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Sample records for bones maintain distinct

  1. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols. PMID:27074509

  2. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgitte Skov Jensen,, lone; Konradsen, Hanne; Larsen, Kristian

    interaction by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating...

  3. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgitte Skov Jensen, Lone; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions to...

  4. Distinct Characteristics of Mandibular Bone Collagen Relative to Long Bone Collagen: Relevance to Clinical Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsuura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone undergoes constant remodeling throughout life. The cellular and biochemical mechanisms of bone remodeling vary in a region-specific manner. There are a number of notable differences between the mandible and long bones, including developmental origin, osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, and the rate of bone turnover. Collagen, the most abundant matrix protein in bone, is responsible for determining the relative strength of particular bones. Posttranslational modifications of collagen, such as intermolecular crosslinking and lysine hydroxylation, are the most essential determinants of bone strength, although the amount of collagen is also important. In comparison to long bones, the mandible has greater collagen content, a lower amount of mature crosslinks, and a lower extent of lysine hydroxylation. The great abundance of immature crosslinks in mandibular collagen suggests that there is a lower rate of cross-link maturation. This means that mandibular collagen is relatively immature and thus more readily undergoes degradation and turnover. The greater rate of remodeling in mandibular collagen likely renders more flexibility to the bone and leaves it more suited to constant exercise. As reviewed here, it is important in clinical dentistry to understand the distinctive features of the bones of the jaw.

  5. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  6. Therapeutic inhibition of cathepsin K—reducing bone resorption while maintaining bone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Le T.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of high bone remodeling with an imbalance of bone resorption over bone formation, resulting in decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. From the emerging understandings of the molecular and cellular regulators of bone remodeling, potential new targets for therapeutic intervention for this disease have been identified. Cathepsin K (CatK), a cysteine protease produced by osteoclasts, is the primary enzyme mediating the degradation of ...

  7. Bone Appetit: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Building and Maintaining Strong Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is a living, dynamic, metabolically active tissue. It under goes a process of constant renewal throughout life, through a process called bone turnover in which cells called osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, and cells called osteoblasts make new bone to replace it. A healthy, balanced di...

  8. Semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with distinctive transmission characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyue; Thomas, Freya; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-11-01

    Optical couplers are very important devices in optical communication systems and optical sensor systems. Several types of optical couplers with different materials or different transmission characteristics have been reported. Here we propose a semi-reciprocal polarization maintaining fibre coupler with unique transmission characteristics, which is distinct from conventional polarization maintaining fibre couplers and polarization beam splitters, and investigate the characteristics of the coupler theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results show that for circularly and elliptically polarized input light, the proposed coupler will act both as an in-line polariser and a conventional polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The output polarization extinction ratio of the transmission arm is 31.79 dB at a centre wavelength of 841 nm. For linearly polarized input light, the coupler will merely act as a conventional 3 dB polarization maintaining fibre coupler. The unique features of the proposed coupler enables the removal of polarisers from optical sensor systems and coherent optical communication systems, and reduces the insertion loss and production cost of the optical path. Therefore there is wide application for this device in optical sensor systems and optical communication systems.

  9. Guided bone augmentation using ceramic space-maintaining devices: the impact of chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderud J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Anderud,1,2 Peter Abrahamsson,2 Ryo Jimbo,1 Sten Isaksson,2 Erik Adolfsson,3 Johan Malmström,2 Yoshihito Naito,4 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Maxillofacial Unit Halmstad, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden; 3Swedish Ceramic Institute, IVF, Mölndal, Sweden; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate histologically, whether vertical bone augmentation can be achieved using a hollow ceramic space maintaining device in a rabbit calvaria model. Furthermore, the chemistry of microporous hydroxyapatite and zirconia were tested to determine which of these two ceramics are most suitable for guided bone generation. 24 hollow domes in two different ceramic materials were placed subperiosteal on rabbit skull bone. The rabbits were sacrificed after 12 weeks and the histology results were analyzed regarding bone-to-material contact and volume of newly formed bone. The results suggest that the effect of the microporous structure of hydroxyapatite seems to facilitate for the bone cells to adhere to the material and that zirconia enhance a slightly larger volume of newly formed bone. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that ceramic space maintaining devices permits new bone formation and osteoconduction within the dome. Keywords: hydroxyapatite, zirconia, guided bone regeneration, GBR, histology, membrane

  10. Clinical study of bone changes after parathyroidectomy among patients maintained by hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen patients maintained by hemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism were mainly studied using Tc 99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and lamina dura index (LDI) which was judged by dental films. After parathyroidectomy (PTX), the most prominent change appeared on the calvaria, maxilla, and mandible in scintigrams. Intensity of Tc 99m-MDP accumulation was represented by using a quantitative method of bone-to-soft tissue uptake ratio (4 hr-B/St ratio). 4 hr-B/St ratio gradually decreased and became normal within one and a half years after PTX. The accumulation of Tc 99m-MDP on the calvaria may reveal the status of bone metabolism in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Also, LDIes gradually decreased during 4 through 6 months after PTX. However it was considered that these indexes might need a long term to return to normal range. We couldn't differenciate which method was superior in the diagnostic value for detecting early skeletal changes between roentogenograms and bone scintigraphy as a indicator of post-PTX bone improvement. However, bone scintigraphy should be added to conventional examinations for following the courses of patients that underwent PTX because this procedure has many other advantages. (author)

  11. Distinct Requirements for Pot1 in Limiting Telomere Length and Maintaining Chromosome Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Bunch, Jeremy T.; Bae, Nancy S; Leonardi, Jessica; Baumann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The fission yeast Pot1 (protection of telomeres) protein binds to the single-stranded extensions at the ends of telomeres, where its presence is critical for the maintenance of linear chromosomes. Homologs of Pot1 have been identified in a wide variety of eukaryotes, including plants, animals, and humans. We now show that Pot1 plays dual roles in telomere length regulation and chromosome end protection. Using a series of Pot1 truncation mutants, we have defined distinct areas of the protein r...

  12. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Trouvin, Anne-Priscille; Goëb, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, ...

  13. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  14. Aged human bone marrow stromal cells maintaining bone forming capacity in vivo evaluated using an improved method of visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Justesen, J;

    2004-01-01

    weeks, the implants were removed and embedded un-decalcified in methyl methacrylate (MMA). Sections were stained histochemically with Goldner's Trichrome stain and immuno-histochemically using human-specific antibodies against known osteogenic markers. Implanted human marrow stromal cells (hMSC) were...... able to form bone in vivo. The donor origin of bone was verified using several human-specific antibodies. Dose-response experiments demonstrated that 5 x 10(5) hMSC per implant gave the maximal bone formation after 8 weeks. No difference in BFC was observed between cells obtained from young (24...... vivo assay for quantifying the bone forming capacity (BFC) and we compared the BFC of osteoblastic cells obtained from young and old donors. Osteoblasts were obtained from human bone marrow stromal cell cultures and implanted subcutaneously in immuno-deficient mice (NOD/LtSz- Prkdc(scid)). After 8...

  15. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Williams, Paul J.; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 mont...

  16. Evaluation of soft tissue coverage over porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers within nonhealing alveolar bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretlow, James D; Shi, Meng; Young, Simon; Spicer, Patrick P; Demian, Nagi; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2010-12-01

    Current treatment of traumatic craniofacial injuries often involves early free tissue transfer, even if the recipient site is contaminated or lacks soft tissue coverage. There are no current tissue engineering strategies to definitively regenerate tissues in such an environment at an early time point. For a tissue engineering approach to be employed in the treatment of such injuries, a two-stage approach could potentially be used. The present study describes methods for fabrication, characterization, and processing of porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) space maintainers for temporary retention of space in bony craniofacial defects. Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels were used as a porogen. Implants with controlled porosity and pore interconnectivity were fabricated by varying the ratio of hydrogel:polymer and the amount of carboxymethylcellulose within the hydrogel. The in vivo tissue response to the implants was observed by implanting solid, low-porosity, and high-porosity implants (n = 6) within a nonhealing rabbit mandibular defect that included an oral mucosal defect to allow open communication between the oral cavity and the mandibular defect. Oral mucosal wound healing was observed after 12 weeks and was complete in 3/6 defects filled with solid PMMA implants and 5/6 defects filled with either a low- or high-porosity PMMA implant. The tissue response around and within the pores of the two formulations of porous implants tested in vivo was characterized, with the low-porosity implants surrounded by a minimal but well-formed fibrous capsule in contrast to the high-porosity implants, which were surrounded and invaded by almost exclusively inflammatory tissue. On the basis of these results, PMMA implants with limited porosity hold promise for temporary implantation and space maintenance within clean/contaminated bone defects. PMID:20524844

  17. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; Schepers, Allison J; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R; Sterling, Allison M; Tenney, Jenna C; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I; Boudoures, Anna L; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S; French, Kristin M; Gill, Ishwar S; Havill, Jessen T; Johnson, Jaelyn L; Keny, Lauren J; Kerber, John M; Klett, Bethany M; Kufel, Christina N; May, Francis J; Mecoli, Jonathan P; Merry, Callie R; Meyer, Lauren R; Miller, Emily G; Mullen, Gregory J; Palozola, Katherine C; Pfeil, Jacob J; Thomas, Jessica G; Verbofsky, Evan M; Spana, Eric P; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I N; Fitzgibbons, John D; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J; Knouse, Kristin A; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Shuen, Jessica A; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G; Burg, Martin G; Adams, Stephanie J; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J; Robertson, Gregory M; Smith, Samuel I; DiAngelo, Justin R; Sassu, Eric D; Bhalla, Satish C; Sharif, Karim A; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Davis, Kristen C; Dunham, Carrie A; Grantham, Alaina J; Hare, Amber N; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W; Kuleck, Gary A; Yu, Nicole S; Kaehler, Marian M; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques Dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; 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Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; 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    2015-05-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  18. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. 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Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; 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Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. Devin; Stemler, Kristina M.; Throm, Allison A.; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T. Aaron; Williams, Mallory A.; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M.; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E.; Florian, Kayla A.; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S.; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W.; Pelchen, Carly E.; Yenerall, Paul M.; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G.; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V.; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O.; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O.; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J.; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J.; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M.; delValle, Frank R. Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I.; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D.; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D.; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P.; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A.; Colón-Cruz, Luis R.; Correa-Muller, Ana I.; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L.; Cruz-García, José M.; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M.; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J.; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M.; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N.; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L.; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A.; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A.; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M.; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N.; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G.; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C.; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I.; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M.; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G.; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S.; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T.; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E.; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O.; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M.; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L.; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N.; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E.; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M.; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P.; Torres-Castillo, José L.; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A.; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M.; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M.; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R.; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R.; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L.; Molleston, Jerome M.; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J.; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P.; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y.; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L.; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J.; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L.; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L.; Adams, Ashley L.; Barnard, Brianna K.; Cheramie, Martin N.; Eime, Anne M.; Golden, Kathryn L.; Hawkins, Allyson P.; Hill, Jessica E.; Kampmeier, Jessica A.; Kern, Cody D.; Magnuson, Emily E.; Miller, Ashley R.; Morrow, Cody M.; Peairs, Julia C.; Pickett, Gentry L.; Popelka, Sarah A.; Scott, Alexis J.; Teepe, Emily J.; TerMeer, Katie A.; Watchinski, Carmen A.; Watson, Lucas A.; Weber, Rachel E.; Woodard, Kate A.; Barnard, Daron C.; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M.; McNeil, Gerard P.; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C.; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  19. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan;

    2004-01-01

    marrow composition revealed a total absence of marrow adipocytes in HSD1(-/-) mice. Cells from Wt and HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited similar growth rates as well as similar levels of production of osteoblastic markers. The adipocyte-forming capacity of in vitro cultured bone marrow stromal cells and trabecular...

  20. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin; Vincent Goëb

    2010-01-01

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance ...

  1. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  2. Estrogen preserves Fas ligand levels by inhibiting microRNA-181a in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to maintain bone remodeling balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bingyi; Liao, Li; Yu, Yang; Shuai, Yi; Su, Xiaoxia; Jing, Huan; Yang, Deqin; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen protects bone loss by promoting Fas ligand (FasL) transcription in osteoclasts and osteoblasts to induce apoptosis of osteoclasts. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) express FasL protein, which is necessary for BMMSCs to induce T-cell apoptosis in cell therapy. However, the physiologic function of FasL in BMMSCs is unknown. In this study, using an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo BMMSC transplantation assay, we found that BMMSCs potently induced apoptosis of osteoclasts through the FasL/Fas pathway. Estrogen was necessary for this process as a promoter of FasL protein accumulation in BMMSCs. Furthermore, estrogen elevated FasL protein accumulation, not by increasing FasL gene transcription, but through microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation. In brief, estrogen down-regulated expression of miR-181a, a negative modulator of FasL targeting the 3'-UTR of FasL mRNA. Estrogen deficiency resulted in excessive miR-181a, which decreased FasL protein levels to suppress BMMSC-induced osteoclast apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-181a recovered the BMMSC defect to induce osteoclast apoptosis during estrogen deficiency. Taken together, our results showed that estrogen preserves FasL protein accumulation by inhibiting miR-181a expression in BMMSCs to maintain bone remodeling balance, suggesting a novel mechanism by which estrogen preserves bone mass. PMID:26062603

  3. Oncostatin M maintains the hematopoietic microenvironment in the bone marrow by modulating adipogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi Sato

    Full Text Available The bone marrow (BM is an essential organ for hematopoiesis in adult, in which proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC is orchestrated by various stromal cells. Alterations of BM hematopoietic environment lead to various hematopoietic disorders as exemplified by the linking of fatty marrow with increased adipogenesis to anemia or pancytopenia. Therefore, the composition of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC-derived cells in the BM could be crucial for proper hematopoiesis, but the mechanisms underlying the MSC differentiation for hematopoiesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that Oncostatin M (OSM knock out mice exhibited pancytopenia advancing fatty marrow with age. OSM strongly inhibited adipogenesis from BM MSC in vitro, whereas it enhanced their osteogenesis but suppressed the terminal differentiation. Intriguingly, OSM allowed the MSC-derived cells to support the ex vivo expansion of HSPC effectively as feeder cells. Furthermore, the administration of OSM in lethally irradiated wild-type mice blocked fatty marrow and enhanced the recovery of HSPC number in the BM and peripheral blood cells after engraftment of HSPC. Collectively, OSM plays multiple critical roles in the maintenance and development of the hematopoietic microenvironment in the BM at a steady state as well as after injury.

  4. A Distinct Slow-Cycling Cancer Stem-like Subpopulation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells is maintained in Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Jennifer L., E-mail: jennifer.dembinski@rr-research.no; Krauss, Stefan [Cellular and Genetic Therapy, Department of Microbiology, Cancer Stem Cell Innovation Center (CAST), Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-11-29

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the worst prognosis of any major malignancy, with <5% of patients surviving five years. This can be contributed to the often late diagnosis, lack of sufficient treatment and metastatic spread. Heterogeneity within tumors is increasingly becoming a focus in cancer research, as novel therapies are required to target the most aggressive subpopulations of cells that are frequently termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the current study, we describe the identification of a slow-cycling cancer stem-like population of cells in vivo in BxPC-3 and Panc03.27 xenografts. A distinct slow-cycling label-retaining population of cells (DiI+/SCC) was found both at the edge of tumors, and in small circumscribed areas within the tumors. DiI+/SCC in these areas display an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) fingerprint, including an upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N-cadherin and a loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. DiI+/SCC also displayed a critical re-localization of beta-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus. Additionally, the DiI+/SCC population was found to express the developmental signaling molecule sonic hedgehog. This study represents a novel step in defining the biological activities of a tumorigenic subpopulation within the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment in vivo. Understanding the interactions and functions of a CSC population within the context of the tumor microenvironment is critical to design targeted therapeutics.

  5. A Distinct Slow-Cycling Cancer Stem-like Subpopulation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells is maintained in Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the worst prognosis of any major malignancy, with <5% of patients surviving five years. This can be contributed to the often late diagnosis, lack of sufficient treatment and metastatic spread. Heterogeneity within tumors is increasingly becoming a focus in cancer research, as novel therapies are required to target the most aggressive subpopulations of cells that are frequently termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the current study, we describe the identification of a slow-cycling cancer stem-like population of cells in vivo in BxPC-3 and Panc03.27 xenografts. A distinct slow-cycling label-retaining population of cells (DiI+/SCC) was found both at the edge of tumors, and in small circumscribed areas within the tumors. DiI+/SCC in these areas display an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) fingerprint, including an upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N-cadherin and a loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. DiI+/SCC also displayed a critical re-localization of beta-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus. Additionally, the DiI+/SCC population was found to express the developmental signaling molecule sonic hedgehog. This study represents a novel step in defining the biological activities of a tumorigenic subpopulation within the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment in vivo. Understanding the interactions and functions of a CSC population within the context of the tumor microenvironment is critical to design targeted therapeutics

  6. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. James (Sally); J. Fox (James); F. Afsari (Farinaz); J. Lee (Jennifer); S. Clough (Sally); C. Knight (Charlotte); J. Ashmore (James); P. Ashton (Peter); O. Preham (Olivier); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin); R.D.A.R. Ponzoni (Raquel De Almeida Rocha); Y. Hancock; M. Coles (Mark); P.G. Genever (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis

  7. Distinct nonrandom patterns of chromosomal deletions in giant-cell lesions of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruffi Marcelo Razera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were performed on a bone giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG and on three bone giant cell tumors (GCT. The present GCRG case is the second to be described cytogenetically. A modal chromosome number of 46 was observed in all samples. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were detected in all cases. The numerical alterations most frequently observed involved the loss of chromosomes 17 and 18. Among the structural anomalies observed, there was preferential involvement of chromosomes 6 and 10. Three GCT cases presented del(10(p13 and two cases presented del(6(q25 (1 GCRG and 1 GCT. These breakpoints mapped on 10p and 6q may harbour genes of importance in the development of bone giant cell tumors.

  8. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  9. Propolis maintaining the restorative role played by bone marrow transplantation in pregnant rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of the natural product propolis with its high anti oxidative capacity as a protector for bone marrow graft transplanted to pregnant rats 3 h post irradiation of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Different treatments were performed on days 7 or 13 of gestation and examined at the end of the gestation period. Irradiation significantly elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine while it declined total proteins and albumin. Haematological parameters showed decrease in RBCs, Hb, Ht, WBCs and their differential counts. BMT (75 x 106 ± 5 cells) 3 h post-irradiation depressed AST, ALT and ALP but were still significantly different from the control. Urea, uric acid and creatinine declined approaching the control level. Less drop in total proteins and globulin and elevation in RBCs, Ht, Hb and WBCs were detected. Rats exposed to 3 Gy and treated with propolis (50 mg/ kg) showed results comparable and even exceeding those of BMT. Combined treatment of BMT and propolis accentuated the recovery process and could restore the physiological and haematological parameters and protect pregnancy which suggests that propolis maintained BMT graft so that they may have future potential value in patients subjected to irradiation and BMT

  10. Distinct Lysosome Phenotypes Influence Inflammatory Function in Peritoneal and Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kassandra Weber; Schilling, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes play a critical role in the degradation of both extracellular and intracellular material. These dynamic organelles also contribute to nutrient sensing and cell signaling pathways. Macrophages represent a heterogeneous group of phagocytic cells that contribute to tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in understanding the role of macrophage autophagy and lysosome function in health and disease. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal and bone marr...

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production. PMID:26898901

  12. Short-term exercise-induced improvements in bone properties are for the most part not maintained during aging in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Arto P; Halmesmäki, Esa P; Iivarinen, Jarkko T; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J; Isaksson, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Physical exercise during growth affects composition, structure and mechanical properties of bone. In this study we investigated whether the beneficial effects of exercise during the early growth phase have long-lasting effects or not. Female Syrian golden hamsters (total n=152) were used in this study. Half of the hamsters had access to running wheels during their rapid growth phase (from 1 to 3months of age). The hamsters were sacrificed at the ages of 1, 3, 12, and 15months. The diaphysis of the mineralized humerus was analyzed with microCT and subjected to three-point-bending mechanical testing. The trabecular bone in the tibial metaphysis was also analyzed with microCT. The collagen matrix of the humerus bone was studied by tensile testing after decalcification. The weight of the hamsters as well as the length of the bone and the volumetric bone mineral density (BMDvol) of the humerus was higher in the running group at the early age (3months). Moreover, the mineralized bone showed improved mechanical properties in humerus and had greater trabecular thickness in the subchondral bone of tibia in the runners. However, by the age of 12 and 15months, these differences were equalized with the sedentary group. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of decalcified humerus were higher in the runners at early stage, indicating a stronger collagen network. In tibial metaphysis, trabecular thickness was significantly higher for the runners in the old age groups (12 and 15months). Our study demonstrates that physical exercise during growth improves either directly or indirectly through weight gain bone properties of the hamsters. However, the beneficial effects were for the most part not maintained during aging. PMID:24423444

  13. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density...

  14. Distinct functional responses to stressors of bone marrow derived dendritic cells from diverse inbred chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goor, Angelica; Slawinska, Anna; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Differences in responses of chicken bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) to in vitro treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat, and LPS + heat were identified. The Fayoumi is more disease resistant and heat tolerant than the Leghorn line. Nitric Oxide (NO) production, phagocytic ability, MHC II surface expression and mRNA expression were measured. NO was induced in BMDC from both lines in response to LPS and LPS + heat stimulation; Fayoumi produced more NO with LPS treatment. Fayoumi had higher phagocytic ability and MHC II surface expression. Gene expression for the heat-related genes BAG3, HSP25, HSPA2, and HSPH1 was strongly induced with heat and few differences existed between lines. Expression for the immune-related genes CCL4, CCL5, CD40, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and iNOS was highly induced in response to LPS and different between lines. This research contributes to the sparse knowledge of genetic differences in chicken BMDC biology and function. PMID:27238770

  15. Telomerase expression extends the proliferative life-span and maintains the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Janne Lytoft; Kjeldsen, Cecilia Rosada; Serakinci, Nedime;

    2002-01-01

    Human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) were stably transduced by a retroviral vector containing the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT). Transduced cells (hMSC-TERTs) had telomerase activity, and the mean telomere length was increased as compared with that of control cells...... subculturing, did not form tumors, and had a normal karyotype. When implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice, the transduced cells formed more bone than did normal cells. These results suggest that ectopic expression of telomerase in hMSCs prevents senescence-associated impairment of osteoblast...

  16. Rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3L exhibit distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'diaye, Marie; Warnecke, Andreas; Flytzani, Sevasti; Abdelmagid, Nada; Ruhrmann, Sabrina; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja; Harris, Robert A; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cells are professional APCs that play a central role in the initiation of immune responses. The limited ex vivo availability of dendritic cells inspires the widespread use of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells as an alternative in research. However, the functional characteristics of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are incompletely understood. Therefore, we compared functional and phenotypic characteristics of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3 ligand bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. A comparison of surface markers revealed that FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD103, and CD4 and baseline levels of MHC class II, CD40, and CD86, which were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Conversely, GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells constitutively expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD11c, and CD11b but only mildly up-regulated MHC class II, CD40, or CD86 following stimulation. Expression of dendritic cell-associated core transcripts was restricted to FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells . GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were superior at phagocytosis but were outperformed by FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at antigen presentation and T cell stimulation in vitro. Stimulated GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more TNF, CCL5, CCL20, and NO, whereas FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more IL-6 and IL-12. Finally, whereas GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants added to resting T cell cultures promoted forkhead box p3(+) regulatory T cell populations, FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants drove Th17 differentiation. We conclude that rat GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functionally distinct. Our data support the current rationale that FLT3

  17. Investigating the impact of socioeconomic status on the effectiveness of a pamphlet on achieving and maintaining bone health in breast cancer survivors: a patient education resource development primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adirim, Tara; Chafranskaia, Aleksandra; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2012-03-01

    Considerable need exists to raise awareness of breast cancer (BC) treatment-induced bone loss and provide management and preventative strategies. We describe the development and evaluation process of an educational pamphlet for BC survivors on achieving and maintaining bone health. A Participatory Design approach was used. The pamphlet was first critically evaluated by interdisciplinary healthcare professionals and less vulnerable members of the target audience prior to evaluation by 45 BC survivors, who completed two questionnaires inquiring about demographics and pamphlet evaluation and satisfaction. Pamphlet effectiveness was correlated with income and education to determine differences between socioeconomic groups. Perceived knowledge increased significantly after reading the brochure for all groups. Socioeconomic status had no impact on pamphlet effectiveness. This methodological approach is presented as a blueprint to promote knowledge translation in cancer patient education contexts aiming to provide cancer patients with the best possible resources for effective self-management of their conditions. PMID:21748475

  18. Magnetically Responsive Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells Maintain Their Benefits to Augmenting Elastic Matrix Neoassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Ganesh; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Moore, Lee; Zborowski, Maciej; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) represent abnormal aortal expansions that result from chronic proteolytic breakdown of elastin and collagen fibers by matrix metalloproteases. Poor elastogenesis by adult vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) limits regenerative repair of elastic fibers, critical for AAA growth arrest. Toward overcoming these limitations, we recently demonstrated significant elastogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived SMCs (BM-SMCs) and their proelastogenesis and antiproteolytic effects on rat aneurysmal SMCs (EaRASMCs). We currently investigate the effects of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) labeling of BM-SMCs, necessary to magnetically guide them to the AAA wall, on their functional benefits. Our results indicate that SPION-labeling is noncytotoxic and does not adversely impact the phenotype and elastogenesis by BM-SMCs. In addition, SPION-BM-SMCs showed no changes in the ability of the BM-SMCs to stimulate elastin regeneration and attenuate proteolytic activity by EaRASMCs. Together, our results are promising toward the utility of SPIONs for magnetic targeting of BM-SMCs for in situ AAA regenerative repair. PMID:26830683

  19. Treating osteoporosis and maintaining bone healthy%应对骨质疏松维护骨骼健康

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶天遵; 陶树清; 荣杰生; 顾群; 王声雨; 王强

    2013-01-01

    People expect and hope orthopedic surgeons to deal with the challenge of osteoporosis successfully, which is also an unavoidable public health problem for orthopedic surgeons. They should focus on improving the conditions of patients with osteoporosis and treating osteoporotic fractures more aggressively. Currently, the clinical diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis are stated as following. ( 1 ) Fragility fractures;( 2 ) The measurement of bone mineral density by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( DXA ). “Primary osteoporosis” and “secondary osteoporosis”should be differentiated. The key points of the surgical intervention for osteoporotic fractures are stated as following. ( 1 ) Make an assessment of the patients’ general conditions before, during and after the operation, and make adjustment and correction to improve the operation safety;( 2 ) Choose a simple and safe surgical procedure, and focus on functional recovery but not anatomical reduction, which is beneficial for patients to ambulate early;( 3 ) Improve implants and surgical techniques to increase the holding force; ( 4 ) Pay attention to postoperative rehabilitation;( 5 ) Use anti-osteoporosis drugs correctly and rationally to aggressively treat osteoporosis during the perioperative period and in the long-term management process after the fractures.

