone cell maturation and function are produced by both bone itself and bone marrow cells, but the roles of these two sources in its control and the amounts they produce are not clear. This study compares their production in patients with an osteoporotic fracture and those with osteoarthritis. We evaluated 52 femoral heads from women subjected to hip-joint replacement surgery for femoral neck fractures due to low-energy trauma (37), or for osteoarthritis (15). Total RNA was extracted from both bone and bone marrow, and quantitative PCR was used to identify the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB Ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), Dickoppf-1 (DKK-1) and sclerostin (SOST) expression. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were performed in order to quantify and localize in bone and bone marrow the cytokines. We found an increase of RANKL/OPG ratio, M-CSF, SOST and DKK-1 in fractured patients, whereas TGFβ was increased in osteoarthritic bone. Bone marrow produced greater amounts of RANKL, M-CSF and TGFβ compared to bone, whereas the production of DKK-1 and SOST was higher in bone. We show that bone marrow cells produced the greater amount of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines, whereas bone cells produced higher amount of osteoblast inhibitors in patients with fragility fracture, thus the cytokine pattern is shifted towards osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition in these patients.

  20. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  1. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: pclark4@gmail.com; Clark, Andrew M. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Rodriguez, Anthony [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Hussain, Mohammad A. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States); Mao, Jeremy J. [Tissue Engineering Laboratory MC 841, Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bioengineering, and Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 801 South Paulina Street, Illinois 60612 (United States)]. E-mail: jmao2@uic.edu

    2007-04-15

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-{mu}m intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 {+-} 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 {+-} 0.25 MPa to 2.24 {+-} 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-{mu}m intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants.

  2. Hydroxyapatite as a bone graft substitute: Use in cortical and cancellous bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwala Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Autogenous bone is regarded as the best bone graft material. Various grafting materials have been advocated to fill bony defects. Our purpose was to study the utility of amorphous hydroxyapatite as an autogenous bone graft substitute in cancellous and cortical bone. Methods : A prospective study was undertaken over a period of five years. Patients included were those which would otherwise require bone grafting in cancellous and cortical bone fractures (15 in each group. Hydroxyapatite (HA ceramic blocks of standard size (5mm x10m were either used alone or mixed with autogenous cancellous graft in metaphyseal locations, along with bone marrow (derived from reaming or drilling in intertrochanteric regions and mixed with cancellous graft in cortical areas. The results were assessed on standard radiographs. Biopsy of hydroxyapatite regenerated bone was taken at implant removal. Results: In cancellous areas as graft incorporation ensues over months the intrinsic structure of the hydroxyapatite blocks blurred with blunting of the sharp edges (on radiographs. Biopsy confirmed bone in-growth. In cortical areas the blocks did not show evidence of bone in-growth. Conclusion: Hydroxyapatite alone or when mixed with cancellous bone marrow is an effective adjuvant for autogenous bone grafts, especially in cancellous areas of bone. Mixing it with host marrow provides osteoinductive stimulus. It is biocompatible, osteoconductive but not osteogenic.

  3. Nanoscale characterization of bone-implant interface and biomechanical modulation of bone ingrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Paul A.; Clark, Andrew M.; Rodriguez, Anthony; Hussain, Mohammad A.; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2007-01-01

    Bone-implant interface is characterized by an array of cells and macromolecules. This study investigated the nanomechancial properties of bone-implant interface using atomic force microscopy in vitro, and the mechanical modulation of implant bone ingrowth in vivo using bone histomorphometry. Upon harvest of screw-type titanium implants placed in vivo in the rabbit maxilla and proximal femur for 4 weeks, nanoindentation was performed in the bone-implant interface at 60-μm intervals radially from the implant surface. The average Young's Moduli (E) of the maxillary bone-implant interface was 1.13 ± 0.27 MPa, lacking significant differences at all intervals. In contrast, an increasing gradient of E was observed radially from the femur bone-implant interface: 0.87 ± 0.25 MPa to 2.24 ± 0.69 MPa, representing significant differences among several 60-μm intervals. In a separate experiment, bone healing was allowed for 6 weeks for proximal femur implants. The right femoral implant received axial cyclic loading at 200 mN and 1 Hz for 10 min/d over 12 days, whereas the left femoral implant served as control. Cyclic loading induced significantly higher bone volume, osteoblast numbers per endocortical bone surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate than controls. These data demonstrate nanoscale and microscale characterizations of bone-implant interface, and mechanical modulation of bone ingrowth surrounding titanium implants

  4. Bone cement allocation analysis in artificial cancellous bone structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zderic

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The simulated leakage path seemed to be the most important adverse injection factor influencing the uniformity of cement distribution. Another adverse factor causing dispersion of this distribution was represented by the simulated bone marrow. However, the rather uniform distribution of the totally injected cement amount, considered as one unit, could be ascribed to the medium viscosity of the used cement. Finally, with its short waiting time of 45 s, the stepwise injection procedure was shown to be ineffective in preventing cement leakage.

