Sample records for bones dna preservation

  1. Preservation of ancient DNA in thermally damaged archaeological bone (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Koon, Hannah E. C.; Collins, Matthew J.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Rickards, Olga; Craig, Oliver E.


    Evolutionary biologists are increasingly relying on ancient DNA from archaeological animal bones to study processes such as domestication and population dispersals. As many animal bones found on archaeological sites are likely to have been cooked, the potential for DNA preservation must be carefully considered to maximise the chance of amplification success. Here, we assess the preservation of mitochondrial DNA in a medieval cattle bone assemblage from Coppergate, York, UK. These bones have variable degrees of thermal alterations to bone collagen fibrils, indicative of cooking. Our results show that DNA preservation is not reliant on the presence of intact collagen fibrils. In fact, a greater number of template molecules could be extracted from bones with damaged collagen. We conclude that moderate heating of bone may enhance the retention of DNA fragments. Our results also indicate that ancient DNA preservation is highly variable, even within a relatively recent assemblage from contexts conducive to organic preservation, and that diagenetic parameters based on protein diagenesis are not always useful for predicting ancient DNA survival.

  2. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons. (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B


    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified.

  3. Comparing Ancient DNA Preservation in Petrous Bone and Tooth Cementum (United States)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Stenderup, Jesper; Lynnerup, Niels; Willerslev, Eske; Allentoft, Morten E.


    Large-scale genomic analyses of ancient human populations have become feasible partly due to refined sampling methods. The inner part of petrous bones and the cementum layer in teeth roots are currently recognized as the best substrates for such research. We present a comparative analysis of DNA preservation in these two substrates obtained from the same human skulls, across a range of different ages and preservation environments. Both substrates display significantly higher endogenous DNA content (average of 16.4% and 40.0% for teeth and petrous bones, respectively) than parietal skull bone (average of 2.2%). Despite sample-to-sample variation, petrous bone overall performs better than tooth cementum (p = 0.001). This difference, however, is driven largely by a cluster of viking skeletons from one particular locality, showing relatively poor molecular tooth preservation (pros and cons of sampling the different elements. PMID:28129388

  4. Sequence preservation of osteocalcin protein and mitochondrial DNA in bison bones older than 55 ka (United States)

    Nielsen-Marsh, Christina M.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Gandhi, Hasand; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Hauschka, Peter V.; Collins, Matthew J.


    We report the first complete sequences of the protein osteocalcin from small amounts (20 mg) of two bison bone (Bison priscus) dated to older than 55.6 ka and older than 58.9 ka. Osteocalcin was purified using new gravity columns (never exposed to protein) followed by microbore reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sequencing of osteocalcin employed two methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS): peptide mass mapping (PMM) and post-source decay (PSD). The PMM shows that ancient and modern bison osteocalcin have the same mass to charge (m/z) distribution, indicating an identical protein sequence and absence of diagenetic products. This was confirmed by PSD of the m/z 2066 tryptic peptide (residues 1 19); the mass spectra from ancient and modern peptides were identical. The 129 mass unit difference in the molecular ion between cow (Bos taurus) and bison is caused by a single amino-acid substitution between the taxa (Trp in cow is replaced by Gly in bison at residue 5). Bison mitochondrial control region DNA sequences were obtained from the older than 55.6 ka fossil. These results suggest that DNA and protein sequences can be used to directly investigate molecular phylogenies over a considerable time period, the absolute limit of which is yet to be determined.

  5. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma


    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...


    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  7. Direct-to-PCR tissue preservation for DNA profiling. (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Berry, Clare; Bruce, David; Gahan, Michelle Elizabeth; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; McNevin, Dennis


    Disaster victim identification (DVI) often occurs in remote locations with extremes of temperatures and humidities. Access to mortuary facilities and refrigeration are not always available. An effective and robust DNA sampling and preservation procedure would increase the probability of successful DNA profiling and allow faster repatriation of bodies and body parts. If the act of tissue preservation also released DNA into solution, ready for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the DVI process could be further streamlined. In this study, we explored the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles without DNA extraction, by adding aliquots of preservative solutions surrounding fresh human muscle and decomposing human muscle and skin tissue samples directly to PCR. The preservatives consisted of two custom preparations and two proprietary solutions. The custom preparations were a salt-saturated solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and TENT buffer (Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Tween 20). The proprietary preservatives were DNAgard (Biomatrica(®)) and Tissue Stabilising Kit (DNA Genotek). We obtained full PowerPlex(®) 21 (Promega) and GlobalFiler(®) (Life Technologies) DNA profiles from fresh and decomposed tissue preserved at 35 °C for up to 28 days for all four preservatives. The preservative aliquots removed from the fresh muscle tissue samples had been stored at -80 °C for 4 years, indicating that long-term archival does not diminish the probability of successful DNA typing. Rather, storage at -80 °C seems to reduce PCR inhibition.

  8. The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone. (United States)

    Tuross, N


    The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and 'Magic' preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4 micrograms/g of bone to below detectable limits. Fulvic acid was shown to interfere with the quantification of DNA derived from ancient human skeletal material one hundred to over seven thousand years old. Scanning UV in the 300 to 230 nm range is a simple and sensitive technique for documenting fulvic acid contamination in ancient bone extracts.

  9. Exploring the Bone Proteome to Help Explain Altered Bone Remodeling and Preservation of Bone Architecture and Strength in Hibernating Marmots. (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Roteliuk, Danielle M; Gookin, Sara E; McGrew, Ashley K; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Condon, Keith W; Prenni, Jessica E; Wojda, Samantha J; Florant, Gregory L; Donahue, Seth W


    Periods of physical inactivity increase bone resorption and cause bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, hibernating bears, marmots, and woodchucks maintain bone structure and strength, despite being physically inactive for prolonged periods annually. We tested the hypothesis that bone turnover rates would decrease and bone structural and mechanical properties would be preserved in hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Femurs and tibias were collected from marmots during hibernation and in the summer following hibernation. Bone remodeling was significantly altered in cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation with suppressed formation and no change in resorption, unlike the increased bone resorption that occurs during disuse in humans and other animals. Trabecular bone architecture and cortical bone geometrical and mechanical properties were not different between hibernating and active marmots, but bone marrow adiposity was significantly greater in hibernators. Of the 506 proteins identified in marmot bone, 40 were significantly different in abundance between active and hibernating marmots. Monoaglycerol lipase, which plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system, was 98-fold higher in hibernating marmots compared with summer marmots and may play a role in regulating the changes in bone and fat metabolism that occur during hibernation.

  10. Ancient DNA: genomic amplification of Roman and medieval bovine bones

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    A. Valentini


    Full Text Available Cattle remains (bones and teeth of both roman and medieval age were collected in the archaeological site of Ferento (Viterbo, Italy with the aim of extracting and characterising nucleic acids. Procedures to minimize contamination with modern DNA and to help ancient DNA (aDNA preservation of the archaeological remains were adopted. Different techniques to extract aDNA (like Phenol/chloroform extraction from bovine bones were tested to identify the method that applies to the peculiar characteristics of the study site. Currently, aDNA investigation is mainly based on mtDNA, due to the ease of amplification of the small and high-copied genome and to its usefulness in evolutionary studies. Preliminary amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear aDNA fragments from samples of Roman and medieval animals were performed and partial specific sequences of mitochondrial D-loop as well as of nuclear genes were obtained. The innovative amplification of nuclear aDNA could enable the analysis of genes involved in specific animal traits, giving insights of ancient economic and cultural uses, as well as providing information on the origin of modern livestock population.

  11. Alveolar Ridge Preservation Using Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Bone Allograft

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    Andreas O. Parashis


    Full Text Available Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP has been shown to prevent postextraction bone loss. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical, radiographic, and histological outcomes following use of a bilayer xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM in combination with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA for ARP. Nine patients were treated after extraction of 18 teeth. Following minimal flap elevation and atraumatic extraction, sockets were filled with FDBA. The XCM was adapted to cover the defect and 2-3 mm of adjacent bone and flaps were repositioned. Healing was uneventful in all cases, the XCM remained in place, and any matrix exposure was devoid of further complications. Exposed matrix portions were slowly vascularized and replaced by mature keratinized tissue within 2-3 months. Radiographic and clinical assessment indicated adequate volume of bone for implant placement, with all planned implants placed in acceptable positions. When fixed partial dentures were placed, restorations fulfilled aesthetic demands without requiring further augmentation procedures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis from 9 sites (4 patients indicated normal mucosa with complete incorporation of the matrix and absence of inflammatory response. The XCM + FDBA combination resulted in minimal complications and desirable soft and hard tissue therapeutic outcomes, suggesting the feasibility of this approach for ARP.

  12. High-fidelity organic preservation of bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma amphibians (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E.; Orr, Patrick J.; Kearns, Stuart L.; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique


    Bone marrow in ca. 10 Ma frogs and salamanders from the Miocene of Libros, Spain, represents the first fossilized example of this extremely decay-prone tissue. The bone marrow, preserved in three dimensions as an organic residue, retains the original texture and red and yellow color of hematopoietic and fatty marrow, respectively; moldic osteoclasts and vascular structures are also present. We attribute exceptional preservation of the fossilized bone marrow to cryptic preservation: the bones of the amphibians formed protective microenvironments, and inhibited microbial infiltration. Specimens in which bone marrow is preserved vary in their completeness and articulation and in the extent to which the body outline is preserved as a thin film of organically preserved bacteria. Cryptic preservation of these labile tissues is thus to a large extent independent of, and cannot be predicted by, the taphonomic history of the remainder of the specimen.

  13. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples (United States)

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.


    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  14. True single-molecule DNA sequencing of a pleistocene horse bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Raghavan, Maanasa


    -preserved Pleistocene horse bone using the Helicos HeliScope and Illumina GAIIx platforms, respectively. We find that the percentage of endogenous DNA sequences derived from the horse is higher among the Helicos data than Illumina data. This result indicates that the molecular biology tools used to generate sequencing...... to the standard Helicos DNA template preparation protocol further increase the proportion of horse DNA for this sample by 3-fold. Comparison of Helicos-specific biases and sequence errors in modern DNA with those in ancient DNA also reveals extensive cytosine deamination damage at the 3' ends of ancient templates...

  15. Evaluation of specimen preservatives for DNA analyses of bees (United States)

    Frampton, M.; Droege, S.; Conrad, T.; Prager, S.; Richards, M.H.


    Large-scale insect collecting efforts that are facilitated by the use of pan traps result in large numbers of specimens being collected. Storage of these specimens can be problematic if space and equipment are limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of various preservatives (alcohol solutions and DMSO) on the amount and quality of DNA extracted from bees (specifically Halictidae, Apidae, and Andrenidae). In addition, we examined the amount and quality of DNA obtained from bee specimens killed and stored at -80 degrees C and from specimens stored for up to 24 years in ethanol. DNA quality was measured in terms of how well it could be PCR-amplified using a set of mitochondrial primers that are commonly used in insect molecular systematics. Overall the best methods of preservation were ultra-cold freezing and dimethyl sulfoxide, but these are both expensive and in the case of ultra-cold freezing, somewhat impractical for field entomologists. Additionally, dimethyl sulfoxide was shown to have adverse effects on morphological characters that are typically used for identification to the level of species. We therefore recommend that the best alternative is 95% ethanol, as it preserves bee specimens well for both morphological and molecular studies.

  16. Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces. (United States)

    Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N


    Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA.

  17. Histologic and radiographic evaluation of different bone grafts in ridge preservation procedures


    Barallat Sendagorta, Lucía


    The main goal of this PhD project was to better understand how different types of bone grafts behave in ridge preservation procedures. There is clear evidence that, after tooth removal, a healing process takes place in which the blood clot that fills the socket is gradually substituted with new bone. This process is accompanied by a reduction in height and width of the alveolar ridge. These events may result in limited bone availability, which may compromise an adequate implant pl...

  18. DNA in ancient bone - Where is it located and how should we extract it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Paula; Craig, Oliver E.; Turner-Walker, Gordon


    . The question arises as to whether this may be due to post-collection preservation or just an artefact of the extraction methods used in these different studies? In an attempt to resolve these questions, we examine the efficacy of DNA extraction methods, and the quality and quantity of DNA recovered from both......Despite the widespread use of bones in ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, relatively little concrete information exists in regard to how the DNA in mineralised collagen degrades, or where it survives in the material's architecture. While, at the macrostructural level, physical exclusion of microbes...... and other external contaminants may be an important feature, and, at the ultrastructural level, the adsorption of DNA to hydroxyapatite and/or binding of DNA to Type I collagen may stabilise the DNA, the relative contribution of each, and what other factors may be relevant, are unclear...

  19. Cytofluorometric determination of nuclear DNA in living and preserved algae. (United States)

    Hull, H M; Hoshaw, R W; Wang, J C


    Three DNA-localizing fluorochromes used in conjunction with epi (incident) UV illumination were examined for sensitivity and selectivity for the cytofluorometric determination of nuclear DNA in ten species of six algal genera: Mougeotia, Oedogonium, Sirogonium, Spirogyra and Zygnema among the green algae, and the marine red alga Polysiphonia boldii. In comparison with absorption photometry for the determination of nuclear DNA, the cytofluorometric procedure proved to be simpler and considerably more sensitive. Following staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), nuclei fluoresce blue-white, the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-DAPI complex being considerably greater than that of the unbound dye molecule. Algal strains stained with 2,5-bis[4'-aminophenyl(1')]-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BAO) also showed brilliant blue-white nuclear fluorescence. Although the BAO schedule requires the use of freshly prepared dye and sulfite water, and careful control of hydrolysis, nuclear fluorescence of the stained specimens does not fade under irradiation of the UV beam as rapidly as it does with certain other fluorochrome procedures. A more useful fluorochrome was the fungal antibiotic mithramycin. Its staining schedule is simple and the bright orange-yellow fluorescence of the nuclei is associated with an exceptional degree of sensitivity and specificity for DNA. Forty-eight-year-old preserved filaments of Spirogyra jatobae, stained with either BAO or mithramycin, exhibited a fluorescence brilliance of nuclear and chloroplast DNA equal to that of fresh specimens of this species. The three schedules, but particularly the one with mithramycin, have proven useful in providing indirect evidence for variation in ploidy level in several of the above algal genera, and in verifying the assumed ploidy level of the gametophyte (haploid) and tetrasporophyte (diploid) of Polysiphonia boldii.

  20. Organic extraction of bone lysates improves DNA purification with silica beads. (United States)

    Desmyter, Stijn; De Cock, Greet; Moulin, Sabine; Noël, Fabrice


    In our standard protocol for DNA extraction from skeletal remains of unidentified bodies, bone lysates resulting from decalcification and Proteinase K treatment were purified with the DNA IQ™ Casework Pro Kit for Maxwell(®)16 automate (Promega, WI). Despite its success in the majority of cases, the DNA purification with paramagnetic silica beads failed in some challenging samples. This failure in DNA recovery was often associated with filter clogging during the required volume reduction of the lysate to enable loading on the automate. Two modifications to the standard method were tested for a more efficient filtering and purification. Adding collagenase to the lysate reduced the filter lead time but did not enhance DNA yield, while organic extraction of the crude lysate solved the filter clogging and resulted in successful DNA purification. The modified method in which a phenol treated lysate was loaded on the automate resulted in successful STR-profiling of the skeletal remains of all 13 unidentified bodies tested, which showed a wide variety in post mortem interval and preservation conditions. The variation in DNA yield between the 28 samples tested showed the importance of bone type selection and multiple sampling in successful STR-profiling of skeletal remains. Despite the disadvantages inherent to phenol, the organic extraction of crude bone lysates enhanced the efficiency of DNA purification with paramagnetic silica beads. The combined method of organic extraction and purification with silica beads resulted in STR-profiling of challenging bone samples.

  1. Decoronation of an ankylosed tooth for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. (United States)

    Filippi, A; Pohl, Y; von Arx, T


    A 12-year-old patient sustained avulsions of both permanent maxillary central incisors. Subsequently, both teeth developed replacement resorption. The left incisor was extracted alio loco. The right incisor was treated by decoronation (removal of crown and pulp, but preservation of the root substance). Comparison of both sites demonstrated complete preservation of the height and width of the alveolar bone at the decoronation site, whereas the tooth extraction site showed considerable bone loss. In addition, some vertical bone apposition was found on top of the decoronated root. Decoronation is a simple and safe surgical procedure for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. It must be considered as a treatment option for teeth affected by replacement resorption if tooth transplantation is not feasible.

  2. Biochemical and physical correlates of DNA contamination in archaeological human bones and teeth excavated at Matera, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Rudbeck, L.; Willerslev, E.


    The majority of ancient DNA studies on human specimens have utilised teeth and bone as a source of genetic material. In this study the levels of endogenous contamination (i.e. present within the sample prior to sampling for the DNA analysis) are assessed within human bone and teeth specimens...... sampled from the cemetery of Santa Lucia alle Malve, Matera, Italy. This site is of exceptional interest, because the samples have been assayed for IS measures of biochemical and physical preservation, and it is the only one identified in a study of more than 107 animal and 154 human bones from 43 sites...... across Europe, where a significant number of human bones was well preserved. The findings demonstrate several important issues: (a) although teeth are more resilient to contamination than bone, both are readily contaminated (presumably through handling or washing), and (b) once contaminated in this way...

  3. Quality of Life Following Amputation or Limb Preservation in Patients with Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma

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    Gary E Mason


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although functional differences have been described between patients with lower extremity bone sarcoma with amputation and limb preservation surgery, differences have not clearly been shown between the two groups related to quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference in overall quality of life in lower extremity bone sarcoma survivors related to whether they had an amputation or a limb preservation procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two long-term survivors of lower extremity bone sarcoma were studied to make a comparison of the overall quality of life, pain assessment and psychological evaluations in limb preservation and amputation patients. Forty-eight patients with limb preservation and thirty-four patients with amputations were enrolled in the study. Validated psychometric measures including the Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and visual analog scales were utilized.RESULTS: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation was significantly higher than patients with amputation (p-value < 0.01. Significant differences were noted in the categories of material well being, job satisfiers and occupational relations. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation appears to be better than for those patients with amputation based on the quality of life questionnaire in patients surviving lower extremity bone sarcoma. Further analysis needs to verify the results and focus on the categories that significantly affect the overall quality of life.