  20. Forced expression of Sox2 or Nanog in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells maintains their expansion and differentiation capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human bone marrow have capability to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The cells have already been applied in various clinical situations because of their expansion and differentiation capabilities. The cells lose their capabilities after several passages, however. With the aim of conferring higher capability on human bone marrow MSCs, we introduced the Sox2 or Nanog gene into the cells. Sox2 and Nanog are not only essential for pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, but also expressed in somatic stem cells that have superior expansion and differentiation potentials. We found that Sox2-expressing MSCs showed consistent proliferation and osteogenic capability in culture media containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) compared to control cells. Significantly, in the presence of bFGF in culture media, most of the Sox2-expressing cells were small, whereas the control cells were elongated in shape. We also found that Nanog-expressing cells even in the absence of bFGF had much higher capabilities for expansion and osteogenesis than control cells. These results demonstrate not only an effective way to maintain proliferation and differentiation potentials of MSCs but also an important implication about the function of bFGF for self-renewal of stem cells including MSCs

  1. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  2. Simplification to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir maintains viral suppression and improves bone and renal biomarkers in ASSURE, a randomized, open label, non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Wohl

    groups. CONCLUSIONS: After 24 weeks, simplification to ABC/3TC+ATV from TDF/FTC+ATV/r maintained viral suppression was well-tolerated, and led to improvements in bone and renal biomarkers and HDL cholesterol. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01102972 GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Study Register #113734.

  3. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from patients with aplastic anemia maintain functional and immune properties and do not contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Clara; Roldan, Mar; Anguita, Eduardo; Romero-Moya, Damia; Martín-Antonio, Beatriz; Rosu-Myles, Michael; del Cañizo, Consuelo; Campos, Francisco; García, Regina; Gómez-Casares, Maite; Fuster, Jose Luis; Jurado, Manuel; DELGADO, MARIO; Menendez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia. The majority of cases of aplastic anemia remain idiopathic, although hematopoietic stem cell deficiency and impaired immune responses are hallmarks underlying the bone marrow failure in this condition. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells constitute an essential component of the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment because of their immunomodulatory properties and ...

  4. Identification of a distinct small cell population from human bone marrow reveals its multipotency in vivo and in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wang

    Full Text Available Small stem cells, such as spore-like cells, blastomere-like stem cells (BLSCs, and very-small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs have been described in recent studies, although their multipotency in human tissues has not yet been confirmed. Here, we report the discovery of adult multipotent stem cells derived from human bone marrow, which we call StemBios (SB cells. These isolated SB cells are smaller than 6 ìm and are DAPI+ and Lgr5+ (Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing G Protein-Coupled Receptor 5. Because Lgr5 has been characterized as a stem cell marker in the intestine, we hypothesized that SB cells may have a similar function. In vivo cell tracking assays confirmed that SB cells give rise to three types of cells, and in vitro studies demonstrated that SB cells cultured in proprietary media are able to grow to 6-25 ìm in size. Once the SB cells have attached to the wells, they differentiate into different cell lineages upon exposure to specific differentiation media. We are the first to demonstrate that stem cells smaller than 6 ìm can differentiate both in vivo and in vitro. In the future, we hope that SB cells will be used therapeutically to cure degenerative diseases.

  5. A Distinct Subpopulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Muse Cells, Directly Commit to the Replacement of Liver Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, H; Kushida, Y; Nojima, M; Kuroda, Y; Wakao, S; Ishida, K; Endo, F; Kume, K; Takahara, T; Nitta, H; Tsuda, H; Dezawa, M; Nishizuka, S S

    2016-02-01

    Genotyping graft livers by short tandem repeats after human living-donor liver transplantation (n = 20) revealed the presence of recipient or chimeric genotype cases in hepatocytes (6 of 17, 35.3%), sinusoidal cells (18 of 18, 100%), cholangiocytes (15 of 17, 88.2%) and cells in the periportal areas (7 of 8, 87.5%), suggesting extrahepatic cell involvement in liver regeneration. Regarding extrahepatic origin, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been suggested to contribute to liver regeneration but compose a heterogeneous population. We focused on a more specific subpopulation (1-2% of BM-MSCs), called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, for their ability to differentiate into liver-lineage cells and repair tissue. We generated a physical partial hepatectomy model in immunodeficient mice and injected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human BM-MSC Muse cells intravenously (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and species-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that they integrated into regenerating areas and expressed liver progenitor markers during the early phase and then differentiated spontaneously into major liver components, including hepatocytes (≈74.3% of GFP-positive integrated Muse cells), cholangiocytes (≈17.7%), sinusoidal endothelial cells (≈2.0%), and Kupffer cells (≈6.0%). In contrast, the remaining cells in the BM-MSCs were not detected in the liver for up to 4 weeks. These results suggest that Muse cells are the predominant population of BM-MSCs that are capable of replacing major liver components during liver regeneration. PMID:26663569

  6. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  7. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. ► Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. ► MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. ► 18α-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. ► 18α-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  8. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs

  10. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Li, E-mail: luli7300@126.com [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Li, Ang [Department of Anatomy, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Xiao, Zhi-Cheng, E-mail: zhicheng.xiao@monash.edu [Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical College, Kunming 650031 (China); Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  11. Normal Hematopoietic Stem Cells within the AML Bone Marrow Have a Distinct and Higher ALDH Activity Level than Co-Existing Leukemic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurhuis, Gerrit J.; Meel, Michael H.; Wouters, Floris; Min, Lisa A.; Terwijn, Monique; de Jonge, Nick A.; Kelder, Angele; Snel, Alexander N; Zweegman, Sonja; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Smit, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Persistence of leukemic stem cells (LSC) after chemotherapy is thought to be responsible for relapse and prevents the curative treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. LSC and normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) share many characteristics and co-exist in the bone marrow of AML patients. For the development of successful LSC-targeted therapy, enabling eradication of LSC while sparing HSC, the identification of differences between LSC and HSC residing within the AML bone marrow is ...

  12. Coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis by a specific vessel subtype in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The mammalian skeletal system harbours a hierarchical system of mesenchymal stem cells, osteoprogenitors and osteoblasts sustaining lifelong bone formation. Osteogenesis is indispensable for the homeostatic renewal of bone as well as regenerative fracture healing, but these processes frequently decline in ageing organisms leading to loss of bone mass and increased fracture incidence. There is evidence indicating that the growth of blood vessels in bone and osteogenesis are coupled, but relatively little is known about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here we identify a new capillary subtype in the murine skeletal system with distinct morphological, molecular and functional properties. These vessels are found in specific locations, mediate growth of the bone vasculature, generate distinct metabolic and molecular microenvironments, maintain perivascular osteoprogenitors, and couple angiogenesis to osteogenesis. The abundance of these vessels and associated osteoprogenitors was strongly reduced in bone from aged animals, which was pharmacologically reversible to restore bone mass. PMID:24646994

  13. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling: lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L; Duong, Le T; Engelholm, Lars H; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-10

    The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is

  14. 1. Morphological Implication on Cellular Response to Mechanical Stress in Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amizuka, Norio

    2016-08-01

    In bone, there are 3 distinct cell types: an osteoblast, a bone forming cell; an osteocyte embedded in bone matrix as a consequence of being differentiated from an osteoblast; and an osteoclast, a multinucleated giant cell responsible for bone resorption. Bone is always remodeled by replacing old bone with new bone (bone remodeling), by which bone can maintain its stiffness and flexibility. However, in an osteoporotic state, the disrupted balance between bone resorption and formation results in not only markedly reduced bone mass, but also in disorganized geometry of trabecules, which can often give rise to a bone fracture. Osteocytes located in their lacunae insert their fine cytoplasmic processes into narrow passageways referred to as osteocytic canaliculi. Neighboring osteocytes connect to each other by means of a gap junction in their cytoplasmic processes. Therefore, osteocytes and their lacunae/canaliculi appear to form functional syncytium called osteocytic lacunar canalicular system (OLCS). The geometrical distribution of OLCS is poorly arranged in immature bone, while it appears well-arranged distribution in mature bone (cortical bone), in which molecular transports and sensing mechanical stress seems to be efficient, and therefore, may be able to respond to mechanical stress. In this seminar, I will introduce our recent findings on the morphology and function of OLCS which may respond to mechanical stress. PMID:27441762

  15. Distinct Transcriptional Signatures of Bone Marrow-Derived C57BL/6 and DBA/2 Dendritic Leucocytes Hosting Live Leishmania amazonensis Amastigotes

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Emilie; Lecoeur, Hervé; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Milon, Geneviève; Prina, Eric; Lang, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The inoculation of a low number (104) of L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes into the dermis of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse ear pinna results in distinct outcome as assessed by the parasite load values and ear pinna macroscopic features monitored from days 4 to 22-phase 1 and from days 22 to 80/100-phase 2. While in C57BL/6 mice, the amastigote population size was increasing progressively, in DBA/2 mice, it was rapidly controlled. This latter rapid control did not preven...

  16. Recursive Distinctioning

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Recursive distinctioning (RD) is a name coined by Joel Isaacson in his original patent document describing how fundamental patterns of process arise from the systematic application of operations of distinction and description upon themselves. Recursive distinctioning means just what it says. A pattern of distinctions is given in a space based on a graphical structure (such as a line of print or a planar lattice or given graph). Each node of the graph is occupied by a letter from some arbitrary alphabet. A specialized alphabet is given that can indicate distinctions about neighbors of a given node. The neighbors of a node are all nodes that are connected to the given node by edges in the graph. The letters in the specialized alphabet (call it SA) are used to describe the states of the letters in the given graph and at each stage in the recursion, letters in SA are written at all nodes in the graph, describing its previous state. The recursive structure that results from the iteration of descriptions is called ...

  17. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J; Partridge, Nicola C

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  18. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  19. Macrophages: Their Emerging Roles in Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Pettit, Allison R; McCauley, Laurie K

    2015-12-01

    Macrophages are present in nearly all tissues and are critical for development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Resident tissue macrophages of bone, termed osteal macrophages, are recently classified myeloid cells that are distinct from osteoclasts. Osteal macrophages are located immediately adjacent to osteoblasts, regulate bone formation, and play diverse roles in skeletal homeostasis. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of macrophages in vivo results in significant bone phenotypes, and these phenotypes depend on which macrophage subsets are altered. Macrophages are also key mediators of osseous wound healing and fracture repair, with distinct roles at various stages of the repair process. A central function of macrophages is their phagocytic ability. Each day, billions of cells die in the body and efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) is a critical process in both clearing dead cells and recruitment of replacement progenitor cells to maintain homeostasis. Recent data suggest a role for efferocytosis in bone biology and these new mechanisms are outlined. Finally, although macrophages have an established role in primary tumors, emerging evidence suggests that macrophages in bone support cancers which preferentially metastasize to the skeleton. Collectively, this developing area of osteoimmunology raises new questions and promises to provide novel insights into pathophysiologic conditions as well as therapeutic and regenerative approaches vital for skeletal health. PMID:26531055

  20. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  1. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  2. Immunohistochemical distinction of haematogones from B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma or B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) on bone marrow trephine biopsies: a study on 62 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shieban, Saeed; Byrne, Elizabeth; Trivedi, Pritesh; Morilla, Ricardo; Matutes, Estella; Naresh, Kikkeri N

    2011-08-01

    Haematogones are normal, maturing B-cell precursors. They can be confused with neoplastic immature lymphoid cells of B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma or B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Though multi-colour flow-cytometry strategies for distinguishing haematogones from cells of B-ALL are well-described, similar strategies have not been determined for bone marrow trephine biopsies (BMTB). We revisited the morphological and immunohistochemical features (CD20, CD34, TdT and PAX5 expression) in 69 BMTB from 62 patients - 27 with excess haematogones; seven with residual B-ALL after therapy; 18 with no reported excess of haematogones or residual acute leukaemia on BMTB; and 17 diagnostic samples of B-ALL. The distinctive immunophenotypic pattern of BMTB with excess haematogones was of CD34, TdT, CD20 and PAX5 accounting for increasing proportions of cells in the order mentioned, whereas among B-ALL, the immunohistochemical pattern was of CD20, PAX5 and TdT accounting for an equal proportion of cells. Furthermore, among haematogones, the intensity of CD20 expression was extremely heterogeneous as compared to the neoplastic cells in CD20-positive B-ALL. The TdT-positive haematogones were generally small and uniform, while a certain degree of heterogeneity was noticed among neoplastic B-ALL cells. This study provides a practical strategy to distinguish haematogones from B-ALL cells in BMTB. PMID:21722099

  3. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  4. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  5. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  6. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D Do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  7. Maintaining Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  8. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Background. Older people, living in nursing homes, are exposed to diverse situations, which may be associated with loss of dignity. To help them maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is preserved in such context. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been...... studied from both the residents´ and the care pro-viders´ perspective. However, most of these studies pertain to experiences in the dying or the illness context. Knowledge is scarce about how older people experience their dig-nity within their everyday lives in nursing homes. Aim To illuminate the meaning...... of maintaining dignity from the perspective of older people living in nursing homes Method. This qualitative study is based on individual interviews. Twenty-eight nursing home residents were included from six nursing homes in Scandinavia. A phenomenolog-ical-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur...

  9. Immunoregulation of bone remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also. PMID:22837895

  10. Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ray; D Mukherjee; S Bandyopadhyay

    2009-11-01

    Bone microstructure is affected by ontogeny, phylogeny, biomechanics and environments. These aspects of life history of an extinct animal, especially its growth patterns, may be assessed as fossil bone generally maintains its histological integrity. Recent studies on the bone histology of fossil vertebrates from India encompass different types of temnospondyls and dicynodonts from different Permian and Triassic horizons. The examined taxa show that they had distinct bone histology and varied growth patterns. The Early Triassic trematosaurids had an overall fast growth, which contrasts with that of the Middle and Late Triassic temnospondyl taxa examined. The dicynodonts on the other hand, were characterized by an overall fast growth with periodic interruptions, variable growth rates dependent on ontogeny and indeterminate growth strategy. A comparative study encompassing several neotherapsid genera including the dicynodonts shows significant evolutionary trends towards determinate growth strategy and reduced developmental plasticity.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  12. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  13. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  14. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  15. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  16. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  17. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concern for patients with MBD is the general loss in quality of life. How much of an effect MBD has on ... to be most effective in maintaining quality of life. A technetium bone scan ... blood count, because loss of red blood cells (anemia) is a frequent ...

  18. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  19. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  20. Distinct fates of self-specific T cells developing in irradiation bone marrow chimeras: Clonal deletion, clonal anergy, or in vitro responsiveness to self-Mls-1a controlled by hemopoietic cells in the thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speiser, D.E.; Chvatchko, Y.; Zinkernagel, R.M.; MacDonald, H.R. (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Epalinges (Switzerland))

    1990-11-01

    Elimination of potentially self-reactive T lymphocytes during their maturation in the thymus has been shown to be a major mechanism in accomplishing self-tolerance. Previous reports demonstrated that clonal deletion of self-Mls-1a-specific V beta 6+ T lymphocyte is controlled by a radiosensitive I-E+ thymic component. Irradiation chimeras reconstituted with I-E- bone marrow showed substantial numbers of mature V beta 6+ T cells despite host Mls-1a expression. Analysis of the functional properties of such chimeric T cells revealed a surprising variability in their in vitro reactivity to host Mls-1a, depending on the H-2 haplotype of stem cells used for reconstitution. In chimeras reconstituted with B10.S (H-2s) stem cells, mature V beta 6+ lymphocytes were present but functionally anergic to host-type Mls-1a in vitro. In contrast, in chimeras reconstituted with B10.G (H-2q) bone marrow, nondeleted V beta 6+ cells were highly responsive to Mls-1a in vitro. These findings suggest that clonal anergy of V beta 6+ cells to self-Mls-1a may be controlled by the affinity/avidity of T cell receptor interactions with bone marrow-derived cells in the thymus depending on the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules involved. Furthermore, chimeras bearing host (Mls-1a)-reactive V beta 6+ cells did not differ clinically from those with anergic or deleted V beta 6+ cells and survived more than one year without signs of autoimmune disease. Interestingly, their spleen cells had no Mls-1a stimulatory capacity in vitro. Therefore, regulation at the level of antigen presentation may be an alternative mechanism for maintenance of tolerance to certain self-antigens such as Mls-1a.

  1. Distinct fates of self-specific T cells developing in irradiation bone marrow chimeras: Clonal deletion, clonal anergy, or in vitro responsiveness to self-Mls-1a controlled by hemopoietic cells in the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elimination of potentially self-reactive T lymphocytes during their maturation in the thymus has been shown to be a major mechanism in accomplishing self-tolerance. Previous reports demonstrated that clonal deletion of self-Mls-1a-specific V beta 6+ T lymphocyte is controlled by a radiosensitive I-E+ thymic component. Irradiation chimeras reconstituted with I-E- bone marrow showed substantial numbers of mature V beta 6+ T cells despite host Mls-1a expression. Analysis of the functional properties of such chimeric T cells revealed a surprising variability in their in vitro reactivity to host Mls-1a, depending on the H-2 haplotype of stem cells used for reconstitution. In chimeras reconstituted with B10.S (H-2s) stem cells, mature V beta 6+ lymphocytes were present but functionally anergic to host-type Mls-1a in vitro. In contrast, in chimeras reconstituted with B10.G (H-2q) bone marrow, nondeleted V beta 6+ cells were highly responsive to Mls-1a in vitro. These findings suggest that clonal anergy of V beta 6+ cells to self-Mls-1a may be controlled by the affinity/avidity of T cell receptor interactions with bone marrow-derived cells in the thymus depending on the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules involved. Furthermore, chimeras bearing host (Mls-1a)-reactive V beta 6+ cells did not differ clinically from those with anergic or deleted V beta 6+ cells and survived more than one year without signs of autoimmune disease. Interestingly, their spleen cells had no Mls-1a stimulatory capacity in vitro. Therefore, regulation at the level of antigen presentation may be an alternative mechanism for maintenance of tolerance to certain self-antigens such as Mls-1a

  2. Brief Review of Models of Ectopic Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Michelle A.; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; James, Aaron W.

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity—distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used f...

  3. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. Androgen and bone mass in men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnnieW.C.Kung

    2003-01-01

    Androgens have multiple actions on the skeleton throughout life. Androgens promote skeletal growth and accumulation of minerals during puberty and adolescence and stimulate osteoblast but suppress osteoclast function,activity and lifespan through complex mechanisms. Also androgens increase periosteal bone apposition, resulting in larger bone size and thicker cortical bone in men. There is convincing evidence to show that aromatization to estrogens was an important pathway for mediating the action of testosterone on bone physiology. Estrogen is probably the dominant sex steroid regulating bone resorption in men, but both testosterone and estrogen are important in maintaining bone formation. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 148-154)

  5. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainis ZEPS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctions have? We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature. For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinction may be considered as freedom of motion.

  6. Parallel mechanisms suppress cochlear bone remodeling to protect hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel J; Akil, Omar; Acevedo, Claire; Hall-Glenn, Faith; Tsai, Betty S; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Liebenberg, Ellen; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Ritchie, Robert O; Lustig, Lawrence R; Alliston, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling, a combination of bone resorption and formation, requires precise regulation of cellular and molecular signaling to maintain proper bone quality. Whereas osteoblasts deposit and osteoclasts resorb bone matrix, osteocytes both dynamically resorb and replace perilacunar bone matrix. Osteocytes secrete proteases like matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) to maintain the material quality of bone matrix through perilacunar remodeling (PLR). Deregulated bone remodeling impairs bone quality and can compromise hearing since the auditory transduction mechanism is within bone. Understanding the mechanisms regulating cochlear bone provides unique ways to assess bone quality independent of other aspects that contribute to bone mechanical behavior. Cochlear bone is singular in its regulation of remodeling by expressing high levels of osteoprotegerin. Since cochlear bone expresses a key PLR enzyme, MMP13, we examined whether cochlear bone relies on, or is protected from, osteocyte-mediated PLR to maintain hearing and bone quality using a mouse model lacking MMP13 (MMP13(-/-)). We investigated the canalicular network, collagen organization, lacunar volume via micro-computed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry. Despite finding defects in these hallmarks of PLR in MMP13(-/-) long bones, cochlear bone revealed no differences in these markers, nor hearing loss as measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) or distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs), between wild type and MMP13(-/-) mice. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed abundant PLR by tibial osteocytes, but near absence in cochlear bone. Cochlear suppression of PLR corresponds to repression of several key PLR genes in the cochlea relative to long bones. These data suggest that cochlear bone uniquely maintains bone quality and hearing independent of MMP13-mediated osteocytic PLR. Furthermore, the cochlea employs parallel mechanisms to inhibit remodeling by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and by

  7. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M;

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  8. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  9. Implant-induced microdamage in osteoporotic bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Zhi-feng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】With the increase of elderly population, more and more implant operations need to be performed in osteoporotic bone, while different forms of microdamage will be produced in peri-implant bone intraoperatively, in-cluding high- and low-density diffuse damages, as well as linear cracks. The length and location of the microcracks are the main factors in affecting the biomechanical performance of bone. Suppression of bone remodeling by bisphosphonates may lead to microdamage accumulation, which is often accompanied with the decrease of bone strength and the increase of bone fragility. Microdamage can be repaired by bone remodeling or mineralization to maintain the strength and structural integrity. Both remo-deling and mineralization can affect the bone quality and long-term implant stability. In this paper, we make a brief summary of some important issues and research progresses in this field. Key words: Osteoporosis, postmenopausal; Bone remodeling; Aged

  10. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  11. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  12. Inhibitory effect of auranofin (I) and chloroquine (II) on bone degradation induced by the interleukin 1-like (IL-1-like) factor released from rheumatoid synovial tissue (RAST) in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Y.; Maser, M.R.; Britton, M.C.; Multz, C.V.; Butler, E.; Chin, R.C.

    1986-03-01

    RAST, maintained in organ culture, releases two distinct types of bone resorptive factors and one co-resorptive factor. The first is prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/), while the second is a protein with properties of IL-1. The co-resorptive factor collagenase, cannot induce bone resorption by itself, but augments the bone resorptive activity initiated by either PGE/sub 2/ or the IL-l-like factor. Bone resorptive activity was assessed by measuring the release of /sup 45/Ca from prelabelled rat fetal bones. We investigated the effects of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and two disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), (I) and (II), on bone degradation mediated by the IL-l-like factor. None of the NSAIDs tested inhibited bone degradation at 5 x 10/sup -5/ M. On the other hand, both (I) and (II) inhibited bone degradation 60 to 100% at 1 x 10/sup -6/ M and 8 x 10/sup -6/ M respectively. They can inhibit the action of IL-l-like factor on bone at therapeutically attainable concentrations. Additionally, both (I) and (II) block the release of collagenase from the organ culture of RAST with IC/sub 50/s of 5 x 10/sup -6/ M. This unique ability to inhibit collagenase release may contribute to their effectiveness is preventing bone loss in this test model.

  13. Inhibitory effect of auranofin (I) and chloroquine (II) on bone degradation induced by the interleukin 1-like (IL-1-like) factor released from rheumatoid synovial tissue (RAST) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAST, maintained in organ culture, releases two distinct types of bone resorptive factors and one co-resorptive factor. The first is prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), while the second is a protein with properties of IL-1. The co-resorptive factor collagenase, cannot induce bone resorption by itself, but augments the bone resorptive activity initiated by either PGE2 or the IL-l-like factor. Bone resorptive activity was assessed by measuring the release of 45Ca from prelabelled rat fetal bones. We investigated the effects of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and two disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), (I) and (II), on bone degradation mediated by the IL-l-like factor. None of the NSAIDs tested inhibited bone degradation at 5 x 10-5 M. On the other hand, both (I) and (II) inhibited bone degradation 60 to 100% at 1 x 10-6 M and 8 x 10-6 M respectively. They can inhibit the action of IL-l-like factor on bone at therapeutically attainable concentrations. Additionally, both (I) and (II) block the release of collagenase from the organ culture of RAST with IC50s of 5 x 10-6 M. This unique ability to inhibit collagenase release may contribute to their effectiveness is preventing bone loss in this test model

  14. Implant-induced microdamage in osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Feng; Tang, Ting-Ting; Qiu, Shi-Jing

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of elderly population, more and more implant operations need to be performed in osteoporotic bone, while different forms of microdamage will be produced in peri-implant bone intraoperatively, including high- and low-density diffuse damages, as well as linear cracks. The length and location of the microcracks are the main factors in affecting the biomechanical performance of bone. Suppression of bone remodeling by bisphosphonates may lead to microdamage accumulation, which is often accompanied with the decrease of bone strength and the increase of bone fragility. Microdamage can be repaired by bone remodeling or mineralization to maintain the strength and structural integrity. Both remo- deling and mineralization can affect the bone quality and long-term implant stability. In this paper, we make a brief summary of some important issues and research progresses in this field. PMID:22480676

  15. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  16. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Hennig

    2008-01-01

    Descartes claims that God is a substance and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means that it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, since an idea is distinct (in an objective sense) if its object may be easily and cle...