  5. Bone Marrow Therapies for Chronic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Keating, Armand; Gale, Robert Peter

    2015-11-01

    Chronic heart failure is a leading cause of death. The demand for new therapies and the potential regenerative capacity of bone marrow-derived cells has led to numerous clinical trials. We critically discuss current knowledge of the biology and clinical application of bone marrow cells. It appears unlikely that bone marrow cells can develop into functional cardiomyocyte after infusion but may have favorable paracrine effects. Most, but not all, clinical trials report a modest short- but not long-term benefit of infusing bone marrow-derived cells. Effect size appears to correlate with stringency of study-design: the most stringent trials report the smallest effect-sizes. We conclude there may be short- but not substantial long-term benefit of infusing bone marrow-derived cells into persons with chronic heart failure and any benefit observed is unlikely to result from trans-differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells into functioning cardiomyocytes. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Stafne Bone Defect: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Münevveroğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone defects are asymptomatic lingual bone depressions of the lower jaw. In 1942, Stafne described for the first time 35 asymptomatic, radiolucent cavities, unilaterally located in the posterior region of the mandible, between the mandibular angle and the third molar, below the inferior dental canal and slightly above the basis mandibulae. In this study, the clinical and radiological characteristics of 2 cases of Stafne bone defects were described. Orthopantomograph and CBCT were used for diagnosing the defects. The bone defects of two patients in this study were asymptomatic and any other bone lesions, such as cysts and tumors, were excluded because no signs of inflammatory or tumoral changes were evident Therefore, surgery was not considered and the patients were followed for 1 year. Stafne bone defect was an incidental finding, presenting no evolutionary changes, and as such conservatory therapy based on periodic controls was indicated. Currently, complementary techniques such as CT are sufficient to establish a certain diagnosis.

  7. Pediatric applications of radionuclide bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerville, D.A.; Treves, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    Applications of skeletal scintigraphy in the pediatric population differ significantly from those in the adult population. While the majority of bone scans performed in adults are to detect osseous metastases, bone scans in the pediatric population are performed for a wider variety of conditions. These include (in addition to bony metastases) evaluation of primary bone tumors (both malignant and benign), bone and joint infections, avascular necrosis (AVN), fractures, sports-related injuries, the evaluation of growth disorders (particularly involving the mandible), and a variety of benign orthopedic conditions unique to the childhood period. Thus, the physician interpreting pediatric nuclear medicine bone scans must be acquainted with a variety of disorders not common to the adult population. In this chapter, the authors discuss those aspects of bone scintigraphy that are generally confined to the younger population. In doing so, they have attempted to avoid those aspects of skeletal scintigraphy common to both pediatric and adult populations

  8. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found...... in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  9. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Weaver, James C.; Jensen, Mads Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the roles of osteocytes in bone maintenance have gained increasing attention. Osteocytes reside in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi resulting in a vast cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. As the structure of the lacuno-canalicular network is highly connected......-species but also inter-site variation in lacunar properties. Here, osteocyte lacunae in rat cortical bone have been studied using synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR μCT) and backscattered electron (BE) microscopy. Quantitative lacunar geometric characteristics are reported based on the synchrotron...... radiation data, differentiating between circumferential lamellar bone and a central, more disordered bone type. From these studies, no significant differences were found in lacunar volumes between lamellar and central bone, whereas significant differences in lacunar orientation, shape and density values...