  4. Disparities in correlating microstructural to nanostructural preservation of dinosaur femoral bones (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Kyun; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Huh, Min; Lee, Eunji; Kim, Youn-Joong


    Osteohistological researches on dinosaurs are well documented, but descriptions of direct correlations between the bone microstructure and corresponding nanostructure are currently lacking. By applying correlative microscopy, we aimed to verify that well-preserved osteohistological features correlate with pristine fossil bone nanostructures from the femoral bones of Koreanosaurus boseongensis. The quality of nanostructural preservation was evaluated based on the preferred orientation level of apatite crystals obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and by measuring the “arcs” from the {100} and {002} diffraction rings. Unlike our expectations, our results revealed that well-preserved microstructures do not guarantee pristine nanostructures and vice versa. Structural preservation of bone from macro- to nanoscale primarily depends on original bioapatite density, and subsequent taphonomical factors such as effects from burial, pressure, influx of external elements and the rate of diagenetic alteration of apatite crystals. Our findings suggest that the efficient application of SAED analysis opens the opportunity for comprehensive nanostructural investigations of bone. PMID:28358033


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    Andrei Stefan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to follow the changes that occur, in time, at DNA level and to establish an efficient and reliable protocol for ancestral DNA extraction from bones found in archaeological sites. To test whether the protocol is efficient and capable of yielding good quality DNA, extraction was first performed on fresh bones. The material consists of fresh pig (Sus scrofa and cow (Bos taurus bones that were grounded by using a drill operating at low speed. The bone powder was then incubated in lysis buffer in the presence of proteinase K. DNA isolation and purification were done by using the phenol:chloroform protocol and DNA was precipitated with absolute ethanol stored at -20oC. The extractions were carried out once every month for a total of four extractions

  6. A potential new diagnostic tool to aid DNA analysis from heat compromised bone using colorimetry: A preliminary study. (United States)

    Fredericks, Jamie D; Ringrose, Trevor J; Dicken, Anthony; Williams, Anna; Bennett, Phil


    Extracting viable DNA from many forensic sample types can be very challenging, as environmental conditions may be far from optimal with regard to DNA preservation. Consequently, skeletal tissue can often be an invaluable source of DNA. The bone matrix provides a hardened material that encapsulates DNA, acting as a barrier to environmental insults that would otherwise be detrimental to its integrity. However, like all forensic samples, DNA in bone can still become degraded in extreme conditions, such as intense heat. Extracting DNA from bone can be laborious and time-consuming. Thus, a lot of time and money can be wasted processing samples that do not ultimately yield viable DNA. We describe the use of colorimetry as a novel diagnostic tool that can assist DNA analysis from heat-treated bone. This study focuses on characterizing changes in the material and physical properties of heated bone, and their correlation with digitally measured color variation. The results demonstrate that the color of bone, which serves as an indicator of the chemical processes that have occurred, can be correlated with the success or failure of subsequent DNA amplification.

  7. Efficient decellularization for tissue engineering of the tendon-bone interface with preservation of biomechanics (United States)

    Foehr, Peter; Kuempel, Katharina; Wagner, Alexandra; Tuebel, Jutta; Deimling, Constantin V.; Burgkart, Rainer H.


    Interfaces between tendon/ligament and bone (“entheses”) are highly specialized tissues that allow for stress transfer between mechanically dissimilar materials. Entheses show very low regenerative capacity resulting in high incidences of failure after surgical repair. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to recover functionality of entheses. Here, we established a protocol to decellularize porcine entheses as scaffolds for enthesis tissue engineering. Chemical detergents as well as physical treatments were investigated with regard to their efficiency to decellularize 2 mm thick porcine Achilles tendon entheses. A two-phase approach was employed: study 1 investigated the effect of various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and t-octylphenoxypolyethoxy-ethanol (Triton X-100) as decellularization agents. The most efficient combination of SDS and Triton was then carried forward into study 2, where different physical methods, including freeze-thaw cycles, ultrasound, perfusion, and hydrostatic washing were used to enhance the decellularization effect. Cell counts, DNA quantification, and histology showed that washing with 0.5% SDS + 1% Triton X-100 for 72 h at room temperature could remove ~ 98% cells from the interface. Further investigation of physical methods proved that washing under 200 mmHg hydrostatic pressure shortened the detergent exposing time from 72 h to 48 h. Biomechanical tensile testing showed that the biomechanical features of treated samples were preserved. Washing under 200 mmHg hydrostatic pressure with 0.5% SDS + 1% Triton X-100 for 48 h efficiently decellularized entheses with preservation of matrix structure and biomechanical features. This protocol can be used to efficiently decellularize entheses as scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:28170430

  8. Preferential preservation of noncollagenous protein during bone diagenesis: Implications for chronometric and stable isotopic measurements (United States)

    Masters, Patricia M.


    Preferential preservation of noncollagenous proteins (NCP) in diagenetically altered bone will affect amino acid compositions, inflate D/L aspartic acid ratios, and increase C/N ratios. Human skeletal remains representing both well preserved (collagenous) and diagenetically altered (noncollagenous) bones were selected from several southern California coastal archaeological sites that date from 8400 to 4100 years B.P. Amino acid compositions of the poorly preserved samples resembled NCP, which are probably retained by adsorption to the hydroxyapatite mineral phase of bone whereas collagen is degraded and lost to the environment over time. Since the racemization rate of aspartic acid in NCP is an order of magnitude faster than in collagen, the conservation of NCP in diagenetically altered bone can explain the high D/L aspartic acid ratios, and the erroneous Upper Pleistocene racemization ages calculated from these ratios, for several California Indian burials. Amino acid compositional analyses also indicated a non-amino acid source of nitrogen in the poorly preserved samples, which may account for their lower C/N ratios despite the acidic amino acid profiles typical of NCP. Preservation of NCP rather than collagen also precludes the extraction of a gelatin residue for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analyses, but remnant NCP can yield apparently accurate radiocarbon dates. As collagen and phosphoprotein purified from a sample of modern human dentin have the same δ 13C and δ 15N values, remnant NCP may also be useful for paleodiet reconstructions based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions. Dentin collagen appears to be more resistant to diagenetic changes than does bone collagen. Consequently, dentin promises to be a more reliable material than bone for chronometric and stable isotope measurements.

  9. Salmon DNA Accelerates Bone Regeneration by Inducing Osteoblast Migration (United States)

    Sato, Ayako; Kajiya, Hiroshi; Mori, Nana; Sato, Hironobu; Fukushima, Tadao; Kido, Hirofumi


    The initial step of bone regeneration requires the migration of osteogenic cells to defective sites. Our previous studies suggest that a salmon DNA-based scaffold can promote the bone regeneration of calvarial defects in rats. We speculate that the salmon DNA may possess osteoinductive properties, including the homing of migrating osteogenic cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the salmon DNA on osteoblastic differentiation and induction of osteoblast migration using MG63 cells (human preosteoblasts) in vitro. Moreover, we analyzed the bone regeneration of a critical-sized in vivo calvarial bone defect (CSD) model in rats. The salmon DNA enhanced both mRNA and protein expression of the osteogenesis-related factors, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase, and osterix (OSX) in the MG63 cells, compared with the cultivation using osteogenic induction medium alone. From the histochemical and immunohistochemical assays using frozen sections of the bone defects from animals that were implanted with DNA disks, many cells were found to express aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, one of the markers for mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, OSX was observed in the replaced connective tissue of the bone defects. These findings indicate that the DNA induced the migration and accumulation of osteogenic cells to the regenerative tissue. Furthermore, an in vitro transwell migration assay showed that the addition of DNA enhanced an induction of osteoblast migration, compared with the medium alone. The implantation of the DNA disks promoted bone regeneration in the CSD of rats, compared with that of collagen disks. These results indicate that the salmon DNA enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and induction of migration, resulting in the facilitation of bone regeneration. PMID:28060874

  10. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth


    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  11. Resveratrol supplementation preserves long bone mass, microstructure, and strength in hindlimb-suspended old male rats. (United States)

    Durbin, Stephanie M; Jackson, Janna R; Ryan, Michael J; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Alway, Stephan E; Tou, Janet C


    Resveratrol has gained popularity as an "anti-aging" compound due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have investigated the role of resveratrol supplementation in the prevention of age-related bone loss and skeletal disuse despite increased inactivity and age-related bone loss in the elderly. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol supplementation on disuse and age-related bone loss. Old (age 33 months) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway male rats were provided either trans-resveratrol (12.5 mg/kg bw/day) or deionized distilled water by oral gavage for 21 days. Rats were hindlimb-suspended (HLS) or kept ambulatory (AMB) for 14 days. Both femora and tibiae were collected. Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone microstructure was determined by micro-computed tomography. HLS of old male rats accelerated loss of bone mineral content, decreased trabecular bone volume per unit of total volume, and increased trabecular separation. Resveratrol supplementation ameliorated bone demineralization and loss of bone microarchitecture in HLS old male rats. The peak force measured by the three-point bending test was reduced (P = 0.007) in HLS/control compared to AMB/control rats. Resveratrol supplementation ameliorated HLS-induced loss of femur strength. Plasma osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase was higher (P resveratrol. The bone protective effects of resveratrol appeared to be mediated through increased osteoblast bone formation, possibly due to reduced inflammation. Based on the results, resveratrol supplementation appeared to provide a feasible dietary therapy for preserving the skeletal system during disuse and age-related bone loss.

  12. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)


    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  13. True single-molecule DNA sequencing of a pleistocene horse bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Raghavan, Maanasa;


    Second-generation sequencing platforms have revolutionized the field of ancient DNA, opening access to complete genomes of past individuals and extinct species. However, these platforms are dependent on library construction and amplification steps that may result in sequences that do not reflect......-preserved Pleistocene horse bone using the Helicos HeliScope and Illumina GAIIx platforms, respectively. We find that the percentage of endogenous DNA sequences derived from the horse is higher among the Helicos data than Illumina data. This result indicates that the molecular biology tools used to generate sequencing...... libraries of ancient DNA molecules as required for second-generation sequencing introduce biases into the data, that reduce the efficiency of the sequencing process and limit our ability to fully explore the molecular complexity of ancient DNA extracts. We demonstrate that simple modifications...

  14. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;


    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  15. Histological and morphometric aspects of ridge preservation with a moldable, in situ hardening bone graft substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurišić M.


    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP are widely used in alveolar ridge regeneration as a porous scaffold for new bone formation. The aim of this case series was to evaluate the regenerative effect of the combination of BCP and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA which can serve as a barrier membrane during bone regeneration. The study included five patients. Four months into the healing period, bone samples were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. The results of morphometric analysis showed that newly formed bone represented 32.2 ± 6.8% of the tissue, 31.9 ± 8.9% was occupied by residual graft and 35.9 ± 13.5% by soft tissue. Active osteogenesis was seen around the particles of the graft. The particles were occupied mostly by immature woven bone and connective tissue. The quality and quantity of newly formed bone, after the use of BCP/PLGA for ridge preservation, can be adequate for successful implant therapy after tooth extraction. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175021 i br. OI 173009

  16. A randomized controlled evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation following tooth extraction using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Sadeghi


    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, both materials have positive effect on alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, but there was more new bone formation and less residual graft particles in DFDBA group than in DBBM group.

  17. No ancient DNA damage in Actinobacteria from the Neanderthal bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zaremba-Niedźwiedzka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Neanderthal genome was recently sequenced using DNA extracted from a 38,000-year-old fossil. At the start of the project, the fraction of mammalian and bacterial DNA in the sample was estimated to be <6% and 9%, respectively. Treatment with restriction enzymes prior to sequencing increased the relative proportion of mammalian DNA to 15%, but the large majority of sequences remain uncharacterized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our taxonomic profiling of 3.95 Gb of Neanderthal DNA isolated from the Vindija Neanderthal Vi33.16 fossil showed that 90% of about 50,000 rRNA gene sequence reads were of bacterial origin, of which Actinobacteria accounted for more than 75%. Actinobacteria also represented more than 80% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences from a cave sediment sample taken from the same G layer as the Neanderthal bone. However, phylogenetic analyses did not identify any sediment clones that were closely related to the bone-derived sequences. We analysed the patterns of nucleotide differences in the individual sequence reads compared to the assembled consensus sequences of the rRNA gene sequences. The typical ancient nucleotide substitution pattern with a majority of C to T changes indicative of DNA damage was observed for the Neanderthal rRNA gene sequences, but not for the Streptomyces-like rRNA gene sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses suggest that the Actinobacteria, and especially members of the Streptomycetales, contribute the majority of sequences in the DNA extracted from the Neanderthal fossil Vi33.16. The bacterial DNA showed no signs of damage, and we hypothesize that it was derived from bacteria that have been enriched inside the bone. The bioinformatic approach used here paves the way for future studies of microbial compositions and patterns of DNA damage in bacteria from archaeological bones. Such studies can help identify targeted measures to increase the relative amount of endogenous DNA in the

  18. Preservation potential of ancient plankton DNA in Pleistocene marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, A.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; de Lange, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Coolen, M.J.L.


    Recent studies have shown that ancient plankton DNA can be recovered from Holocene lacustrine and marine sediments, including from species that do not leave diagnostic microscopic fossils in the sediment record. Therefore, the analysis of this so-called fossil plankton DNA is a promising approach fo

  19. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates (United States)

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  20. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction. (United States)

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M


    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction.

  1. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site. (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A


    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  2. Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report. (United States)

    Tarng, Yih-Wen; Yang, Shan-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Jen


    We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension. Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion. Successful union with no recurrence was noted at 1-year follow-up.

  3. Where is DNA preserved in soil organic matter? (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Beneduce, Luciano; Plaza, César


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consists of long chains of alternating sugar and phosphate residues twisted in the form of a helix. Upon decomposition of plant and animal debris, this nucleic acid is released into the soil, where its fate is still not completely understood. In fact, although DNA is one of the organic compounds from living cells that is apparently broken down rapidly in soils, it is also potentially capable of being incorporated in (or interact with) the precursors of humic molecules. In order to track DNA occurrence in soil organic matter (SOM) fractions, an experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design with two factors, namely biochar addition and organic amendment. In particular, biochar (BC), applied at a rate of 20 t/ha, was combined with municipal solid waste compost (BC+MC) at a rate equivalent to 75 kg/ha of potentially available N, and with sewage sludge (BC+SS) at a rate equivalent to 75 kg/ha of potentially available N. Using a physical fractionation method, free SOM located between aggregates (unprotected C pool; FR), SOM occluded within macroaggregates (C pool weakly protected by physical mechanisms; MA), SOM occluded within microaggregates (C pool strongly protected by physical mechanisms; MI), and SOM associated with the mineral fractions (chemically-protected C pool; MIN) were separated from soil samples. DNA was then isolated from each fraction of the two series, as well as from the unamended soil (C) and from the bulk soils (WS), using Powersoil DNA isolation kit (MoBio, CA, USA) with a modified protocol. Data clearly show that the DNA survived the SOM fractionation, thus suggesting that physical fractionation methods create less artifacts compared to the chemical ones. Moreover, in both BC+MC and BC+SS series, most of the isolated DNA was present in the FR fraction, followed by the MA and the MI fractions. No DNA was recovered from the MIN fraction. This finding supports the idea that most of the DNA occurring in the SOM

  4. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs


    Ko-Ning Ho; Eisner Salamanca; Kuo-Chi Chang; Tsai-Chin Shih; Yu-Chi Chang; Haw-Ming Huang; Nai-Chia Teng; Che-Tong Lin; Sheng-Wei Feng; Wei-Jen Chang


    Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable pur...

  5. Successful function-preserving therapy for chondroblastoma of the temporal bone involving the temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Junkichi; Yoshimoto, Hitoshi; Ito, Shin; Ohba, Shinichi; Fujimaki, Mitsuhisa; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Yazawa, Masaki; Fujimiya, Nozomi; Hanaguri, Makoto


    We present a case involving a late diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the temporal skull base involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Following an initial misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment over a period of 5 years, the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and possible surgical intervention for occlusal abnormalities, trismus, clicking of the TMJ, and hearing impairment. Based on preoperative immunochemical studies showing positive reaction of multinucleated giant cells for S-100 protein, the final diagnosis was chondroblastoma. The surgical approach - postauricular incision and total parotidectomy, with complete removal of the temporal bone, including the TMJ via the extended middle fossa - was successful in preserving facial nerves and diminishing clinical manifestations. This study highlights a misdiagnosed case in an effort to underline the importance of medical examinations and accurate differential diagnosis in cases involving any tumor mass in the temporal bone.

  6. Successful Function-Preserving Therapy for Chondroblastoma of the Temporal Bone Involving the Temporomandibular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junkichi Yokoyama


    Full Text Available We present a case involving a late diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the temporal skull base involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Following an initial misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment over a period of 5 years, the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and possible surgical intervention for occlusal abnormalities, trismus, clicking of the TMJ, and hearing impairment. Based on preoperative immunochemical studies showing positive reaction of multinucleated giant cells for S-100 protein, the final diagnosis was chondroblastoma. The surgical approach – postauricular incision and total parotidectomy, with complete removal of the temporal bone, including the TMJ via the extended middle fossa – was successful in preserving facial nerves and diminishing clinical manifestations. This study highlights a misdiagnosed case in an effort to underline the importance of medical examinations and accurate differential diagnosis in cases involving any tumor mass in the temporal bone.

  7. Beringian paleoecology inferred from permafrost-preserved fungal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydolph, Magnus C; Jacobsen, Jonas; Arctander, Peter


    of eukaryotic DNA sequences that were 510 bp long, including sequences of various fungi, plants, and invertebrates, could be obtained reproducibly from samples that were up to 300,000 to 400,000 years old. The sequences revealed that ancient fungal communities included a diversity of cold-adapted yeasts, dark......-pigmented fungi, plant-parasitic fungi, and lichen mycobionts. DNA traces of tree-associated macrofungi in a modern tundra sample indicated that there was a shift in fungal diversity following the last ice age and supported recent results showing that there was a severe change in the plant composition...

  8. Preservation of rodent bones from El Harhoura 2 cave (Morocco, Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic): Microstructure, mineralogy, crystallinity and composition (United States)

    Farre, Bastien; Massard, Pierre; Nouet, Julius; Dauphin, Yannicke


    Thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffraction X (DRX) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR) have been used to study the structure, mineralogy, crystallinity and bulk composition of fossil rodent long bones extracted from a succession of sedimentary layers in a cave from Morocco (Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic, El Harhoura 2). The microstructure of fossil bones is well-preserved at this scale of observation, and encrusted deposits are rare. All bones are preserved in apatite, but the crystallinity is modified, as well as the crystallite shape, the organic content and the organic-mineral ratio. No fluor enrichment has been observed. Alone or together, the studied parameters do not show a regular trend from the upper to the lower layers of the cave. The preservation of the fossil bones does not confirm the sequence of arid and humid periods inferred from taphonomic analyses.