  17. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  18. Properties of deproteinized bone for reparation of big segmental defect in long bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Yue-kui; TIAN Xiao-bin; LI Bo; QIU Bing; ZHOU Zuo-jia; YANG Zheng; LI Qi-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore suitable scaffold material for big segmental long bone defect by studying the properties of the prepared deproteinized bone. Methods: Cancellated bone were made as 30 mm ×3 mm ×3 mm bone blocks from inferior extremity of pig femur along bone trabecula. The deproteinized bone was prepared with an improved method. Their morphological features, components, cell compatibility, mechanical and immunological properties were investigated respectively. Results: Deproteinized bone maintained natural re ticular pore system. The main organic material is collagen Ⅰand inorganic composition is hydroxyapatite. It has good mechanical properties, cell adhesion rate and histocompatibility. Conlusion: This deproteinized bone can be applicable as scaffold for reparation of big segmental defect in long bone.

  19. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  20. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1". One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  1. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Xue

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1" One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  2. Efficient And Maintainable Test Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Abdifatah; Lindhe, Magnus

    2002-01-01

    More and more companies experience problems with maintainability and time-consuming development of automated testing tools. The MPC department at Ericsson Software Technology AB use methods and tools often developed during time pressure that results in time-consuming testing and requires more effort and resources than planned. The tools are also such nature that they are hard to expand, maintain and in some cases they have been thrown out between releases. For this reason, we could identify t...

  3. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  4. Estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover but bone balance in ovariectomized rats is modulated by prevailing mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, K. C.; Wronski, T. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Luo, Z. P.; An, K. N.; Bell, N. H.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency induced bone loss is associated with increased bone turnover in rats and humans. The respective roles of increased bone turnover and altered balance between bone formation and bone resorption in mediating estrogen deficiency-induced cancellous bone loss was investigated in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy resulted in increased bone turnover in the distal femur. However, cancellous bone was preferentially lost in the metaphysis, a site that normally experiences low strain energy. No bone loss was observed in the epiphysis, a site experiencing higher strain energy. The role of mechanical strain in maintaining bone balance was investigated by altering the strain history. Mechanical strain was increased and decreased in long bones of ovariectomized rats by treadmill exercise and functional unloading, respectively. Functional unloading was achieved during orbital spaceflight and following unilateral sciatic neurotomy. Increasing mechanical loading reduced bone loss in the metaphysis. In contrast, decreasing loading accentuated bone loss in the metaphysis and resulted in bone loss in the epiphysis. Finally, administration of estrogen to ovariectomized rats reduced bone loss in the unloaded and prevented loss in the loaded limb following unilateral sciatic neurotomy in part by reducing indices of bone turnover. These results suggest that estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover, but the overall balance between bone formation and bone resorption is influenced by prevailing levels of mechanical strain.

  5. Studies on the mechanisms underlying the transfer of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brommage, Robert J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The skeleton is recognized as a crucial organ in the minute-to-minute regulation of the blood levels of calcium and phosphate. The fluxes of calcium and phosphate to and from bone greatly exceed the entry and exit of these ions occurring in the intestine and kidneys. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ (1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ are known to influence the transfer of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hormonal control of the calcium and phosphate effluxes from bone. The concept of a bone membrane maintaining a distinct bone extracellular fluid composition has led to the pump and pH gradient theories. An alternate solubilizer theory proposes that bone cells secrete a substance which increases the solubility of the bone mineral. The bone membrane concept was originally proposed to explain the presence of the apparent anomalously high concentrations of potassium in the bone extracellular fluid. However, the available evidence does not allow an unambiguous decision concerning the presence of a bone membrane. Calvarial lactate production was unaltered by 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ treatment and consequently 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ does not appear to promote the mobilization of bone mineral through a lactate-mediated pH gradient mechanism. 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ did increase the solubility of non-vital bone, clearly demonstrating that the solubilizer mechanism is at least partially responsible for the mobilization of bone mineral and the regulation of blood levels of calcium and phosphate. Vitamin D-deficient female rats fed a 0.2% calcium, 0.4% phosphorous diet and supplemented with daily injections of 0.75 pmole of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were shown to be capable of bearing young. When the injections of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were terminated at delivery, the dams and pups showed signs of vitamin D deficiency approximately one week later.

  6. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  7. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  8. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  9. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  10. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  11. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  12. Glutamate signalling in healthy and diseased bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EricP.Seidlitz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone relies on multiple extracellular signalling systems to maintain homeostasis of its normal structure and functions. The amino acid glutamate is a fundamental extracellular messenger molecule in many tissues, and is used in bone for both neural and non-neural signalling. This review focuses on the non-neural interactions, and examines the evolutionarily ancient glutamate signalling system in the context of its application to normal bone functioning and discusses recent findings on the role of glutamate signalling as they pertain to maintaining healthy bone structure. The underlying mechanisms of glutamate signalling and the many roles glutamate plays in modulating bone physiology are featured, including those involved in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and mature cell functions. Moreover, the relevance of glutamate signalling systems in diseases that affect bone, such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, is discussed, and will highlight how the glutamate system may be exploited as a viable therapeutic target. We will identify novel areas of research where knowledge of glutamate communication mechanisms may aid in our understanding of the complex nature of bone homeostasis. By uncovering the contributions of glutamate in maintaining healthy bone, the reader will discover how this complex molecular signalling system may advance our capacity to treat bone pathologies.

  13. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  14. Make No Bones about It: Long Bones Scale Isometrically.

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin Sedwick

    2015-01-01

    Long bones are far from being simple cylinders, so how is the relative positioning of their various features maintained during growth? A new study shows that growth is isometric and that drift from the correct position is minimized. Read the Research Article.

  15. Make No Bones about It: Long Bones Scale Isometrically

    OpenAIRE

    Sedwick, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    Long bones are far from being simple cylinders, so how is the relative positioning of their various features maintained during growth? A new study shows that growth is isometric and that drift from the correct position is minimized. Read the Research Article.

  16. Fibrillin microfibrils in bone physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Silvia; Ramirez, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The severe skeletal abnormalities associated with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) underscore the notion that fibrillin assemblies (microfibrils and elastic fibers) play a critical role in bone formation and function in spite of representing a low abundance component of skeletal matrices. Studies of MFS and CCA mice have correlated the skeletal phenotypes of these mutant animals with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms that reflect the contextual contribution of fibrillin-1 and -2 scaffolds to TGFβ and BMP signaling during bone patterning, growth and metabolism. Illustrative examples include the unique role of fibrillin-2 in regulating BMP-dependent limb patterning and the distinct impact of the two fibrillin proteins on the commitment and differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, these findings have important implication for our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive age- and injury-related processes of bone degeneration. PMID:26408953

  17. The response of bone to unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During spaceflight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1-g environment, and some redistribution of bone from the lower extremities to the head appears to take place. Although changes in calcitropic hormones have been demonstrated during skeletal unloading (PTH and 1,25(OH)2D decrease), it remains unclear whether such changes account for or are in response to the changes in bone formation and resorption. Bed rest studies with human volunteers and hindlimb elevation studies with rats have provided useful data to help explain the changes in bone formation during spaceflight. These models of skeletal unloading reproduce a number of the conditions associated with microgravity, and the findings from such studies confirm many of the observations made during spaceflight. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. Such investigations couple biophysics to biochemistry to cell and molecular biology. Although studies with cell cultures have revealed biochemical responses to mechanical loads comparable to that seen in intact bone, it seems likely that matrix-cell interactions underlie much of the mechanocoupling. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH, and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs, and TGF-beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to mechanical load with increased bone formation are further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, with

  18. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  19. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  20. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  1. Bulkloading and Maintaining XML Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.R.; Kersten, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The popularity of XML as a exchange and storage format brings about massive amounts of documents to be stored, maintained and analyzed -- a challenge that traditionally has been tackled with Database Management Systems (DBMS). To open up the content of XML documents to analysis with declarative quer

  2. Skeletal Blood Flow in Bone Repair and Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan E.Tomlinson; Matthew J.Silva

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue, although this aspect of bone is often overlooked. In this article, the importance of blood flow in bone repair and regeneration will be reviewed. First, the skeletal vascular anato-my, with an emphasis on long bones, the distinct mechanisms for vascularizing bone tissue, and methods for remodeling existing vasculature are discussed. Next, techniques for quantifying bone blood flow are briefly summarized. Finally, the body of experimental work that demonstrates the role of bone blood flow in fracture healing, distraction osteogenesis, osteoporosis, disuse osteopenia, and bone grafting is examined. These results illustrate that adequate bone blood flow is an important clinical consideration, particularly during bone regeneration and in at-risk patient groups.

  3. Bone growth in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research performed in several laboratories has shown that artificially induced currents affect bone growth. Studies of various current characteristics produced by implanted electrodes indicate that continuous dc, interrupted dc, and asymmetric ac all increase osteogenesis at the cathode. Stimulation from an externally applied balanced ac field was reported to reduce bone loss from disuse. The purpose of the study being reported here was to examine the influence of a uniform ac electric field on the normal skeletal growth pattern of rats. Juvenile rats received whole body exposure to uniform, vertical 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 30 days. There were no marked alterations in the general growth pattern of the exposed animals compared to controls maintained under similar conditions. Bone growth rate, measured by tetracycline labeling, morphology of lumbar vertebrae and tibias and cortical bone area and marrow space area of tibias were not disturbed by exposure to the electric fields. (author)

  4. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  5. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  6. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with 45Ca and [3H]proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more 45Ca and [3H]proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading

  7. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  8. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Todenhöfer; Arnulf Stenzl; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Rachner, Tilman D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL), antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs) in the castrat...

  9. The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Su; Pierre P. Eleniste; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Mandela, Prashant; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.; Allen, Matthew R; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and f...

  10. Mining multidimensional distinct patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kubendranathan, Thusjanthan

    2010-01-01

    How do we find the dominant groups of customers in age, sex and location that were responsible for at least 85% of the sales of iPad, Macbook and iPhone? To answer such types of questions we introduce a novel data mining task – mining multidimensional distinct patterns (DPs). Given a multidimensional data set where each tuple carries some attribute values and a transaction, multidimensional DPs are itemsets whose absolute support ratio in a group-by on the attributes against the rest of the d...

  11. Control Inflation while Maintain Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Junsheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dragged by the U.S.subprime crisis and the soaring oil price, the global economy is slowing down,causing problems to China, the country which has continuously achieved miraculous economic growth.Apart from the accumulation of high inflation and risks of overheated economy, China is attacked by serious natural disasters ever since the beginning of 2008,including the snow disaster, the earthquake and the flood.It is obviously that China's priority now is to bring inflation under control so as to maintain the stable growth of economy.

  12. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Mahalia E; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia;

    2013-01-01

    populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation...

  13. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  14. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. PMID:16938094

  15. Maintaining workforce staffing and competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French nuclear security system is a performance based system in which the nuclear operators have responsibility for the security of the nuclear material held in the facilities they operate. These operators have a choice of the means they use to fulfil their security obligations. Among the three main operators, two have decided to recruit and train their own staff, and the third has signed an agreement with the gendarmerie. Maintaining a high level of vigilance is an important and vital challenge, for which the management of the nuclear facilities is responsible and accountable. Flexibility, management support and commitment and repeated exercises are good means to reach this goal. However, no security system is appropriate unless the whole staff, those directly involved in security or otherwise, share a high degree of security culture. (author)

  16. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  17. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  18. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  19. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  20. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  1. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  2. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  3. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  4. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  5. Building and maintaining media contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  6. Software Code Maintainability : A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Seref

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Software Maintainability is one of the most important quality attributes. To increase quality of a software, to manage software more efficient and to decrease cost of the software, maintainability, maintainability estimation and maintainability evaluation models have been proposed. However, the practical use of these models in software engineering tools and practice remained little due to their limitations or threats to validity. In this paper, results of our Literature Review about maintainability models, maintainability metrics and maintainability estimation are presented. Aim of this paper is providing a baseline for further searches and serving the needs of developers and customers.

  7. Intellectualization of Design Technique for Product Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Quan; SONG Yi-gang; CHENG Zhong-hua

    2004-01-01

    The basis of the two guideline lectures for maintainability design,namely "maintainability design criterions" and "cases compilation of maintainability design technique",an intellectualized architecture for combining rule-based reasoning(RBR)and case-based reasoning(CBR),is presented in this paper by analyzing from maintainability design procedure to the thought of our solving the maintainability design problem.Furthermore,the domain model and reasoning process is introduced and a representation of maintainability domain knowledge is given.Finally,the computer-aided engineering system for maintainability design(MCAES)which is based on intellectualized architecture is reported;its function and implementation is described.

  8. Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered ...

  9. Elastic plastic damage laws for cortical bone

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Curnier, Alain; Zysset, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by applications in orthopaedic and maxillo-facial surgery, the mechanical behaviour of cortical bone tissue in cyclic overloads at physiological strain rates is investigated. The emphasis is on the development of appropriate constitutive laws that faithfully reproduce the loading, unloading, and reloading sequence observed during experimental in vitro uniaxial testing. To this end, the models include three distinct modes of evolution, namely a linear elastic mode due to bone cohesio...

  10. Elastic plastic damage laws for cortical bone

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by applications in orthopaedic and maxillo-facial surgery, the mechanical behaviour of cortical bone tissue in cyclic overloads at physiological strain rates is investigated. The emphasis is on the development of appropriate constitutive laws that faithfully reproduce the loading, unloading, and reloading sequence observed during experimental in vitro uniaxial testing. To this end, the models include three distinct modes of evolution, namely a linear elastic mode due to bone cohesio...

  11. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets. PMID:24898237

  12. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Jason L.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.; Mahan, John D

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serio...

  13. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  14. Transcriptome comparison of distinct osteolineage subsets in the hematopoietic stem cell niche using a triple fluorescent transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vionnie W C; Lymperi, Stefania; Ferraro, Francesca; Scadden, David T

    2015-09-01

    The bone marrow niche is recognized as a central player in maintaining and regulating the behavior of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Specific gain-of and loss-of function experiments perturbing a range of osteolineage cells or their secreted proteins had been shown to affect stem cell maintenance (Calvi et al, 2003 [1]; Stier et al., 2005 [2]; Zhang et al., 2003 [3]; Nilsson et al., 2005 [4]; Greenbaum et al., 2013 [5]) and engraftment (Adam et al., 2006, 2009 [6,7]). We used specific in vivo cell deletion approaches to dissect the niche cell-parenchymal cell dependency in a complex bone marrow microenvironment. Endogenous deletion of osteocalcin-expressing (Ocn(+)) cells led to a loss of T immune cells (Yu et al., 2015 [8]. Ocn(+) cells express the Notch ligand DLL4 to communicate with T-competent progenitors, and thereby ensuring T precursor production and expression of chemotactic molecules on their cell surface for subsequent thymic seeding. In contrast, depletion of osterix-expressing (Osx(+)) osteoprogenitors led to reduced B immune cells. These distinct hematopoietic phenotypes suggest specific pairing of mesenchymal niche cells and parenchymal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow to create unique functional units to support hematopoiesis. Here, we present the global gene expression profiles of these osteolineage subtypes utilizing a triple fluorescent transgenic mouse model (OsxCre(+);Rosa-mCh(+);Ocn:Topaz(+)) that labels Osx(+) cells red, Ocn(+) cells green, and Osx(+) Ocn(+) cells yellow. This system allows isolation of distinct osteolineage subsets within the same animal by flow cytometry. Array data that have been described in our study [8] are also publically available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) with the accession number GSE66042. Differences in gene expression may correlate with functional difference in supporting hematopoiesis. PMID:26484277

  15. Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim; Kristensen, Helene Bjørg;

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing these...... lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined...... histomorphometry and IHC on human iliac biopsy specimens, and showed that reversal cells are immunoreactive for factors typically expressed by osteoblasts, but not for monocytic markers. Furthermore, a subpopulation of reversal cells showed several distinctive characteristics suggestive of an arrested...

  16. Modelling the anabolic response of bone using a cell population model

    OpenAIRE

    Buenzli, Pascal R.; Pivonka, Peter; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.

    2011-01-01

    To maintain bone mass during bone remodelling, coupling is required between bone resorption and bone formation. This coordination is achieved by a network of autocrine and paracrine signalling molecules between cells of the osteoclast lineage and cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Mathematical modelling of signalling between cells of both lineages can assist in the interpretation of experimental data, clarify signalling interactions and help develop a deeper understanding of complex bone dise...

  17. Building and maintaining media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  18. The Distinction between Epistemic and Non-Epistemic Values in the Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournari, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I examine the particular question of the meaning of the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values in the natural sciences and, if this would make sense, the possibility to transcend this distinction. I claim that the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values maintains its necessity as long as a certain sort…

  19. 骨生化指标在骨肿瘤中的临床应用进展%Clinical application progress of bone biochemical markers in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定; 张琪琪; 胡勇

    2014-01-01

    Bone tumors refer to benign and malignant tumors which originate from mesenchymal stem cells and occur in bone tissues and their accessory structures. The pathogenesis and etiology of bone tumors still remain unclear, and the diagnosis methods of bone tumors are stagnating now. X-ray, computed tomography ( CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) are important in diagnosing and evaluating bone tumors, but they cannot detect the lesions until the bone destruction reaches a certain degree. Isotope bone scan can detect the microscopic lesions of bone, whereas it is too expensive and the speciifcity is poor, with high false positive rates. At present, the golden standard for the diagnosis of bone tumors is the histopathological examination of bone. However, it is dififcult to achieve early diagnosis, and it is likely to miss the best treatment period. Every disease is inevitably accompanied by molecular biological changes in the body. Biochemical markers can promptly detect the property changes of bone tumor cells, including unlimited proliferation, apoptosis, active neoangiogenesis, inifltrative growth, metastatic growth and so on. Therefore, it is of great signiifcance for the diagnosis of bone tumors to detect appropriate biochemical markers in the patients. The normal bone metabolism is maintained by the dynamic balance of bone resorption and bone formation. When bone tumors occur, the balance will be disturbed. The bone biochemical markers which relfect bone resorption and bone formation are sensitive indicators of early abnormal bone metabolism. Recently, a large number of studies have explored the significance of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors. The functions of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors mainly include making an early detection of microscopic tumor lesions to start early treatment ( diagnostic effects ), evaluating the effects ( therapeutic monitoring ), evaluating the prognosis and predicting the risk of

  20. Osteoblasts in Bone Physiology—Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Rosenberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone structural integrity and shape are maintained by removal of old matrix by osteoclasts and in-situ synthesis of new bone by osteoblasts. These cells comprise the basic multicellular unit (BMU. Bone mass maintenance is determined by the net anabolic activity of the BMU, when the matrix elaboration of the osteoblasts equals or exceeds the bone resorption by the osteoclasts. The normal function of the BMU causes a continuous remodeling process of the bone, with deposition of bony matrix (osteoid along the vectors of the generated force by gravity and attached muscle activity. The osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Circulating hormones and locally produced cytokines and growth factors modulate the replication and differentiation of osteoclast and osteoblast progenitors. The appropriate number of the osteoblasts in the BMU is determined by the differentiation of the precursor bone-marrow stem cells into mature osteoblasts, their proliferation with subsequent maturation into metabolically active osteocytes, and osteoblast degradation by apoptosis. Thus, the two crucial points to target when planning to control the osteoblast population are the processes of cell proliferation and apoptosis, which are regulated by cellular hedgehog and Wnt pathways that involve humoral and mechanical stimulations. Osteoblasts regulate both bone matrix synthesis and mineralization directly by their own synthetic activities, and bone resorption indirectly by its paracrinic effects on osteoclasts. The overall synthetic and regulatory activities of osteoblasts govern bone tissue integrity and shape.

  1. Understanding the local actions of lipids in bone physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Alexandrine; Penel, Guillaume; Hardouin, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The adult skeleton is a metabolically active organ system that undergoes continuous remodeling to remove old and/or stressed bone (resorption) and replace it with new bone (formation) in order to maintain a constant bone mass and preserve bone strength from micro-damage accumulation. In that remodeling process, cellular balances--adipocytogenesis/osteoblastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis/osteoclastogenesis--are critical and tightly controlled by many factors, including lipids as discussed in the present review. Interest in the bone lipid area has increased as a result of in vivo evidences indicating a reciprocal relationship between bone mass and marrow adiposity. Lipids in bones are usually assumed to be present only in the bone marrow. However, the mineralized bone tissue itself also contains small amounts of lipids which might play an important role in bone physiology. Fatty acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and several endogenous metabolites (i.e., prostaglandins, oxysterols) have been purported to act on bone cell survival and functions, the bone mineralization process, and critical signaling pathways. Thus, they can be regarded as regulatory molecules important in bone health. Recently, several specific lipids derived from membrane phospholipids (i.e., sphingosine-1-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and different fatty acid amides) have emerged as important mediators in bone physiology and the number of such molecules will probably increase in the near future. The present paper reviews the current knowledge about: (1°) bone lipid composition in both bone marrow and mineralized tissue compartments, and (2°) local actions of lipids on bone physiology in relation to their metabolism. Understanding the roles of lipids in bone is essential to knowing how an imbalance in their signaling pathways might contribute to bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26118851

  2. [Regulation of bone homeostasis by glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Kazuya; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-08-01

    Synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen, a major component of the bone matrix, precedes the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2(Runx2), a master regulator in osteoblast differentiation. Thus, a direct link between osteoblast differentiation and bone formation is seemingly absent, and how these are maintained in a coordinated matter remains unclear. It was recently demonstrated that osteoblasts depend on glucose, which glucose transporter type 1(GLUT1)takes up as an energy source, and it was found that glucose uptake promotes osteoblast differentiation and bone formation via AMP-activated protein kinase. It was also shown that Runx2 upregulates GLUT1 expression, and this Runx2-GLUT1 feedforward regulation integrates and coordinates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation throughout life. These previous findings revealed that the energy metabolism balance in osteoblasts integrates the differentiation and function of osteoblasts, and re-emphasized the importance of crosstalk between bone and sugar metabolism. PMID:27461500

  3. A new concept for implant fixation: bone-to-bone biologic fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D-Y; Kim, J-R; Jang, K Y; Lee, K-B

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to reduce complications of bone implant, such as pedicle screw loosening. To address this problem, the authors suggest a new concept of bone-to-bone biologic fixation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded cannulated pedicle screws. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is an osteoinductive cytokine. Four types of titanium pedicle screws were tested (uncannulated, cannulated with no loading, beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-loaded, and TCP/BMP2 loaded) using 16 miniature pigs. Radiological evaluation was conducted to assess the fusion and loosening of pedicle screws. Twelve weeks after implantation, peak torsional extraction torque was measured, and the pedicle screw and bone interface was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histologic examination. The mean value of the radiological score was significantly greater in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group at 12 weeks post-operation compared to those in the other groups. CT images showed distinct bone formation surrounding TCP/BMP2 loaded cannulated pedicle screws compared to the other groups. Mean extraction torsional peak torque at 12 weeks postoperative was more than 10-fold higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screw group than in the other groups. Bone surface and bone volume, as quantitated through µCT, were higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group. Histologic examination revealed bone-to-bone fixation at the interface of pedicle screws and pre-existing bone. Bone-to-bone biologic fixation through the holes of TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screws significantly increased fixation strength and represents a novel method that can be applied to osteoporotic or tumour spine surgeries. PMID:25978116

  4. A new concept for implant fixation: bone-to-bone biologic fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D-Y Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to reduce complications of bone implant, such as pedicle screw loosening. To address this problem, the authors suggest a new concept of bone-to-bone biologic fixation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2-loaded cannulated pedicle screws. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is an osteoinductive cytokine. Four types of titanium pedicle screws were tested (uncannulated, cannulated with no loading, beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP-loaded, and TCP/BMP2 loaded using 16 miniature pigs. Radiological evaluation was conducted to assess the fusion and loosening of pedicle screws. Twelve weeks after implantation, peak torsional extraction torque was measured, and the pedicle screw and bone interface was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (µCT and histologic examination. The mean value of the radiological score was significantly greater in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group at 12 weeks post-operation compared to those in the other groups. CT images showed distinct bone formation surrounding TCP/BMP2 loaded cannulated pedicle screws compared to the other groups. Mean extraction torsional peak torque at 12 weeks postoperative was more than 10-fold higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screw group than in the other groups. Bone surface and bone volume, as quantitated through µCT, were higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group. Histologic examination revealed bone-to-bone fixation at the interface of pedicle screws and pre-existing bone. Bone-to-bone biologic fixation through the holes of TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screws significantly increased fixation strength and represents a novel method that can be applied to osteoporotic or tumour spine surgeries.

  5. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  6. Disease-specific clinical problems associated with the subchondral bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pape; G. Filardo; E. Kon; C.N. van Dijk; H. Madry

    2010-01-01

    The subchondral bone is involved in a variety of diseases affecting both the articular cartilage and bone. Osteochondral defects in distinct locations and of variable sizes are the final results of different etiologies. These include traumatic osteochondral defects, osteochondritis dissecans, osteon

  7. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  8. Build Up Your Bones! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Build Up Your Bones! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... include swimming and bicycling. Although these activities help build and maintain strong muscles and have excellent cardiovascular ...

  9. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  10. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  11. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jeong Min [Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mantalaris, Anathathios, E-mail: yshwang@khu.ac.k [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  12. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  13. Association of Bone Mineral Density and Lifestyle in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossein-nezhad

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutritional intake and physical activity are important factors in maintaining bone mineral density. Peak bone density in 20-40 year-old population and its relation to life style could be useful in policy-making for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  14. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  15. Mutations in FAM20C Are Associated with Lethal Osteosclerotic Bone Dysplasia (Raine Syndrome), Highlighting a Crucial Molecule in Bone Development

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, M. A. ; Hsu, R. ; Keir, L. S. ; Hao, J. ; Sivapalan, G. ; Ernst, L. M. ; Zackai, E. H. ; Al-Gazali, L. I. ; Hulskamp, G. ; Kingston, H. M. ; Prescott, T. E. ; Ion, A. ; Patton, M. A. ; Murday, V. ; George, A. 