  11. Bone Canopies in Pediatric Renal Osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Renata C; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Friedman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is characterized by changes in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume that are brought about by alterations in bone resorption and formation. The resorptive and formative surfaces on the cancellous bone are separated from the marrow cavity by canopies...... consisting of a layer of flat osteoblastic cells. These canopies have been suggested to play a key role in the recruitment of osteoprogenitors during the process of bone remodeling. This study was performed to address the characteristics of the canopies above bone formation and resorption sites...... and their association with biochemical and bone histomorphometric parameters in 106 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients (stage 2-5) across the spectrum of ROD. Canopies in CKD patients often appeared as thickened multilayered canopies, similar to previous reports in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism...

  12. Stability of simultaneously placed dental implants with autologous bone grafts harvested from the iliac crest or intraoral jaw bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Min; Byun, June-Ho; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Sung, Iel-Yong; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Park, Bong-Wook

    2015-12-30

    Jaw bone and iliac bone are the most frequently used autologous bone sources for dental implant placement in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges. However, the comparative long-term stability of these two autologous bone grafts have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the stability of simultaneously placed dental implants with autologous bone grafts harvested from either the iliac crest or the intraoral jaw bone for severely atrophic alveolar ridges. In total, 36 patients (21 men and 15 women) were selected and a retrospective medical record review was performed. We compared the residual increased bone height of the grafted bone, peri-implantitis incidence, radiological density in newly generated bones (HU values), and implant stability using resonance frequency analysis (ISQ values) between the two autologous bone graft groups. Both autologous bone graft groups (iliac bone and jaw bone) showed favorable clinical results, with similar long-term implant stability and overall implant survival rates. However, the grafted iliac bone exhibited more prompt vertical loss than the jaw bone, in particular, the largest vertical bone reduction was observed within 6 months after the bone graft. In contrast, the jaw bone graft group exhibited a slower vertical bone resorption rate and a lower incidence of peri-implantitis during long-term follow-up than the iliac bone graft group. These findings demonstrate that simultaneous dental implantation with the autologous intraoral jaw bone graft method may be reliable for the reconstruction of edentulous atrophic alveolar ridges.

  13. Cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Warren, P.S.; Fisher, C.C.

    1985-09-01

    A case of cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia is reported. The authors believe that bone dysplasia associated with cloverleaf is neither identical with thanatophoric dysplasia nor achondroplasia. Until identity of thanatophoric dysplasia and cloverleaf skull with generalised bone dysplasia is proved the diseases should be looked upon as separate entities and the wording ''thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull'' should be abolished.

  14. Ultrasound of Primary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Glazebrook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC are rare, benign, expansile lesions of bone often found in the metaphyses of long bones in pediatric and young adult population. Multiple fluid levels are typically seen on imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or computed tomography (CT. We describe a case of a primary ABC in the fibula of a 34-year-old man diagnosed on ultrasound with a mobile fluid level demonstrated sonographically.

  15. Giant osteoblastoma of temporal bone: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGUEIREDO EBERVAL GADELHA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon bone tumor accounting for approximately 1% of all bone tumors. There are only 35 cases of skull osteoblastoma reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 23 year old male with a giant osteoblastoma of temporal bone submitted to a total removal of the tumor after an effective embolization of all external carotid branches. The authors discuss diagnostic and management aspects of this uncommon skull tumor.

  16. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  17. Role of Osteal Macrophages in Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Cho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages have been shown to have pleiotropic functions in various pathophysiologies, especially in terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative activity. Recently, the novel functions of bone marrow resident macrophages (called osteal macrophages were intensively studied in bone development, remodeling and tissue repair processes. This review discusses the current evidence for a role of osteal macrophages in bone modeling, remodeling, and fracture healing processes.

  18. Bone Conduction Communication: Research Progress and Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    localization, equal loudness, speech intelligibility, gender differences 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU...Correlational Research 33 2.9 Summary 34 3. Bone Conduction Loudness 34 3.1 Sound Cancellation Studies 35 3.2 Equal -Loudness Studies 37 3.3 Summary 45...Separation Studies 56 5.5 Summary 58 6. Bone Conduction Gender Differences 58 6.1 Air Conduction Studies 59 6.2 Bone Conduction Transmission (Vibrator

  19. Empirical evaluation of bone extraction protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Cleland

    Full Text Available The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the

  20. Amyloid-hydroxyapatite bone biomimetic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoxu; Born, Anne-Kathrin; Schweizer, Thomas; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Cerruti, Marta; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2014-05-28