  9. Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in caius iulius polybius house in pompeii. (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernado, G; Forte, A; Galano, G; De Masi, L; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F M; Angelini, F; Cascino, A


    Thirteen skeletons found in the Caius Iulius Polybius house, which has been the object of intensive study since its discovery in Pompeii 250 years ago, have provided an opportunity to study either bone diagenesis by histological investigation or ancient DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. DNA analysis was done by amplifying both X- and Y-chromosomes amelogenin loci and Y-specific alphoid repeat locus. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) microsatellite locus on chromosome 12 was also analyzed for personal identification in two individuals showing alleles with 10/11 and 12/12 TCTA repeats, respectively. Technical problems were the scarcity of DNA content from osteocytes, DNA molecule fragmentation, microbial contamination which change bone structure, contaminating human DNA which results from mishandling, and frequent presence of Taq DNA polymerase inhibiting molecules like polyphenols and heavy metals. The results suggest that the remains contain endogenous human DNA that can be amplified and analyzed. The amplifiability of DNA corresponds to the bone preservation and dynamics of the burial conditions subsequent to the 79 A.D. eruption.

  10. RECQL4 localizes to mitochondria and preserves mitochondrial DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croteau, Deborah L; Rossi, Marie L; Canugovi, Chandrika


    RECQL4 is associated with Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome (RTS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, genomic instability, and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is a member of the RecQ helicase family, and has many similarities to WRN protein, which is also implicated...... in premature aging. There is no information about whether any of the RecQ helicases play roles in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is strongly implicated in the aging process. Here, we used microscopy to visualize RECQL4 in mitochondria. Fractionation of human and mouse cells also showed that RECQL4 was present...... in mitochondria. Q-PCR amplification of mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that mtDNA damage accumulated in RECQL4-deficient cells. Microarray analysis suggested that mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways might be affected in RTS. Measurements of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed a reduction in the mitochondrial...

  11. Ethanol fuel improves arthropod capture in pitfall traps and preserves DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neucir Szinwelski


    Full Text Available We tested the value of ethanol fuel as a killing solution in terms of sampling efficiency (species richness and accumulated abundance and DNA preservation of Ensifera ground-dwelling specimens. Sampling efficiency was evaluated comparing abundance and species richness of pitfall sampling using 100% ethanol fuel, with two alternative killing solutions. We evaluated the DNA preservation efficiency of the killing solutions and of alternative storage solutions. Ethanol fuel was the most efficient killing solution, and allowed successful DNA preservation. This solution is cheaper than other preserving liquids, and is easily acquired near field study sites since it is available at every fuel station in Brazil and at an increasing number of fuel stations in the U.S. We recommend the use of ethanol fuel as a killing and storage solution, because it is a cheap and efficient alternative for large-scale arthropod sampling, both logistically and for DNA preservation. For open habitat sampling with high day temperatures, we recommend doubling the solution volume to cope with high evaporation, increasing its efficacy over two days.

  12. Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present. (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A; Schweitzer, Mary H


    Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell. We examine osteocytes in bone from four extant turtle species to form a morphological 'baseline', and then compare these with morphologies of osteocytes preserved in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils. Two different morphotypes of osteocytes are recognized: flattened-oblate osteocytes (FO osteocytes), which are particularly abundant in the internal cortex and lamellae of secondary osteons in cancellous bone, and stellate osteocytes (SO osteocytes), principally present in the interstitial lamellae between secondary osteons and external cortex. We show that the morphology of osteocytes in each of the three bone layers is conserved through ontogeny. We also demonstrate that these morphological variations are phylogenetically independent, as well as independent of the bone origin (intramembranous or endochondral). Preservation of microstructures consistent with osteocytes in the morphology in Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossil turtle bones appears to be common, and occurs in diverse diagenetic environments including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. These data have potential to illuminate aspects of turtle biology and evolution previously unapproachable, such as estimates of genome size of extinct species, differences in metabolic rates among different bones from a single individual, and potential function of osteocytes as capsules for preservation of ancient biomolecules.

  13. Structural mechanical properties of radiation-sterilized human Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts preserved by different methods. (United States)

    Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur


    To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not

  14. Extraction of DNA from human embryos after long-term preservation in formalin and Bouin's solutions. (United States)

    Nagai, Momoko; Minegishi, Katsura; Komada, Munekazu; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Kameda, Tomomi; Yamada, Shigehito


    The "Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos" at Kyoto University was begun in 1961. Although morphological analyses of samples in the Kyoto Collection have been performed, these embryos have been considered difficult to genetically analyze because they have been preserved in formalin or Bouin's solution for 20-50 years. Owing to the recent advances in molecular biology, it has become possible to extract DNA from long-term fixed tissues. The purpose of this study was to extract DNA from wet preparations of human embryo samples after long-term preservation in fixing solution. We optimized the DNA extraction protocol to be suitable for tissues that have been damaged by long-term fixation, including DNA-protein crosslinking damage. Diluting Li2 CO3 with 70% ethanol effectively removed picric acid from samples fixed in Bouin's solution. Additionally, 20.0 mg/mL proteinase was valuable to lyse the long-term fixed samples. The extracted DNA was checked with PCR amplification using several sets of primers and sequence analysis. The PCR products included at least 295- and 838-bp amplicons. These results show that the extracted DNA is applicable for genetic analyses, and indicate that old embryos in the Kyoto Collection should be made available for future studies. The protocol described in this study can successfully extract DNA from old specimens and, with improvements, should be applicable in research aiming to understand the molecular mechanisms of human congenital anomalies.

  15. Preserving Yeast Genetic Heritage through DNA Damage Checkpoint Regulation and Telomere Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Zhou


    Full Text Available In order to preserve genome integrity, extrinsic or intrinsic DNA damages must be repaired before they accumulate in cells and trigger other mutations and genome rearrangements. Eukaryotic cells are able to respond to different genotoxic stresses as well as to single DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, suggesting highly sensitive and robust mechanisms to detect lesions that trigger a signal transduction cascade which, in turn, controls the DNA damage response (DDR. Furthermore, cells must be able to distinguish natural chromosomal ends from DNA DSBs in order to prevent inappropriate checkpoint activation, DDR and chromosomal rearrangements. Since the original discovery of RAD9, the first DNA damage checkpoint gene identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes that have a role in this pathway have been identified, including MRC1, MEC3, RAD24, RAD53, DUN1, MEC1 and TEL1. Extensive studies have established most of the genetic basis of the DNA damage checkpoint and uncovered its different functions in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, and telomere maintenance. However, major questions concerning the regulation and functions of the DNA damage checkpoint remain to be answered. First, how is the checkpoint activity coupled to DNA replication and repair? Second, how do cells distinguish natural chromosome ends from deleterious DNA DSBs? In this review we will examine primarily studies performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system.

  16. Amino acid racemization in amber-entombed insects: implications for DNA preservation (United States)

    Bada, J. L.; Wang, X. S.; Poinar, H. N.; Paabo, S.; Poinar, G. O.


    DNA depurination and amino acid racemization take place at similar rates in aqueous solution at neutral pH. This relationship suggests that amino acid racemization may be useful in accessing the extent of DNA chain breakage in ancient biological remains. To test this suggestion, we have investigated the amino acids in insects entombed in fossilized tree resins ranging in age from 10(4). These results suggest that in amber insect inclusions DNA depurination rates would also likely be retarded in comparison to aqueous solution measurements, and thus DNA fragments containing many hundreds of base pairs should be preserved. This conclusion is consistent with the reported successful retrieval of DNA sequences from amber-entombed organisms.

  17. Detection of the A189G mtDNA heteroplasmic mutation in relation to age in modern and ancient bones. (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Thèves, Catherine; Amory, Sylvain; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Ludes, Bertrand; Telmon, Norbert


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of the A189G age-related point mutation on DNA extracted from bone. For this, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)/DNA sequencing method which can determine an age threshold for the appearance of the mutation was used. Initially, work was done in muscle tissue in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the technique and afterwards in bone samples from the same individuals. This method was also applied to ancient bones from six well-preserved skeletal remains. The mutation was invariably found in muscle, and at a rate of up to 20% in individuals over 60 years old. In modern bones, the mutation was detected in individuals aged 38 years old or more, at a rate of up to 1%, but its occurrence was not systematic (only four out of ten of the individuals over 50 years old carried the heteroplasmy). For ancient bones, the mutation was also found in the oldest individuals according to osteologic markers. The study of this type of age-related mutation and a more complete understanding of its manifestation has potentially useful applications. Combined with traditional age markers, it could improve identification accuracy in forensic cases or in anthropological studies of ancient populations.

  18. A simple and cost-effective protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from ethanol preserved black lfies (Simuliidae:Diptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neelamegam Rameshkumar; Sankarappan Anbalagan; Nagarajan Kayalvizhi; Vimalanathan Arun Prasanna; Muthukalingan Krishnan


    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of extraction methodology forthe proposedDNA from the ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera). Methods: This study addressed a simple and effectiveprotocol forextraction ofDNA from black flies stored in the ethanol. The sizes of larval and adult black flies ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 mm and 3 to 7 mm, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, the DNA was extracted from the ethanol preserved sample of black flies using the commercial kids. The extractedDNA was further validated in thePCR amplification using internal transcribed spacer-1rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit II rDNA target primers. Results: Interestingly, a minor modification in the proposed methodology yielded a goodDNA concentration in comparison with the commercial kids. The extractedDNA sample using the proposed methodology was successfully validated in thePCR amplification using internal transcribed spacer-1 rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit II rDNA genes. Conclusions: The proposedDNA extraction procedure yielded good concentration ofDNA from the ethanol preserved black flies. The added advantage is that the procedure is suitable for a range of insect species preserved in the ethanol obtained from the various field conditions.

  19. The effects of different maceration techniques on nuclear DNA amplification using human bone. (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Luedtke, Jennifer G; Allison, Jamie L; Arber, Carolyn E; Merriwether, D Andrew; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe


    Forensic anthropologists routinely macerate human bone for the purposes of identity and trauma analysis, but the heat and chemical treatments used can destroy genetic evidence. As a follow-up to a previous study on nuclear DNA recovery that used pig ribs, this study utilizes human skeletal remains treated with various bone maceration techniques for nuclear DNA amplification using the standard Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) markers. DNA was extracted from 18 samples of human lower leg bones subjected to nine chemical and heat maceration techniques. Genotyping was carried out using the AmpFlSTR COfiler and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus ID kits. Results showed that heat treatments via microwave or Biz/Na(2)CO(3) in sub-boiling water efficiently macerate bone and produce amplifiable nuclear DNA for genetic analysis. Long-term use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide is discouraged as it results in poor bone quality and has deleterious effects on DNA amplification.

  20. Inactivated Bone Replantation with Preservation of the Epiphysis in Children with Osteosarcoma- Clinical Report of Two Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXiuchun; LIUXiaoping; ZHOUYin; LIKaihua; QUZaiping


    Objective: To evaluate the value of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis following the effective chemotherapy in avoiding postoperative discrepancy of the affected limb in children with osteosarcoma. Methods: Two children (aged 5 and 10 years, 1 male and 1 female) with osteosarcoma underwent inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis following chemotherapy (MMIA protocol, including high-dose methotrexate, adriamycin and ifosfamide). After two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, pain vanished, the local mass shrank and there was no pain on pressing the affected parts. Sera AKP and LDH were reduced to normal levels; marked shrinkage and sclerotic changes and good margin of lesions were seen on plain radiographs and MR images. Two courses of the same protocol as preoperative chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. Results: Postoperative histological examination of the specimens demonstrated absence of vital tumor cells. Incisions healed well and no complications occurred. The replanted inactivated bone healed with host at 6 months after operation.In the two patients, no evidence was seen of metastasis and recurrence and discrepancy of the affected limbs in postoperative 36 and 48 months. Functions of the affected limbs were satisfactory. Conclusion:Inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis was a viable option for osteosarcoma in children.The long-term outcomes remain to be further proven.

  1. Utility of Filter Paper for Preserving Insects, Bacteria, and Host Reservoir DNA for Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karimian


    Methods: Total body or haemolymph of individual mosquitoes, sand flies or cockroaches squashed or placed on the paper respectively. Extracted DNA of five different bacteria species as well as blood specimens of human and great gerbil Rhombomys opimus was pipetted directly onto filter paper. The papers were stored in room temperature up to 12 months during 2009 until 2011. At monthly intervals, PCR was conducted using a 1-mm disk from the DNA impregnated filter paper as target DNA. PCR amplification was performed against different target genes of the organisms including the ITS2-rDNA of mosquitoes, mtDNA-COI of the sand flies and cockroaches, 16SrRNA gene of the bacteria, and the mtDNA-CytB of the vertebrates. Results: Successful PCR amplification was observed for all of the specimens regardless of the loci, taxon, or time of storage. The PCR amplification were ranged from 462 to 1500 bp and worked well for the specified target gene/s. Time of storage did not affect the amplification up to one year. Conclusion: The filter paper method is a simple and economical way to store, to preserve, and to distribute DNA samples for PCR analysis.

  2. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho


    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  3. Peroxiredoxin 1 Protects Telomeres from Oxidative Damage and Preserves Telomeric DNA for Extension by Telomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Aeby


    Full Text Available Oxidative damage of telomeres can promote cancer, cardiac failure, and muscular dystrophy. Specific mechanisms protecting telomeres from oxidative damage have not been described. We analyzed telomeric chromatin composition during the cell cycle and show that the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1 is enriched at telomeres during S phase. Deletion of the PRDX1 gene leads to damage of telomeric DNA upon oxidative stress, revealing a protective function of PRDX1 against oxidative damage at telomeres. We also show that the oxidized nucleotide 8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate (8oxodGTP causes premature chain termination when incorporated by telomerase and that some DNA substrates terminating in 8oxoG prevent extension by telomerase. Thus, PRDX1 safeguards telomeres from oxygen radicals to counteract telomere damage and preserve telomeric DNA for elongation by telomerase.

  4. Optimization of the Phenol -Chloroform Silica DNA Extraction Method in Ancient Bones DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Introduction: DNA extraction from the ancient bones tissues is currently very difficult. Phenol chloroform silica method is one of the methods currently used for this aim. The purpose of this study was to optimize the assessment method. Methods: DNA of 62 bone tissues (average 3-11 years was first extracted with phenol chloroform silica methods and then with changing of some parameters of the methods the extracted DNA was amplified in eight polymorphisms area including FES, F13, D13S317, D16, D5S818, vWA and CD4. Results from samples gained by two methods were compared in acrylamide gel. Results: The average of PCR yield for new method and common method in eight polymorphism regions was 75%, 78%, 81%, 76%, 85%, 71%, 89%, 86% and 64%, 39%, 70%, 49%, 68%, 76%, 71% and 28% respectively. The average of DNA in optimized (in 35l silica density and common method were 267.5 µg/ml with 1.12 purity and 192.76 g/ml with 0.84 purity respectively. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, it is estimated that longer EDTA attendance is an efficient agent in removing calcium and also adequate density of silica particles can be efficient in removal of PCR inhibitors.

  5. Comparison of protocols for DNA extraction from long-term preserved formalin fixed tissues. (United States)

    Paireder, Stefan; Werner, Bettina; Bailer, Josef; Werther, Wolfgang; Schmid, Erich; Patzak, Beatrix; Cichna-Markl, Margit


    The current study compared the applicability of protocols to extract DNA from formalin fixed heart tissues that have been preserved for more than 50 years. Ten methods were tested: a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) standard protocol, seven variants of this standard protocol, and two commercial kits. In the case of younger specimens (fixed in 1951, 1934, or 1914), extracts with DNA concentrations ≥ 10.0 ng/μl were obtained with the standard CTAB protocol, two variants of the standard protocol including prolonged tissue digestion (72 h instead of 1-2h), and a commercial kit particularly recommended for DNA extraction from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE Kit). With the FFPE Kit, DNA could also be extracted from older tissues (fixed in 1893, 1850/1851, or before 1820). In general, the purity of the DNA extracts, assessed from the ratio of the absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, was not very high. In spite of their rather low purity, the DNA extracts could, however, be used to amplify a 122-bp sequence and, in most cases, also a 171-bp sequence of the gene coding for human albumin by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  6. Technical note: improved DNA extraction from ancient bones using silica-based spin columns. (United States)

    Yang, D Y; Eng, B; Waye, J S; Dudar, J C; Saunders, S R


    We describe a simple method for extracting polymerase chain reaction-amplifiable DNA from ancient bones without the use of organic solvents. Bone powders are digested with proteinase K, and the DNA is purified directly using silica-based spin columns (QIAquick3, QIAGEN). The efficiency of this protocol is demonstrated using human bone samples ranging in age from 15 to 5,000 years old.

  7. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas D. Leventis


    Full Text Available Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques.

  8. Minimally Invasive Alveolar Ridge Preservation Utilizing an In Situ Hardening β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute: A Multicenter Case Series (United States)

    Leventis, Minas D.; Fairbairn, Peter; Kakar, Ashish; Leventis, Angelos D.; Margaritis, Vasileios; Lückerath, Walter; Horowitz, Robert A.; Rao, Bappanadu H.; Lindner, Annette; Nagursky, Heiner


    Ridge preservation measures, which include the filling of extraction sockets with bone substitutes, have been shown to reduce ridge resorption, while methods that do not require primary soft tissue closure minimize patient morbidity and decrease surgical time and cost. In a case series of 10 patients requiring single extraction, in situ hardening beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were utilized as a grafting material that does not necessitate primary wound closure. After 4 months, clinical observations revealed excellent soft tissue healing without loss of attached gingiva in all cases. At reentry for implant placement, bone core biopsies were obtained and primary implant stability was measured by final seating torque and resonance frequency analysis. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis revealed pronounced bone regeneration (24.4 ± 7.9% new bone) in parallel to the resorption of the grafting material (12.9 ± 7.7% graft material) while high levels of primary implant stability were recorded. Within the limits of this case series, the results suggest that β-TCP coated with polylactide can support new bone formation at postextraction sockets, while the properties of the material improve the handling and produce a stable and porous bone substitute scaffold in situ, facilitating the application of noninvasive surgical techniques. PMID:27190516

  9. Successful bone marrow transplantation in a patient with DNA ligase IV deficiency and bone marrow failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechtold Astrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA Ligase IV deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations in the DNA ligase IV gene (LIG4. The clinical phenotype shows overlap with a number of other rare syndromes, including Seckel syndrome, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and Fanconi anemia. Thus the clinical diagnosis is often delayed and established by exclusion. Methods We describe a patient with pre- and postnatal growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features in whom the diagnoses of Seckel-, Dubowitz-, and Nijmegen breakage syndrome were variably considered. Cellular radiosensitivity in the absence of clinical manifestations of Ataxia telangiectasia lead to the diagnosis of DNA ligase IV (LIG4 deficiency syndrome, confirmed by compound heterozygous mutations in the LIG4 gene. At age 11, after a six year history of progressive bone marrow failure and increasing transfusion dependency the patient was treated with matched sibling donor hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT using a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen without irradiation. Results The post-transplantation course was uneventful with rapid engraftment leading to complete and stable chimerism. Now at age 16, the patient has gained weight and is in good clinical condition. Conclusion HSCT using mild conditioning without irradiation qualifies as treatment of choice in LIG4-deficient patients who have a matched sibling donor.