    2007-01-01

    The generation and homeostasis of bone tissue throughout development and maturity is controlled by the carefully balanced processes of bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can give rise to a broad range of skeletal pathologies. Lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia (or, Raine syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized osteosclerosis with periosteal bone formation and a distinctive facial phenotype. Affected individuals survive only days or we...

  16. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests. PMID:27140657

  17. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone

    OpenAIRE

    Xinlong Ma; Jianwei Lv; Xiaolei Sun; Jianxiong Ma; Guosheng Xing; Ying Wang; Lei Sun; Jianbao Wang; Fengbo Li; Yanjun Li; Zhihu Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical...

  18. Bone Adaptation and Regeneration - New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bacabac, Rommel Gaud

    osteocytes sensing different canalicular flow patterns around cutting cone and reversal zone during loading, thus determining the bone's structure. Disturbances in architecture and permeability of the 3D porous network will affect transduction of mechanical loads to the mechanosensors. Uncovering the cellular and mechanical basis of the osteocyte's response to loading represents a significant challenge to our understanding of cellular mechanotransduction and bone remodeling. In view of the importance of mechanical stress for maintaining bone strength, mechanical stimuli have great potential for providing a therapeutic approach for bone (re)generation.

  19. Bone-density changes after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Gary S; Lew, Henry L

    2006-05-01

    It has been many years since bone loss and fracture risk were first recognized as serious complications of stroke. Hip fracture is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality for stroke survivors, and therefore, assessing and maintaining skeletal health after stroke should be an important clinical goal. Recent long-term, prospective studies have illustrated a highly nonuniform pattern of bone changes after stroke. In general, there is significant bone loss on the paretic side, which is greatest in those patients with the most severe functional deficits. In some patients, bone loss in the paretic arm during the first year after stroke is the equivalent of >20 yrs of bone loss in healthy individuals of comparable age. Bone density in the nonparetic upper limb can actually increase after stroke, consistent with an increase in habitual use of the nonparetic hand. Bone density in the paretic lower limb can decrease by >10% in 12 mos poststroke are needed to determine how long excess bone loss continues after stroke. Studies with more subjects and with more varied disability levels are needed to better understand the relationships between functional deficits and bone loss. New metrics are needed to quantify the intensity and duration of physical activity in the upper and lower limbs that are consistent with previous research on the role of mechanical stimuli in bone adaptation. Finally, an assessment of skeletal health and the factors that affect bone quantity and quality should be a standard component in the clinical management of all survivors of stroke. PMID:16628156

  20. Bone strength: more than just bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The following bone density measurements have limited utility in determining bone strength because they do not include bone quality: microarchitecture, mineralization, ability to repair damage, collagen structure, crystal size, or marrow composition. Patients with kidney disease have poor bone quality. Newman et al. now describe beneficial effects with raloxifene in an animal model of progressive kidney disease. These biomechanical measurements will be important in the development of medications to decrease fractures in patients. PMID:26759040

  1. Distinctiveness of Ugandapithecus from Proconsul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gommery, D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision to create the genus Ugandapithecus by Senut et al., 2000 has been criticised, either directly and in detail by MacLatchy & Rossie (2005b who argued that it is a junior synonym of Proconsul, or indirectly without providing reasons, firstly by Harrison (2001 who wrote that he did not retain it as a genus distinct from Proconsul, and then by Suwa et al., (2007 who employed the name “Ugandapithecus” with inverted commas, implying some degree of doubt about its validity as a genus, but without providing details. More recently Harrison & Andrews (2009 have recognised the Meswa sample as a separate species but they argue that it should be maintained within Proconsul, despite the morphological differences that it has from other species of the genus. We here re-examine the question by comparing, on the one hand, the holotype maxilla of Proconsul africanus, the type species of the genus, with the upper dentition of Ugandapithecus major, and, on the other hand, the holotype mandible of Ugandapithecus major with the lower dentition and mandibles previously attributed to Proconsul africanus. We conclude that the differences between the known upper and lower dentitions of P. africanus and U. major are of such a degree that the two taxa warrant generic separation, and that the differences are not related to sexual dimorphism. Where Proconsul africanus differs from Ugandapithecus major, it approaches Proconsul nyanzae and Proconsul heseloni from Rusinga.Furthermore, the range of morphometric variation within the fossil samples previously attributed to Ugandapithecus major is so great that it far surpasses variation in any other hominoid, fossil or extant. Previously this great amount of variation was interpreted to mean that U. major was extremely dimorphic, with huge males and small females, but if this is true, then U. major would be unique among hominoids in having females in which the cheek teeth fall completely outside the range of

  2. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  3. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  4. What Is Paget's Disease of Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Paget’s disease do not need a special diet. But, to maintain strong bones, you should get 1,200 mg of calcium and at least 400 IU of vitamin D every day. After age 70, you should take 600 IU of vitamin D each day. If you have had kidney stones, talk with your doctor about how much calcium ...

  5. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  6. Maintaining culture of neuron like cells inducted from human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)%成人骨髓间充质干细胞诱导分化为神经元样细胞后的维持培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秉耀; 侯树勋; 祁彦霞; 阕海萍; 刘少君

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨体外诱导成人骨髓间充质干细胞(bone marrow stromal cells,BMSCs)分化为神经元样细胞后长期培养的可行性.方法:自成人红骨髓分离培养BMSCs,通过克隆培养、成骨分化、成脂肪分化鉴定其特性,取第3代细胞重新接种,经碱性成纤维生长因子预诱导及β-巯基乙醇诱导后,换维持培养液维持培养,观察其分化及生长情况.结果:成神经元诱导分化0.5h后,多数细胞即开始呈现出神经元样外观,5h后绝大多数细胞表现出典型的神经元样外观,维持培养1周后,大多数细胞继续维持神经元样外观,免疫组织化学染色示65%±3.3%的细胞微管相关蛋白-2染色阳性,43%±2.1%的细胞神经微丝-160染色阳性.结论:成人BMSCs经诱导后半数左右的细胞可分化为神经元样细胞,在优化的培养体系中,分化的神经元样细胞可存活1周以上.

  7. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  8. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  9. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  10. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  11. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  12. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  13. Vitamin D and bone health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is to keep the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range to maintain essential cellular functions and to promote mineralization of the skeleton. Most foods do not contain any vitamin D. Foods fortified with vitamin D have a variable amount present and cannot be depended on as a sole source of vitamin D nutrition. Exposure to sunlight provides most humans with their vitamin D requirement. Aging, sunscreen use and the change in the zenith angle of the sun can dramatically affect the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes osteomalacia but can exacerbate osteoporosis. It is generally accepted that an increase in calcium intake to 1000-1500 mg/d along with an adequate source of vitamin D of at least 400 IU/d is important for maintaining good bone health

  14. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  15. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  16. Bone Health in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Zikan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a gait disorder characterized by acute episodes of neurological defects leading to progressive disability. Patients with MS have multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures, such as progressive immobilization, long-term glucocorticoids (GCs treatment or vitamin D deficiency. The duration of motor disability appears to be a major contributor to the reduction of bone strength. The long term immobilization causes a marked imbalance between bone formation and resorption with depressed bone formation and a marked disruption of mechanosensory network of tightly connected osteocytes due to increase of osteocyte apoptosis. Patients with higher level of disability have also higher risk of falls that combined with a bone loss increases the frequency of bone fractures. There are currently no recommendations how to best prevent and treat osteoporosis in patients with MS. However, devastating effect of immobilization on the skeleton in patients with MS underscores the importance of adequate mechanical stimuli for maintaining the bone structure and its mechanical competence. The physical as well as pharmacological interventions which can counteract the bone remodeling imbalance, particularly osteocyte apoptosis, will be promising for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with MS.

  17. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  18. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  19. Primary Pseudomyogenic Hemangioendothelioma of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Alero; Mertens, Fredrik; Puls, Florian; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri; Inwards, Carrie; Folpe, Andrew; Lee, Cheng-Han; Zhang, Yaxia; Symmans, Pennie; Rubin, Brian; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Nguyen, Van-Hung; Rosenberg, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PMH) is a well-recognized neoplasm that usually arises in the soft tissue; concurrent bone involvement occurs in 24% of cases. PMH of bone without soft tissue involvement is rare. We describe the clinicopathologic findings of 10 such cases, the largest series reported to date. The study included 9 male and 1 female patient; their ages ranged from 12 to 74 years (mean 36.7 y). All patients had multiple tumors with a distinct regional distribution: 45% restricted to the lower extremity; 25% to the spine and pelvis; and 15% to the upper extremity. On imaging studies the tumors were well circumscribed and lytic. The neoplasms were composed of spindled cells arranged in intersecting fascicles with scattered epithelioid cells; epithelioid cells predominated in 3 cases. The neoplastic cells contained abundant densely eosinophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. There was limited cytologic atypia and necrosis, few mitoses (0 to 2/10 high-power fields), and inconspicuous stroma. Unique findings included abundant intratumoral reactive woven bone and hemorrhage with numerous osteoclast-like giant cells. Immunohistochemically, most tumors were positive for keratin, ERG, and CD31; CD34 was negative. The balanced t(7:19)(q22;13) translocation was documented in 3 cases. Follow-up is limited, but no patient developed documented visceral dissemination, and all have stable or progressive osseous disease. PMH exclusively involving bone is rare. It is multicentric, often involves the lower extremity, and has unusual morphology. The differential diagnosis includes epithelioid vascular neoplasms, giant cell tumor, bone forming neoplasms, and metastatic carcinoma. Because of its rarity, unusual presentation, and morphology, accurate diagnosis can be challenging. PMID:26872012

  20. GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this ...

  1. Experimental Investigations on Microcracks in Vibrational and Conventional Drilling of Cortical Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Meng; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Gang; Liu, Wenyong; Li, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    Bone drilling is widely used in orthopedic surgery. Microcracks will be generated in bone drilling, which may cause fatigue damages and stress fractures. Fresh bovine cortical bones were drilled via vibrational and conventional ways. Drilling operations were performed by a dynamic material testing machine, which can provide the vibration while maintaining uniform feed motion. The drill site and bone debris were observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results show...

  2. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS. PMID:27319388

  3. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Witkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23 that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point

  4. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  5. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  6. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  7. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  8. Bone fatigue and its implications for injuries in racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, S; Chen, W; Lee, P V S; Whitton, R C

    2014-07-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common cause of lost training days and wastage in racehorses. Many bone injuries are a consequence of repeated high loading during fast work, resulting in chronic damage accumulation and material fatigue of bone. The highest joint loads occur in the fetlock, which is also the most common site of subchondral bone injury in racehorses. Microcracks in the subchondral bone at sites where intra-articular fractures and palmar osteochondral disease occur are similar to the fatigue damage detected experimentally after repeated loading of bone. Fatigue is a process that has undergone much study in material science in order to avoid catastrophic failure of engineering structures. The term 'fatigue life' refers to the numbers of cycles of loading that can be sustained before failure occurs. Fatigue life decreases exponentially with increasing load. This is important in horses as loads within the limb increase with increasing speed. Bone adapts to increased loading by modelling to maintain the strains within the bone at a safe level. Bone also repairs fatigued matrix through remodelling. Fatigue injuries develop when microdamage accumulates faster than remodelling can repair. Remodelling of the equine metacarpus is reduced during race training and accelerated during rest periods. The first phase of remodelling is bone resorption, which weakens the bone through increased porosity. A bone that is porous following a rest period may fail earlier than a fully adapted bone. Maximising bone adaptation is an important part of training young racehorses. However, even well-adapted bones accumulate microdamage and require ongoing remodelling. If remodelling inhibition at the extremes of training is unavoidable then the duration of exposure to high-speed work needs to be limited and appropriate rest periods instituted. Further research is warranted to elucidate the effect of fast-speed work and rest on bone damage accumulation and repair. PMID:24528139

  9. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159291.html Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency' Rate of oxygen consumption differs little between active ... body is like a car with a fuel efficiency level," Ortega said in a Humboldt State news ...

  10. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  11. Bioengineered periosteal progenitor cell sheets to enhance tendon-bone healing in a bone tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendon-bone tunnel healing is crucial for long term success in anterior cruciate liga­ment (ACL reconstruction. The periosteum contains osteochondral progenitor cells that can differenti­ate into osteoblasts and chondroblasts during tendon-bone healing. We developed a scaf­fold-free method using polymerized fibrin-coated dishes to make functional periosteal progenitor cell (PPC sheets. Bioengineered PPC sheets for enhancing tendon-bone healing were evaluated in an extra-articular bone tunnel model in rabbit. Methods: PPC derived from rabbit tibia periosteum, cultivated on polymerized fi­brin-coated dishes and harvested as PPC sheet. A confocal microscopy assay was used to evaluate the morphology of PPC sheets. PPC sheets as a periosteum to wrap around hamstring tendon grafts were pulled into a 3-mm diameter bone tunnel of tibia, and compared with a tendon graft without PPC sheets treatment. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biochemical as­say and histological assay to demonstrate the enhancement of PPC sheets in tendon-bone healing. Results: PPC spread deposit on fibrin on the dish surface with continuous monolayer PPC was ob­served. Histological staining revealed that PPC sheets enhance collagen and glycosaminoglycans deposi­tion with fibrocartilage formation in the tendon-bone junction at 4 weeks. Collagen fiber with fibrocartilage formation at tendon-bone junction was also found at 8 weeks. Matured fibrocartilage and dense collagen fiber were formed at the tendon-bone interface at 8 weeks by Masson trichrome and Safranin-O staining Conclusions: Periosteal progenitor cell monolayer maintains the differentiated capacity and osteochon­dral potential in order to promote fibrocartilage formation in tendon-bone junction. Bioengi­neered PPC sheets can offer a new feasible therapeutic strategy of a novel approach to en­hance tendon-bone junction healing.

  12. Psoriatic arthritis as a distinct disease entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by joint inflammation associated with cutaneous psoriasis. For many years, the amount of attention directed to PsA had been less than that for various other arthropathies. With the advances in understanding its pathogensis, it is now recognized as a distinct disease entity with characteristic features. Psoriatic arthritis has a greater tendency towards asymmetric oligoarticular involvement, distal interphalangeal involvement and spondylitis. Associated features such as enthesitis and dactylitis are more common. Specific radiological features include ankylosis and bone resorption. With the availability of potent new therapeutic agents for psoriasis and PsA, interest in research and clinical care for these conditions has been reinvigorated. Anti-TNF therapy has achieved encouraging efficacy in both the joints and skin disease, improving function and quality of life and inhibiting radiological progression measured in patients with PsA and psoriasis. Biologic agents may have the potential in addressing the unmet medical need in patients with PsA.

  13. Maintaining Intergenerational Solidarity in Mexican Transnational Families

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine A. Solheim; Jaime Ballard; Patricia D. Olson

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documen...

  14. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining ...

  15. Incrementally Maintaining Classification using an RDBMS

    OpenAIRE

    Koc, Mehmet Levent; Ré, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of imprecise data has motivated both researchers and the database industry to push statistical techniques into relational database management systems (RDBMSs). We study algorithms to maintain model-based views for a popular statistical technique, classification, inside an RDBMS in the presence of updates to the training examples. We make three technical contributions: (1) An algorithm that incrementally maintains classification inside an RDBMS. (2) An analysis of the above a...

  16. Maintaining Arc Consistency with Multiple Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Lecoutre, Christophe; Likitvivatanavong, Chavalit; Shannon, Scott; Yap, Roland; Zhang, Yuanlin

    2008-01-01

    International audience Exploiting residual supports (or residues) has proved to be one of the most cost-effective approaches for Maintaining Arc Consistency during search (MAC). While MAC based on optimal AC algorithm may have better theoretical time complexity in some cases, in practice the overhead for maintaining required data structure during search outweighs the benefit, not to mention themore complicated implementation. Implementing MAC with residues, on the other hand, is trivial. I...

  17. Maintainability program requirements for space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  18. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boull, Christina L; Hylwa, Sara A; Sajic, Dusan; Wagner, John E; Tolar, Jakub; Hook, Kristen P

    2016-06-01

    A 3-year-old child with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa treated with bone marrow transplantation subsequently developed body-wide epidermal detachment distinct from his epidermolysis bullosa. Toxic epidermal necrolysis was diagnosed by examination and skin biopsy. Although graft-vs-host disease was considered, he had no features of this diagnosis by laboratory studies or skin biopsy, and he improved without addition of further immune suppressants. Throughout the episode, the patient was maintained on cyclosporine A, a component of his transplant regimen, and also a reported therapy for toxic epidermal necrolysis. He had full recovery. Re-epithelialization occurred in a unique folliculocentric pattern, which we postulate was related to the patient's mesenchymal stem cell infusion, received as an adjunct to his marrow transplantation. PMID:26976809

  19. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  20. A Roadmap to the Brittle Bones of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini P. Gore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disorder which despite advances in medical care continues to be a life-limiting and often fatal disease. With increase in life expectancy of the CF population, bone disease has emerged as a common complication. Unlike the osteoporosis seen in postmenopausal population, bone disease in CF begins at a young age and is associated with significant morbidity due to fractures, kyphosis, increased pain, and decreased lung function. The maintenance of bone health is essential for the CF population during their lives to prevent pain and fractures but also as they approach lung transplantation since severe bone disease can lead to exclusion from lung transplantation. Early recognition, prevention, and treatment are key to maintaining optimal bone health in CF patients and often require a multidisciplinary approach. This article will review the pathophysiology, current clinical practice guidelines, and potential future therapies for treating CF-related bone disease.

  1. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  2. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  3. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  4. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  5. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  6. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  7. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  8. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  9. Brief review of models of ectopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michelle A; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia; James, Aaron W

    2012-03-20

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity--distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used for experimentation, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and kidney capsule transplantation. The method, benefits and detractions of each method are summarized in the following review. Briefly, subcutaneous implantation is the simplest method. However, the most pertinent concern is the relative paucity of bone formation in comparison to other models. Intramuscular implantation is also widely used and relatively simple, however intramuscular implants are exposed to skeletal muscle satellite progenitor cells. Thus, distinguishing host from donor osteogenesis becomes challenging without cell-tracking studies. The kidney capsule (perirenal or renal capsule) method is less widely used and more technically challenging. It allows for supraphysiologic blood and nutrient resource, promoting robust bone growth. In summary, ectopic bone models are extremely useful in the evaluation of bone-forming stem cells, new osteoinductive biomaterials, and growth factors; an appropriate choice of model, however, will greatly increase experimental success. PMID:22085228

  10. Impact of Design Patterns on Software Maintainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohammed Alghamdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the effect of design patterns on the Software maintainability. Design patterns describe solutions for common design problems and they were introduced to improve software quality and accelerate software development. However, there are some difficulties to choose an optimal pattern adapted to a certain application and problem. So until now the results on the effect of design patterns on software quality are controversial. In this context, we propose a tool for design pattern guided that retrieves the appropriate pattern with respect to software maintainability from a repository of patterns. It measures the maintainability of design pattern by some metrics and candidate the more maintainable pattern to the designer or developer. It provides a support for decision making during system design and refactoring. As the results, the decision of applying a certain design pattern is usually a trade-off since the effect of design pattern on software maintainability is influenced by some factors such as the pattern size and the prior expertise of the developer.

  11. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  12. Eating disorders and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  13. Bone densitometry and osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to provide a perspective on the current status of bone densitometry and its relevance to osteoporosis diagnosis and management. Therefore, this book will give the reader an introduction to the nature of osteoporosis, its pathophysiology and epidemiology, and the clinical consequences of performing bone densitometry. Aside from standard bone densitometry, newer technologies such as quantitative ultrasound techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and bone structure analysis are discussed in the context of diagnosing osteoporosis. (orig.)

  14. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  15. A Vision of the Journey Ahead: Using Public Health Notifiable Condition Mapping to Illustrate the Need to Maintain Value Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Grannis, Shaun; Vreeman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining value sets is a necessary and distinct activity apart from maintaining recognized controlled vocabularies. As an illustration of one such value set, we evaluate the CDC and Regenstrief versions of the notifiable condition mapping tables (NCMT) and illustrate they are not synchronized. We used practical informatics approaches including heuristic queries and similarity measures to accurately identify more than 800 new candidate reportable LOINC codes. To successfully maintain value ...

  16. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  17. Id1 restrains myeloid commitment, maintaining the self-renewal capacity of hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovic, Vladimir; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Boccuni, Piernicola; Deblasio, Tony; Benezra, Robert; Nimer, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal reflects the tight regulation of cell cycle entry and lineage commitment. Here, we show that Id1, a dominant-negative regulator of E protein transcription factors, maintains HSC self-renewal by preserving the undifferentiated state. Id1-deficient HSCs show increased cell cycling, by BrdU incorporation in vivo, but fail to efficiently self-renew, leading to low steady-state HSC numbers and premature exhaustion in serial bone marrow transpl...

  18. [Bone and Nutrition. The association of vitamin K intake and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The association of vitamin K with bone mineral density has been reported in some previous cohort studies and intervention studies. In cohort studies, higher vitamin K1 intake was associated with lower fracture incidence. Some intervention studies have described that vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4 : MK-4) supplementation were modestly efficacious in preventing fracture, but not in preserving bone mass. Although dietary reference intake (adequate intake : AI) for vitamin K was increased from previous value, current AI was determined as the dose sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation with little mentioning to bone. Vitamin K intake greater than the current AI would be required for the bone health. PMID:26119310

  19. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  20. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  1. Nanocomposite Membranes Enhance Bone Regeneration Through Restoring Physiological Electric Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehui; Zhang, Chenguang; Lin, Yuanhua; Hu, Penghao; Shen, Yang; Wang, Ke; Meng, Song; Chai, Yuan; Dai, Xiaohan; Liu, Xing; Liu, Yun; Mo, Xiaoju; Cao, Cen; Li, Shue; Deng, Xuliang; Chen, Lili

    2016-08-23

    Physiological electric potential is well-known for its indispensable role in maintaining bone volume and quality. Although implanted biomaterials simulating structural, morphological, mechanical, and chemical properties of natural tissue or organ has been introduced in the field of bone regeneration, the concept of restoring physiological electric microenvironment remains ignored in biomaterials design. In this work, a flexible nanocomposite membrane mimicking the endogenous electric potential is fabricated to explore its bone defect repair efficiency. BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BTO NPs) were first coated with polydopamine. Then the composite membranes are fabricated with homogeneous distribution of Dopa@BTO NPs in poly(vinylidene fluoridetrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) matrix. The surface potential of the nanocomposite membranes could be tuned up to -76.8 mV by optimizing the composition ratio and corona poling treatment, which conform to the level of endogenous biopotential. Remarkably, the surface potential of polarized nanocomposite membranes exhibited a dramatic stability with more than half of original surface potential remained up to 12 weeks in the condition of bone defect. In vitro, the membranes encouraged bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) activity and osteogenic differentiation. In vivo, the membranes sustainably maintained the electric microenvironment giving rise to rapid bone regeneration and complete mature bone-structure formation. Our findings evidence that physiological electric potential repair should be paid sufficient attention in biomaterials design, and this concept might provide an innovative and well-suited strategy for bone regenerative therapies. PMID:27389708

  2. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''What is growth anyway? Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age? Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references

  3. Force-induced bone growth and adaptation: A system theoretical approach to understanding bone mechanotransduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.

  4. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  5. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  6. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten; Yang, Jungwoo

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  7. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  8. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  9. Requirements for Automated Assessment of Spreadsheet Maintainability

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The use of spreadsheets is widespread. Be it in business, finance, engineering or other areas, spreadsheets are created for their flexibility and ease to quickly model a problem. Very often they evolve from simple prototypes to implementations of crucial business logic. Spreadsheets that play a crucial role in an organization will naturally have a long lifespan and will be maintained and evolved by several people. Therefore, it is important not only to look at their reliability, i.e., how well is the intended functionality implemented, but also at their maintainability, i.e., how easy it is to diagnose a spreadsheet for deficiencies and modify it without degrading its quality. In this position paper we argue for the need to create a model to estimate the maintainability of a spreadsheet based on (automated) measurement. We propose to do so by applying a structured methodology that has already shown its value in the estimation of maintainability of software products. We also argue for the creation of a curated...

  10. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  11. Bone stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications

  12. The Distinction Between English Synonyms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段佳

    2012-01-01

      A large number of new words and terms flock in the English vocabulary and English has a variety of expressive methods making it possible to express the same meaning by different words. Therefore English synonyms are so abundant that it is possible to describe the colorful world and to express the complicated, delicate human thought and emotions. But they bring people many problems such as the correct choice of words from synonyms. The reason for this problem is the insufficient knowledge of the distinction of English synonyms, which have differences in many aspects. This paper offers three main aspects in distinguishing English synonyms that include words’ meaning, coloring and usage.

  13. Six Sesamoid Bones on Both Feet: Report of a Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Boelch, S. P.; Jansen, H; Meffert, R. H.; Frey, S P

    2015-01-01

    There is a variation of the total number of distinct bones in the human in the literature. This difference is mainly caused by the variable existence of sesamoid bones. Sesamoid bones at the first MTP are seen regularly. In contrast additional sesamoid bones at the divond to fifth MTP are rare. We report a case of additional sesamoid bones at every metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) of both feet. A 22-year-old female Caucasian presented with weight-dependent pain of the divond MTP of the left...