    A "bottom up" strategy is proposed to synthesize high aspect ratio hydroxyapatite (and brushite) platelets, and combine them with amyloid fibrils into layered hybrid nanocomposites. Their hierarchical structure, despite the differences from natural bone, confers to the nanocomposites a density and elastic modulus matching those of cancellous bone. Evidence of good adhesion and spreading of human trabecular bone-derived pre-osteoblasts cells on these nanocomposites is provided. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Bone involvement pattern in hypervascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjersand, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of the focal bone lesion which consists partly or wholly of rounded holes with comparatively smooth edges is discussed. Twenty-two bone lesions were studied by angiography. The 'hypervascular pattern' occurred in five cases of widely different histology, all with strong intraosseous hypervascularity. Different pathogenic mechanisms in the creation of this pattern are discussed. It is probably the result of both destructive and reparative processes in the bone. (orig.)

  2. National Bone Health Alliance: an innovative public-private partnership improving America's bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David B; Lowden, Mia Rochelle; Patmintra, Valerie; Stevenson, Katie

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) is a public-private partnership launched in 2010 that brings together its 56 partners from the government, nonprofit, and for-profit sectors to collectively promote bone health and prevent disease; improve bone disease diagnosis and treatment; and enhance bone research, surveillance, and evaluation. NBHA is driven to achieve its 20/20 vision to reduce fractures 20 % by the year 2020 through projects including 2Million2Many, an osteoporosis awareness campaign; Fracture Prevention CENTRAL, an online resource center providing support to sites interested in launching a secondary fracture prevention program; bone turnover marker standardization project; and working groups in rare bone disease and the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. NBHA provides a platform to coordinate messaging among individuals and organizations on subjects important to bone health; pool funding and efforts around shared priorities; and work together towards the goals and recommendations of the National Action Plan on Bone Health.

  3. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  4. Bone graft substitutes and bone morphogenetic proteins for osteoporotic fractures: What is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); V. Alt (Volker)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite improvements in implants and surgical techniques, osteoporotic fractures remain challenging to treat. Among other major risk factors, decreased expression of morphogenetic proteins has been identified for impaired fracture healing in osteoporosis. Bone grafts or bone graft

  5. New regenerative treatment for tooth and periodontal bone defect associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kiyokawa, Munekatsu; Takagi, Mikako; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Fukaya, Takuji

    2009-05-01

    We developed a new regenerative treatment of tooth and periodontal defect and tooth dislocation associated with posttraumatic alveolar bone crush fracture in the region of the maxillary anterior teeth. Using this method, dislocated teeth are first extracted and crushed alveolar bone is debrided. The dislocated teeth are then reimplanted, and cancellous iliac bone (bone marrow) is grafted to the area surrounding the teeth to regenerate periodontal bone. Tooth reimplantation was completely successful in 2 cases, and periodontal bone regenerated to a sufficient height with the iliac bone graft. Compared with the general method of treatment with a prosthesis (bridge), when using this method to treat cases such as these, there is no sacrifice of healthy teeth adjacent to the defect, and sufficient esthetic and functional recovery is possible. It is thought that this method could be applied as a new treatment of alveolar bone fracture in the future.

  6. High-dose therapy improved the bone remodelling compartment canopy and bone formation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by an uncoupling of bone formation to resorption trigged by malignant plasma cells. Increasing evidence indicates that the bone remodelling compartment (BRC) canopy, which normally covers the remodelling sites, is important for coupled bone remodelling....... Loss of this canopy has been associated with bone loss. This study addresses whether the bone remodelling in MM is improved by high-dose therapy. Bone marrow biopsies obtained from 20 MM patients, before and after first-line treatment with high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell...... transplantation, and from 20 control patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were histomorphometrically investigated. This investigation confirmed that MM patients exhibited uncoupled bone formation to resorption and reduced canopy coverage. More importantly, this study revealed...

  7. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G.

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations [fr

  8. Bone scintigraphy and osteo-articular tuberculosis in transplant patients: a study of 50 bone scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulaud, J.P.; Mechali, D.; Morau, G. (Hopital Claude-Bernard, Paris (France))

    1982-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99 m technecium labelled phosphorus compounds was achieved in 50 west Africans migrant workers in Paris. Bone and joint tuberculosis was assumed in 20 cases. In 5 of these 20 cases, bone scan, but not X-ray, showed abnormalities, and in 4, bone scan disclosed more localisations than X-rays. In 7 cases, yet, bone scan was normal, with major osteolytic X-rays lesions in 3 cases, minor in 2 cases, and isolated cold abcesses in two more cases: these means 7 false-negative results. Among the 30 other cases, 29 were considered as mechanical vertebral pathology, and 1 sacro-iliitis Brucellosis. Bone scan was normal in 28 cases the 2 others are unexplained false-positive. Although non-specific and not completely reliable, we think that bone-scanning is useful in bone-tuberculosis check-up, especially to obtain early diagnosis and detect multifocal localisations.