  10. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from human bones with different degrees of degradation. (United States)

    Jakubowska, Joanna; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pawłowski, Ryszard


    There is a necessity for deceased identification as a result of many accidents and sometimes bones are the only accessible source of DNA. So far, a universal method that allows for extraction of DNA from materials at different stages of degradation does not exist. The aims of this study were: the comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from bones with different degree of degradation and an evaluation of the usefulness of these methods in forensic genetics. The efficiency of DNA extraction, the degree of extract contamination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors and the possibility of determining the STR loci profile were especially being compared. Nuclear DNA from bones at different states of degradation was isolated using three methods: classical, organic phenol-chloroform extraction, DNA extraction from crystal aggregates and extraction by total demineralisation. Total demineralisation is the best method for most cases of DNA extraction from bones, although it does not provide pure DNA. DNA extraction from aggregates removes inhibitors much better and is also a good method of choice when identity determination of exhumed remains is necessary. In the case of not buried bones (remains found outside) total demineralisation or phenol-chloroform protocols are more efficient for successful DNA extraction.

  11. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas;


    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed...... negative group. A high frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA was thus detected in bone marrow samples in rheumatic patients. The clinical data does not support a direct association between B19 PCR positivity and rheumatic disease manifestation. Therefore, the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone...

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats. (United States)

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping


    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities

  13. Novel contribution on the diagenetic physicochemical features of bone and teeth minerals, as substrates for ancient DNA typing. (United States)

    Grunenwald, A; Keyser, C; Sautereau, A M; Crubézy, E; Ludes, B; Drouet, C


    The extraction of DNA from skeletal remains is a major step in archeological or forensic contexts. However, diagenesis of mineralized tissues often compromises this task although bones and teeth may represent preservation niches allowing DNA to persist over a wide timescale. This exceptional persistence is not only explained on the basis of complex organo-mineral interactions through DNA adsorption on apatite crystals composing the mineral part of bones and teeth but is also linked to environmental factors such as low temperatures and/or a dry environment. The preservation of the apatite phase itself, as an adsorption substrate, is another crucial factor susceptible to significantly impact the retrieval of DNA. With the view to bring physicochemical evidence of the preservation or alteration of diagenetic biominerals, we developed here an analytical approach on various skeletal specimens (ranging from ancient archeological samples to recent forensic specimens), allowing us to highlight several diagenetic indices so as to better apprehend the complexity of bone diagenesis. Based on complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), calcium and phosphate titrations, SEM-EDX, and gravimetry), we have identified specific indices that allow differentiating 11 biological samples, primarily according to the crystallinity and maturation state of the apatite phase. A good correlation was found between FTIR results from the analysis of the v3(PO4) and v4(PO4) vibrational domains and XRD-based crystallinity features. A maximal amount of information has been sought from this analytical approach, by way of optimized posttreatment of the data (spectral subtraction and enhancement of curve-fitting parameters). The good overall agreement found between all techniques leads to a rather complete picture of the diagenetic changes undergone by these 11 skeletal specimens. Although the heterogeneity and scarcity of the studied samples did not allow us

  14. Alveolar bone preservation subsequent to miniscrew implant placement in a canine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte; Huja, Sarandeep; Chien, Hua-Hong


    on the control side. The bone volume within the cylinders was quantified. An insertion of a dental implant was simulated bilaterally at the insertion site. The height of the clinical crown and the alveolar crest were determined on both sides. The bone turnover was assessed histomorphometrically on un...... across the healing alveolar process results in increased density not only adjacent to the screws, but also in the region where a potential dental implant would be inserted. In humans, the insertion of transcortical screws may maintain bone when for various reasons insertion of a permanent dental implant......-decalcified bucco-lingual sections stained with basic fuchsine and toluidine blue. RESULTS: Comparison of the two sides revealed a significant difference both with regard to the bone volume and morphology. The transcortical screw caused an increase in bone density and less ridge atrophy. When simulating a dental...

  15. Preserving the socket dimensions with bone grafting in single sites: an esthetic surgical approach when planning delayed implant placement. (United States)

    Irinakis, Tassos; Tabesh, Moe


    Recent advancements in barrier membranes, bone grafting substitutes, and surgical techniques have led to a predictable arsenal of treatment methods for clinicians who practice implant dentistry. The contemporary clinician is supplied with proven knowledge, substantiated materials, and instrument inventory that allows implant placement in cases that used to be reserved for the specialist in the past because of their complexity. Nowadays, postextraction alveolar ridge maintenance can be a predictable procedure and can certainly aid the clinician in preventing ridge collapse, thereby allowing for implant placement in a position that satisfies esthetics and function. Extraction socket maintenance for future implant therapy does not rule out immediate implant placement but rather provides an additional option when treatment planning implant patients. This article will focus on the concept of extraction socket preservation using regenerative materials. It will describe a technique suggested by the authors to resist bone resorption and soft tissue shrinkage following tooth extraction.

  16. Darbepoietin-alfa has comparable erythropoietic stimulatory effects to recombinant erythropoietin whilst preserving the bone marrow microenvironment. (United States)

    Dewamitta, Sita R; Russell, Megan R; Nandurkar, Harshal; Walkley, Carl R


    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are widely used for the treatment of anemia. Recently, we reported erythroid expansion with impaired B lymphopoiesis and loss of trabecular bone in C57BL/6 mice following ten days of treatment with low-dose short acting recombinant human erythropoietin. We have assessed erythropoietin against longer-acting darbepoietin-alfa at a comparable erythroid stimulatory dosage regime. Darbepoietin-alfa and erythropoietin induced similar in vivo erythropoietic expansion. Both agents induced an expansion of the colony-forming unit-erythroid populations. However, unlike erythropoietin, darbepoietin-alfa did not impair bone marrow B lymphopoiesis. Strikingly the bone loss observed with erythropoietin was not apparent following darbepoietin-alfa treatment. This analysis demonstrates that whilst darbepoietin-alfa has similar in vivo erythropoietic potency to erythropoietin, it preserves the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus erythropoietin and darbepoietin-alfa manifest different action showing that erythropoiesis stimulating agents have differential non-erythroid effects dependent on their duration of action.

  17. Socket preservation using bovine bone mineral and collagen membrane: a randomized controlled clinical trial with histologic analysis. (United States)

    Cardaropoli, Daniele; Tamagnone, Lorenzo; Roffredo, Alessandro; Gaveglio, Lorena; Cardaropoli, Giuseppe


    After tooth extraction, varying amounts of bone resorption occur because of qualitative and quantitative changes at the edentulous site of the alveolar process. The aims of this randomized controlled clinical trial were (1) to compare the postextraction changes in residual ridge dimensions during spontaneous healing with those during socket preservation, (2) to analyze the histologic and histomorphometric aspects of the grafted sockets, and (3) to compare probing procket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) changes at teeth adjacent to extraction sites. Forty-eight teeth were extracted from 41 patients referred for extraction of 1 or more maxillary or mandibular premolars or molars. The edentulous sites were randomly assigned to the control (EXT, extraction alone) or experimental groups (SP, extraction and socket preservation). In the SP group, the sockets were filled with bovine bone mineral and covered with porcine collagen membrane. At baseline and after 4 months, PPD, gingival recession (REC), and CAL were measured at teeth adjacent to the edentulous sites. The changes in ridge dimensions from baseline to 4 months were assessed on dental casts. At 4 months, bone was harvested from the grafted areas in the SP group and the edentulous areas in the EXT group. PPD, REC, and CAL were comparable between groups. However, from baseline to 4 months, the SP group showed significantly less reduction in ridge width (1.04 ± 1.08 mm vs 4.48 ± 0.65 mm, P collagen membrane considerably limits the amount of horizontal and vertical bone resorption when compared with extraction alone.

  18. Persistent DNA damage-induced premature senescence alters the functional features of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Minieri, Valentina; Saviozzi, Silvia; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Lo Iacono, Marco; Accomasso, Lisa; Cibrario Rocchietti, Elisa; Gallina, Clara; Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia


    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells located in various tissues, including the bone marrow. In contrast to terminally differentiated somatic cells, adult stem cells must persist and function throughout life to ensure tissue homeostasis and repair. For this reason, they must be equipped with DNA damage responses able to maintain genomic integrity while ensuring their lifelong persistence. Evaluation of hMSC response to genotoxic insults is of great interest considering both their therapeutic potential and their physiological functions. This study aimed to investigate the response of human bone marrow MSCs to the genotoxic agent Actinomycin D (ActD), a well-known anti-tumour drug. We report that hMSCs react by undergoing premature senescence driven by a persistent DNA damage response activation, as hallmarked by inhibition of DNA synthesis, p21 and p16 protein expression, marked Senescent Associated β-galactosidase activity and enlarged γH2AX foci co-localizing with 53BP1 protein. Senescent hMSCs overexpress several senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes and promote motility of lung tumour and osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Our findings disclose a multifaceted consequence of ActD treatment on hMSCs that on the one hand helps to preserve this stem cell pool and prevents damaged cells from undergoing neoplastic transformation, and on the other hand alters their functional effects on the surrounding tissue microenvironment in a way that might worsen their tumour-promoting behaviour.

  19. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  20. Difficulties of sex determination from forensic bone degraded DNA: A comparison of three methods. (United States)

    Quincey, Danielle; Carle, Georges; Alunni, Véronique; Quatrehomme, Gérald


    Sex determination is of paramount importance in forensic anthropology. Numerous anthropological methods have been described, including visual assessments and various measurements of bones. Nevertheless, whatever the method used, the percentage of correct classification of a single bone usually varies between 80% and 95%, due to significant intra- and inter-population variations, and sometimes variations coming from secular trends. DNA is increasingly used in a forensic context. But forensic DNA extraction from bone raises several issues, because the samples are very often badly altered and/or in very small quantity. Nuclear DNA is difficult to get from degraded samples, according to low copy number, at least in comparison with mitochondrial DNA. In a forensic context (as in a paeleoanthropological context) DNA sex determination is usually complicated by the weak amount of DNA, the degraded nature of nucleic acids, the presence of enzymatic inhibitors in DNA extracts, the possible faint amplification of Y band and the risk of contamination during either excavation or manipulation of samples. The aim of this work was to compare three methods of DNA sex determination from bones: procedure #1 using a single PCR amplification, procedure #2 using a double PCR amplification, and procedure #3 adding bleaching for decontamination of the bone, instead of simply rubbing the bone. These processes were applied to samples of bones (49 samples coming from 39 individuals) that were in various states of post mortem alteration. The main results are the following. (i) No DNA could be extracted from three skulls (parietal bones, mastoid process), the compact bone of one rib, and the diaphysis of one femur; (ii) there was a contamination in three skulls; and (iii) the Y band did not appear in two male cases, with one of the three procedures (male tibia, procedure #2) and with procedures #2 and #3 (male femur). This study emphasises the main issue while working with altered bones: the

  1. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone. (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M


    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples.

  2. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone. (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce


    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time.

  3. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  4. Greater than X kb: a quantitative assessment of preservation conditions on genomic DNA quality, and a proposed standard for genome-quality DNA. (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel G; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Brady, Seán G; Meyer, Christopher; Barker, Katharine B; Coddington, Jonathan


    Advances in biodiversity genomic sequencing will increasingly depend on the availability of DNA samples-and their quantifiable metadata-preserved in large institutional biorepositories that are discoverable to the scientific community. Improvements in sequencing technology constantly provide longer reads, such that longer fragment length, higher molecular weight, and overall "genome-quality" DNA (gDNA) will be desirable. Ideally, biorepositories should publish numerical scale measurements of DNA quality useful to the user community. However, the most widely used technique to evaluate DNA quality, the classic agarose gel, has yet to be quantified. Here we propose a simple and economical method using open source image analysis software to make gDNA gel images quantifiable, and propose percentage of gDNA "greater than X kb" as a standard of comparison, where X is a band from any widely used DNA ladder with desirably large band sizes. We employ two metadata standards ("DNA Threshold" and "Percent above Threshold") introduced as part of the Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) Darwin Core extension. We illustrate the method using the traditionally used HindIII ladder and the 9,416 base-pair (bp) band as a standard. We also present data, for two taxa, a vertebrate (fish) and an invertebrate (crab), on how gDNA quality varies with seven tissue preservation methods, time since death, preservation method (i.e. buffers vs. cold temperatures), and storage temperature of various buffers over time. Our results suggest that putting tissue into a buffer prior to freezing may be better than directly into ultra-cold conditions.

  5. Greater than X kb: a quantitative assessment of preservation conditions on genomic DNA quality, and a proposed standard for genome-quality DNA (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth S.; Meyer, Christopher; Barker, Katharine B.; Coddington, Jonathan


    Advances in biodiversity genomic sequencing will increasingly depend on the availability of DNA samples—and their quantifiable metadata—preserved in large institutional biorepositories that are discoverable to the scientific community. Improvements in sequencing technology constantly provide longer reads, such that longer fragment length, higher molecular weight, and overall “genome-quality” DNA (gDNA) will be desirable. Ideally, biorepositories should publish numerical scale measurements of DNA quality useful to the user community. However, the most widely used technique to evaluate DNA quality, the classic agarose gel, has yet to be quantified. Here we propose a simple and economical method using open source image analysis software to make gDNA gel images quantifiable, and propose percentage of gDNA “greater than X kb” as a standard of comparison, where X is a band from any widely used DNA ladder with desirably large band sizes. We employ two metadata standards (“DNA Threshold” and “Percent above Threshold”) introduced as part of the Global Genome Biodiversity Network (GGBN) Darwin Core extension. We illustrate the method using the traditionally used HindIII ladder and the 9,416 base-pair (bp) band as a standard. We also present data, for two taxa, a vertebrate (fish) and an invertebrate (crab), on how gDNA quality varies with seven tissue preservation methods, time since death, preservation method (i.e. buffers vs. cold temperatures), and storage temperature of various buffers over time. Our results suggest that putting tissue into a buffer prior to freezing may be better than directly into ultra-cold conditions. PMID:27761327

  6. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P


    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8) for a...

  7. Pyrosequencing analysis of the protist communities in a High Arctic meromictic lake: DNA preservation and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eCharvet


    Full Text Available High Arctic meromictic lakes are extreme environments characterized by cold temperatures, low nutrient inputs from their polar desert catchments and prolonged periods of low irradiance and darkness. These lakes are permanently stratified with an oxygenated freshwater layer (mixolimnion overlying a saline, anoxic water column (monimolimnion. The physical and chemical properties of the deepest known lake of this type in the circumpolar Arctic, Lake A, on the far northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, have been studied over the last 15 years, but little is known about the lake’s biological communities. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene to investigate the protist communities down the water column at three sampling times: under the ice at the end of winter in 2008, during an unusual period of warming and ice-out the same year, and again under the ice in mid-summer 2009. Sequences of many protist taxa occurred throughout the water column at all sampling times, including in the deep anoxic layer where growth is highly unlikely. Furthermore, there were sequences for taxonomic groups including diatoms and marine taxa, which have never been observed in Lake A by microscopic analysis. However the sequences of other taxa such as ciliates, chrysophytes, Cercozoa and Telonema varied with depth, between years and during the transition to ice-free conditions. These results imply that there are seasonally active taxa in the surface waters of the lake that are sensitive to depth and change with time. DNA from these taxa is superimposed upon background DNA from multiple internal and external sources that is preserved in the deep, cold, largely anoxic water column.

  8. Hearing preservation in acoustic neuroma resection: Analysis of petrous bone measurement and intraoperative application

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    Levent Tanrikulu


    Conclusion: Petrous bone measurement by high-resolution MRI data enables safe surgical exposure of the internal acoustic canal with avoidance of injury to the labyrinth and a better postoperative prognosis, especially for intrameatal ANs and for the resection of intrameatal portions of larger neuromas. The prognostic factors enable the patients and the surgeon a better estimation of postoperative results regarding deafness and postoperative hypacusis and support a consolidated treatment planning.

  9. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed


    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  10. How are teeth better than bone? An investigation of dental tissue diagenesis and state of preservation at a histological scale (with photo catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege I. Hollund


    Full Text Available Teeth are often the preferred substrate for isotopic and genetic assays in archaeological research. Teeth can yield isotopic signals from different periods of an individual's lifetime, useful in dietary reconstruction, climate research, and investigation into mobility of people and animals in the past. Additionally, it is generally accepted that teeth preserve biomolecules (e.g. DNA, collagen and isotopic signals better. Despite the importance of dental tissue in archaeological research, no systematic study has been carried out concerning diagenetic alterations at histological scale. This article reports the results of a thorough histological characterisation of post-mortem alterations observed in 34 ancient teeth. Such alterations are well described in bone whereas similar analyses of teeth are scant and highlight the need for diagenetic screening before analysis. Micrographs have been made, illustrating typical diagenetic features occurring within the dental tissues cementum, dentine and enamel including bioerosion, cracking, etching and staining. The photo catalogue produced can be used within fields such as archaeology, forensics and palaeontology.

  11. Hydrogen gas treatment prolongs replicative lifespan of bone marrow multipotential stromal cells in vitro while preserving differentiation and paracrine potentials. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Guan, Jianjun; Tamama, Kenichi


    Cell therapy with bone marrow multipotential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising approach in the field of regenerative medicine. Low frequency of MSCs in adult bone marrow necessitates ex vivo expansion of MSCs after harvest; however, such a manipulation causes cellular senescence with loss of differentiation, proliferative, and therapeutic potentials of MSCs. Hydrogen molecules have been shown to exert organ protective effects through selective reduction of hydroxyl radicals. As oxidative stress is one of the key insults promoting cell senescence in vivo as well as in vitro, we hypothesized that hydrogen molecules prevent senescent process during MSC expansion. Addition of 3% hydrogen gas enhanced preservation of colony forming early progenitor cells within MSC preparation and prolonged the in vitro replicative lifespan of MSCs without losing differentiation potentials and paracrine capabilities. Interestingly, 3% hydrogen gas treatment did not decrease hydroxyl radical, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting that scavenging hydroxyl radical might not be responsible for these effects of hydrogen gas in this study.