  14. Changes in vertebral bone marrow fat and bone mass after gastric bypass surgery: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, A L; Li, X; Schwartz, A V; Tufts, L S; Wheeler, A L; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, S J; Carter, J T; Posselt, A M; Black, D M; Shoback, D M

    2015-05-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morbidly obese women (6 diabetic, 5 nondiabetic), we measured vertebral marrow fat content (percentage fat fraction) before and 6 months after RYGB using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total body fat mass declined in all participants (mean ± SD decline 19.1 ± 6.1 kg or 36.5% ± 10.9%, pEffects of RYGB on marrow fat differed by diabetes status (adjusted p=0.04). There was little mean change in marrow fat in nondiabetic women (mean +0.9%, 95% CI -10.0 to +11.7%, p=0.84). In contrast, marrow fat decreased in diabetic women (-7.5%, 95% CI -15.2 to +0.1%, p=0.05). Changes in total body fat mass and marrow fat were inversely correlated among nondiabetic (r=-0.96, p=0.01) but not diabetic (r=0.52, p=0.29) participants. In conclusion, among those without diabetes, marrow fat is maintained on average after RYGB, despite dramatic declines in overall fat mass. Among those with diabetes, RYGB may reduce marrow fat. Thus, future studies of marrow fat should take diabetes status into account. Marrow fat may have unique metabolic behavior compared with other fat depots. PMID:25603463

  15. [Sarcopenia and bone mineral property with age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2016-08-01

    In order to maintain functional activities in the elderly, promotion of musculoskeletal care is important toward successful aging and healthy longevity. In practice, reduction of falls and fall-related injuries together with treatment of osteoporosis is important to keep activities of daily living. Recent findings suggest the possibility that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle and bone mineral property, represented by pathophysiological linkage between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27461501

  16. The Role of Hedgehog Signaling in Tumor Induced Bone Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite significant progress in cancer treatments, tumor induced bone disease continues to cause significant morbidities. While tumors show distinct mutations and clinical characteristics, they behave similarly once they establish in bone. Tumors can metastasize to bone from distant sites (breast, prostate, lung), directly invade into bone (head and neck) or originate from the bone (melanoma, chondrosarcoma) where they cause pain, fractures, hypercalcemia, and ultimately, poor prognoses and outcomes. Tumors in bone secrete factors (interleukins and parathyroid hormone-related protein) that induce RANKL expression from osteoblasts, causing an increase in osteoclast mediated bone resorption. While the mechanisms involved varies slightly between tumor types, many tumors display an increase in Hedgehog signaling components that lead to increased tumor growth, therapy failure, and metastasis. The work of multiple laboratories has detailed Hh signaling in several tumor types and revealed that tumor establishment in bone can be controlled by both canonical and non-canonical Hh signaling in a cell type specific manner. This review will explore the role of Hh signaling in the modulation of tumor induced bone disease, and will shed insight into possible therapeutic interventions for blocking Hh signaling in these tumors

  17. The Role of Hedgehog Signaling in Tumor Induced Bone Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannonier, Shellese A.; Sterling, Julie A., E-mail: Julie.sterling@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 372335 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Despite significant progress in cancer treatments, tumor induced bone disease continues to cause significant morbidities. While tumors show distinct mutations and clinical characteristics, they behave similarly once they establish in bone. Tumors can metastasize to bone from distant sites (breast, prostate, lung), directly invade into bone (head and neck) or originate from the bone (melanoma, chondrosarcoma) where they cause pain, fractures, hypercalcemia, and ultimately, poor prognoses and outcomes. Tumors in bone secrete factors (interleukins and parathyroid hormone-related protein) that induce RANKL expression from osteoblasts, causing an increase in osteoclast mediated bone resorption. While the mechanisms involved varies slightly between tumor types, many tumors display an increase in Hedgehog signaling components that lead to increased tumor growth, therapy failure, and metastasis. The work of multiple laboratories has detailed Hh signaling in several tumor types and revealed that tumor establishment in bone can be controlled by both canonical and non-canonical Hh signaling in a cell type specific manner. This review will explore the role of Hh signaling in the modulation of tumor induced bone disease, and will shed insight into possible therapeutic interventions for blocking Hh signaling in these tumors.

  18. Distinct growth of the nasomaxillary complex in Au. sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Warshaw, Johanna; Berger, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facial ontogeny in immature hominins have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution of human growth and development. The recently discovered hominin species Autralopithecus sediba is represented by a well-preserved and nearly complete facial skeleton of a juvenile (MH1) which shows a derived facial anatomy. We examined MH1 using high radiation synchrotron to interpret features of the oronasal complex pertinent to facial growth. We also analyzed bone surface microanatomy to identify and map fields of bone deposition and bone resorption, which affect the development of the facial skeleton. The oronasal anatomy (premaxilla-palate-vomer architecture) is similar to other Australopithecus species. However surface growth remodeling of the midface (nasomaxillary complex) differs markedly from Australopithecus, Paranthropus, early Homo and from KNM-WT 15000 (H. erectus/ergaster) showing a distinct distribution of vertically disposed alternating depository and resorptive fields in relation to anterior dental roots and the subnasal region. The ontogeny of the MH1 midface superficially resembles some H. sapiens in the distribution of remodeling fields. The facial growth of MH1 appears unique among early hominins representing an evolutionary modification in facial ontogeny at 1.9 my, or to changes in masticatory system loading associated with diet. PMID:26469387

  19. Influence of Fatigue Loading and Bone Turnover on Bone Strength and Pattern of Experimental Fractures of the Tibia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gerbaix, Maude; Ominsky, Michael; Ammann, Patrick; Kostenuik, Paul J; Ferrari, Serge L

    2016-07-01

    Bone fragility depends on bone mass, structure, and material properties, including damage. The relationship between bone turnover, fatigue damage, and the pattern and location of fractures, however, remains poorly understood. We examined these factors and their integrated effects on fracture strength and patterns in tibia. Adult male mice received RANKL (2 mg/kg/day), OPG-Fc (5 mg/kg 2×/week), or vehicle (Veh) 2 days prior to fatigue loading of one tibia by in vivo axial compression, with treatments continuing up to 28 more days. One day post fatigue, crack density was similarly increased in fatigued tibiae from all treatment groups. After 28 days, the RANKL group exhibited reduced bone mass and increased crack density, resulting in reduced bone strength, while the OPG-Fc group had greater bone mass and bone strength. Injury repair altered the pattern and location of fractures created by ex vivo destructive testing, with fractures occurring more proximally and obliquely relative to non-fatigued tibia. A similar pattern was observed in both non-fatigued and fatigued tibia of RANKL. In contrast, OPG-Fc prevented this fatigue-related shift in fracture pattern by maintaining fractures more distal and transverse. Correlation analysis showed that bone strength was predominantly determined by aBMD with minor contributions from structure and intrinsic strength as measured by nanoindentation and cracks density. In contrast, fracture location was predicted equally by aBMD, crack density and intrinsic modulus. The data suggest that not only bone strength but also the fracture pattern depends on previous damage and the effects of bone turnover on bone mass and structure. These observations may be relevant to further understand the mechanisms contributing to fracture pattern in long bone with different levels of bone remodeling, including atypical femur fracture. PMID:26945756

  20. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with and without metastasis to bone in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signalment, clinical signs, and histologic tumor pattern were compared retrospectively in 12 dogs having primary prostatic adenocarcinoma with (5 cases) and without metastasis (7 cases) to bone. Weight loss and lumbar pain were observed more frequently in dogs having prostatic adenocarcinoma with metastasis to bone. A distinctive histologic pattern was not associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to bone. The alveolar papillary pattern was the predominant histologic type observed in both groups. Metastasis to extra pelvic bony sites included the scapulas, ribs, and digits. The results of this study indicate that skeletal metastasis was not uncommon in dogs having prostatic adenocarcinoma

  1. Evaluation of soft tissue coverage over porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers within nonhealing alveolar bone defects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretlow, J.D.; Shi, M.; Young, S.; Spicer, P.P.; Demian, N.; Jansen, J.A.; Wong, M.E.; Kasper, F.K.; Mikos, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment of traumatic craniofacial injuries often involves early free tissue transfer, even if the recipient site is contaminated or lacks soft tissue coverage. There are no current tissue engineering strategies to definitively regenerate tissues in such an environment at an early time poin

  2. The randomized complexity of maintaining the minimum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Chaudhuri, Shiva; Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar

    1996-01-01

    The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for FindMin. If F......The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for Find......Min. If FindMin is replaced by a weaker operation. FindAny, then it is shown that a randomized algorithm with constant expected cost per operation exists; in contrast, it is shown that no deterministic algorithm can have constant cost per operation. Finally, a deterministic algorithm with constant amortized...

  3. Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Dwight E. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains.

  4. Management Indicators: Assessing Product Reliability and Maintainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosson, Constance V.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the role of Management Indicators in validating the predictive capability of the bottom-up evaluation process, which is defined by the Procedural Approach to the Evaluation of Software Development Methodologies. The bottom-up evaluation process provides a framework for determining the extent to which software engineering objectives, e.g., reliability and maintainability, are present in a software product from a design perspective of the code and supporting documentation....

  5. Impact of Design Patterns on Software Maintainability

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Mohammed Alghamdi; M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the effect of design patterns on the Software maintainability. Design patterns describe solutions for common design problems and they were introduced to improve software quality and accelerate software development. However, there are some difficulties to choose an optimal pattern adapted to a certain application and problem. So until now the results on the effect of design patterns on software quality are controversial. In this context, we propose a tool for design ...

  6. Different Blood-Borne Human Osteoclast Precursors Respond in Distinct Ways to IL-17A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Sara; Schoenmaker, Ton; Cao, Yixuan; Everts, Vincent; de Vries, Teun J

    2016-06-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-degrading cells that are formed through fusion of their monocytic precursors. Three distinct subsets of monocytes have been identified in human peripheral blood: classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes. They are known to play different roles in physiology and pathology, but their capacity to differentiate into osteoclasts and whether inflammatory cytokines influence this differentiation is unknown. We hypothesized that classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes generate functionally different osteoclasts and that they respond in different ways to the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A). To investigate this, the different monocyte subsets were isolated from human peripheral blood and osteoclastogenesis was induced with the cytokines M-CSF and RANKL, with or without IL-17A. We found that all subsets are able to differentiate into osteoclasts in vitro, and that both osteoclastogenesis and subsequent bone resorption was distinctly affected by IL-17A. Osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by osteoclasts derived from classical monocytes remained unaffected by IL-17A, while osteoclast formation from intermediate monocytes was inhibited by the cytokine. Surprisingly, bone resorption by osteoclasts derived from intermediate monocytes remained at similar levels as control cultures, indicating an increased bone resorbing activity by these osteoclasts. Limited numbers of osteoclasts were formed from non-classical monocytes on bone and no bone resorption was detected, which suggest that these cells belong to a cell lineage different from the osteoclast. By providing more insight into osteoclast formation from human blood monocytes, this study contributes to the possible targeting of specific osteoclast precursors as a therapeutic approach for diseases associated with inflammatory bone loss. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1249-1260, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26491867

  7. Editorial: T cell memory, bone marrow, and aging: the good news

    OpenAIRE

    Effros, Rita B

    2012-01-01

    Discussion on the accumulating evidence that bone marrow in old age is not simply the place where immune cells are generated but the where certain memory cells selectively return to provide a set of distinct immune functions during old age.

  8. Modularity and robustness of bone networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Matheus Palhares; Tanck, Esther; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-03-01

    Cortical bones, essential for mechanical support and structure in many animals, involve a large number of canals organized in intricate fashion. By using state-of-the art image analysis and computer graphics, the 3D reconstruction of a whole bone (phalange) of a young chicken was obtained and represented in terms of a complex network where each canal was associated to an edge and every confluence of three or more canals yielded a respective node. The representation of the bone canal structure as a complex network has allowed several methods to be applied in order to characterize and analyze the canal system organization and the robustness. First, the distribution of the node degrees (i.e. the number of canals connected to each node) confirmed previous indications that bone canal networks follow a power law, and therefore present some highly connected nodes (hubs). The bone network was also found to be partitioned into communities or modules, i.e. groups of nodes which are more intensely connected to one another than with the rest of the network. We verified that each community exhibited distinct topological properties that are possibly linked with their specific function. In order to better understand the organization of the bone network, its resilience to two types of failures (random attack and cascaded failures) was also quantified comparatively to randomized and regular counterparts. The results indicate that the modular structure improves the robustness of the bone network when compared to a regular network with the same average degree and number of nodes. The effects of disease processes (e.g., osteoporosis) and mutations in genes (e.g., BMP4) that occur at the molecular level can now be investigated at the mesoscopic level by using network based approaches. PMID:19225616

  9. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic...

  10. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    OpenAIRE

    von Mühlen, Denise G; Greendale, Gail A.; Cedric F Garland; Wan, Lori; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D (25(OH)D) increases the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption. Low levels of serum calcium stimulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains serum calcium levels at the expense of increased bone turnover, bone loss and increased risk of fractures. We studied the association between 25(OH)D and PTH levels, and their associations with bone mineral density (BMD), bone loss, and prevalence of hip fractures in 615 community-dwelling postmenopausal aged 50 - 97 y...

  11. Macrophage Polarization and Bone Formation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Nicole J

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of inflammation to bone loss is well documented in arthritis and other diseases with an emphasis on how inflammatory cytokines promote osteoclastogenesis. Macrophages are the major producers of cytokines in inflammation, and the factors they produce depend upon their activation state or polarization. In recent years, it has become apparent that macrophages are also capable of interacting with osteoblasts and their mesenchymal precursors. This interaction provides growth and differentiation factors from one cell that act on the other and visa versa-a concept akin to the requirement for a feeder layer to grow hemopoietic cells or the coupling that occurs between osteoblasts and osteoclasts to maintain bone homeostasis. Alternatively, activated macrophages are the most likely candidates to promote bone formation and have also been implicated in the tissue repair process in other tissues. In bone, a number of factors, including oncostatin M, have been shown to promote osteoblast formation both in vitro and in vivo. This review discusses the different cell types involved, cellular mediators, and how this can be used to direct new bone anabolic approaches. PMID:26498771

  12. Temporal bone fracture and its complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and treatment oftemporal bone fractures and injuries in the medial-inner ear.Methods: The clinical data of 48 cases of temporal bone fractures admitted to our hospital from January 1989 to November 1999 were retrospectively analyzed.Results: Forty-eight patients with temporal bone fractures accounted for 17.00% of the homochronous craniofacial fractures. Of the 48 cases, temporal bone fractures induced by traffic accidents accounted for 66.67%, capillary fractures for 93.75%, medial-inner ear injuries or craniocerebral injuries for 77.08% and hearing loss or tinnitus for 48.00%. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea and facioplegia accounted for 36.70% and 3.00%, respectively, in the longitudinal fractures, while they were 25.00% and 37.50%, respectively, in the transversal fractures. Primary emergent operations were performed on 46 cases and neurosurgery accounted for 46.00%. Secondary procedures accounted for 16.70%. As a result, 43 cases survived (89.58%) and 5 died (10.41%).Conclusions: Traffic injury is the first high-dangerous factor for temporal bone fractures, which are often complicated with medial-inner ear or craniocerebral injury. The CSF otorrhea is common in the longitudinal fractures and facioplegia is common in the transversal fractures. The key step is to rescue the life, keep the airway unobstructed and maintain the circulation in the primary emergency treatment.

  13. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  14. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups. PMID:22461827

  15. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  16. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  17. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  18. Bone fractures after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Evers, J.L.H.; Glasier, A.; Negri, Eva; Papapoulos, Socrates E; Ralston, Stuart H; Rizzoli, Rene; Baird, D T; Collins, J.; G. Benagiano; P.G. Crosignani; La Vecchia, C.; Volpe, A

    2010-01-01

    Every year 30% of individuals above age 65 fall, and falls are the principal cause of bone fractures. To reduce fracture incidence requires both prevention of falls and maintenance of bone strength.PubMed searches were performed, for studies of the epidemiology of fractures, bone physiology, endocrine effects, osteoporosis measurement, genetics, prevention and effectiveness. Topic summaries were presented to the Workshop Group and omissions or disagreements were resolved by discussion.Ageing ...

  19. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  20. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  1. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  2. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  3. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  4. Combination of Micro nutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micro nutrient Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micro nutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micro nutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micro nutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bis phosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micro nutrient protocol. This micro nutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bis phosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy

  5. Use of Animal Models in Understanding Cancer-induced Bone Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Slosky, Lauren M.; Tally M. Largent-Milnes; Vanderah, Todd W

    2015-01-01

    Many common cancers have a propensity to metastasize to bone. Although malignancies often go undetected in their native tissues, bone metastases produce excruciating pain that severely compromises patient quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is poorly managed with existing medications, and its multifaceted etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Novel analgesic targets arise as more is learned about this complex and distinct pain state. Over the past two decades, multiple animal ...

  6. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  7. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data. PMID

  8. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L;

    2014-01-01

    canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone...

  9. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  10. Memory T-cell competition for bone marrow seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Francesca; Santoni, Angela

    2003-03-01

    The presence in the bone marrow of memory CD8 T cells is well recognized. However, it is still largely unclear how T-cell migration from the lymphoid periphery to the bone marrow is regulated. In the present report, we show that antigen-specific CD4 T cells, as well as antigen-specific CD8 T cells, localize to the bone marrow of immunized mice, and are sustained there over long periods of time. To investigate the rules governing T-cell migration to the bone marrow, we generated chimeric mice in which the lymphoid periphery contained two genetically or phenotypically distinct groups of T cells, one of which was identical to the host. We then examined whether a distinct type of T cell had an advantage over the others in the colonization of bone marrow. Our results show that whereas ICAM1 and CD18 molecules are both involved in homing to lymph nodes, neither is crucial for T-cell bone marrow colonization. We also observed that memory-phenotype CD44high T cells, but not virgin-type CD44-/low T cells, preferentially home to the bone marrow upon adoptive transfer to normal young mice, but not to thymectomized old recipients where an existing memory T-cell pool precludes their free access. Thus, T-cell colonization of the bone marrow uses distinct molecules from those implicated in lymph node homing, and is regulated both by the properties of the T cell and by the competitive efficacy of other T cells inhabiting the same, saturable niche. This implies that the homing potential of an individual lymphocyte is not merely an intrinsic property of the cell, but rather a property of the lymphoid system taken as a whole. PMID:12603595

  11. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits antitumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-Ii; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-02-15

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo-activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that IL-17-producing CD8(+) (Tc17) cells may exhibit potent antitumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In this study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized type I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) or Tc17 cells combined with autologous bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation. Bone marrow transplantation combined with ACT of antitumor (gp100-specific) Tc17 cells significantly suppressed the growth of established melanoma, whereas Tc1 cells induced long-term tumor regression. After ACT, Tc1 cells maintained their phenotype to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-17. However, although Tc17 cells largely preserved their ability to produce IL-17, a subset secreted IFN-γ or both IFN-γ and IL-17, indicating the plasticity of Tc17 cells in vivo. Furthermore, after ACT, the Tc17 cells had a long-lived effector T cell phenotype (CD127(hi)/KLRG-1(low)) as compared with Tc1 cells. Mechanistically, Tc1 cells mediated antitumor immunity primarily through the direct effect of IFN-γ on tumor cells. In contrast, despite the fact that some Tc17 cells also secreted IFN-γ, Tc17-mediated antitumor immunity was independent of the direct effects of IFN-γ on the tumor. Nevertheless, IFN-γ played a critical role by creating a microenvironment that promoted Tc17-mediated antitumor activity. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that both Tc1 and Tc17 cells can mediate effective antitumor immunity through distinct effector mechanisms, but Tc1 cells are superior to Tc17 cells in mediating tumor regression. PMID:23315072

  12. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  13. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  14. Bone defect regeneration and cortical bone parameters of type 2 diabetic rats are improved by insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picke, A-K; Gordaliza Alaguero, I; Campbell, G M; Glüer, C-C; Salbach-Hirsch, J; Rauner, M; Hofbauer, L C; Hofbauer, C

    2016-01-01

    Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats represent an established model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and display several features of human diabetic bone disease, including impaired osteoblast function, decreased bone strength, and delayed bone healing. Here, we determined whether glycemic control by insulin treatment prevents skeletal complications associated with diabetes. Subcritical femur defects were created in diabetic (fa/fa) and non-diabetic (+/+) ZDF rats. Diabetic rats were treated once daily with long-lasting insulin glargin for 12weeks for glycemic control. Insulin treatment successfully maintained serum levels of glycated hemoglobin, while untreated diabetic rats showed a 2-fold increase. Trabecular and cortical bone mass measured by μCT were decreased in diabetic rats. Insulin treatment increased bone mass of the cortical, but not of the trabecular bone compartment. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed a lower bone formation rate at the trabecular and periosteal cortical bone in diabetic animals and decreased serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP, -49%) levels. Insulin treatment partially improved these parameters. In T2DM, serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, +32%) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX, +49%) were increased. Insulin treatment further elevated TRAP levels, but did not affect CTX levels. While diabetes impaired bone defect healing, glycemic control with insulin fully reversed these negative effects. In conclusion, insulin treatment reversed the adverse effects of T2DM on bone defect regeneration in rats mainly by improving osteoblast function and bone formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. PMID:26055107

  15. The role of radioisotopes for the palliation of bone pain from bone metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-gang; LI Chun-lin

    2006-01-01

    Bone metastasis occurs as a result of a complex pathophysiologic process between host and tumor cells leading to cellular invasion, migration adhesion, and stimulation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity. Several sequences occur as a result of osseous metastases and resulting bone pain can lead to significant debilitation. Pain associated with osseous metastasis is thought to be distinct from neuropathic or inflammatory pain. Several mechanisms, such as invasion of tumor cells, spinal cord astrogliosis,and sensitization of nervous system, have been postulated to cause pain. Pharmaceutical therapy of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates. These drags are associated with side effects, and tolerance to these agents necessitates treatment with other modalities. Bisphosphonates act by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated resorption and have been increasingly used in treatment of painful bone metastasis. While external beam radiation therapy remains the mainstay of pain palliation of solitary lesions, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have entered the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of multiple painful osseous lesions. 32p has been used for over 3 decades in the treatment of multiple osseous metastases. The myelosuppression caused by this agent has led to the development of other bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, including 89SrCl, and 153Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP). 89Sr is a bone-seeking radionuclide, whereas 153Sm-EDTMP is a bone-seeking tetraphosphonate; both have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of painful osseous metastases. While both agents have been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from prostate cancer, they may also have utility in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from breast cancer and perhaps from non-small cell lung cancer. This article illustrates the salient features of these radiopharmaceuticals, including the

  16. Maintaining Intergenerational Solidarity in Mexican Transnational Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Solheim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documentation. Functional solidarity was expressed through financial support to parents. This involved remittances sent to parents. However, it should be noted that it was often migrants’ siblings in Mexico who managed these remittances. Affectual solidarity was expressed through statements of love and concern for one another. Normative solidarity and consensual solidarity reflected the value of familismo through financial support and the desire to live together. Several dimensions of intergenerational solidarity are interconnected. This study provides evidence for the relevance of the intergenerational solidarity framework in transnational families and suggests that geographic context is relevant when studying intergenerational relationships.

  17. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we explore the role of network topology on its extensive character. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks, by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, $H_{KS}$, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the subnetworks. For the analytically treated networks of size $N$, if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as $N^{\\theta+1}$, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as $N^{-\\theta}$, when evolution is driven by the maximization of $H_{KS}$. We then verify our analytical result by doing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemi...

  18. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  19. Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

  20. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M

    2015-03-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone's microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to the new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal age- and tissue age-dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further support the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  5. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  6. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  7. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  8. Penoscrotal porokeratosis: A distinct entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old man presented with five months history of redness associated with itching and burning over the scrotum and shaft of the penis with a persistent rash on those sites. There had been no response to topical steroid and antifungal creams. Clinical examination revealed a large well-circumscribed erythematous plaque with a thready raised border with a tiny groove at its summit that involved almost two-thirds of the ventral part of the shaft of the penis. Ill-defined erythema with a granular surface was seen over the anterior scrotal skin. A 4 mm punch biopsy of the plaque on the penile shaft revealed multiple cornoid lamellae located adjacent to one another. The patient was treated with topical emollients. Follow up after four months revealed almost complete resolution of the plaque on the penile shaft. Penoscrotal porokeratosis appears to be a distinct entity in the family of porokeratotic diseases, described only in young males in their twenties with involvement of the penile shaft and anterior scrotum with severe burning and itching and histologically associated with multiple cornoid lamellae. It may represent an unusual epidermal porokeratotic reaction pattern and may be a self-resolving condition.

  9. Skeletal progenitors and the GNAS gene: fibrous dysplasia of bone read through stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Riminucci, Mara; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Saggio, Isabella; Bianco, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutations of the GNAS gene, which causes fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD), lead to remarkable changes in the properties of skeletal progenitors, and it is these changes that mediate the pathological effect of this gene on bone. Mutated skeletal stem cells lose the ability to differentiate into adipocytes, and to maintain in situ, and transfer heterotopically, the hematopoietic microenvironment, leading to abnormal bone marrow histology in FD. They over-express molecular effectors of ...

  10. Bone regeneration with resorbable polylactide membrane and sponge in an unstable fracture model in rabbit radius

    OpenAIRE

    Gogolewski, S.; Tsui, K.; Ip, WY

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healing of segmental diaphyseal bone defects in animals can be enhanced by covering the defects with resorbable polylactide membranes. Based on the results of bone healing in defects 10 mm long in the rabbit radii, it was suggested that the membranes prevents muscle and soft tissue from invading the defect and maintains osteogenic cells and osteogenic substances within the space covered with membrane, thus promoting new bone formation. OBJECTIVES: 1. To investigate and …

  11. Development and characterization of an injectable dextrin-based hydrogel for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Dina M. Silva; Daniella L. Morgado; Delair, T; David, L; Rouif, S.; López-Lacomba, J. L.; A C Maurício; Santos, J. D.; Gama, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic, highly vascularized tissue that remodels itself continuously over an individual ́s lifetime. It plays several important roles in maintaining homeostasis of the body systems [ 1 , 2 ] . However, this regenerative capac ity is limited and, as in the case of large bone defects, where the template for an orchestrated regeneration is absent, surgical proce dures are needed [ 2...