  9. NONSPECIFIC INFECTIONS OF THE BONE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Golubovic

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis represents an inflammation of the bone tissue caused by microorganisms. The cause of the inflammation can be bacteria, viruses and parasites. The bone infections are divided into specific and nonspecific. Regarding the course they take, they can be of acute or chronic form. Nonspecific bone infections are analyzed, namely, hematogenic and exogenous osteomyelitis. The most frequent complications of osteomyelitis are bone infection recidivism, pathological fractures, infection penetration into the joint, malign tissue alteration and amyloidosis as a consequence of the chronic infection.

  10. Updates in the treatment of bone cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, J Sybil

    2013-05-01

    Although extremely rare, primary bone cancers are often curable with proper treatment. Effective management of primary bone tumors hinges on the involvement of a multidisciplinary team of physicians with expertise in this area, both in the realms of diagnosis and treatment. In her presentation at the NCCN 18th Annual Conference, Dr. J. Sybil Biermann reviewed the changes to the 2013 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for bone cancer, featuring the introduction of new sections on giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and chordoma. The benefits of denosumab for the benign GCTB and the unique challenges associated with the malignant chordoma are also explored.

  11. A new zebrafish bone crush injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sousa

    2012-07-01

    While mammals have a limited capacity to repair bone fractures, zebrafish can completely regenerate amputated bony fin rays. Fin regeneration in teleosts has been studied after partial amputation of the caudal fin, which is not ideal to model human bone fractures because it involves substantial tissue removal, rather than local tissue injury. In this work, we have established a bone crush injury model in zebrafish adult caudal fin, which consists of the precise crush of bony rays with no tissue amputation. Comparing these two injury models, we show that the initial stages of injury response are the same regarding the activation of wound healing molecular markers. However, in the crush assay the expression of the blastema marker msxb appears later than during regeneration after amputation. Following the same trend, bone cells deposition and expression of genes involved in skeletogenesis are also delayed. We further show that bone and blood vessel patterning is also affected. Moreover, analysis of osteopontin and Tenascin-C reveals that they are expressed at later stages in crushed tissue, suggesting that in this case bone repair is prolonged for longer than in the case of regeneration after amputation. Due to the nature of the trauma inflicted, the crush injury model seems more similar to fracture bone repair in mammals than bony ray amputation. Therefore, the new model that we present here may help to identify the key processes that regulate bone fracture and contribute to improve bone repair in humans.

  12. Increased bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, P. de; Schicht, I.M.; Graeff, J. de; Velde, J. te; Kleiverda, K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Bone raidotracer uptake in renal osteodystropy was investigated in 35 dialysis patients by correlating the results of quantitative bone scintigraphy with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the total skeletal activity and the biochemical (iPTH and alkaline phosphatase), and histologie parameters of hyperparathyroidism. These clinical results strongly suggest that increase bone turnover i.e. hyperparathyroidism, rather than osteomalacia is the major cause of increased skeletal uptake in renal osteodystrophy. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical Vibration Mitigates the Decrease of Bone Quantity and Bone Quality of Leptin Receptor-Deficient Db/Db Mice by Promoting Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Luo, Erping; Cai, Jing; Tong, Shichao; Zhai, Mingming; Shen, Guanghao; Wang, Xin; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a major hormonal product of adipocytes, is involved in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. Substantial studies have revealed the anabolic actions of leptin on skeletons and bone cells both in vivo and in vitro. Growing evidence has substantiated that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice exhibit decreased bone mass and impaired bone microstructure despite several conflicting results previously reported. We herein systematically investigated bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength, bone turnover and its potential molecular mechanisms in db/db mice. More importantly, we also explored an effective approach for increasing bone mass in leptin receptor-deficient animals in an easy and noninvasive manner. Our results show that deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and decreases of skeletal mechanical strength-including maximum load, yield load, stiffness, energy, tissue-level modulus and hardness-in db/db mice were significantly ameliorated by 12-week, whole-body vibration (WBV) with 0.5 g, 45 Hz via micro-computed tomography (μCT), three-point bending, and nanoindentation examinations. Serum biochemical analysis shows that WBV significantly decreased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) and CTx-1 levels and also mitigated the reduction of serum osteocalcin (OCN) in db/db mice. Bone histomorphometric analysis confirmed that decreased bone formation-lower mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone-in db/db mice were suppressed by WBV. Real-time PCR assays show that WBV mitigated the reductions of tibial alkaline phosphatase (ALP), OCN, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), type I collagen (COL1), BMP2, Wnt3a, Lrp6, and β-catenin mRNA expression, and prevented the increases of tibial sclerostin (SOST), RANK, RANKL, RANL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene levels in db/db mice. Our results show that WBV promoted bone quantity and quality in db/db mice with obvious