  12. Technical note: Efficiency of total demineralization and ion-exchange column for DNA extraction from bone. (United States)

    Seo, Seung Bum; Zhang, Aihua; Kim, Hye Yeon; Yi, Jin A; Lee, Hye Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Soong Deok


    We investigated whether a combination of recently introduced methods, total demineralization and ion-exchange columns, would increase DNA recovery from old bone. Ten bone samples taken after a burial period of approximately 60 years were used in this study. Bone powder was digested using total or incomplete demineralization. DNA was extracted by the standard organic method. The DNA extract was purified with ion-exchange columns or QIAquick spin columns. The efficiency of different DNA extraction methods was compared in terms of DNA concentration, inhibitors generated by real-time PCR, and conventional STR typing results. The mean DNA concentration using the total demineralization method is approximately 3 times higher than that using the incomplete demineralization method. For DNA purification, the method using QIAquick spin columns appeared to yield approximately double the DNA than the method using ion-exchange columns. Furthermore, 2 out of 10 samples showed higher levels of inhibition with C(T) values of IPC > or =30 cycles when using only ion-exchange columns. In STR results, total demineralization yielded more locus profiles by 4.2 loci than incomplete demineralization, and QIAquick spin columns also yielded more locus profiles by 3.5 loci than ion-exchange columns. Total demineralization of bone powder significantly increased DNA yield and improved STR typing results. However, the use of ion-exchange columns was not efficient when compared with the method using QIAquick spin columns. It is suggested that the combination of total demineralization and QIAquick spin columns lead to greatly improved STR typing results.

  13. Technical note: Bone DNA extraction and purification using silica-coated paramagnetic beads. (United States)

    Dukes, Mary J; Williams, Audra L; Massey, Corina M; Wojtkiewicz, Patrick W


    The goal of this study was to develop a simple method to improve DNA recovery from challenging bone samples. To this end, an optimized procedure was developed that combined the demineralization and DNA extraction into a single step, followed by DNA purification using an automated silica-coated paramagnetic bead procedure. This method replaced a previous silica-membrane-based procedure, which was able to recover sufficient DNA to obtain full autosomal and Y chromosome STR profiles from greater than 90% of the samples, including samples greater than 20 years old. The development process began with the evaluation of buffer and demineralization systems to determine the best reagent combination. During the developmental process, we observed that the addition of EDTA and DTT affected silica-based DNA purification methods by raising the pH of the digest buffer. The protocols with buffer ATL, PK, EDTA, and DTT followed by lowering the pH with sodium acetate just before purification resulted in the best yields. The method reduced the extraction volume from 10 to 1.5 ml and used commercially available reagents already being utilized in forensic DNA casework. Because of the simplicity and small volume needed for the procedure, many steps where contamination could be introduced have been eliminated or minimized. This study demonstrated a new method of recovering DNA from bone samples capable of extracting trace quantities of DNA, removing potential inhibitors, and minimizing the potential for exogenous DNA contamination.

  14. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate. (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E


    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  15. Detection of age-related duplications in mtDNA from human muscles and bones. (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Thèves, Catherine; Keyser, Christine; Farrugia, Audrey; Baraybar, Jose-Pablo; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand


    Several studies have demonstrated the age-related accumulation of duplications in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracted from skeletal muscle. This kind of mutation had not yet been studied in bone. The detection of age-related mutations in bone tissue could help to estimate age at death within the context of legal medicine or/and anthropological identification procedures, when traditional osteological markers studied are absent or inefficient. As we detected an accumulation of a point mutation in mtDNA from an older individual's bones in a previous study, we tried here to identify if three reported duplications (150, 190, 260 bp) accumulate in this type of tissue. We developed a sensitive method which consists in the use of back-to-back primers during amplification followed by an electrophoresis capillary analysis. The aim of this study was to confirm that at least one duplication appears systematically in muscle tissue after the age of 20 and to evaluate the duplication age appearance in bones extracted from the same individuals. We found that the number of duplications increase from 38 years and that at least one duplicated fragment is present in 50% of cases after 70 years in this tissue. These results confirm that several age-related mutations can be detected in the D-loop of mtDNA and open the way for the use of molecular markers for age estimation in forensic and/or anthropological identification.

  16. Combining bleach and mild predigestion improves ancient DNA recovery from bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Nistelberger, Heidi M.


    aimed to improve ancient DNA recovery before library amplification have recently been developed. Here, we test the effects of combining two of such protocols, a bleach wash and a predigestion step, on 12 bone samples of Atlantic cod and domestic horse aged 750-1350 cal. years before present. Using high...

  17. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for human medullasin: an inflammatory serine protease in bone marrow cells. (United States)

    Okano, K; Aoki, Y; Sakurai, T; Kajitani, M; Kanai, S; Shimazu, T; Shimizu, H; Naruto, M


    Medullasin, an inflammatory serine protease in bone marrow cells, modifies the functions of natural killer cells, monocytes, and granulocytes. We have cloned a medullasin cDNA from a human acute promyelocytic cell (ML3) cDNA library using oligonucleotide probes synthesized from the information of N-terminal amino acid sequence of natural medullasin. The cDNA contained a long open reading frame encoding 237 amino acid residues beginning from the second amino acid of natural meduallasin. The deduced amino acid sequence of medullasin shows a typical serine protease structure, with 41% homology with pig elastase 1.

  18. Bone Aging in DNA Repair Deficient Trichothiodystrophy Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.M. Diderich (Karin)


    textabstractOur genome is continuously damaged by environmental, endogenous agents as well as by the instrinsic instability of DNA. For example, UV light gives rise to helix-distorting cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-(6,4)-pyrimidone adducts (6-4PPs). Ionizing radiation can cause

  19. Endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells in bone marrow are required to preserve muscle function in mdx mice. (United States)

    Fujita, Ryo; Tamai, Katsuto; Aikawa, Eriko; Nimura, Keisuke; Ishino, Saki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi


    The physiological role of "endogenous" bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration is poorly understood. Here, we show the significant contribution of unique endogenous BM-MSC populations to muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mice (mdx). Transplantation of BM cells (BMCs) from 10-week-old mdx into 3-4-week-old mdx mice increased inflammation and fibrosis and reduced muscle function compared with mdx mice that received BMCs from 10-week-old wild-type mice, suggesting that the alteration of BMC populations in mdx mice affects the progression of muscle pathology. Two distinct MSC populations in BM, that is, hematopoietic lineage (Lin)(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) cells, were significantly reduced in 10-week-old mdx mice in disease progression. The results of a whole-transcriptome analysis indicated that these two MSC populations have distinct gene expression profiles, indicating that the Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) MSC populations are proliferative- and dormant-state populations in BM, respectively. BM-derived Lin(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs abundantly migrated to damaged muscles and highly expressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, in damaged muscles. We also demonstrated that TSG-6 stimulated myoblast proliferation. The injection of Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs into the muscle of mdx mice successfully ameliorated muscle dysfunction by decreasing inflammation and enhancing muscle regeneration through TSG-6-mediated activities. Thus, we propose a novel function of the unique endogenous BM-MSC population, which countered muscle pathology progression in a DMD model.

  20. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin


    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  1. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification. (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin


    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry.

  2. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of sodium benzoate, a food preservative, with calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi


    The interaction between sodium benzoate (SB) and calf thymus DNA in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using acridine orange (AO) dye as a fluorescence probe, was investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. An expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The equilibrium concentration profiles and the pure spectra for SB, DNA and DNA-SB complex from the high overlapping composite response were simultaneously obtained. The results indicated that SB could bind to DNA, and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played a vital role in the binding process. Moreover, SB was able to quench the fluorescence of DNA-AO complex through a static procedure. The quenching observed was indicative of an intercalative mode of interaction between SB and DNA, which was supported by melting studies, viscosity measurements and CD analysis.

  3. An extremely sensitive species-specific ARMs PCR test for the presence of tiger bone DNA. (United States)

    Wetton, Jon H; Tsang, Carol S F; Roney, Chris A; Spriggs, Adrian C


    The survival of the tiger (Panthera tigris) is seriously threatened by poaching to provide raw materials for Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). Most highly prized are the tiger's bones, which are used in combination with other animal and plant derivatives in pills and plasters for the treatment of rheumatism and other ailments. Hundreds of patent remedies have been produced which claim to contain tiger bone, but proof of its presence is needed, if legislation prohibiting the trade in endangered species is to be enforced. A highly sensitive tiger-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed to address this problem. Using primers specific to the tiger mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, successful amplification has been reliably achieved from blood, hair and bone as well as from a range of TCMs spiked with 0.5% tiger bone. Although capable of detecting fewer than 10 substrate molecules, the seven varieties of TCM pills and plasters tested showed no detectable trace of tiger DNA before spiking. Furthermore, sequencing several "tiger bone" fragments seized from TCM shops has shown that they actually originated from cattle and pigs. The potential effects of traditional bone preparation methods, evidence that much lower concentrations are used than alleged on TCM packaging, and substitution of bones from other species all suggest a low likelihood of detecting tiger DNA in patent medicines. Despite this, the basic methods have been thoroughly proven and can be readily applied to derivatives from other CITES protected species providing a rapid and highly sensitive forensic test for species of origin. Potential applications to the monitoring of wild populations are demonstrated by the successful identification of shed hairs and faecal samples.

  4. Quantification of Leishmania infantumDNA in the bone marrow, lymph node and spleen of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to quantify the parasite load ofLeishmania infantum in dogs using real-time PCR (qPCR. Bone marrow, lymph node and spleen samples were taken from 24 dogs serologically positive for L. infantum that had been put down by the official epidemiological surveillance service. According to the clinical signs the dogs were classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic. After DNA extraction, the samples were subjected to qPCR to detect and quantify L. infantum DNA. Out of the 24 dogs, 12.5% (3/24 were classified as asymptomatic and 87.5% (21/24 as symptomatic. Real-time PCR detected L. infantum DNA in all the animals, in at least one biological sample. In particular, 100% of bone marrow and lymph node scored positive, whereas in spleen, the presence of DNA was detected in 95.9% (23/24. In addition, out of 24 animals, 15 were microscopically positive to amastigote forms of L. infantum in bone marrow. No statistical significant difference was found in the overall mean quantity of DNA among the different biological samples (P = 0.518. Considering each organ separately, there was 100% positivity in bone marrow and lymph nodes, while among the spleen samples, 95.9% (23/24 were positive. Regarding the different clinical groups, the overall mean parasite load varied significantly (P = 0.022. According to the results obtained, it was not possible determine which biological sample was most suitable tissue for the diagnosis, based only on the parasite load. Therefore, other characteristics such as convenience and easily of obtaining samples should be taken into consideration.

  5. Influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants after extraction of teeth with different defects in the buccal bone. (United States)

    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui


    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants with different defects in the buccal bone. We enrolled 60 patients who had one posterior mandibular tooth extracted. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) was used to measure the buccal bone defects in the alveolar ridge before the tooth was extracted (level A=3 to 5 mm, and level B=more than 5 mm). After the tooth had been extracted, the socket either had the alveolar ridge preserved (trial group) or it was left to heal spontaneously (control group). The changes in the dimensions of the alveolar ridge from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively were evaluated by cone-beam CT. Suitable implants were inserted 6 months later, and their length and diameter recorded. The implant stability quotient was evaluated for the following 3 months. The dimensions of the bone in the alveolar ridge in the trial group were significantly less than those in the control groups in both levels. Fifty-seven patients required implants (except 3 in level B in the control group). There were more longer and wider implants in the trial group than in the control group in Level B. 3 months after implantation, there were no significant differences in implant stability quotients between the groups, though in the control group, Level B, the mean (SD) value was 69.50 (1.00) while in the other groups values were all above 70 at 3 months. We conclude that when the defect in the buccal bone was more than 5mm, the alveolar ridge preservation demonstrated a remarkable effect in preserving the alveolar ridge dimension and delayed implantation.

  6. High-throughput sequencing of ancient plant and mammal DNA preserved in herbivore middens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, D.C.; Pearson, S.G.; Fullagar, R.


    The study of arid palaeoenvironments is often frustrated by the poor or non-existent preservation of plant and animal material, yet these environments are of considerable environmental importance. The analysis of pollen and macrofossils isolated from herbivore middens has been an invaluable sourc...

  7. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  8. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15 or the control group (ADM only. Histomorphometric measurements and histological analysis were recorded about 6 months after ridge preservation procedures in ten patients. The amount of newly formed bone, the most recently formed bone, fibrous tissue plus marrow spaces and remaining graft particles were measured and analyzed. Results: At 6 months, the new bone area parameter and the percentage of fibrous tissue plus marrow space areas showed higher values to the control group, and statistically significant differences when compared with the test group (p=0.03. Conclusion: The ADM acted as a membrane. The association of ABM/P-15 with ADM resulted in new bone formation within the alveoli, but the results were not considered relevant when used in this indication.

  9. A Network of Multi-Tasking Proteins at the DNA Replication Fork Preserves Genome Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  10. A network of multi-tasking proteins at the DNA replication fork preserves genome stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E Budd


    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  11. A nonsense mutation in the DNA repair factor Hebo causes mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Pondarre, Corinne; Pennarun, Gaelle; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Vera, Gabriella; France, Benoit; Chansel, Marie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Revy, Patrick; Lopez, Bernard; Soulier, Jean; Bertrand, Pascale; Callebaut, Isabelle; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre


    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are human conditions in which one or several cell lineages of the hemopoietic system are affected. They are present at birth or may develop progressively. They are sometimes accompanied by other developmental anomalies. Three main molecular causes have been recognized to result in bone marrow failure syndromes: (1) defects in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway, (2) defects in telomere maintenance, and (3) abnormal ribosome biogenesis. We analyzed a patient with mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly who did not present with the typical FA phenotype. Cells from this patient showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiations and phleomycin, attesting to a probable DNA double strand break (dsb) repair defect. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the ERCC6L2 gene. We identified a new ERCC6L2 alternative transcript encoding the DNA repair factor Hebo, which is critical for complementation of the patient's DNAdsb repair defect. Sequence analysis revealed three structured regions within Hebo: a TUDOR domain, an adenosine triphosphatase domain, and a new domain, HEBO, specifically present in Hebo direct orthologues. Hebo is ubiquitously expressed, localized in the nucleus, and rapidly recruited to DNAdsb's in an NBS1-dependent manner.

  12. A nonsense mutation in the DNA repair factor Hebo causes mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Pondarre, Corinne; Pennarun, Gaelle; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Vera, Gabriella; France, Benoit; Chansel, Marie; Rouvet, Isabelle; Revy, Patrick; Lopez, Bernard; Soulier, Jean; Bertrand, Pascale; Callebaut, Isabelle


    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are human conditions in which one or several cell lineages of the hemopoietic system are affected. They are present at birth or may develop progressively. They are sometimes accompanied by other developmental anomalies. Three main molecular causes have been recognized to result in bone marrow failure syndromes: (1) defects in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway, (2) defects in telomere maintenance, and (3) abnormal ribosome biogenesis. We analyzed a patient with mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly who did not present with the typical FA phenotype. Cells from this patient showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiations and phleomycin, attesting to a probable DNA double strand break (dsb) repair defect. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the ERCC6L2 gene. We identified a new ERCC6L2 alternative transcript encoding the DNA repair factor Hebo, which is critical for complementation of the patient’s DNAdsb repair defect. Sequence analysis revealed three structured regions within Hebo: a TUDOR domain, an adenosine triphosphatase domain, and a new domain, HEBO, specifically present in Hebo direct orthologues. Hebo is ubiquitously expressed, localized in the nucleus, and rapidly recruited to DNAdsb’s in an NBS1-dependent manner. PMID:27185855

  13. Detection of rendered meat and bone meals by PCR is dependent on animal species of origin and DNA extraction method. (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Farrell, Dorothy E; Deaver, Christine M; Mason, Jacquline; Swaim, Heidi L; Yancy, Haile F


    The capability of eight commercially available DNA extraction kits to extract bovine DNA originating in meat and bone meal from fortified feed was evaluated. Four different batches of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM) were used for DNA extraction with the eight commercial DNA extraction kits. Within each kit, there were minimal differences in the batch-to-batch amounts of extracted DNA. There were differences between the kits in the amounts of DNA that could be extracted from the same amount of starting BMBM. These differences did not translate into differences in the amount of amplifiable DNA from BMBM-fortified dairy feed. Using a validated real-time PCR method, the kit yielding the highest amount extractable DNA was completely unable to yield a positive PCR result; one other kit was also unable to produce a positive PCR result from DNA extracted from BMBM-fortified feed. There was a complete lack of a correlation between the amount of bovine DNA isolated from BMBM by a given extraction kit compared with the relative amounts of DNA isolated from fortified animal feed as evidenced by the cycle threshold values generated using the real-time PCR method. These results demonstrate that extraction of DNA from processed animal protein is different for pure ingredients and fortified animal feeds. These results indicate that a method specifically developed using just animal-derived meat and bone meal may not yield a functional assay when used to detect animal tissues in complete animal feed.

  14. Electron microscopic observations and DNA chain fragmentation studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm—EDTMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuShou-Peng; XiaoDong; 等


    The morphological changes observed by electron microscopy indicate that after internal irradiation with 153Sm-ESTMP bone tumor cells displayed feature of apoptosis,such as margination of condensed chromatin,chromatin well as the membranebouded apoptotic bodies formation.THe quantification analysis of fragmentation DNA for bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP shows that the DNA fragmentation is enhanced with the prolongation of internally irradiated time.These characteristics suggest that 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation could induce bone tumor cells to go9 to apoptosis.

  15. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kuk


    Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT, +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification was performed using primers that target the β-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  16. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes. (United States)

    Bhatt, Shweta; Gupta, Manoj K; Khamaisi, Mogher; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A; Wagner, Bridget K; Guye, Patrick; Busskamp, Volker; Shirakawa, Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Liew, Chong Wee; Clauss, Therese R; Valdez, Ivan; El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Takatani, Tomozumi; Keenan, Hillary A; Smith, Richard D; Church, George; Weiss, Ron; Wagers, Amy J; Qian, Wei-Jun; King, George L; Kulkarni, Rohit N


    The mechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D (disease duration ≥ 50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist -C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist -C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated in Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage. We propose miR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.