  12. Changes in Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat and Bone Mass After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, AL; Li, X; Schwartz, AV; Tufts, LS; Wheeler, AL; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, SJ; Carter, JT; Posselt, AM; Black, DM; Shoback, DM

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morb...

  13. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  14. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  15. Distinctive immunostaining of claudin-4 in spiradenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğit, Nuri; Çelik, Ertuğrul; Yavan, İbrahim; Günal, Armağan; Kurt, Bülent; Karslıoğlu, Yıldırım; Öngürü, Önder; Özcan, Ayhan

    2016-02-01

    The intercellular bridges are essential structures in maintaining the histologic organization of the epithelium, while providing a very efficient way to exchange molecules between cells and transduction of the cell-to-cell and matrix-to-cell signals. Derangement in those important structures' physical integrity and/or function, which can be assessed by the presence or absence of several intercellular bridge proteins including claudin-4, E-cadherin, and β-catenin, was found to be related to several phenomena in the path to the neoplastic transformation. However, these proteins have not been studied in the wide variety of the skin neoplasms, in detail. Herein, we immunohistochemically assessed the expression patterns of these 3 intercellular bridge proteins on a total of 86 epidermal and eccrine adnexal tumors including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, poroma, spiradenoma, syringoma, and hidradenoma. We observed a selective and distinct claudin-4 expression in the ductal-type cells of all cases of spiradenomas. Similarly, in the poromas, syringomas, and hidradenomas, claudin-4 was only positive in the luminal cells of microcystic structures, although not as conspicuous as in the spiradenomas. On the other hand, E-cadherin and β-catenin were positive in almost all types of the tumors, in a way which was not contributory to differentiate from each other. In conclusion, we think that claudin-4 can be helpful at least in making a reliable differential diagnosis of spiradenoma when overlapping morphologic features do not allow to further subclassification in the overwhelming variety of the adnexal tumors. PMID:26616722

  16. The normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses applications of the bone scan. It is the most frequently performed nuclear medicine investigation, the commonest indication being the detection of occult metastases, for which purpose the entire skeleton should be imaged. For other purposes it is often adequate to examine only part of the skeleton. The amount of isotope taken up at any site depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on bone mass. The scintigraphic appearance therefore does not necessarily correlate with the radiographic one; however, as there is a relationship between the rate at which bone is replaced and the quantity of bone which is present at any point, the two appearances are not entirely unrelated. Recognition of abnormality is based on a detailed knowledge of normal scintigraphic appearances

  17. AN APPROACH OF BONE LOSS ESTIMATION THROUGH DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Maiti,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass or density. In osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD is reduced and bone micro-architecture is deteriorating. Bones are becomes brittle and subjected to breakage even at a normal load. Conventionally, bone mineral density is measured by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA to establish osteoporosis but is costly. In this study, images from digital X-ray have been used to measure bone mineral density. The selected radiograph is segmented to separate bone image frombackground and converted to a gray level intensity matrix. Each pixel value of the matrix is related to bone density. A set of gray level intensity matrix corresponds to a particular region is taken and perform the Tstatistics on those data sample. To detect osteoporosis, a comparative study between calculated T-score and standard T-score, maintained by WHO (World Health Organization is performed from the selected area. Tstatistics is also the measurement of probability of osteoporotic fracture risk.

  18. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  19. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  20. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  1. Maintaining and improving accredited training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US nuclear industry's mission has been to upgrade its training efforts. The industry chose the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations accreditation program as the vehicle to help it accomplish this goal. The result is that operational training programs are now in use at all the operating plants for ten key plant positions. This is just the beginning of the industry's quest for training excellence. The ultimate objective to be achieved is to maintain high quality training and the professionalism of the personnel who operate the nuclear power plants. These training programs must now be implemented with qualified instructors. The training materials and equipment, such as the simulator, must be kept current. The feedback on the effectiveness of training must be obtained

  2. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  3. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  4. Bone scanning in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bone scanning in osteoporosis a diagnosis of osteoporosis most often follows fracture, and clearly this should be confirmed by x-ray. The bone scan therefore does not have an important role to play in the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. While the exact mechanism by which the 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates localize in the skeleton is not fully understood, it is believed that they adsorb onto bone surfaces most probably via the calcium of hydroxyapatite crystals. Because the major factors that affect adsorption are osteoblastic activity and to a lesser extent skeletal vascularity, it is apparent that a bone scan image presents a functional display of skeletal metabolic activity. However, osteoporosis is a disorder in which gradual change in bone mass may occur over many years and, in keeping with this minor imbalance in skeletal metabolism, the bone scan appearances are usually normal. However, the scan images may appear of poor quality because of relatively low bone uptake of tracer with, on occasion, a washed-out pattern of activity in the axial and appendicular bone. It has been suggested that such a pattern occurs in severe or end-stage osteoporosis caused by markedly reduced osteoblastic activity. If kyphosis is observed on the bone scan or if there appears to be loss of spinal height with proximity of ribs to each other or increased closeness of rib cage to pelvis, then appearances suggest vertebral collapse and would be in keeping with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Such evidence is, however, indirect and in practice a bone scan is an extremely unreliable means of diagnosing osteoporosis

  5. Maintaining Quality in a Decommissioning Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is Canada's largest nuclear decommissioning project to date. This research laboratory has operated for forty years since it was set up in 1963 in eastern Manitoba as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, complete with 60 MW(Th) test reactor, hot cells, particle accelerators, and multiple large-scale research programs. Returning the site to almost complete green state will require several decades of steady work in combination with periods of storage-with-surveillance. In this paper our approach to maintaining quality during the long decommissioning period is explained. In this context, 'quality' includes both regulatory aspects (compliance with required standards) and business aspects (meeting the customers' needs and exceeding their expectations). Both aspects are discussed, including examples and lessons learned. The five years of development and implementation of a quality assurance program for decommissioning the WL site have led to a number of lessons learned. Many of these are also relevant to other decommissioning projects, in Canada and elsewhere: - Early discussions with the regulator can save time and effort later in the process; - An iterative process in developing documentation allows for steady improvements and input throughout the process; - Consistent 2-way communication with staff regarding the benefits of a quality program assists greatly in adoption of the philosophy and procedures; - Top-level management must lead in promoting quality; - Field trials of procedures ('beta testing') ensures they are easy to use as well as useful. Success in decommissioning the Whiteshell Laboratories depends on the successful implementation of a rigorous quality program. This will help to ensure both safety and efficiency of all activities on site, from planning through execution and reporting. The many aspects of maintaining this program will continue to occupy quality practitioners in AECL, reaping

  6. Phasic and Tonic Inhibition are Maintained Respectively by CaMKII and PKA in the Rat Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Kayoung; Yoon, Shin Hee; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Jang, Hyun-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Phasic and tonic γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor-mediated inhibition critically regulate neuronal information processing. As these two inhibitory modalities have distinctive features in their receptor composition, subcellular localization of receptors, and the timing of receptor activation, it has been thought that they might exert distinct roles, if not completely separable, in the regulation of neuronal function. Inhibition should be maintained and regulated depending on changes in ne...

  7. Importance of maintaining the basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome during acetabular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Pei, Fuxing; Shen, Bin; Kang, Pengde; Li, Zongming

    2016-07-01

    The basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome is important for the maintenance of implant stability in press-fit acetabular reconstruction of total hip arthroplasty. However, information on the basic stress pathway and its impact factors remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the orientations and positions of the acetabular component on the basic stress pathway. The basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome was defined as two parts: 3D basic trabecular bone stress distribution and quantified basic cortical bone stress level, using two subject-specific finite element normal hip models. The effects were then analysed by generating 32 reconstructed acetabular cases with different cup abduction and anteversion angles within a range of 35-50° and 10-25°, respectively, and 12 cases with different hip centre heights within a range of 0-15 mm above the acetabular dome. The 3D trabecular stress distribution decreased remarkably in all cases, while the 80% of the basic cortical bone stress level was maintained in cases when the acetabular component was positioned at 10° or 15° anteversion and 40° or 45° abduction angles. The basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome was disturbed when the superior displacement of the hip centre exceeded 5 mm above the anatomical hip centre. Positioning the acetabular component correctly contributes to maintain the stress balance between the acetabular cup and the bone during acetabular reconstruction, thus helping restore the normal hip biomechanics and preserve the stability of the implants. PMID:26469561

  8. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  9. Fabrication and characterization of electrospun osteon mimicking scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal loss and bone deficiencies are a major worldwide problem with over 600,000 procedures performed in the US alone annually, making bone one of the most transplanted tissues, second to blood only. Bone is a composite tissue composed of organic matrix, inorganic bone mineral, and water. Structurally bone is organized into two distinct types: trabecular (or cancellous) and cortical (or compact) bones. Trabecular bone is characterized by an extensive interconnected network of pores. Cortical bone is composed of tightly packed units, called osteons, oriented parallel along to the axis of the bone. While the majority of scaffolds attempt to replicate the structure of the trabecular bone, fewer attempts have been made to create scaffolds to mimic the structure of cortical bone. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to fabricate scaffolds that mimic the organization of an osteon, the structural unit of cortical bone. We successfully built a rotating stage for PGA fibers and utilized it for collecting electrospun nanofibers and creating scaffolds. Resulting scaffolds consisted of concentric layers of electrospun PLLA or gelatin/PLLA nanofibers wrapped around PGA microfiber core with diameters that ranged from 200 to 600 μm. Scaffolds were mineralized by incubation in 10x simulated body fluid, and scaffolds composed of 10%gelatin/PLLA had significantly higher amounts of calcium phosphate. The electrospun scaffolds also supported cellular attachment and proliferation of MC3T3 cells over the period of 28 days.

  10. Influence of enzymatic maceration on the microstructure and microhardness of compact bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Ling [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Qin Qinghua, E-mail: ling.yin@jcu.edu.a [Department of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The cleaning of fresh bones to remove their soft tissues while maintaining their structural integrity is a basic and essential part of bone studies. The primary issue is how the cleaning process influences bone microstructures and mechanical properties. We cleaned fresh lamb femurs using enzymatic maceration in comparison with water maceration at room temperature. The microstructures of these compact bones were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their porosities were quantified using image processing software. The bone microhardness was measured using a Vickers indentation tester for studying the mechanical properties. The results show that enzymatic maceration of compact bone resulted in a significant microhardness reduction in comparison with water maceration. However, enzymatic maceration did not cause any significant change of porosity in bone structures.

  11. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30% of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC (previously PNC). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present

  13. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper

  14. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  15. Exercise and Regulation of Bone and Collagen Tissue Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Heinemeier, Katja Maria;

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system and its connective tissue include the intramuscular connective tissue, the myotendinous junction, the tendon, the joints with their cartilage and ligaments, and the bone; they all together play a crucial role in maintaining the architecture of the skeletal muscle...

  16. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  17. Radiosensitivity of stromal cells human bone marrow precursors, irradiated in vitro inside bone and in cell suspension and a modifying effect of hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of radiosensitivity of human bone marrow cells that form fibroblast colonies within monolayer cultures (CFUsub(f)) after exposure to 60Co-γ-radiation under different conditions: in pieces of an extirpated bone and in a cell suspension. Dose survival curves for CFUsub(f) obtained from both variants of the experiment vary merkedly in the value of median lethal dose (Dsub(O)) which constitute.s 89 rad for cell suspension and 328 rad for bone pieces. Radioresistance of CFUsub(f) increases (sub(o)=126 rad) in the suspension bubbled with argon whereas substitution of the atmosphere with argon does not influence the sensitivity of CFU irradiated in bone. The observed distinctions in radiosensitivity of human bone marrow CFU irradiated in suspension and bone pieces are probably related to different oxygen status of cells at time of irradiation. Maximum value of the oxygen effect for CFUsub(f) is 3.7

  18. Bone cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the considerable disparity in published values of the risk for bone cancers from ionising radiation, the article 'An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model' by Leenhouts and Brugmans in the June 2000 issue of this Journal deserves further comment and consideration. The letter concludes that radiological protection and risk estimation has acquired an extra dimension, and it is clear that the risk of bone cancer from exposure to ionising radiation needs further review. Letter-to-the-editor

  19. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  20. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces and...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours...

  1. Why date old bones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for pretreatment and purification of bone have not been accorded the same standard protocols that are applied to other sample materials. Many users lack confidence in bone dates, with some justification, and it is not clear how to proceed. With the advent of AMS dating, it is becoming easy to date very small amounts of highly purified samples such as single amino acids from bone collagen. This note serves a warning that there are dangers in the uncritical application of powerful separation and measurement techniques to uncharacterized material. (orig.)

  2. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  3. Bone-marrow alterations after half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mouse bone marrow was investigated after upper half-body, upper and lower half-body and whole-body irradiation, resp., with regard to the development of an animal model for half-body treatment of tumor patients. As a result of the studies the practicability of bilateral half-body irradiation can be assumed as to the regeneration of the bone marrow and the survival of the whole organism based on a kind of 'endogeneous transplantation' of bone marrow cells from the unirradiated area into the irradiated one. Resulting from the single irradiations distinct reductive cellular effects followed by exceeding regeneration in the irradiated parts of the bone marrow as well as compensatory proliferations in the unirradiated parts could be revealed. The dynamics of the number of cells essentially turned out on account of leukopoiesis. The results presented are a guideline for the interpretation of clinical processes following upper and lower adjuvant half-body irradiation

  4. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  5. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif 'YxxI', suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  6. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  7. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schioler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  8. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Melanie T

    2005-01-01

    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

  9. Achieving and maintaining cognitive vitality with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard M; Butler, Robert N; O'Connell, Alan W; Albert, Marilyn S; Birren, James E; Cotman, Carl W; Greenough, William T; Gold, Paul E; Kramer, Arthur F; Kuller, Lewis H; Perls, Thomas T; Sahagan, Barbara G; Tully, Tim

    2002-07-01

    Cognitive vitality is essential to quality of life and survival in old age. With normal aging, cognitive changes such as slowed speed of processing are common, but there is substantial interindividual variability, and cognitive decline is clearly not inevitable. In this review, we focus on recent research investigating the association of various lifestyle factors and medical comorbidities with cognitive aging. Most of these factors are potentially modifiable or manageable, and some are protective. For example, animal and human studies suggest that lifelong learning, mental and physical exercise, continuing social engagement, stress reduction, and proper nutrition may be important factors in promoting cognitive vitality in aging. Manageable medical comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, also contribute to cognitive decline in older persons. Other comorbidities such as smoking and excess alcohol intake may contribute to cognitive decline, and avoiding these activities may promote cognitive vitality in aging. Various therapeutics, including cognitive enhancers and protective agents such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories, may eventually prove useful as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline with aging. The data presented in this review should interest physicians who provide preventive care management to middle-aged and older individuals who seek to maintain cognitive vitality with aging. PMID:12108606

  10. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Accounting and internal control systems and financial records. (1) An institution must maintain accounting... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163 Section... Maintaining and accounting for funds. (a)(1) Bank or investment account. An institution must maintain title...

  11. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  13. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. CD34 defines an osteoprogenitor cell population in mouse bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Al-Shammary, Asma; Skagen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) and their progenitors have been identified based on retrospective functional criteria. CD markers are employed to define cell populations with distinct functional characteristics. However, defining and...... prospective isolation of mouse bone marrow osteoprogenitors....... prospective isolation of BMSCs and committed progenitors are lacking. Here, we compared the transcriptome profile of CD markers expressed at baseline and during the course of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of two well-characterized osteogenic-committed murine BMSCs (mBMSC(Bone)) and adipogenic...

  17. Lipids and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Pérez-Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between cholesterol and triglycerides and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease (hypertension and acute coronary syndrome.Methods: The study included 217 patients (83 men and 134 women, aged between 36 and 76 (mean age 59 ± 10, with hypertension and acute coronary syndrome. Information obtained included anthropometric measurements, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides; bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine.Results: BMD was significantly lower in patients in the higher tertiles of cholesterol (p = 0.041. The effect was maintained after adjustment for age and Body Mass Index (BMI. However, there was no association between the range of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and bone mass.Conclusions: A relationship was found between total cholesterol and bone mineral density in patients with vascular disease.

  18. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  19. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  20. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  1. The estimated elastic constants for a single bone osteonal lamella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young June; Cowin, Stephen C

    2008-02-01

    Micromechanical estimates of the elastic constants for a single bone osteonal lamella and its substructures are reported. These estimates of elastic constants are accomplished at three distinct and organized hierarchical levels, that of a mineralized collagen fibril, a collagen fiber, and a single lamella. The smallest collagen structure is the collagen fibril whose diameter is the order of 20 nm. The next structural level is the collagen fiber with a diameter of the order of 80 nm. A lamella is a laminate structure, composed of multiple collagen fibers with embedded minerals and consists of several laminates. The thickness of one laminate in the lamella is approximately 130 nm. All collagen fibers in a laminate in the lamella are oriented in one direction. However, the laminates rotate relative to the adjacent laminates. In this work, all collagen fibers in a lamella are assumed to be aligned in the longitudinal direction. This kind of bone with all collagen fibers aligned in one direction is called a parallel fibered bone. The effective elastic constants for a parallel fibered bone are estimated by assuming periodic substructures. These results provide a database for estimating the anisotropic poroelastic constants of an osteon and also provide a database for building mathematical or computational models in bone micromechanics, such as bone damage mechanics and bone poroelasticity. PMID:17297631

  2. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  3. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.;

    2006-01-01

    measured by X-ray absorption. Diet 2 gave a significantly higher body weight, bone volume and bone density of the femur shaft (cortical bone density) as compared to diet 1, whereas feed conversion was significantly lower on diet 2. On either diet, female minipigs had a significantly higher body weight...... of the femur’s proximal and distal segment, and total femur bone density (g/cm2) were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Feed conversion in females was significantly lower than in males. This study illustrates that female and male minipigs show distinct differences in body and bone...... metabolism. Bone densities, in contrast to bone mineral concentrations, were related to the level of feed restriction and may therefore be useful biomarkers to study the influence of nutrient intake on bone metabolism in Göttingen minipigs....

  4. Skull base bone hyperpneumatization

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, E J; Kouokam, L.M.; Nchimi, A L

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old male with a long standing history of compulsive Valsalva maneuvers, complaining of episodes of vertigo underwent head computed tomography. Axial CT slices at the level of the skull base (Fig. A) and the first cervical vertebrae (Fig. B) shows an extensive unusual pneumatization of both the body and lateral processes of the first cervical vertebrae (arrows), with air pouches dissecting planes between bone cortex and the periosteum around the occipital bone and the lateral process...

  5. Inca bones at asterion

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant E Natekar; Suhit E Natekar; Fatima M De Souza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, In...

  6. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  7. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  8. Detecting microdamage in bone.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, T Clive; Mohsin, Sahar; Taylor, David; Parkesh, Raman; Gunnlaugsson, TThorfinnur; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Giehl, Michael; Gowin, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and ...

  9. Fracture Nasal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and u...

  10. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography a...

  11. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  12. Primary multicentric angiosarcoma of bone: true entity or metastases from an unknown primary? Value of comparative genomic hybridization on paraffin embedded tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Juliette Thariat; Isabelle Peyrottes; Frédéric Chibon; Maxime Benchetrit; Esma Saada; Lauris Gastaud; Olivier Dassonville; Antoine Iannessi; Antione Thyss

    2013-01-01

    Multicentric primary angiosarcoma of bone has been described as a distinct entity from bone metastases from angiosarcoma. Bone angiosarcoma accounts for less than 1% of sarcomas. It has dismal prognosis overall, but the multicentric expression does not confer worse prognosis. We describe the case of an old male with bone angiosarcoma of the extremities with multicentric presentation. He soon after had soft tissue angiosarcoma of the head and neck. Histology and immunohistochemistry were consi...

  13. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and fu...

  14. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  15. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  16. Clonal-Level Responses of Functionally Distinct Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Trophic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mallaney, Cates; Kothari, Alok; Martens, Andrew; Challen, Grant A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings from several groups have identified distinct classes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow, each with inherent functional biases in terms of their differentiation, self-renewal, proliferation and lifespan. It has previously been demonstrated that myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs can be prospectively enriched based on their degree of Hoechst dye efflux. In the present study, we used differential Hoechst efflux to enrich lineage-biased HSC subtypes and analyzed ...

  17. Distinct organ-specific metastatic potential of individual breast cancer cells and primary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Minn, Andy J.; Kang, Yibin; Serganova, Inna; Gupta, Gaorav P.; Giri, Dilip D.; Doubrovin, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Gerald, William L; Blasberg, Ronald; Massagué, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We used bioluminescence imaging to reveal patterns of metastasis formation by human breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. Individual cells from a population established in culture from the pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient showed distinct patterns of organ-specific metastasis. Single-cell progenies derived from this population exhibited markedly different abilities to metastasize to the bone, lung, or adrenal medulla, which suggests that metastases to different organs have di...

  18. Plain film and CT observations in prostaglandin-induced bone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M.A.; Briggs, V.A.; Dunlap, H.J.; Udjus, K.; Martin, D.J.; McDonald, P. (Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-08-01

    Prostaglandin E[sub 1] intravenous infusion is used in infants with ductal-dependent cogenital heart disease to maintain ductal patency and prolong life until palliative or corrective surgery is feasible. Complications of prostaglandin administration include fever, diarrhoea, hypotension, apnoea, bradycardia, pseudowidening of the cranial sutures, underossification of the calvarial bones, periostitis, and skin edema. This paper presents dramatic plain radiographic features of prostaglandin-induced bone disease, inlcuding periosteal proliferation and the unusual bone-within-bone apperance, and provides the previously unpublished CT correlation. (orig.).

  19. Ectopic bone formation in bone marrow stem cell seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to autograft and (cell seeded allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J O Eniwumide

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements to current therapeutic strategies are needed for the treatment of skeletal defects. Bone tissue engineering offers potential advantages to these strategies. In this study, ectopic bone formation in a range of scaffolds was assessed. Vital autograft and devitalised allograft served as controls and the experimental groups comprised autologous bone marrow derived stem cell seeded allograft, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP and tricalcium phosphate (TCP, respectively. All implants were implanted in the back muscle of adult Dutch milk goats for 12 weeks. Micro-computed tomography (µCT analysis and histomorphometry was performed to evaluate and quantify ectopic bone formation. In good agreement, both µCT and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in bone formation by cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants. An extensive resorption of the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants was observed by histology and confirmed by histomorphometry. Cell-seeded TCP implants also showed distinct signs of degradation with histomorphometry and µCT, while the degradation of the cell-seeded BCP implants was negligible. These results indicate that cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds are superior to autograft, allograft or cell-seeded allograft in terms of bone formation at ectopic implantation sites. In addition, the usefulness of µCT for the efficient and non-destructive analysis of mineralised bone and calcium phosphate scaffold was demonstrated.

  20. Lactotransferrin-Cre reporter mice trace neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and distinct subtypes of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Boris; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Fischhuber, Katrin M; Leitner, Nicole R; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Casanova, Emilio; Sexl, Veronika; Müller, Mathias

    2014-06-01

    Considerable effort has been expended to identify genes that account for myeloid lineage commitment and development. However, currently available non-invasive mouse models utilize myeloid-specific reporters that are significantly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells as well as lymphoid compartments. Here, we describe a myeloid-specific marker that is not shared by any other lineage. We show that lactotransferrin mRNA is expressed by Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) cells in the bone marrow, as opposed to hematopoietic stem cells or any peripheral cell population. To follow the progeny of lactotransferrin-expressing bone marrow cells, we generated a mouse model in which a reporter gene is irreversibly activated from the lactotransferrin-promoter. We found that lactotransferrin-reporter labels a majority of neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and distinct subtypes of dendritic cells, while excluding T, B, natural killer cells, interferon-producing killer dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, erythrocytes and eosinophils. Lactotransferrin-reporter(-) bone marrow cells retain lymphoid, erythroid and long-term repopulating potential, while lactotransferrin-reporter(+) bone marrow cells confer only myeloid, but not lymphoid potential. We conclude that lactotransferrin represents a late stage differentiation marker of neutrophils, macrophages and distinct subtypes of dendritic cells. PMID:24561791

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  2. Crosstalk between cancer cells and bone microenvironment in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, as well as lung and liver, is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this preference need to be elucidated, it appears that bone microenvironments possess unique biological features that enable circulating cancer cells to home, survive and proliferate, and destroy bone. In conjunction, cancers that develop bone metastases likely have the capacity to utilize these unique bone environments for colonization and bone destruction. This crosstalk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. Disruption of this interaction will allow us to design mechanism-based effective and specific therapeutic interventions for bone metastases

  3. Osteogenic potential of bone-lining cells in the adult skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas are believed to arise from proliferating osteogenic precursor cells. The identity and location of these cells in the adult skeleton is not well understood. In order to determine reliable cell dose estimates, it is important to determine the osteogenic pathway in the adult skeleton. Bone-lining cells (BLCs) cover inactive endosteal surfaces in the adult skeleton of long-lived animals. BLCs are flat elongated cells which are directly apposed to the bone surface. They have cell processes extending into canaliculi and have gap junctions at some contacts with other bone-lining cells. The morphology of the bone-lining cell and its proximity to the bone surface can only be resolved at the ultrastructural level. These cells are a distinct morphologic phenotype but have been referred to by a variety of names including resting osteoblasts, surface osteocytes, and flattened mesenchymal cells. The BLC, as a distinct phenotype, should not be confused with the more descriptive term cells lining the bone surface of bone lining cells, sometimes used to include any cell near the bone. The purpose of the study was to determine what role, if any, the bone-lining cells have in the osteogenic process. Do these cells proliferate and contribute to the population of osteoblasts?