  14. Porous hydroxyapatite for artificial bone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sopyan et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has been used clinically for many years. It has good biocompatibility in bone contact as its chemical composition is similar to that of bone material. Porous HA ceramics have found enormous use in biomedical applications including bone tissue regeneration, cell proliferation, and drug delivery. In bone tissue engineering it has been applied as filling material for bone defects and augmentation, artificial bone graft material, and prosthesis revision surgery. Its high surface area leads to excellent osteoconductivity and resorbability providing fast bone ingrowth. Porous HA can be produced by a number of methods including conversion of natural bones, ceramic foaming technique, polymeric sponge method, gel casting of foams, starch consolidation, microwave processing, slip casting, and electrophoretic deposition technique. Some of these methods have been combined to fabricate porous HA with improved properties. These combination methods have yielded some promising results. This paper discusses briefly fundamental aspects of porous HA for artificial bone applications as well as various techniques used to prepare porous HA. Some of our recent results on development of porous HA will be presented as well.

  15. Separation of pig bone alkaline phosphatase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunis, J C; Vancraeynest, T; Brauman, J

    1977-01-01

    A simple method for the separation of alkaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities of pig bone ribs is described. Using anionic exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A sepharose (Con A) eluted by a step pH gradient and Na4P2O7, several activities were obtained. A pyrophosphatase containing very little alkaline phosphatase activity was isolated from Con A sepharose by elution with pyrophosphatase. Our data are consistent, with the hypothesis that cortical alcaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities are not due to a single enzyme protein. The method was used on whole bone, on bone marrow and on cortical bone.

  16. [Acute unclassified leukemia with bone marrow necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uoshima, N; Yamazaki, N; Iinuma, S; Kimura, S; Wada, K; Kobayashi, Y; Ozawa, M; Horiuchi, H; Maruo, N; Kondo, M

    1991-01-01

    Massive bone marrow necrosis was seen in a 42-year-old male with acute leukemia. In December, 1988, on admission, laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and a high level of serum LDH and ALKP. Bone marrow aspiration resulted in dry-tap and showed bone marrow necrosis in the bone marrow biopsy specimen. A bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In faintly visualized the bone marrow but visualized area was expanded in the extremities compared with normal subjects. The second bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of blasts. In the middle of March, blasts began to appear in peripheral blood. The blasts were cytochemically negative for POX, Es, PAS, AcP, TdT and had surface markers CD3-, CD19-, CD33-, CD13-, LCA-, HLA-DR-. Even by investigation on rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain region, an origin of the blasts could not be determined. In April, the number of blasts in peripheral blood increased and hepatosplenomegaly developed rapidly. Therefore, he was put on the chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone, but he died of cerebral hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed widespread bone marrow necrosis. It has rarely been reported that massive bone marrow necrosis is found prior to the occurrence of acute unclassified leukemia.

  17. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

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    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  19. Effect of manganese on calcification of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, E.; Guggenheim, K.

    1965-01-01

    1. Young mice were maintained on a basal diet composed of meat, which is poor in both manganese and calcium. 2. The addition of small amounts (2·5–5·0mg./kg. of meat) of manganese improved weight gain and calcification of bone and decreased incorporation of injected radiocalcium into bone. 3. Prolonged treatment with larger amounts (10·0–25·0mg./kg. of meat) of manganese depressed growth, induced defective calcification of bone and increased incorporation of radiocalcium into bone. PMID:14333572

  20. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.