  17. CGH and SNP array using DNA extracted from fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon Ruth N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of nucleic acids is limited by the availability of archival specimens and the quality and amount of the extracted material. Archived cytogenetic preparations are stored in many laboratories and are a potential source of total genomic DNA for array karyotyping and other applications. Array CGH using DNA from fixed cytogenetic preparations has been described, but it is not known whether it can be used for SNP arrays. Diagnostic bone marrow specimens taken during the assessment of hematological malignancies are also a potential source of DNA, but it is generally assumed that DNA must be extracted, or the specimen frozen, within a day or two of collection, to obtain DNA suitable for further analysis. We have assessed DNA extracted from these materials for both SNP array and array CGH. Results We show that both SNP array and array CGH can be performed on genomic DNA extracted from cytogenetic specimens stored in Carnoy's fixative, and from bone marrow which has been stored unfrozen, at 4°C, for at least 36 days. We describe a procedure for extracting a usable concentration of total genomic DNA from cytogenetic suspensions of low cellularity. Conclusions The ability to use these archival specimens for DNA-based analysis increases the potential for retrospective genetic analysis of clinical specimens. Fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow both provide DNA suitable for array karyotyping, and may be suitable for a wider range of analytical procedures.

  18. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring. (United States)

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María


    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  19. Insights into the processes behind the contamination of degraded human teeth and bone samples with exogenous sources of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, E.


    A principal problem facing human DNA studies that use old and degraded remains is contamination from other sources of human DNA. In this study we have attempted to contaminate deliberately bones and teeth sampled from a medieval collection excavated in Trondheim, Norway, in order to investigate...... and are difficult to decontaminate using the tested protocol. We believe that this is largely due to the porous nature of bone and teeth facilitating the deep penetration of the contaminant DNA. To simulate a more realistic handling situation, 27 further teeth were directly handled and washed, then decontaminated...

  20. Analyses of DNA from ancient bones of a pre-Columbian Cuban woman and a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lleonart


    Full Text Available Molecular anthropology has brought new possibilities into the study of ancient human populations. Amplification of chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been successfully employed in analyses of ancient bone material. Although several studies have reported on continental Amerindian populations, none have addressed the ancient populations inhabiting the Caribbean islands. We used STR and mtDNA analyses to study the skeletal remains of a Cuban Ciboney female adult holding an infant. Results showed that for the STR analyzed the skeletal remains shared common alleles, suggesting a relationship. Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed sequence identity, thus corroborating a possible mother-child relationship. The mtDNA sequence grouped these remains into haplogroup A, commonly found in Amerindian populations. Based on these results, we speculated on a South American origin of pre-Columbian Antilles populations and possible infanticide practices in these populations. This constitutes the first report on DNA analysis of ancient pre-Columbian Cuban populations.A antropologia molecular trouxe novas possibilidades para o estudo de populações humanas antigas. A amplificação de loci em pequenos segmentos cromossômicos repetidos (short tandem repeat, STR e de DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA tem sido empregada com sucesso em análises de material ósseo antigo. Embora vários estudos tenham sido publicados a respeito de populações ameríndias continentais, nenhum estudou as populações antigas que habitavam as ilhas do Caribe. Nós usamos análise de STR e mtDNA para estudar os restos de ossos de uma mulher adulta da tribo Ciboney cubana carregando uma criança. Os resultados mostraram que para o STR analisado os restos ósseos compartilhavam alelos comuns, sugerindo um parentesco. A análise de mtDNA mostrou identidade de seqüência, corroborando assim uma possível relação mãe-filho. A seqüência de mtDNA alocou esses

  1. DNA replication and spindle checkpoints cooperate during S phase to delay mitosis and preserve genome integrity. (United States)

    Magiera, Maria M; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and chromosome segregation must occur in ordered sequence to maintain genome integrity during cell proliferation. Checkpoint mechanisms delay mitosis when DNA is damaged or upon replication stress, but little is known on the coupling of S and M phases in unperturbed conditions. To address this issue, we postponed replication onset in budding yeast so that DNA synthesis is still underway when cells should enter mitosis. This delayed mitotic entry and progression by transient activation of the S phase, G2/M, and spindle assembly checkpoints. Disabling both Mec1/ATR- and Mad2-dependent controls caused lethality in cells with deferred S phase, accompanied by Rad52 foci and chromosome missegregation. Thus, in contrast to acute replication stress that triggers a sustained Mec1/ATR response, multiple pathways cooperate to restrain mitosis transiently when replication forks progress unhindered. We suggest that these surveillance mechanisms arose when both S and M phases were coincidently set into motion by a unique ancestral cyclin-Cdk1 complex.

  2. Bone (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  3. Long-term stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media. (United States)

    Agreda, Patricia M; Beitman, Gerard H; Gutierrez, Erin C; Harris, James M; Koch, Kristopher R; LaViers, William D; Leitch, Sharon V; Maus, Courtney E; McMillian, Ray A; Nussbaumer, William A; Palmer, Marcus L R; Porter, Michael J; Richart, Gregory A; Schwab, Ryan J; Vaughan, Laurence M


    We evaluated the effect of storage at 2 to 8°C on the stability of human genomic and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA stored in BD SurePath and Hologic PreservCyt liquid-based cytology media. DNA retained the ability to be extracted and PCR amplified for more than 2.5 years in both medium types. Prior inability to detect DNA in archived specimens may have been due to failure of the extraction method to isolate DNA from fixed cells.

  4. Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone. (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Moyer, Alison E; Zheng, Wenxia


    Recovery of still-soft tissue structures, including blood vessels and osteocytes, from dinosaur bone after demineralization was reported in 2005 and in subsequent publications. Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting an endogenous source, it was proposed that these structures arose from contamination from biofilm-forming organisms. To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, we used two different biofilm-forming microorganisms to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed. We show fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences between the resultant biofilm structures and those derived from dinosaur bone. The data do not support the hypothesis that biofilm-forming microorganisms are the source of these structures.

  5. Testing the Hypothesis of Biofilm as a Source for Soft Tissue and Cell-Like Structures Preserved in Dinosaur Bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Higby Schweitzer

    Full Text Available Recovery of still-soft tissue structures, including blood vessels and osteocytes, from dinosaur bone after demineralization was reported in 2005 and in subsequent publications. Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting an endogenous source, it was proposed that these structures arose from contamination from biofilm-forming organisms. To test the hypothesis that soft tissue structures result from microbial invasion of the fossil bone, we used two different biofilm-forming microorganisms to inoculate modern bone fragments from which organic components had been removed. We show fundamental morphological, chemical and textural differences between the resultant biofilm structures and those derived from dinosaur bone. The data do not support the hypothesis that biofilm-forming microorganisms are the source of these structures.

  6. Bone structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise in 21 days tail-suspended rats (United States)

    Luan, Huiqin; Sun, Lian-wen; Fan, Yu-bo


    Humans in Space suffer from microgravity-induced attenuated bone strength that needs to be addressed by on-orbit exercise countermeasures. However, exercise prescriptions so far did not adequately counteract the bone loss of astronauts in spaceflight because even active muscle contractions were converted to passive mode during voluntary bouts. We tested our hypothesis in unloaded rat hind limb following twenty-one days of tail-suspension (TS) combined with exercise using a hind limb stepper device designed by our group. Female Sprague Dawley rats (250g b.wt.) were divided into four groups (n=5, each): TS-only (hind limb unloading), TS plus passive mode exercise (TSP) induced by mechanically-forced passive hind limb lifting, TS plus active mode exercise (TSA) entrained by plantar electrostimulation, and control (CON) group. Standard measures of bone (e.g., mineral density, trabecular microstructure, biomechanics and ash weight) were monitored. Results provided that the attenuated properties of unloaded hind limb bone in TS-rats were more effectively supported by active mode than by passive mode motions. We here propose a modified exercise regimen combined with spontaneous muscle contractions thereby considering the biodynamic demands of both muscle and bone during resistive-load exercise in microgravity. Keywords: rat, BMD, DXA, passive exercise, active exercise, bone loss, tail suspension, spaceflight analogue, exercise countermeasure.

  7. DNA gel electrophoretic and microaut oradiographic studies on apoptosisin bone tumor cells after exposure with 153Sm-EDTMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The apoptosis in bone tumor cells is studied after 153Sm-EDTMP irradiation.Fragmented DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis.Experimental observations show that 153Sm-EDTMP exposureinduces the internucleosomal DNA damage in bone tumor cells the DNAladder pattern formation in bone tumor cells is shown.At the same time,the microautoradiographic study indicates that 153153Sm-EDTMP could permeate through cell membrane and displays membrane-seeking condensation in bone tumor cells.Soon afterwards 153Sm-EDTMP could be phagocytized by the tumor cells and distributed in cytoplasm as well as nucleus in the form of phagosome.With the prolongation of observing time, the membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies are observed.

  8. Identification of a new hominin bone from Denisova Cave, Siberia using collagen fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analysis (United States)

    Brown, Samantha; Higham, Thomas; Slon, Viviane; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Douka, Katerina; Brock, Fiona; Comeskey, Daniel; Procopio, Noemi; Shunkov, Michael; Derevianko, Anatoly; Buckley, Michael


    DNA sequencing has revolutionised our understanding of archaic humans during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. Unfortunately, while many Palaeolithic sites contain large numbers of bones, the majority of these lack the diagnostic features necessary for traditional morphological identification. As a result the recovery of Pleistocene-age human remains is extremely rare. To circumvent this problem we have applied a method of collagen fingerprinting to more than 2000 fragmented bones from the site of Denisova Cave, Russia, in order to facilitate the discovery of human remains. As a result of our analysis a single hominin bone (Denisova 11) was identified, supported through in-depth peptide sequencing analysis, and found to carry mitochondrial DNA of the Neandertal type. Subsequent radiocarbon dating revealed the bone to be >50,000 years old. Here we demonstrate the huge potential collagen fingerprinting has for identifying hominin remains in highly fragmentary archaeological assemblages, improving the resources available for wider studies into human evolution.

  9. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (Trenbolone) preserves bone mineral density in skeletally mature orchiectomized rats without prostate enlargement. (United States)

    McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Borsa, Paul A; Tillman, Mark D; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Johnson, Sally E; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Ye, Fan; Borst, Stephen E


    Testosterone enanthate (TE) administration attenuates bone loss in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. However, testosterone administration may increase risk for prostate/lower urinary tract related adverse events and polycythemia in humans. Trenbolone enanthate (TREN) is a synthetic testosterone analogue that preserves bone mineral density (BMD) and results in less prostate enlargement than testosterone in young ORX rodents. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramuscular TREN administration attenuates bone loss and maintains bone strength, without increasing prostate mass or hemoglobin concentrations in skeletally mature ORX rodents. Forty, 10 month old male F344/Brown Norway rats were randomized into SHAM, ORX, ORX+TE (7.0mg/week), and ORX+TREN (1.0mg/week) groups. Following surgery, animals recovered for 1 week and then received weekly: vehicle, TE, or TREN intramuscularly for 5 weeks. ORX reduced total and trabecular (t) BMD at the distal femoral metaphysis compared with SHAMs, while both TREN and TE completely prevented these reductions. TREN treatment also increased femoral neck strength by 28% compared with ORX animals (pTREN induced a non-significant 20% reduction in prostate mass compared with SHAMs, ultimately producing a prostate mass that was 64% below that found in ORX+TE animals (pTREN animals to a similar degree above both SHAM and ORX conditions (pTREN completely prevented the ORX-induced loss of tBMD at the distal femoral metaphysis and increased LABC mass. TREN also augmented femoral neck strength and maintained prostate mass at SHAM levels. These findings indicate that TREN may be an advantageous agent for future clinical trials evaluating agents capable of preventing bone loss resulting from androgen deficiency.

  10. A comparative evaluation of extraction socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft alone and along with platelet-rich fibrin: A clinical and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval J Thakkar


    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate clinically and radiographically, the bone fill in extraction sockets using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft alone and along with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 36 nonrestorable single-rooted teeth sites. Sites were randomized into demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA combined with PRF - test and DFDBA - control groups using a coin toss method. After the placement of graft material, collagen membrane was used to cover it. The clinical parameters recorded were ridge width and ridge height. All the parameters were recorded at baseline and at 90 and 180 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test and paired t-test. Results: In both groups, there is significant reduction in loss of ridge width and ridge height from baseline to 90 days (P < 0.001, baseline to 180 days (P < 0.001, and 90-180 days (P < 0.001. However, when both the groups were compared the test group favored in the reduction of ridge width while there was no statistical difference in reduction of ridge height among at different intervals. Conclusions: Although DFDBA is considered as an ideal graft material, PRF can be used as an adjunctive with DFDBA for socket preservation.

  11. Evaluating differential nuclear DNA yield rates and osteocyte numbers among human bone tissue types: A synchrotron radiation micro-CT approach. (United States)

    Andronowski, Janna M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Pratt, Isaac V; Davoren, Jon M; Cooper, David M L


    Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown. The primary goal of this work is to ascertain whether differences in bone microstructure can be used to explain differential nuclear DNA yield among bone tissue types observed by Mundorff and Davoren (2014), with a focus on osteocytes and the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of their associated lacunae. Osteocytes and other bone cells are recognized to house DNA in bone tissue, thus examining the density of their lacunae may explain why nuclear DNA yield rates differ among bone tissue types. Lacunae were visualized and quantified using synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomographic imaging (SR micro-CT). Volumes of interest (VOIs) from cortical and cancellous bone tissues (n=129) were comparatively analyzed from the three skeletons sampled for Mundorff and Davoren's (2014) study. Analyses tested the primary hypothesis that the abundance and density of osteocytes (inferred from their lacunar spaces) vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types. Results demonstrated that osteocyte lacunar abundance and density vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types, with cortical bone VOIs containing a higher lacunar abundance and density. We found that the osteocyte lacunar density values are independent of nuclear DNA yield, suggesting an alternative explanation for the higher nuclear DNA yields from bones with greater quantities of cancellous bone tissue. The use of SR micro-CT allowed for

  12. DNA aptamer beacon assay for C-telopeptide and handheld fluorometer to monitor bone resorption. (United States)

    Bruno, John Gordon; Carrillo, Maria P; Phillips, Taylor; Hanson, Douglas; Bohmann, Jonathan A


    A novel DNA aptamer beacon is described for quantification of a 26-amino acid C-telopeptide (CTx) of human type I bone collagen. One aptamer sequence and its reverse complement dominated the aptamer pool (31.6% of sequenced clones). Secondary structures of these aptamers were examined for potential binding pockets. Three-dimensional computer models which analyzed docking topologies and binding energies were in agreement with empirical fluorescence experiments used to select one candidate loop for beacon assay development. All loop structures from the aptamer finalists were end-labeled with TYE 665 and Iowa Black quencher for comparison of beacon fluorescence levels as a function of CTx concentration. The optimal beacon, designated CTx 2R-2h yielded a low ng/ml limit of detection using a commercially available handheld fluorometer. The CTx aptamer beacon bound full-length 26-amino acid CTx peptide, but not a shorter 8-amino acid segment of CTx peptide which is a common target for commercial CTx ELISA kits. The prototype assay was shown to detect CTx peptide from human urine after creatinine and urea were removed by size-exclusion chromatography to prevent nonspecific denaturing of the aptamer beacon. This work demonstrates the potential of aptamer beacons to be utilized for rapid and sensitive bone health monitoring in a handheld or point-of-care format.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  14. Recovery of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in experimentally mummified skin and bones: Prospects for paleoparasitological studies to unveil the origin of toxoplasmosis. (United States)

    Leles, Daniela; Lobo, Amanda; Rhodes, Taís; Millar, Patrícia Riddell; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Araújo, Adauto


    Paleoparasitology studies parasite infections by finding the parasites' remains in preserved organic remains such as natural or artificial mummy tissues, skeletons, teeth, and coprolites, among others. However, some currently important infections like toxoplasmosis have not been studied by paleoparasitology. The reasons include this parasite's complex life cycle, the resulting difficulties in locating this protozoan in the intermediate host tissues, and the limitation of coprolite studies to felines, the protozoan's definitive host. The current study thus aimed to produce an experimental model for molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, prioritizing its study in bones and skin, the most abundant materials in archeological collections and sites. The study demonstrated the feasibility of recovering Toxoplasma gondii DNA from desiccated material, including bones and skin, in experimental models both with circulating tachyzoites (RH strain), characteristic of acute infection, and with cysts (ME49 cystogenic strain), characteristic of chronic infection. At present, most individuals with T. gondii infection are in the chronic phase, and the same was probably true in the past. The current study thus expands the odds of finding the parasite in archeological material, enhanced by the nature of the material in which the diagnosis was made. Finding the parasite may help answer questions that are widely debated in the literature on this protozoan's origin (Old World versus New World). In addition, when conditions do not allow ideal storage of samples for molecular tests, the methodology creates the possibility of testing oven-dried samples transported at room temperature.