  4. [Morphological analysis of bone dynamics and metabolic bone disease. Histomorphometric concepts of bone remodeling and modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki E

    2011-04-01

    In tissue level turnover of bone cells, bone remodeling shows a sequential events of activation, resorption, reversal and formation. This may be observed as secondary osteons in the cortical bone and trabecular packets in the cancellous bone. Microcracks are repaired by targeted remodeling, and calcium is released by non-targeted remodeling. In macromodeling, a macroscopic size of a bone increases with growth, without changing its basic figure. In micromodelimg, a shift of trabecula, a minishift, is biomechnically controlled. New lamellar bone is added parallel to compressive and tensile force, and bone resorption occurs at the opposite surface of formation. In minimodeling new lamellar bone is formed with a sequence of activation, then directly formation, without scalloping at the cement line between newly formed bone and its basic bone. PMID:21447918

  5. Long bone histology and growth patterns in ankylosaurs: implications for life history and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stein

    Full Text Available The ankylosaurs are one of the major dinosaur groups and are characterized by unique body armor. Previous studies on other dinosaur taxa have revealed growth patterns, life history and evolutionary mechanisms based on their long bone histology. However, to date nothing is known about long bone histology in the Ankylosauria. This study is the first description of ankylosaurian long bone histology based on several limb elements, which were sampled from different individuals from the Ankylosauridae and Nodosauridae. The histology is compared to that of other dinosaur groups, including other Thyreophora and Sauropodomorpha. Ankylosaur long bone histology is characterized by a fibrolamellar bone architecture. The bone matrix type in ankylosaurs is closest to that of Stegosaurus. A distinctive mixture of woven and parallel-fibered bone together with overall poor vascularization indicates slow growth rates compared to other dinosaurian taxa. Another peculiar characteristic of ankylosaur bone histology is the extensive remodeling in derived North American taxa. In contrast to other taxa, ankylosaurs substitute large amounts of their primary tissue early in ontogeny. This anomaly may be linked to the late ossification of the ankylosaurian body armor. Metabolically driven remodeling processes must have liberated calcium to ossify the protective osteodermal structures in juveniles to subadult stages, which led to further remodeling due to increased mechanical loading. Abundant structural fibers observed in the primary bone and even in remodeled bone may have improved the mechanical properties of the Haversian bone.

  6. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  7. A Search for Institutional Distinctiveness. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The essays in this collection argue that community colleges have much to gain by seeking out and maintaining positive recognition of the features that distinguish them from other colleges in the region and state. In addition, the sourcebook contains articles discussing the process of conducting a search for institutional distinctiveness and ways…

  8. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  9. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  10. 3D computed tomographic evaluation of secondary alveolar bone grafts in cleft lip and palate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Fumio; Akai, Hidemi; Hosaka, Yoshiaki [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Alveolar bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate has becomes a routine part of most treatment regimes. This study was undertaken to estimate how much bone needs to be grafted into the cleft cavity and to evaluate the grafted bone using 3-DCT over a period from the early postoperative stage to after one year. Seventy-five patients divided into four groups according to the type of cleft were studied. All patients underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting using particulate cancellous bone from the anterior iliac crest. The bone graft areas were divided into two regions: the extra-cleft region and the intra-cleft region. The weight and the volume of the grafted bone were correlated and the average density was 1.5 g/ml regardless of the cleft type. The bone in the extra-cleft region could be seen in almost all slices of the CT scans, from the lower alveolar process to the piriform aperture. The extra-cleft graft ratio of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate is higher than that of cleft lip and alveolus. The extra-cleft grafting is necessary to restore facial symmetry. The grafted bone was decreased in both height and volume following three months and adequate bone bridging was maintained for one year. We concluded that 3-DCT findings are one of the most valuable methods to evaluate postoperative conditions after alveolar bone grafting. (author)

  11. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  12. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99mTc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99mTc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67Ga citrate and 111In white blood cells (111In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  13. In situ formation of porous space maintainers in a composite tissue defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Patrick P; Kretlow, James D; Henslee, Allan M; Shi, Meng; Young, Simon; Demian, Nagi; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E; Mikos, Antonios G; Kasper, F Kurtis

    2012-04-01

    Reconstruction of composite defects involving bone and soft tissue presents a significant clinical challenge. In the craniofacial complex, reconstruction of the soft and hard tissues is critical for both functional and aesthetic outcomes. Constructs for space maintenance provide a template for soft tissue regeneration, priming the wound bed for a definitive repair of the bone tissue with greater success. However, materials used clinically for space maintenance are subject to poor soft tissue integration, which can result in wound dehiscence. Porous materials in space maintenance applications have been previously shown to support soft tissue integration and to allow for drug release from the implant to further prepare the wound bed for definitive repair. This study evaluated solid and low porosity (16.9% ± 4.1%) polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers fabricated intraoperatively and implanted in a composite rabbit mandibular defect model for 12 weeks. The data analyses showed no difference in the solid and porous groups both histologically, evaluating the inflammatory response at the interface and within the pores of the implants, and grossly, observing the healing of the soft tissue defect over the implant. These results demonstrate the potential of porous polymethylmethacrylate implants formed in situ for space maintenance in the craniofacial complex, which may have implications in the potential delivery of therapeutic drugs to prime the wound site for a definitive bone repair. PMID:22241726

  14. Plutonium, Am, Cm and Sr in ducks maintained on radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm and 244Cm were determined in tissues of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained for 43-145 d on radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho. Highest concentrations of transuranics occurred in the gastrointestinal tract, followed closely by feathers. Approximately 75%, 18%, 6% and 1% of the total transuranic activity in tissues analyzed were associated with the bone, feathers, GI tract and liver, respectively. Concentrations in GI tracts were similar to concentrations in vegetation and insects in the littoral area of the ponds. The calculated total dose rate to the ducks from both 90Sr and the transuranic nuclides was 0.69 mGy d-1 (69 mrad d-1), of which 99% was to the bone. The potential effective dose equivalent to a human consuming the entire muscle and liver mass of one experimental duck with average nuclide concentrations was 0.46 microSv (0.046 mrem). Based upon average concentrations in experimental ducks and on surveys of wild waterfowl using this area, a conservative estimate of transuranic activity exported by wild ducks using the ponds during one year was 11.3 kBq (305 nCi). Similarly, the total amount of 90Sr exported in muscle, bone and lung of wild ducks in one year was 2.5 MBq (68.7 microCi)

  15. Bone Tissue Engineering Using High Permeability Poly-epsilon-caprolactone Scaffolds Conjugated with Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsak, Anna Guyer

    Bone is the second most commonly transplanted tissue in the United States. Limitations of current bone defect treatment options include morbidity at the autograft harvest site, mechanical failure, and poorly controlled growth factor delivery. Combining synthetic scaffolds with biologics may address these issues and reduce dependency on autografts. The ideal scaffolding system should promote tissue in-growth and nutrient diffusion, control delivery of biologics and maintain mechanical integrity during bone formation. This dissertation evaluates how scaffold permeability, conjugated bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and differentiation medium affect osteogenesis in vitro and bone growth in vivo.. "High" and "low" permeability polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with regular architectures were manufactured using solid free form fabrication. Bone growth in vivo was evaluated in an ectopic mouse model. High permeability scaffolds promoted better 8 week bone growth, supported tissue penetration into the scaffold core, and demonstrated increased mechanical properties due to newly formed bone. Next, the effects of differentiation medium and conjugated BMP-2 on osteogenesis were compared. Conjugation may improve BMP-2 loading efficiency, help localize bone growth and control release. High permeability scaffolds were conjugated with BMP-2 using the crosslinker, sulfo-SMCC. When adipose-derived and bone marrow stromal cells were seeded onto constructs (with or without BMP-2), BMSC expressed more differentiation markers, and differentiation medium affected differentiation more than BMP-2. In vivo, scaffolds with ADSC pre-differentiated in osteogenic medium (with and without BMP-2) and scaffolds with only BMP-2 grew the most bone. Bone volume did not differ among these groups, but constructs with ADSC had evenly distributed, scaffold-guided bone growth. Analysis of two additional BMP-2 attachment methods (heparin and adsorption) showed highest conjugation efficiency for the

  16. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  17. Bone health in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman-Levin, N; Hochberg, Z; Latzer, Y

    2014-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) put adolescents and young adults at risk for impaired bone health. Low bone mineral density (BMD) with ED is caused by failure to accrue peak bone mass in adolescence and bone loss in young adulthood. Although ED patients diagnosed with bone loss may be asymptomatic, some suffer bone pains and have increased incidence of fractures. Adolescents with ED are prone to increased prevalence of stress fractures, kyphoscoliosis and height loss. The clinical picture of the various EDs involves endocrinopathies that contribute to impaired bone health. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low bone turnover, with relatively higher osteoclastic (bone resorptive) than osteoblastic (bone formation) activity. Bone loss in AN occurs in both the trabecular and cortical bones, although the former is more vulnerable. Bone loss in AN has been shown to be influenced by malnutrition and low weight, reduced fat mass, oestrogen and androgen deficiency, glucocorticoid excess, impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis, and more. Bone loss in AN may not be completely reversible despite recovery from the illness. Treatment modalities involving hormonal therapies have limited effectiveness, whereas increased caloric intake, weight gain and resumption of menses are essential to improved BMD. PMID:24165231

  18. Mechanical loading, damping, and load-driven bone formation in mouse tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Todd; Wanis, Mina; Ayoub, Ramez; Zhao, Liming; Watts, Nelson B; Bhattacharya, Amit; Akkus, Ozan; Robling, Alexander; Yokota, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    Mechanical loads play a pivotal role in the growth and maintenance of bone and joints. Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. To test this hypothesis, fresh mouse distal lower limb segments were cyclically loaded in axial compression in sequential bouts, with each subsequent bout having less surrounding tissue. A finite element model was generated to model effects of bone curvature in silico. Two damping-related parameters (phase shift angle and energy loss) were determined from the output of the loading experiments. Interestingly, the experimental results revealed that the knee joint contributed to the largest portion of the damping capacity of the limb, and bone itself accounted for approximately 38% of the total phase shift angle. Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. Although structural curvature reduces critical loads for buckling in beam theory, evolution apparently favors maintaining curvature in the tibia. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia revealed that in response to axial loading, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the regions that were predicted to receive a curvature-induced bending moment. These results suggest that in addition to bone's compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect

  19. The Rho-GEF Kalirin regulates bone mass and the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su; Eleniste, Pierre P; Wayakanon, Kornchanok; Mandela, Prashant; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E; Allen, Matthew R; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2014-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Dysregulation in the activity of the bone cells can lead to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increase in bone fragility and risk of fracture. Kalirin is a novel GTP-exchange factor protein that has been shown to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling and dendritic spine formation in neurons. We examined Kalirin expression in skeletal tissue and found that it was expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Furthermore, micro-CT analyses of the distal femur of global Kalirin knockout (Kal-KO) mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular and cortical bone parameters in Kal-KO mice, compared to WT mice, with significantly reduced bone mass in 8, 14 and 36week-old female Kal-KO mice. Male mice also exhibited a decrease in bone parameters but not to the level seen in female mice. Histomorphometric analyses also revealed decreased bone formation rate in 14week-old female Kal-KO mice, as well as decreased osteoblast number/bone surface and increased osteoclast surface/bone surface. Consistent with our in vivo findings, the bone resorbing activity and differentiation of Kal-KO osteoclasts was increased in vitro. Although alkaline phosphatase activity by Kal-KO osteoblasts was increased in vitro, Kal-KO osteoblasts showed decreased mineralizing activity, as well as decreased secretion of OPG, which was inversely correlated with ERK activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that deletion of Kalirin directly affects osteoclast and osteoblast activity, leading to decreased OPG secretion by osteoblasts which is likely to alter the RANKL/OPG ratio and promote osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, Kalirin may play a role in paracrine and/or endocrine signaling events that control skeletal bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass. PMID:24380811

  20. The effects of hibernation and forced disuse (neurectomy) on bone properties in arctic ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogren, Lori K; Johnston, Erin L; Barati, Zeinab; Martin, Paula A; Wojda, Samantha J; Van Tets, Ian G; LeBlanc, Adrian D; Donahue, Seth W; Drew, Kelly L

    2016-05-01

    Bone loss is a well-known medical consequence of disuse such as in long-term space flight. Immobilization in many animals mimics the effects of space flight on bone mineral density. Decreases in metabolism are also thought to contribute to a loss of skeletal mass. Hibernating mammals provide a natural model of disuse and metabolic suppression. Hibernating ground squirrels have been shown to maintain bone strength despite long periods of disuse and decreased metabolism during torpor. This study examined if the lack of bone loss during torpor was a result of the decrease in metabolic rate during torpor or an evolutionary change in these animals affording protection against disuse. We delineated changes in bone density during natural disuse (torpor) and forced disuse (sciatic neurectomy) in the hind limbs of the arctic ground squirrel (AGS) over an entire year. We hypothesized that the animals would be resistant to bone loss due to immobilization and disuse during the winter hibernation season when metabolism is depressed but not the summer active season. This hypothesis was not supported. The animals maintained bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and most bone structural and mechanical properties in both seasons. This was observed in both natural and forced disuse, regardless of the known metabolic rate increase during the summer. However, trabecular bone volume fraction (microcomputed tomography) in the distal femur was lower in neurectomized AGS at the study endpoint. These results demonstrate a need to better understand the relationship between skeletal load (use) and bone density that may lead to therapeutics or strategies to maintain bone density in disuse conditions. PMID:27225624

  1. Switching-On Survival and Repair Response Programs in Islet Transplants by Bone Marrow–Derived Vasculogenic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robyn; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Diaferia, Giuseppe R.; Ninniri, Stefania; Hardiman, Gary; Torbett, Bruce E; Benezra, Robert; Crisa, Laura

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Vascular progenitors of bone marrow origin participate to neovascularization at sites of wound healing and transplantation. We hypothesized that the biological purpose of this bone marrow–derived vascular component is to contribute angiogenic and survival functions distinct from those provided by the local tissue-derived vasculature. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AND RESULTS—To address this hypothesis, we investigated the functional impact of bone marrow–derived vascular cells on panc...

  2. Placental Growth Factor Expression Is Required for Bone Marrow Endothelial Cell Support of Primitive Murine Hematopoietic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoying Zhou; Barsky, Lora W.; Adams, Gregor B

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct microenvironmental niches that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell physiology in the adult bone marrow have been proposed; the endosteal and the vascular niche. While extensive studies have been performed relating to molecular interactions in the endosteal niche, the mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell interaction with bone marrow endothelial cells are less well defined. Here we demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the bone marrow suppor...

  3. The histogenesis of giant cell tumour of bone: a model of interaction between neoplastic cells and osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, M H; ROBBINS, P; Xu, J.; Huang, Liping; Wood, D. J.; Papadimitriou, J M

    2001-01-01

    Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is a benign primary neoplasm of a bone characterised by distinctive clinical, radiological and pathological features. Females are slightly more often affected than males, and the majority of patients present between the ages of 20 and 50. GCT is locally aggressive and produces expansive and lytic lesions, most commonly in the epiphyses of long tubular bones. Histologically, it is composed of oval and spindle mononuclear cells, un...

  4. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  5. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  6. Periostin action in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Periostin is a highly conserved matricellular protein that shares close homology with the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin 1. Periostin is expressed in a broad range of tissues including the skeleton, where it serves both as a structural molecule of the bone matrix and a signaling molecule through integrin receptors and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways whereby it stimulates osteoblast functions and bone formation. The development of periostin null mice has allowed to elucidate the crucial role of periostin on dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as on the skeletal response to mechanical loading and parathyroid hormone. The use of circulating periostin as a potential clinical biomarker has been explored in different non skeletal conditions. These include cancers and more specifically in the metastasis process, respiratory diseases such as asthma, kidney failure, renal injury and cardiac infarction. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels have been shown to predict the risk of fracture-more specifically non-vertebral- independently of bone mineral density. Because of its preferential localization in cortical bone and periosteal tissue, it can be speculated that serum periostin may be a marker of cortical bone metabolism, although additional studies are clearly needed. PMID:26721738

  7. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  8. [Inflammation and bone : Osteoimmunological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, K W; Neumann, E; Lange, U

    2016-06-01

    Microscopic fractures (so-called microcracks) or traumatic macrofractures require bone, as the basic scaffold of the human body, to have a high regenerative capability. In order to be able to provide this regenerative capability, bone is in a constant process of remodeling. This finely tuned homeostasis of bone formation and degradation can become disrupted, which leads to osteoporosis or other bone disorders. It has been shown that the immune system is substantially involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and that chronic inflammation in particular can disturb this balance; therefore, this article reviews the osteoimmunological aspects contributing to osteoporosis and other diseases associated with bone degradation. PMID:27250491

  9. Fuzzy Maintainability Model for Object Oriented Software System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumi Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years for achieving considerable success in software system, maintainability plays a very crucial role and it is considered as an important quality characteristics. In this paper a maintainability model has been proposed to compare maintainability of object-oriented software system. Attempts have been made on software developed in different programming languages to make comparison of maintainability pattern using AHP and Fuzzy Index method.

  10. Fuzzy Maintainability Model for Object Oriented Software System

    OpenAIRE

    Soumi Ghosh; Sanjay Kumar Dubey; Ajay Rana

    2012-01-01

    In recent years for achieving considerable success in software system, maintainability plays a very crucial role and it is considered as an important quality characteristics. In this paper a maintainability model has been proposed to compare maintainability of object-oriented software system. Attempts have been made on software developed in different programming languages to make comparison of maintainability pattern using AHP and Fuzzy Index method.

  11. A unified theory of bone healing and nonunion: BHN theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D S; Newman, K J H; Forward, D P; Hahn, D M; Ollivere, B; Kojima, K; Handley, R; Rossiter, N D; Wixted, J J; Smith, R M; Moran, C G

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a unified clinical theory that links established facts about the physiology of bone and homeostasis, with those involved in the healing of fractures and the development of nonunion. The key to this theory is the concept that the tissue that forms in and around a fracture should be considered a specific functional entity. This 'bone-healing unit' produces a physiological response to its biological and mechanical environment, which leads to the normal healing of bone. This tissue responds to mechanical forces and functions according to Wolff's law, Perren's strain theory and Frost's concept of the "mechanostat". In response to the local mechanical environment, the bone-healing unit normally changes with time, producing different tissues that can tolerate various levels of strain. The normal result is the formation of bone that bridges the fracture - healing by callus. Nonunion occurs when the bone-healing unit fails either due to mechanical or biological problems or a combination of both. In clinical practice, the majority of nonunions are due to mechanical problems with instability, resulting in too much strain at the fracture site. In most nonunions, there is an intact bone-healing unit. We suggest that this maintains its biological potential to heal, but fails to function due to the mechanical conditions. The theory predicts the healing pattern of multifragmentary fractures and the observed morphological characteristics of different nonunions. It suggests that the majority of nonunions will heal if the correct mechanical environment is produced by surgery, without the need for biological adjuncts such as autologous bone graft. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:884-91. PMID:27365465

  12. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  13. Experimental study on healing process of rat mandibular bone fracture examined by radiological procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Yukio; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The healing process of rat mandibular fractures was stereoscopically observed daily, using plain roentgenography in the lateral-oblique and tooth axis directions and bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphoric acid (Tc-99m-MDP). The findings were compared with microradiograms of regional polished specimens. X-ray findings included the following. Up to 3 days after bone fracture, the fracture mesiodistally showed distinct radiolucency, with sharp and irregular fracture stump. Radiopacity of the fracture site gradually increased 7 days or later, and bone trabecular formation by callus and stump bridging started to occur at 14 days. Findings similar to those in the control group were observed 49 days or later. The inside was difficult to differentiate, irrespective of the observation time. Bone scans in the mesiodistal and buccolingual planes revealed tracer uptake in the areas of mandibular and soft tissue damage one day after bone fracture. Tracer uptake began to be seen in the fracture site 3 days later, and became marked at 14 days. Then Tc-99m DMP began to be localized and returned to the findings similar to those at 49 days. Bone scanning tended to show wider areas earlier than roentgenography. Microradiographic mesiodistal examination revealed distinct radiopacy of the fracture line for 3 days after bone fracture. Seven days later, bone resorption cavity occurred in the cortical bone around the fracture stump, along with neogenesis of callus. Neogenesis and calcification began to occur gradually, and 14 days later, the fracture osteoremodeling of the internal bone trabeculae was observed. Bone trabecular formation within the bone, however, occurred later. (N.K.).

  14. Radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between December 1986 and January 1978, 68 patients with bone metastases were analyzed to evaluate the effect of radiation for the relief of pain. The 68 patients, who had a total of 97 lesions, complained of pain caused by their bone metastasis. The good, fair, and poor responses were found to be 18%, 60%, and 22%, respectively. With reference to the primary neoplasms, the effective response rate was 73% in lung cancer, 100% in breast cancer, 75% in gastric cancer, 100% in hepatic cancer, 100% in bladder cancer, 25% in epipharyngeal cancer, and 70% in the other neoplasms. Depending on the cell types of the lung cancer, the effective response rate was 80% for small cell carcinomas, 72% for adenocarcinomas and 40% for squamous cell carcinomas. Our results suggest that radiotherapy for bone metastases is to be recommended, since the effective response rate was 78% for the relief of pain. (author)

  15. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  16. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poundarik, Atharva A; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone's propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities, such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  17. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  18. Bone formation following implantation of bone biomaterials into extraction sites

    OpenAIRE

    Molly, Liene; Vandromme, Heleen; Quirynen, Marc; Schepers, Evert; Adams, Jessica L; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adequate bone volume is imperative for the osseointegration of endosseous implants, but post-extraction resorption and remodeling may challenge implant placement. The use of bone biomaterials has been advocated to fill extraction sites and to enhance primary implant stability during osseointegration. The objective of the case series was to evaluate bone formation histologically and biomechanically in extraction sites following implantation of three commercially available bone biom...

  19. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  20. Exercise does not enhance aged bone's impaired response to artificial loading in C57Bl/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Meakin, Lee B.; Udeh, Chinedu; Galea, Gabriel L.; Lanyon, Lance E.; Price, Joanna S.

    2015-01-01

    Bones adapt their structure to their loading environment and so ensure that they become, and are maintained, sufficiently strong to withstand the loads to which they are habituated. The effectiveness of this process declines with age and bones become fragile fracturing with less force. This effect in humans also occurs in mice which experience age-related bone loss and reduced adaptation to loading. Exercise engenders many systemic and local muscular physiological responses as well as engende...

  1. Additive Effects of Mechanical Marrow Ablation and PTH Treatment on de Novo Bone Formation in Mature Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi A. Carlson Scholz; Agnès Vignery; James Gilligan; Nozer Mehta; Xiaoqing Xu; Christopher Miller; Jesse Bible; Jiliang Li; Qing Zhang,

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to increased cortical thickness. In this study, we sought to determine whether PTH enhances bone formation after marrow ablation in aged rats. Aged rats underwent unilateral femoral marrow ablation and treatment with PTH o...

  2. The p38α MAPK function in osteoprecursors is required for bone formation and bone homeostasis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Rodríguez-Carballo

    Full Text Available p38 MAPK activity plays an important role in several steps of the osteoblast lineage progression through activation of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and it is also essential for the acquisition of the osteoblast phenotype in early development. Although reports indicate p38 signalling plays a role in early skeletal development, its specific contributions to adult bone remodelling are still to be clarified.We evaluated osteoblast-specific deletion of p38α to determine its significance in early skeletogenesis, as well as for bone homeostasis in adult skeleton. Early p38α deletion resulted in defective intramembranous and endochondral ossification in both calvaria and long bones. Mutant mice showed reduction of trabecular bone volume in distal femurs, associated with low trabecular thickness. In addition, knockout mice also displayed decreased femoral cortical bone volume and thickness. Deletion of p38α did not affect osteoclast function. Yet it impaired osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast maturation and activity through decreased expression of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and their targets. Furthermore, the inducible Cre system allowed us to control the onset of p38α disruption after birth by removal of doxycycline. Deletion of p38α at three or eight weeks postnatally led to significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone volume after 6 or 12 months.Our data demonstrates that, in addition to early skeletogenesis, p38α is essential for osteoblasts to maintain their function in mineralized adult bone, as bone anabolism should be sustained throughout life. Moreover, our data also emphasizes that clinical development of p38 inhibitors should take into account their potential bone effects.

  3. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  4. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and ultrasound in their diagnosis and their management.

  5. [Cytogenetics of bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner-Capodano, A M; Poitout, D

    There has been much progress in the cytogenesis, and molecular biology of bone tumours such as Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcomas, greatly improving diagnostic possibilities and prognosis. Ewing's sarcoma is an indifferentiated sarcoma with round cells which usually occurs in children or adolescents. Ewing's sarcoma corresponds to 6% of all bone tumours. Histologically Ewing's sarcoma belongs to a group of small round cell tumours including neuroblastoma, embryon and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Differential diagnosis is difficult. Cytogenetic examinations can now differentiate Ewing's sarcoma from other small round cell tumours. There is a specific 11:12 translocation (q24; q12) which can be used as a marker. PMID:8785922

  6. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  7. Bone lesions in early syphilis detected by bone scintigraphy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, K.; Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Lindewald, H; Sørensen, P S; Weismann, K

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of early syphilis with multiple bone lesions which all resolved after treatment with penicillin. We discuss why bone lesions may be more prevalent than generally believed and why 99m-Tc-MDP-bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than radiography in detecting syphilitic periostitis.

  8. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  9. Chemically-Conjugated Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Three-Dimensional Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Stimulates Osteogenic Activity in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huina; Migneco, Francesco; Lin, Chia-Ying; Hollister, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has received considerable attention in bone tissue engineering. However, the lack of osteoinductive ability of PCL limits its application. The aim of this study was to directly attach bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to PCL scaffolds by a crosslinking conjugation method and to investigate whether the bound BMP-2 maintained bioactivity in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining against BMP-2 and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements demonstrated t...

  10. Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Maintainability influencing attributes are analyzed, their weight and value calculating methods are given, and the maintainability fuzzy evaluation method is proposed based on the relative closeness. According to the maintenance task simulation operated in virtual environment, the maintainability virtual evaluation model is built by analyzing the maintenance task for each replaceable unit of product.At last, a case study is given based upon the main landing gear system of a certain type civil aircraft, and the result indicates that the model is suitable for maintainability qualitative evaluation and can support maintainability concurrent design.

  11. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  13. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural uranium content in the bone of one person has been determined by a new method. The results were obtained by quantitative analysis of fission track autoradiographs of bone from a person injected witn 239Pu

  14. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Donate Now Select Page Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Late Effects of Treatment > Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Limb salvage is a surgical procedure that replaces ...

  15. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transmitted very efficiently through the head using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those ... changed from a normal soundwave into a bone conduction vibration, and that is what is passed then ...

  16. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importantly, this low bone mass is also associated with a seven-fold increased risk of fracture. Therefore, strategies to effectively prevent bone loss and increase bone mass are critical. We will review hormonal adaptations that contribute to bone loss in this population as well as promising new therapies that may increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk in AN. PMID:24882734

  17. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  18. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  1. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  2. Anorexia nervosa and bone metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by self-induced starvation with a lifetime prevalence of 2.2% in women. The most common medical co-morbidity in women with AN is bone loss, with over 85% of women having bone mineral density values more than one standard deviation below an age comparable mean. The low bone mass in AN is due to multiple hormonal adaptations to under nutrition, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and growth hormone resistance. Importantly, this low bone mass is also associated with a seven-fold increased risk of fracture. Therefore, strategies to effectively prevent bone loss and increase low bone mass are critical. We will review hormonal adaptations that contribute to bone loss in this population as well as promising new therapies that may increase bone mass and reduce fracture risk in AN. PMID:24882734

  3. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  4. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  5. Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Noble B.

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas o...

  6. Loss of the PGE2 receptor EP1 enhances bone acquisition, which protects against age and ovariectomy-induced impairments in bone strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minjie; Feigenson, Marina; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Awad, Hani A; Schwarz, Edward M; Jonason, Jennifer H; Loiselle, Alayna E; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2015-03-01

    PGE2 exerts anabolic and catabolic effects on bone through the discrete actions of four prostanoid receptors (EP1-4). We have previously demonstrated that loss EP1 accelerates fracture repair by enhancing bone formation. In the present study we defined the role of EP1 in bone maintenance and homeostasis during aging and in response to ovariectomy. The femur and L4 vertebrae of wild type (WT) and EP1(-/-) mice were examined at 2-months, 6-months, and 1-year of age, and in WT and EP1(-/-) mice following ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. Bone volume fraction, trabecular architecture and mechanical properties were maintained during aging in EP1(-/-) mice to a greater degree than age-matched WT mice. Moreover, significant increases in bone formation rate (BFR) (+60%) and mineral apposition rate (MAR) (+50%) were observed in EP1(-/-), relative to WT, while no change in osteoclast number and osteoclast surface were observed. Following OVX, loss of EP1 was protective against bone loss in both femur and L4 vertebrae, with increased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (+32% in femur) and max load at failure (+10% in femur) relative to WT OVX, likely resulting from the increased bone formation rate that was observed in these mice. Taken together these studies identify inhibition of EP1 as a potential therapeutic approach to suppress bone loss in aged or post-menopausal patients. PMID:25446888

  7. Association of Bone Mineral Density and Lifestyle in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossein-nezhad

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, osteoporosis is an increasingly important public health problem in men. The aim of this study was to investigate relationship between life style and bone mineral density in men. Methods: Among the 20-76 year-old men of Tehran, 325 persons were selected randomly from 50 clusters. The persons suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid diseases, fractures or other conditions which effect bone metabolism were excluded. All participants underwent clinical examinations and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Results: In lumbar spine, peak bone density was seen between ages 25 and 40 yr and in hip, between 20 and 30. In men older than 50 yr, prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia, were 3.9% and 50%, respectively. Bone mineral density was significantly correlated to calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity and smoking. Conclusion: Nutritional intake and physical activity are important factors in maintaining bone mineral density. Peak bone density in 20-40 year-old population and its relation to life style could be useful in policy-making for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  8. An improved method for isolation of RNA from bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Lauren E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone physiology is increasingly appreciated as an important contributor to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. However, progress in understanding the role of bone in determining metabolic health is hampered by the well-described difficulty of obtaining high quality RNA from bone for gene expression analysis using the currently available approaches. Results We developed a simple approach to isolate bone RNA that combines pulverizing the bone and the phenol-guanidinium based RNA extraction in a single step while maintaining near-freezing temperatures. This single step method increases the yield of high quality RNA by eight-fold, with RNA integrity numbers ranging from 6.7 to 9.2. Conclusions Our streamlined approach substantially increases the yield of high-quality RNA from bone tissue while facilitating safe and efficient processing of multiple samples using readily available platforms. The RNA obtained from this method is suitable for use in gene expression analysis in real-time quantitative PCR, microarray, and next generation sequencing applications.

  9. Patient-derived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow cells display distinct intracellular kinase phosphorylation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiparametric analyses of phospho-protein activation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) offers a quantitative measure to monitor the activity of novel intracellular kinase (IK) inhibitors. As recent clinical investigation with FMS-like tyrosine-3 inhibitors demonstrated, targeting IK with selective inhibitors can have a modest clinical benefit. Because multiple IKs are active in patients with AML, multikinase inhibitors may provide the necessary inhibition profile to achieve a more sustained clinical benefit. We here describe a method of assessing the activation of several IKs by flow cytometry. In 40 different samples of patients with AML we observed hyper-activated phospho-proteins at baseline, which is modestly increased by adding stem cell factor to AML cells. Finally, AML cells had a significantly different phospho-protein profile compared with cells of the lymphocyte gate. In conclusion, our method offers a way to determine the activation status of multiple kinases in AML and hence is a reliable assay to evaluate the pharmacodynamic activity of novel multikinase inhibitors

  10. Bent Bone Dysplasia-FGFR2 type, a Distinct Skeletal Disorder, Has Deficient Canonical FGF Signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Merrill, A.E.; Sarukhanov, A.; Krejčí, Pavel; Idoni, B.; Carmacho, N.; Estrada, K.D.; Lyons, K.M.; Deixler, H.; Robinson, H.; Chitayat, D.; Curry, C.J.; Lachman, R.S.; Wilcox, W.R.; Krakow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2012), s. 550-557. ISSN 0002-9297 Grant ostatní: -(US) HD22657; -(US) 5 P30 DE020750-02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : APERT-SYNDROME * LADD SYNDROME * GROWTH Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 11.202, year: 2012

  11. Development, validation and characterization of a novel mouse model of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2014-11-01

    The etiology of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD) is poorly understood but the hallmark of ABD is a lack of bone turnover. ABD occurs in renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and is suspected to occur in elderly patients on long-term anti-resorptive therapy. A major clinical concern of ABD is diminished bone quality and an increased fracture risk. To our knowledge, experimental animal models for ABD other than ROD-ABD have not been developed or studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of ABD without the complications of renal ablation, and to characterize changes in bone quality in ABD relative to controls. To re-create the adynamic bone condition, 4-month old female Col2.3Δtk mice were treated with ganciclovir to specifically ablate osteoblasts, and pamidronate was used to inhibit osteoclastic resorption. Four groups of animals were used to characterize bone quality in ABD: Normal bone controls, No Formation controls, No Resorption controls, and an Adynamic group. After a 6-week treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and the bones were harvested for analyses. Bone quality assessments were conducted using established techniques including bone histology, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and biomechanical testing. Histomorphometry confirmed osteoblast-related hallmarks of ABD in our mouse model. Bone formation was near complete suppression in the No Formation and Adynamic specimens. Inhibition of bone resorption in the Adynamic group was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. Normal bone mineral density and architecture were maintained in the Adynamic group, whereas the No Formation group showed a reduction in bone mineral content and trabecular thickness relative to the Adynamic group. As expected, the No Formation group had a more hypomineralized profile and the Adynamic group had a higher mean mineralization profile that is

  12. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or...

  15. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeyere, A.; Somer, F. de; Perdieus, D.; Lemmens, L.; Schillebeeckx, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imeldaziekenhuis Bonheiden (Belgium); Hauwe, L. van den [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp (Belgium)

    2000-02-01

    The CT and MRI findings in a case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone are reported. Although chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, only 10 % of chondrosarcomas occur in the head and neck region. The hyoid bone is a rare site of involvement with only seven cases reported previously. (orig.)

  16. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL, antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy.

  17. Targeting bone metabolism in patients with advanced prostate cancer: current options and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Stenzl, Arnulf; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL), antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs) in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy. PMID:25802521

  18. Modalities for Visualization of Cortical Bone Remodeling: The Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kimberly D; Cooper, David M L

    2015-01-01

    Bone's ability to respond to load-related phenomena and repair microdamage is achieved through the remodeling process, which renews bone by activating groups of cells known as basic multicellular units (BMUs). The products of BMUs, secondary osteons, have been extensively studied via classic two-dimensional techniques, which have provided a wealth of information on how histomorphology relates to skeletal structure and function. Remodeling is critical in maintaining healthy bone tissue; however, in osteoporotic bone, imbalanced resorption results in increased bone fragility and fracture. With increasing life expectancy, such degenerative bone diseases are a growing concern. The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of BMUs and their correlation to function, however, are not well-characterized and little is known about the specific mechanisms that initiate and regulate their activity within cortical bone. We believe a key limitation has been the lack of 3D information about BMU morphology and activity. Thus, this paper reviews methodologies for 3D investigation of cortical bone remodeling and, specifically, structures associated with BMU activity (resorption spaces) and the structures they create (secondary osteons), spanning from histology to modern ex vivo imaging modalities, culminating with the growing potential of in vivo imaging. This collection of papers focuses on the theme of "putting the 'why' back into bone architecture." Remodeling is one of two mechanisms "how" bone structure is dynamically modified and thus an improved 3D understanding of this fundamental process is crucial to ultimately understanding the "why." PMID:26322017

  19. Bone cysts after osteochondral allograft repair of cartilage defects in goats suggest abnormal interaction between subchondral bone and overlying synovial joint tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallante-Kichura, Andrea L; Cory, Esther; Bugbee, William D; Sah, Robert L

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of osteochondral allografts (OCAs) may be affected by osseous support of the articular cartilage, and thus affected by bone healing and remodeling in the OCA and surrounding host. Bone cysts, and their communication pathways, may be present in various locations after OCA insertion and reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Previously, we analyzed the effect of OCA storage (FRESH, 4°C/14d, 4°C/28d, FROZEN) on cartilage quality in fifteen adult goats after 12months in vivo. The objectives of this study were to further analyze OCAs and contralateral non-operated (Non-Op) CONTROLS from the medial femoral condyle to (1) determine the effect of OCA storage on local subchondral bone (ScB) and trabecular bone (TB) structure, (2) characterize the location and structure of bone cysts and channels, and (3) assess the relationship between cartilage and bone properties. (1) Overall bone structure after OCAs was altered compared to Non-Op, with OCA samples displaying bone cysts, ScB channels, and ScB roughening. ScB BV/TV in FROZEN OCAs was lower than Non-Op and other OCAs. TB BV/TV in FRESH, 4°C/14d, and 4°C/28d OCAs did not vary compared to Non-Op, but BS/TV was lower. (2) OCAs contained "basal" cysts, localized to deeper regions, some "subchondral" cysts, localized near the bone-cartilage interface, and some ScB channels. TB surrounding basal cysts exhibited higher BV/TV than Non-Op. (3) Basal cysts occurred (a) in isolation, (b) with subchondral cysts and ScB channels, (c) with ScB channels, or (d) with subchondral cysts, ScB channels, and ScB erosion. Deterioration of cartilage gross morphology was strongly associated with abnormal μCT bone structure. Evidence of cartilage-bone communication following OCA repair may favor fluid intrusion as a mechanism for subchondral cyst formation, while bone resorption at the graft-host interface without affecting overall bone and cartilage structure may favor bony contusion mechanism for basal cyst formation. These

  20. Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone

    OpenAIRE

    Roato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recen...

  1. Craniocervical bone pneumatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of extensive craniocervical bone pneumatisation presenting after minor trauma. The patient had neurological signs and initial radiographs showed multiple lucencies in the skull base and the atlas vertebra. CT established the true nature of this rare condition. (orig.). With 3 figs

  2. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.;

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response...

  3. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think that this is something that only older people need to worry about. BUT—you can take action right now to help make sure that as you get older your bones are as healthy as they can be. Eating a balanced diet ...

  4. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  5. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of the concept of life…

  6. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Store Shopping Cart Home › Patients › Treatment › Nutrition Nutrition Food For Thought Quiz True or false: Prunes contain ... health. True False View Answers Loading ... Sponsored by: Food and Your Bones – Osteoporosis Nutrition Guidelines The food ...

  7. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  8. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  9. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  10. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.)

  11. A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Brüel, Annemarie; Gudmann, Natasja Stæhr; Hauge, Ellen Margrethe; Karsdal, Morten A; Richter, Johan; Henriksen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    formation rate (54 %) in trabecular bone, while RANK KO recipients showed only minor trends compared to control recipients. We here show that maintaining non-resorbing osteoclasts, as opposed to reducing the osteoclasts, leads to increased bone formation, bone volume, and ultimately higher bone strength in......Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating......-poor adult osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In...

  12. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99mTc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  13. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Xing, Guosheng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jianbao; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical strength in femur due to USN. Naringin increased bone formation but inhibited resorption, as indicated by bone-turnover markers in blood and urine and the histological staining of Osteocalcin (OCN) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in femur. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and active β-catenin protein decreased after USN and could be restored by naringin to the levels of the sham-operated rats. In addition, naringin in vitro promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. Our studies suggest that the down-regulation of Sema3A and the subsequent inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling may be some of the mechanisms involved in USN-induced osteoporosis. Naringin could increase the expression of Sema3A and the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling to prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by denervation. Thus, naringin functions in bone maintenance and could be a promising therapeutic alternative in preventing disuse osteoporosis. PMID:27109829

  14. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  15. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingling, Vanessa R; Mitchell, Kathryn A; Lunny, Megan

    2016-01-01

    RH-a group compared to C, a similar deficit in BV/TV was also measured following recovery and post-OVX. The trabecular number and thickness were lower in the GnRH-a group compared to control. Conclusion. These data suggest that following a transient delay in pubertal onset, trabecular bone volume was significantly lower and no restoration of bone volume occurred following recovery or post-OVX surgery. However, cortical bone strength was maintained through architectural adaptations in the cortical bone envelope. An increase in the polar moment of inertia offset increased bone resorption. The current data are the first to suppress trabecular bone during growth, and then add an OVX protocol at maturity. Trabecular bone and cortical bone differed in their response to hypothalamic suppression during development; trabecular bone was more sensitive to the negative effects of hypothalamic suppression. PMID:26793427

  16. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kathryn A.; Lunny, Megan

    2016-01-01

    RH-a group compared to C, a similar deficit in BV/TV was also measured following recovery and post-OVX. The trabecular number and thickness were lower in the GnRH-a group compared to control. Conclusion. These data suggest that following a transient delay in pubertal onset, trabecular bone volume was significantly lower and no restoration of bone volume occurred following recovery or post-OVX surgery. However, cortical bone strength was maintained through architectural adaptations in the cortical bone envelope. An increase in the polar moment of inertia offset increased bone resorption. The current data are the first to suppress trabecular bone during growth, and then add an OVX protocol at maturity. Trabecular bone and cortical bone differed in their response to hypothalamic suppression during development; trabecular bone was more sensitive to the negative effects of hypothalamic suppression. PMID:26793427

  17. Fractal features of dark, maintained, and driven neural discharges in the cat visual system

    CERN Document Server

    Lowen, S B; Kaplan, E; Saleh, B E A; Teich, M C; Lowen, Steven B.; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi; Kaplan, Ehud; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1999-01-01

    We employ a number of statistical measures to characterize neural discharge activity in cat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in their target lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons under various stimulus conditions, and we develop a new measure to examine correlations in fractal activity between spike-train pairs. In the absence of stimulation (i.e., in the dark), RGC and LGN discharges exhibit similar properties. The presentation of a constant, uniform luminance to the eye reduces the fractal fluctuations in the RGC maintained discharge but enhances them in the target LGN discharge, so that neural activity in the pair no longer mirror each other. A drifting-grating stimulus yields RGC and LGN driven spike trains similar in character to those observed in the maintained discharge, with two notable distinctions: action potentials are reorganized along the time axis so that they occur only during certain phases of the stimulus waveform, and fractal activity is suppressed. Under both uniform-luminance and drift...

  18. Ergothioneine maintains redox and bioenergetic homeostasis essential for drug susceptibility and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vikram; Cumming, Bridgette M.; Guidry, Loni; Lamprecht, Dirk; Adamson, John H.; Reddy, Vineel P.; Chinta, Krishna C.; Mazorodzo, James; Glasgow, Joel N.; Richard-Greenblatt, Melissa; Gomez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Bach, Horacio; Av-Gay, Yossef; Eoh, Hyungjin; Rhee, Kyu; Steyn, Adrie J.C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) maintains metabolic equilibrium to survive during infection and upon exposure to antimycobacterial drugs are poorly characterized. Ergothioneine (EGT) and mycothiol (MSH) are the major redox buffers present in Mtb, but the contribution of EGT to Mtb redox homeostasis and virulence remains unknown. We report that Mtb WhiB3, a 4Fe-4S redox sensor protein, regulates EGT production and maintains bioenergetic homeostasis. We show that central carbon metabolism and lipid precursors regulate EGT production and that EGT modulates drug sensitivity. Notably, EGT and MSH are both essential for redox and bioenergetic homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses of EGT and MSH mutants indicate overlapping, but distinct functions of EGT and MSH. Lastly, we show that EGT is critical for Mtb survival in both macrophages and mice. This study has uncovered a dynamic balance between Mtb redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, which critically influences Mtb drug susceptibility and pathogenicity. PMID:26774486

  19. Reduced reactivation from dormancy but maintained lineage choice of human mesenchymal stem cells with donor age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Dexheimer

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are promising for cell-based regeneration therapies but up to date it is still controversial whether their function is maintained throughout ageing. Aim of this study was to address whether frequency, activation in vitro, replicative function, and in vitro lineage choice of MSC is maintained throughout ageing to answer the question whether MSC-based regeneration strategies should be restricted to younger individuals. MSC from bone marrow aspirates of 28 donors (5-80 years were characterized regarding colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F numbers, single cell cloning efficiency (SSCE, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization, Oil Red O content, proteoglycan- and collagen type II deposition were quantified. While CFU-F frequency was maintained, SSCE and early proliferation rate decreased significantly with advanced donor age. MSC with higher proliferation rate before start of induction showed stronger osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. MSC with high osteogenic capacity underwent better chondrogenesis and showed a trend to better adipogenesis. Lineage choice was, however, unaltered with age. CONCLUSION: Ageing influenced activation from dormancy and replicative function of MSC in a way that it may be more demanding to mobilize MSC to fast cell growth at advanced age. Since fast proliferation came along with high multilineage capacity, the proliferation status of expanded MSC rather than donor age may provide an argument to restrict MSC-based therapies to certain individuals.

  20. Birefringence properties of a polarization maintaining Panda fibre during Bragg grating regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polz, Leonhard; Jarsen, Andreas; Bartelt, Hartmut; Roths, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Regeneration of fibre Bragg gratings under application of a high temperature annealing process in a high birefringent polarisation maintaining fibre of type Panda was investigated. During the annealing process, a distinct nonlinearity and hysteresis of the birefringence with temperature was observed. After the temperature process, the birefringence between slow and fast axis at room temperature was nearly doubled, which is in agreement with observations of other researchers. The hysteresis in birefringence might be explained by the crossing of the transition temperature of the stress applying parts and the relief of in-frozen mechanical and thermal stresses.

  1. Bone Positron Emission Tomography with or without CT Is More Accurate than Bone Scan for Detection of Bone Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Na18F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Materials and Methods Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na18F, and a bone scan was perfo...

  2. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed

  3. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, I.; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R. A.; Cohen, D. D.

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  4. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It

  5. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made.Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory 

  6. Studies on the effect of low level laser therapy on bone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speed and quality of bone repair has direct clinical relevance. It has been suggested that Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) accelerates bone healing and that neuropeptides play a role in bone metabolism. This study investigated LLLT effects (using a GaAlAs semiconductor laser, 830 nm wavelength, 70 mW output power at an energy density of 4J/cm2) on the repair of pinned immobilised femoral osteotomies in male Sprague Dawley rats randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: a control group, group A (osteotomised limb irradiated) and group B (non-osteotomised limb irradiated). Specimens were retrieved from 1-5 weeks post-trauma for histology, immunohistochemical investigation of neuropeptide expression (NPY, CGRP, SP, VIP), radioimmunoassay, bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength testing studies. Histology suggested accelerated bone repair in group B by 3 weeks, while by 5 weeks the control group was more advanced displaying bony union. Distinct differences were detected in the pattern and level of neuropeptide expression in repairing fractures between groups with several novel and discrete peptide localisations being reported for bone and cartilage cell types and bone marrow megakaryocytes. A role for neuropeptides in bone metabolism is supported. Bone densitometry showed no significant difference between groups for in vivo BMD data but did on more accurate in vitro assessment. Biomechanical studies demonstrated stronger osteotomies in the control group compared to irradiated groups at 5 weeks post-osteotomy suggesting that bone quality may be poorer after LLLT. The initial acceleration of bone repair after laser therapy indicates that it is biostimulatory to repair (a systemic effect was detected), however as the control group was more advanced by 5 weeks post-fracture further investigation of different treatment schedules is indicated. This research confirms that BMD is not the sole determinant of bone strength but that bone quality is clearly

  7. Bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed, chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical comorbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  8. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  9. Protection of bone in premenopausal women with breast cancer: focus on zoledronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aft R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca AftDepartment of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Maintaining bone health is important for patients with breast cancer (BC, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women. Indeed, bone loss is common throughout the BC disease continuum. In the metastatic BC setting, patients are likely to develop bone metastases, a painful complication that can lead to potentially debilitating skeletal-related events. Bone health is equally important for patients with early BC. During adjuvant therapy for early BC, the largest challenge to bone health is from accelerated bone mineral density (BMD loss. Although decreased BMD is well recognized in older, postmenopausal women, it may be underestimated in younger, premenopausal women undergoing endocrine therapy for BC. The rate and extent of cancer therapy-induced bone loss (from chemotherapy or endocrine therapy are substantially greater than normal decreases in BMD during menopause. Bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZOL are antiresorptive agents indicated for the treatment of bone metastases from BC. Clinical trials over the past few years suggest that, although not yet approved for this indication, ZOL can prevent cancer therapy-induced bone loss and improve BMD in premenopausal women receiving adjuvant (endocrine or chemo- therapy for BC. Furthermore, the benefits of ZOL therapy may go beyond maintaining bone health and include potential anticancer benefits together with favorable tolerability and cost/benefit profiles. This review will focus specifically on the role of ZOL in preserving the bone health of premenopausal women with BC.Keywords: breast cancer, premenopausal, zoledronic acid

  10. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintained at all times, including maintenance of accountability records showing disposition of input and output documents. (3) All persons whose duties require access to processing and maintenance...

  11. Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and Health Emergency Preparedness for Business Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance ... Share Compartir Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and ...

  12. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. PMID:22296611

  13. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  14. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow and...... fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  15. Influence of bone environment on ceramic osteointegration in spinal fusion: comparison of bone-poor and bone-rich sites

    OpenAIRE

    Delécrin, Joël; Deschamps, Cédric; Romih, Mostafa; Heymann, Dominique; Passuti, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative experimental data showed differences in bone quality and ceramic incorporation between bone-rich and bone-poor implantation sites. Bone in-growth was significantly lower for ceramic implanted at a lumbar intertransverse than a laminar site. Bone-marrow enrichment of the lumbar intertransverse site (regarded as bone-poor) greatly facilitated ceramic osteointegration. The vertebral interbody site, despite theoretical richness in osteogenic precursor cells, might be bone-poor at the...

  16. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  17. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  18. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  19. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, V.L.; Soares, L.M.M.; Ribeiro, V.P.B.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of

  20. Bone scintigraphy in Erdheim-chester disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, of unknown etiology, characterized by infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Clinically, patients usually present with bone pain, and various extraskeletal manifestations. ECD differs from Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) by radiologic and immunohistochemistry features. Case report: A 57-year-old woman presented with a history of intense pain on her left hand, besides eyelid xanthelasmas and xanthoms on frontal area ten years ago. Four years late she presented with pain on hips, legs and feet. Xanthoms spread to perioral area, mento and neck. Radiographs of the hands showed osteolysis of carpal bones bilaterally, osteolysis of fifth left metacarpal bone, osteosclerosis of all metacarpal bones bilaterally, except the fifth, and osteosclerosis of the second and third proximal falanges bilaterally. The legs showed bilateral diaphyseal and metaphyseal osteosclerosis. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake on face bone (maxilla), and symmetric intense uptake on elbows, distal radii and ulnae, hands, distal area of femurs, tibias particularly on proximal and distal area, and feet. A tibia biopsy and a biopsy of neck lesion were made. The analysis of histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with ECD. She has been treated with a-interferon for 1,5 year, and she reports delay in xanthoms progression and bone pain remission. Discussion: ECD is an adult multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltrative disease of unknown etiology. It may be confused with LCH, however ECD have distinctive immunohistochemistry and radiologic findings. LCH shows typically lytic bone lesions on axial skeleton, whereas symmetrical long-bone osteosclerosis is the radiologic sign for ECD. LCH stain positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, and the electron microscopy of cytoplasm discloses Biberck granules. ECD stain positive for CD68, negative for CD1a and S-100 protein, shows absent of