  15. Transfect bone marrow stromal cells with pcDNA3.1-VEGF to construct tissue engineered bone in defect repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Hai-peng; ZHANG Xi-hua; LU Zhi-hua; LIN Yong-liang; LI Jing-jing; YIN Qing-feng; ZHAO Dong-mei; WANG Shao-jin; LI Jian-min; WANG Hai-bin


    Background We previously showed that nano-hydroxyapatite/carboxymethyl chitosan (n-Ha/CMCS) displayed excellent mechanical properties,good degradation rates and exceptional biocompatibility,with negligible toxicity.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the same composite with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-transfected bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a rabbit radial defect model.Methods The nano-hydroxyapatite was produced through co-precipitation.The n-HA/CMCS scaffold was produced by particle filtration and lyophilization followed by genipin crosslinking.Total RNA from rabbit bone was reverse-transcribed to synthesize VEGF165-pcDNA3.1 that was transfected into the BMSCs.The composite was implanted into a rabbit radial defect model,and the osteogenic activity examined by gross morphology,X-ray examination and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining.Results The microstructure and mechanical property of the n-HNCMCS scaffold resembled natural cancellous bone.Compared with glutaric dialdehyde crosslinked scaffolds,the genipin crosslinked scaffold was less toxic,and displayed a higher capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation.Spontaneous fluorescence of the composite permitted visualization of the composite-bone interface and the adhesion behavior of cells on the scaffold under laser scanning confocal microscopy.The scaffold with VEGF-transfected BMSCs bridged the bony defect and promoted healing,with most of the implanted material being replaced by natural bone over time with little residual implant.Using X-ray,we noted obvious callus formation and recanalization of the bone marrow cavity.Furthermore,HE stained sections showed new cortical bone formation.Conclusions The n-HA/CMCS scaffold composite with VEGF-trasnfected BMSCs is biocompatible,nontoxic,promotes the infiltration and formation of the microcirculation,and stimulates bone defect repair.Furthermore,the degradation rate of the composite matched that of growing bone

  16. The Effects of Preservation Methods and Temperature of Softening Specimens on DNA Extraction from Apis mellifera%保存方式和回软温度对蜜蜂标本 DNA 提取的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红利; 贾鑫磊; 刘建霞; 张永芳


    旨在探寻保存方式及制作干标本前回软温度对蜜蜂不同部位 DNA 的影响。采用酚-氯仿法对不同方式保存的蜜蜂以及不同温度回软后的蜜蜂干标本的总 DNA 进行提取,通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳和 PCR 扩增对 DNA 的提取结果进行鉴定。电泳结果显示,从新鲜标本、无水乙醇泡制或自然干燥保存半年的标本中均可提取到较高质量的总 DNA,尤以头部与足部提取效果最佳。经不同水浴温度回软后保存半年的蜜蜂干标本总 DNA 提取结果显示,回软温度为65℃时对蜜蜂 DNA 的破坏性最小,DNA 提取的最佳部位为蜜蜂足部。正交试验结果显示,55℃回软后的足部为蜜蜂干标本 DNA 提取的最优组合。PCR 扩增结果显示,本实验提取的总 DNA 能成功地应用于蜜蜂线粒体基因16S rRNA 和 CO I 的扩增。从保存方式、提取部位和回软操作3个因素对蜜蜂标本DNA 的提取进行了研究,提供了较好的选择方案。%This work aims to explore the effects of preservation methods and temperature while softening specimens before drying the specimen on DNA from different parts of bees. The phenol - chloroform method was used to extract the total DNA from bee specimens preserved in different methods and from those dried bee specimens softened at different temperatures. The extracted DNA was analyzed and identified using agarose gel electrophoresis and the PCR amplification. The electrophoresis images showed that fine-quality DNA was extracted from all specimens,including specimens collected freshly,specimens soaked with alcohol,and specimens dried under natural conditions,and the quality of genomic DNA from the head and the leg of these specimens was better than that from other parts. The total extracted DNA results from dried bees softened under different bath temperatures and preserved half year showed that 65℃ was the optimal softening temperature,and the damages to bee’s DNA

  17. In vivo tungsten exposure alters B-cell development and increases DNA damage in murine bone marrow. (United States)

    Kelly, Alexander D R; Lemaire, Maryse; Young, Yoon Kow; Eustache, Jules H; Guilbert, Cynthia; Molina, Manuel Flores; Mann, Koren K


    High environmental tungsten levels were identified near the site of a childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cluster; however, a causal link between tungsten and leukemogenesis has not been established. The major site of tungsten deposition is bone, the site of B-cell development. In addition, our in vitro data suggest that developing B lymphocytes are susceptible to tungsten-induced DNA damage and growth inhibition. To extend these results, we assessed whether tungsten exposure altered B-cell development and induced DNA damage in vivo. Wild-type mice were exposed to tungsten in their drinking water for up to 16 weeks. Tungsten concentration in bone was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and correlated with B-cell development and DNA damage within the bone marrow. Tungsten exposure resulted in a rapid deposition within the bone following 1 week, and tungsten continued to accumulate thereafter albeit at a decreased rate. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a transient increase in mature IgD(+) B cells in the first 8 weeks of treatment, in animals of the highest and intermediate exposure groups. Following 16 weeks of exposure, all tungsten groups had a significantly greater percentage of cells in the late pro-/large pre-B developmental stages. DNA damage was increased in both whole marrow and isolated B cells, most notably at the lowest tungsten concentration tested. These findings confirm an immunological effect of tungsten exposure and suggest that tungsten could act as a tumor promoter, providing leukemic "hits" in multiple forms to developing B lymphocytes within the bone marrow.

  18. Preservação da proteína verde fluorescente no tecido ósseo descalcificado Preservation of the green fluorescent protein on decalcified bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankerle Neves Boeloni


    diseases. However, in the bone, the fluorescence generated by GFP can be lost during the decalcification process, hindering the tracking of stem cells used in the treatment of diseases or bone defects. The aim of this study was to compare different techniques of preservation of GFP in the decalcified bone tissue. Femurs of female Lewis GFP rats were distributed in four groups: 1 decalcified in formic acid and paraffin-embedded; 2 decalcified in formic acid submitted to cryomicrotomy; 3 decalcified in EDTA and paraffin-embedded and 4 decalcified in EDTA with cryomicrotomy. Sections of bone tissue of all the groups were analyzed for identification of the natural fluorescence and subsequently submitted to the immunofluorescence using anti-GFP and Alexa Flúor 555. The images were obtained by confocal microscopy. Osteocytes, osteoblasts and bone marrow cells of GFP rats only had natural fluorescence preserved in the bone tissue decalcified in EDTA and submitted to cryomicrotomy. In others groups there were loss of the natural fluorescence and the GFP cells could be only identified with the use of the immunofluorescence with anti-GFP. In conclusion, the decalcification in EDTA and the cryomicrotomy are the best techniques to preserve the natural fluorescence of the GFP cells in the bone tissue and the GFP cells in bone tissue decalcified in formic acid and paraffin-embedded can be visualized only with the use of the immunofluorescence with anti-GFP.

  19. Gene delivery nanocarriers of bioactive glass with unique potential to load BMP2 plasmid DNA and to internalize into mesenchymal stem cells for osteogenesis and bone regeneration (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Singh, Rajendra K.; Kang, Min Sil; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won


    The recent development of bioactive glasses with nanoscale morphologies has spurred their specific applications in bone regeneration, for example as drug and gene delivery carriers. Bone engineering with stem cells genetically modified with this unique class of nanocarriers thus holds great promise in this avenue. Here we report the potential of the bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGN) system for the gene delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) targeting bone. The composition of 15% Ca-added silica, proven to be bone-bioactive, was formulated into surface aminated mesoporous nanospheres with enlarged pore sizes, to effectively load and deliver bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) plasmid DNA. The enlarged mesopores were highly effective in loading BMP2-pDNA with an efficiency as high as 3.5 wt% (pDNA w.r.t. BGN), a level more than twice than for small-sized mesopores. The BGN nanocarriers released the genetic molecules in a highly sustained manner (for as long as 2 weeks). The BMP2-pDNA/BGN complexes were effectively internalized to rat MSCs with a cell uptake level of ~73%, and the majority of cells were transfected to express the BMP2 protein. Subsequent osteogenesis of the transfected MSCs was demonstrated by the expression of bone-related genes, including bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. The MSCs transfected with BMP2-pDNA/BGN were locally delivered inside a collagen gel to the target calvarium defects. The results showed significantly improved bone regeneration, as evidenced by the micro-computed tomographic, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. This study supports the excellent capacity of the BGN system as a pDNA-delivery nanocarrier in MSCs, and the engineered system, BMP2-pDNA/BGN with MSCs, may be considered a new promising candidate to advance the therapeutic potential of stem cells through genetic modification, targeting bone defects and diseases.The recent development of bioactive glasses with nanoscale morphologies has

  20. Effect of bone decalcification procedures on DNA in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization. EDTA is highly preferable to a routinely used acid decalcifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Alers (Janneke); P-J. Krijtenburg (Pieter-Jaap); K.J. Vissers (Kees); H. van Dekken (Herman)


    textabstractDecalcification is routinely performed for histological studies of bone-containing tissue. Although DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been successfully employed on archival material, little has been reported on


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Shan; CHEN Xue-hua; LI Hao; LI Jian-fang; GU Qin-long; ZHU Zheng-gang; LIU Bing-ya


    Objective To explore the optimal electroporation parameters for transfection of plasmid DNA into murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Methods Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were electroporated with plasmid DNA in varied conditions, such as electrical voltage, pulse time,pre-electroporation cell condition and serum concentration in electrical buffer. Inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometer were used to determine the transfection efficiency. Some of the DCs genetically modified under different conditions were stained with trypan-blue and its viability was observed microscopically 48h after electroporation. Results Highest transfection efficiency (22.10%) could be reached when electrical voltage was 250V and pulse time was 20ms. Refreshing the culture medium pre-electroporation may help the cells recover more easily from gene transfer.Besides, electrical buffer containing serum may benefit the viability of DC after electroporation and temperature may has little influence on transfection efficiency. Conclusion Our observations demonstrated plasmid DNA could be efficiently transferred into murine bone marrow-derived DCs by electroporation. These data may helpful for cancer research related to murine DC transfection.

  2. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Strzezek


    Full Text Available The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis, to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3, which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional

  3. 海绵动物保存及DNA提取方法的研究%Comparison of samples preservation and DNA extraction of sponges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚琳; 欧徽龙; 王德祥; 柯才焕; 李文宇


    海绵标本长期、完整的保存是开展海绵分类学及分子进化研究的重要前提,本研究以建立通用的海绵动物标本的保存方法及快速、完整的基因组 DNA 提取方法为主要目的,通过对硅质的山海绵(Mycale sp.)和钙质的白枝海绵(Leucosoleniidae sp.)为材料进行-20℃冰冻、乙醇固定、冰冻后风干和乙醇固定后风干等4种保存方法进行研究,同时采用酚-氯仿法、高盐法、CTAB 法等3种基因组 DNA提取方法,测试了4种保存方法的DNA提取效率。实验结果显示,海绵样品的4种保存方法以及3种DNA 提取方法对于硅质海绵以及钙质海绵虽然在提取的 DNA 得率上有差异,但都能获得较高纯度基因组 DNA。从经济成本、方便性、潜在的污染等因素考虑,高盐法是首选的提取海绵基因组 DNA 的方法;乙醇固定保存的海绵样品DNA得率最高,冰冻的海绵样品得率最低,推荐采用乙醇固定保存海绵样品的方法。%In order to build the optional method of sponge preservation and a safe, fast and effective genomic DNA extraction method, different ways of DNA extraction and preservation were studied in this paper. Two different species, Mycale sp. and Leucosoleniidae sp., and four different ways of preservation including −20℃ freezing, ethanol fixation, air drying and ethanol fixation then drying were tested,. Three methods for DNA extraction in-cluding cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), Phenol - Chloroform and high salt extraction were examined. The results show that each method can obtain high quality genomic DNA. But considering economical, enviromen-tal friendly and convenient factors, the method of high salt extraction was the best one among the three methods of DNA extraction. The amount and purity of DNA isolated from ethanol fixed specimens were the best. In a word, the ethanol fixed is the best method of sponge preservation.

  4. Could kDNA-PCR in Peripheral Blood Replace the Examination of Bone Marrow for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis? (United States)

    de Godoy, Natalia Souza; Andrino, Marcos Luiz Alves; de Souza, Regina Maia; Gakiya, Erika; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; Lindoso, José Ângelo Lauletta


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the molecular (kDNA-PCR) and parasitological diagnosis in peripheral blood (PB) could replace the invasive and painful bone marrow collection (BM) in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). PB from suspected VL patients was evaluated by parasitological and molecular techniques using as the gold standard (GS) a combination of clinical, epidemiological, and immunochromatographic test (PB-rK39) results and parasitological examination of BM. Based on the GS, 38 samples from 32 patients were grouped: Group 1, 20 samples of VL cases, and Group 2, 18 samples of non-VL cases. In order to evaluate the parasitological and molecular techniques in PB, the samples were examined. From Group 1, PB kDNA-PCR was positive in 20 samples and in 19 of 20 in BM kDNA-PCR examination. However, the parasitological examination of buffy coat was insensitive, being able to detect only 4 cases from Group 1. All samples from Group 2 were negative. We concluded that, for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, the parasitological examination of peripheral blood was not useful; however, molecular diagnosis by kDNA-PCR, performed in peripheral blood, could be useful to replace the parasitological examination of bone marrow. PMID:27597892

  5. Comparative analysis of human mitochondrial DNA from World War I bone samples by DNA sequencing and ESI-TOF mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca; Encheva, Vesela; Thomson, Jim; Bache, Katherine; Chan, Yuen-Ting; Cowen, Simon; Debenham, Paul; Dixon, Alan; Krause, Jens-Uwe; Krishan, Elaina; Moore, Daniel; Moore, Victoria; Ojo, Michael; Rodrigues, Sid; Stokes, Peter; Walker, James; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Barallon, Rita


    Mitochondrial DNA is commonly used in identity testing for the analysis of old or degraded samples or to give evidence of familial links. The Abbott T5000 mass spectrometry platform provides an alternative to the more commonly used Sanger sequencing for the analysis of human mitochondrial DNA. The robustness of the T5000 system has previously been demonstrated using DNA extracted from volunteer buccal swabs but the system has not been tested using more challenging sample types. For mass spectrometry to be considered as a valid alternative to Sanger sequencing it must also be demonstrated to be suitable for use with more limiting sample types such as old teeth, bone fragments, and hair shafts. In 2009 the Commonwealth War Graves Commission launched a project to identify the remains of 250 World War I soldiers discovered in a mass grave in Fromelles, France. This study characterises the performance of both Sanger sequencing and the T5000 platform for the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from 225 of these remains, both in terms of the ability to amplify and characterise DNA regions of interest and the relative information content and ease-of-use associated with each method.

  6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction approach for quantitation of ruminant-specific DNA to indicate a correlation between DNA amount and meat and bone meal heat treatments. (United States)

    Chiappini, Barbara; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Agrimi, Umberto; Vaccari, Gabriele; Aarts, Henk J M; Berben, Gilbert; Frezza, Domenico; Giambra, Vincenzo


    The use of ruminant-derived proteins in ruminant feeds has been banned in both the European Union and the United States to prevent further spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Enforcement of these regulations relies on the ability to identify the presence of prohibited proteins in feed. We developed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the quantification of ruminant-specific DNA as index of protein content. The assay is based on the amplification of a 117 base pair mitochondrial 16S rRNA DNA gene fragment and an internal positive control (IPC). The use of an IPC permits compensation for differences in DNA extraction efficiency and avoids the occurrence of false-negative results. We demonstrated a decrease in target DNA amount with a difference of 2 logs between meat and bone meal (MBM) treated at 133 degrees and 145 degrees C. Such a difference indicates that bias could occur when DNA-based methods are used for quantitation purposes. Risk management could benefit from future efforts concerning validation of the method for MBM detection in feedstuff and safety evaluation of the use of animal-derived proteins in animal nutrition.

  7. 检材采集与保存方式对DNA提取效率的影响%Effect of Sample Collection and Preservation on DNA Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓淑娇; 李萍; 黄桂清; 杨电


    ABSTRACT:ObjectiveTo explore the effect of sample collection and preservation on DNA yield.MethodsThe fresh anti-freezing blood from 30 volunteers was respectively dropped onto a swab from the casing for collection and preservation of biological sample, and the ones of both the cuspidal and the common medical. Each of the blood specimens was separately preserved in the casing or paper bags for a week. Every piece of DNA from the blood specimens was extracted by magnetic beads method in combination of automation workstation and was quantiifed by ABI 7500 Real Time System.ResultsThe average DNA concentration was (2.54±0.63) ng/μL for the blood specimens collected and preserved with the casings, (2.06±0.44) ng/μL and (0.93±0.59) ng/μL for those blood specimens which were collected with cuspidal swabs and common medical ones and followed to preserve in paper bags. The DNA yield was obviously higher using the casings than that of either the cuspidal swabs or the common medical ones to collect and then preserve in paper bags.ConclusionsThis test suggests that it is better to choose the casings for collection and preservation of biological sample than the cuspidal and the common medical swab.%目的:研究检材采集与保存方式对DNA提取效率的影响。方法使用生物检材采集与保存套管棉签、尖头棉签和普通医用棉签采集血样,分别放置于生物检材采集与保存套管或纸质物证袋中保存1周。剪取全部血样于96孔板中,用磁珠法结合自动化工作站提取DNA,以ABI7500型荧光定量PCR仪定量。结果生物检材采集与保存套管采集保存的血样所提取的DNA浓度平均为(2.54±0.63)ng/μL ,而尖头棉签、普通医用棉签采集并分别用纸袋保存的血样提取的DNA浓度平均为(2.06±0.44)ng/μL和(0.93±0.59) ng/μL。结论生物检材采集与保存套管较之于尖头棉签或普通医用棉签采集、纸袋保存方式,其获得的DNA浓度显著提高,DNA提取率高。

  8. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation at all human imprinted regions reveals preservation of epigenetic stability in adult somatic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfine Kathryn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes subject to genomic imprinting are mono-allelically expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. Each imprinted locus has at least one differentially methylated region (DMR which has allele specific DNA methylation and contributes to imprinted gene expression. Once DMRs are established, they are potentially able to withstand normal genome reprogramming events that occur during cell differentiation and germ-line DMRs are stably maintained throughout development. These DMRs, in addition to being either maternally or paternally methylated, have differences in whether methylation was acquired in the germ-line or post fertilization and are present in a variety of genomic locations with different Cytosine-phosphate guanine (CpG densities and CTCF binding capacities. We therefore examined the stability of maintenance of DNA methylation imprints and determined the normal baseline DNA methylation levels in several adult tissues for all imprinted genes. In order to do this, we first developed and validated 50 highly specific, quantitative DNA methylation pyrosequencing assays for the known DMRs associated with human imprinted genes. Results Remarkable stability of the DNA methylation imprint was observed in all germ-line DMRs and paternally methylated somatic DMRs (which maintained average methylation levels of between 35% - 65% in all somatic tissues, independent of gene expression. Maternally methylated somatic DMRs were found to have more variation with tissue specific methylation patterns. Most DMRs, however, showed some intra-individual variability for DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood, suggesting that more than one DMR needs to be examined in order to get an overall impression of the epigenetic stability in a tissue. The plasticity of DNA methylation at imprinted genes was examined in a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. All cell lines showed changes in DNA methylation, especially at the paternal germ

  9. Application of thiopropyl sepharose 6B for removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts of a thigh bone recovered from the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Hansen, Steen Holger; Eriksen, Birthe;


    PCR amplification of DNA from forensic samples often proves difficult due to the presence of inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction. One possible way to remove PCR inhibitors from a DNA extract is the use of the affinity resin thiopropyl sepharose 6B (TS), which has been used previously...... for the removal of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts originating from stains on clothing. Here we show that TS is efficient also for the removal of inhibitors from PCR extracts from a highly decomposed human thigh bone. TS treatment, however, leads to a substantial loss of DNA making the technique best suited when...... substantial amounts of DNA are present....

  10. 粉蚧标本保存与DNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of methods for extracting and preserving the DNA of adult Pseudococcidae specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亦寒; 郑斯竹; 蔡平; 詹国辉; 高渊


    【目的】探讨适合粉蚧的标本保存及DNA提取方法。【方法】采用改良CTAB法、改良SDS法、GenMagBio动物细胞组织/细胞基因组磁珠法以及GeneJET Genomic DNA纯化试剂盒法4种方法分别对新鲜活体4℃、无水乙醇﹣20℃和无水乙醇4℃3种保存方式且保存一年以上的扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis 成虫进行 DNA 提取,并对不同提取方法所获取的 DNA 纯度与质量浓度进行分析比较验证。【结果】3种保存方式中,新鲜活体效果最好,其次为无水乙醇-20℃。无水乙醇4℃效果和无水乙醇﹣20℃无明显区别,均存在一定程度的降解。对于新鲜活体标本,以CTAB法提取的DNA质量最高,其次为GenMagBio磁珠法和SDS法,GeneJET试剂盒法最差;对于无水乙醇﹣20℃和4℃保存时间较长的标本,磁珠法提取的DNA质量明显优于其余3种方法。【结论】无水乙醇﹣20℃可用于粉蚧长期保存,可满足后续分子研究需要;改良 CTAB 法对新鲜粉蚧成虫 DNA 提取效果较好,磁珠法对长时间保存 DNA存在一定程度降解的粉蚧成虫效果较好。%Objectives] To find which method of extracting and preserving the DNA of adult Pseudococcidae specimens produced the best quality genomic DNA. [Methods] Genomic Phenacoccus solenopsis DNA from either fresh living adult specimens, or those that had been preserved for over 1 year in 100%ethanol at﹣20℃, or 100%ethanol at 4℃, was extracted using four methods;CTAB, SDS, GenMagBio kit and GeneJET kit, and the quality and purity of the extracted genomic DNA compared. [Results] The best quality genomic DNA was obtained from fresh living specimens. Samples that had been stored in 100%ethanol at ﹣20℃ or 100%ethanol at 4℃ showed evidence of DNA degradation, there was no significant difference in the quality of the DNA obtained from these two storage methods. For fresh samples, the CTAB method produced the best quality DNA

  11. Bone Mass Gained in Response to External Loading is Preserved for Several Weeks Following Cessation of Loading in 10 Week C57BL/6J Mice (United States)


    increased BMC in the loaded bone is caused by both bone size and vBMD changes. Bone size, as reflected by periosteal circumference (PC), was increased by 18...days four-point bending on 10 week female C57BL/6J mice. The x-axis corresponds to various time points. (a) Bone mineral content (BMC), (b) Periosteal ...tibia. In the pQCT analysis of bone parameters using the lower threshold (180-730), we found that the magnitude of increase in periosteal circumference

  12. Serial monitoring of Mucorales DNA load in serum samples of a patient with disseminated mucormycosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (United States)

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Saito, Shoji; Noda, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Honda, Takayuki; Koike, Kenichi


    Mucormycosis is a fatal complication in immunocompromised patients, and is additionally difficult to diagnose due to the lack of useful serum biomarkers. Using a quantitative PCR approach, we retrospectively analyzed Mucorales DNA load in sera collected serially from a 3-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease, who died of multi-organ failure probably due to dissemination of Rhizomucor pusillus, which was detected from necropsy specimens. Mucorales DNA load was below the detection limit on days 9, 2, and 4 after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Rhizomucor DNA was first detected on day 14 (1.6 × 10(3) copies/mL), and subsequently fluctuated between 1.3 × 10(3) and 37.2 × 10(3) copies/mL until day 43. Rhizomucor achieved a peak value of 940.0 × 10(3) copies/mL on day 48 the day before death. The detection or fluctuation of Rhizomucor DNA appeared to be associated with corticosteroid dosages or C-reactive protein levels. This specific, noninvasive, and highly quantitative assay may be useful for the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and prediction of disease progression.

  13. Disruption of Runx1 and Runx3 Leads to Bone Marrow Failure and Leukemia Predisposition due to Transcriptional and DNA Repair Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsia Qiuxia Wang


    Full Text Available The RUNX genes encode transcription factors involved in development and human disease. RUNX1 and RUNX3 are frequently associated with leukemias, yet the basis for their involvement in leukemogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that Runx1;Runx3 double-knockout (DKO mice exhibited lethal phenotypes due to bone marrow failure and myeloproliferative disorder. These contradictory clinical manifestations are reminiscent of human inherited bone marrow failure syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA, caused by defective DNA repair. Indeed, Runx1;Runx3 DKO cells showed mitomycin C hypersensitivity, due to impairment of monoubiquitinated-FANCD2 recruitment to DNA damage foci, although FANCD2 monoubiquitination in the FA pathway was unaffected. RUNX1 and RUNX3 interact with FANCD2 independently of CBFβ, suggesting a nontranscriptional role for RUNX in DNA repair. These findings suggest that RUNX dysfunction causes DNA repair defect, besides transcriptional misregulation, and promotes the development of leukemias and other cancers.

  14. Genomic DNA Extraction from Apis cerana cerana Preserved by Different Methods%不同方法保存的蜜蜂基因组DNA提取的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫华超; 贾少波; 王雪梅


    目的:找出适合DNA提取的昆虫标本保存方法.方法:用几种常用的昆虫标本保存方法对蜜蜂处理不同时间后,用蛋白酶K法对其基因组DNA进行提取和纯化,然后对提取产物做琼脂糖凝胶电泳及紫外吸收分析.结果:75%乙醇及冻存处理材料的基因组DNA得率较高,为7.13~8.85 μg/g,电泳条带较亮;甲醛处理材料的基因组DNA得率较低,为1.50~3.21 μg/g.结论:用75%乙醇及冻存处理蜜蜂较适合于其基因组DNA的提取,不宜用甲醛.%Objective: To find suitable insect preserving method for genomic DNA extracting. Methods: The Apis cerana cerana were preserved by different methods for different time. Genomic DNA were extracted and amplified using the proteinase K method from Apis cerana cerana, and the products were analyzed by using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometer. Results: The results suggested that with respect to DNA extraction, the freezing specimens and those be preserved in 75% alcohol were extracted more DNA, it was 7.13~8.85 M-g/g, and their electrophoresis bands were broad. However those be preserved in formaldehyde were extracted little DNA, it was 1.50-3.21 |ig/g. Conclusion: Freezing and preserve in 75% alcohol are suit for extracting DNA.

  15. Research prowess on reduction of bone resorption through alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction%应用牙槽窝保存技术减少拔牙后骨吸收的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    口腔种植作为一种缺失牙的修复方式已经被临床广泛地接受,然而,成功的种植修复需要有足够的牙槽骨骨量和良好的牙槽嵴外形.患者的牙齿拔除后,骨吸收会造成牙槽嵴体积和外形的变化.若这种变化在临床上较为明显,可以对种植修复或传统修复造成困难.牙槽嵴保存技术则可以使拔牙后的牙槽嵴吸收最小化,可以保持足够的牙槽骨量,从而有助于获得理想的美学和功能修复.本文对牙槽窝保存技术、微创拔牙技术、拔牙后的牙槽窝愈合模式以及骨移植材料和屏障膜的使用作一综述.%Implant therapy has become a widely recognized treatment alternative for replacing missing teeth.While successful implant therapy requires sufficient alveolar bone volume and favorable ridge architecture. After tooth extraction, dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge often occur due to bone resorption. These changes are usually clinically significant and can complicate restorations with implant or conventional prostheses. Preservation of alveolar dimension can minimize residual ridge resorption and can be essential to maintain adequate bone volume, thus be crucial to achieve optimal esthetic and functional prosthodontic results. This article reviewed the literature, presents socket preservation techniques, atraumatic tooth extraction, healing pattern of socket after tooth extraction as well as the use of bone grafting materials and barrier membranes.

  16. Clinical effects on the prevention of alveolar bone absorption by site preservation after tooth extraction due to periodontitis%牙周炎患牙位点保存术的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊毅; 汪明敏; 董凯; 朱春晖; 刘瑾; 董妍; 李昂


    目的:观察位点保存术在牙周炎患牙拔除后牙槽骨量改变的临床效果。方法纳入门诊确诊为牙周炎不能保留的患牙85颗,随机分为2组:①常规拔牙组,40颗患牙,采用传统的牙拔除术;②位点保存组,45颗患牙,经微创拔牙后牙槽窝同期植入Bio-OSS胶原,覆盖Bio-Gide胶原膜并且严密缝合。对比两组患牙的临床疗效,并分别于术前术后行 X线和锥形束CT(cone beam CT,CBCT)影像学检查,评估2组牙槽骨量变化情况及比较牙槽骨的密度情况。结果两组术区均无感染,愈合良好,牙龈质地坚韧,颜色粉红。X线和CBCT结果显示,常规拔牙组牙槽骨水平和垂直吸收增加,位点保存组牙槽骨垂直和水平吸收量显著低于常规拔牙组(P<0.05),术后6月 CBCT显示位点保存组新生骨密度显著高于常规拔牙组。结论位点保存术可有效预防及减少牙周炎患牙拔除后牙槽骨的吸收,改善牙槽骨高度和宽度,成骨效果良好,有利于满足后期的修复需要。%Objective To observe the clinical effects on prevention of alveolar bone absorption by site preservation after tooth extraction due to periodontitis.Methods The experimental group consisted of 40 patients with 45 extracted teeth due to periodontitis.The fresh sockets were immediately grafted and filled with Bio-oss collagen and Bio-Gide after minimally invasive tooth extraction,while 40 teeth of control group were only treated with cotton balls bitten tightly over the socket for half an hour.Two groups were observed for changes in alveolar bone density by X-ray and cone beam CT (CBCT)after 6 months.Results There were the wound healing and no infection in extraction site of all patients with or without site preservation operation.The gingiva of extraction site was pink and tough in all groups.The alveolar bone loss in regular extraction patients significantly increased in horizontal and vertical aspects by X-ray and CBCT,while site

  17. Bone and muscle structure and quality preserved by active versus passive muscle exercise on a new stepper device in 21 days tail-suspended rats. (United States)

    Sun, L W; Blottner, D; Luan, H Q; Salanova, M; Wang, C; Niu, H J; Felsenberg, D; Fan, Y B


    Human performance in microgravity is characterized by reversed skeletal muscle actions in terms of active vs. passive mode contractions of agonist/antagonist groups that may challenge principal biodynamics (biomechanical forces translated from muscle to bone) of the skeletal muscle-bone unit. We investigated active vs. passive muscle motions of the unloaded hindlimb skeletal muscle-bone unit in the 21 days tail-suspended (TS) rat using a newly designed stepper exercise device. The regimen included both active mode motions (TSA) and passive mode motions (TSP). A TS-only group and a normal cage group (CON) served as positive or negative controls. The muscle and bone decrements observed in TS-only group were not seen in the other groups except TSP. Active mode motions supported femur and tibia bone quality (5% BMD, 10% microtrabecular BV/TV, Tb.Th., Tb.N. parameters), whole soleus muscle/myofiber size and type II distribution, 20% increased sarcolemma NOS1 immunosignals vs. CON, with 25% more hybrid fiber formation (remodeling sign) for all TS groups. We propose a new custom-made stepper device to be used in the TS rat model that allows for detailed investigations of the unique biodynamic properties of the muscle-bone unit during resistive-load exercise countermeasure trials on the ground or in microgravity.

  18. 引导骨再生膜技术在牙槽嵴位点保存的临床疗效观察%On clinical effect of guided bone regeneration on postextracting socket site preservation in implantology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尼加提·吐尔逊; 王艳; 赵涓彤; 吴佩玲


    目的:探讨牙周病拔牙后应用引导骨再生膜技术在牙槽嵴位点保存的临床疗效。方法22例32颗具有拔牙适应证的患牙拔除后随机分为植骨组和非植骨组,植骨组即刻在拔牙创窝内填塞羟基磷灰石生物陶瓷骨替代材料,覆盖口腔生物膜,周围软组织松弛后拉拢缝合,严密关闭拔牙创;非植骨组常规处理拔牙创面。结果植骨组16个拔牙位点,牙槽嵴位点骨形成有效位点数为15个,未见明显骨质形成位点1个;非植骨组16个拔牙位点,牙槽嵴位点骨形成有效位点数为9个,未见明显骨质形成位点共7个。结论采用羟基磷灰石生物陶瓷充填骨缺损区同时覆盖生物膜的引导骨再生技术可获得良好的骨引导再生效果。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of guided bone regeneration on postextracting socket site preservation in implantology .Methods 22 patients with 32 extracted teeth were randomly divided into ex-perimental group and control group .The experimental group was placed coralline hydroxyapatite in socket site after extraction while the control group with cotton balls bitten tightly over the socket for half an hour .Results All patients had no adverse symptoms .New bone formation in the coralline hydroxyapatite implanted area in the 3rd month ,after 6 months the artificial bone and bone around integrated and the height of the alveolar bone were significantly increased ,higher than that of the contral group (P <0 .05) , and the soft tissue healing of the experimental group was better than that of the control group (P<0 .05) . Conclusion Coralline hydroxyapatite combined with guided bone regeneration technique can have good effect on guiding bone regeneration and repair bone defects .

  19. 人胎儿骨骼和关节RACE cDNA文库的构建%The construction of rapid amplification of cDNA ends cDNA libraries from human fetal bone and joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓媛; 龚瑶琴; 刘奇迹; 李江夏; 陈丙玺; 郭辰虹


    目的 建立人胎儿骨骼和关节快速扩增cDNA末端(rapid amplification of cDNA ends,RACE cDNA)文库,为分离骨骼和关节发育相关基因奠定基础。方法 采用改进的异硫氰酸胍-酚-氯仿-异戊醇一步法提取骨骼和关节总RNA,用TaKaRa公司生产的cDNA合成试剂盒合成平末端的双链cDNA,然后与衔接子连接。再用位于双链cDNA末端的通用引物扩增全部cDNA。结果 建立了从骨骼和关节构建RACE cDNA文库的方法,并用该方法成功地构建了人胎儿骨骼和关节RACE cDNA文库。结论 所构建的的利用少量总RNA构建RACE cDNA文库方法切实可行,所构建的文库适用于用RACE方法从中分离骨骼和关节发育相关基因。%Objective To construct rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE) cDNA libraries from human fetal bone and joint and provide resources for isolation of bone- and joint- specific development-related genes.Methods Total RNA of bone and joint were extracted with the modified single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. The double-stranded end-blunted cDNA were synthesized using TaKaRa's cDNA synthesis kit and ligated to cassette adaptors. All of the cDNA molecules were amplified by a pair of common primers.Results A protocol for RACE cDNA library construction from bone and joint was established and two RACE cDNA libraries from human fetal bone and joint were successfully constructed.Conclusion The protocol of RACE cDNA library construction from limited materials proved to be simple and efficient and the library was suitable for RACE to isolate tissue-specific genes.

  20. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Biased DNA Segregation in Response to Cell Adhesion Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Freida


    Full Text Available Biased DNA segregation is a mitotic event in which the chromatids carrying the original template DNA strands and those carrying the template copies are not segregated randomly into the two daughter cells. Biased segregation has been observed in several cell types, but not in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs, and the factors affecting this bias have yet to be identified. Here, we have investigated cell adhesion geometries as a potential parameter by plating hMSCs from healthy donors on fibronectin-coated micropatterns. On symmetric micropatterns, the segregation of sister chromatids to the daughter cells appeared random. In contrast, on asymmetric micropatterns, the segregation was biased. This sensitivity to asymmetric extracellular cues was reproducible in cells from all donors but was not observed in human skin-derived fibroblasts or in a fibroblastic cell line used as controls. We conclude that the asymmetry of cell adhesion is a major factor in the regulation of biased DNA segregation in hMSCs.

  1. The CREB Coactivator CRTC2 is a Lymphoma Tumor Suppressor that Preserves Genome Integrity Through Transcription of DNA Mismatch Repair Genes (United States)

    Fang, Minggang; Pak, Magnolia L.; Chamberlain, Lynn; Xing, Wei; Yu, Hongbo; Green, Michael R.


    SUMMARY The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator CRTC2 stimulates CREB target gene expression and has a well-established role in modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we find, unexpectedly, that loss of CRTC2, as well as CREB1 and its coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP), results in a deficiency in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and a resultant increased mutation frequency. We show that CRTC2, CREB1 and CBP are transcriptional activators of well-established MMR genes, including EXO1, MSH6, PMS1 and POLD2. Mining of expression profiling databases and analysis of patient samples reveal that CRTC2 and its target MMR genes are down-regulated in specific T-cell lymphoma subtypes, which are microsatellite unstable. The levels of acetylated histone H3 on the CRTC2 promoter are significantly reduced in lymphoma compared to normal tissue, explaining the decreased CRTC2 expression. Our results establish a role for CRTC2 as a lymphoma tumor suppressor gene that preserves genome integrity by stimulating transcription of MMR genes. PMID:26004186

  2. DNA transfection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using micro electroporation chips

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang


    Experimental study of electroporation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at the single-cell level was carried out on a micro EP chip by using single electric rectangular pulse. The threshold values of the electrode potential and pulse width for gas bubble generation on the micro electrodes due to electrolysis of water were revealed as 4.5 volt and 100 μs, respectively. Quantitative EP study was performed with various electric field strengths for various pulse widths, ranging from 20μs to 15ms. Over 1,000 single-cell EP results were used to construct an EP "phase diagram", which delineates the boundaries for (1) effective EP of MSCs and (2) electric cell lysis of MSCs. Finally, the micro EP chip showed successful transfection of the pEGFP-C1 plasmid into the MSCs by properly choosing the electric parameters from the EP "phase diagram". © 2011 IEEE.

  3. cDNA cloning of the murine PEX gene implicated in X-linked hypophosphatemia and evidence for expression in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, L.; Desbarats, M.; Viel, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others


    The recently identified human PEX g ene apparently encodes for a neutral endopeptidase that is mutated in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia. The 3{prime} and 5{prime} ends of the coding region of PEX have not been cloned, nor has the tissue expression of the gene been identified. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the complete open reading frame of the mouse Pex gene and the demonstration of its expression in bone. Mouse Pex cDNA is predicted to encode a protein of 749 amino acids with 95% identity to the available human PEX sequence and significant homology to members of the membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase family. Northern blot analysis revealed a 6.6-kb transcript in bone and in cultured osteoblasts from normal mice that was not detectable in samples from the Hyp mouse, the murine homolog of human X-linked hypophosphatemia. Pex transcripts were, however, detectable in Hyp bone by RT-PCR amplification. Of particular interest, a cDNA clone from rat incisor shows 93% sequence identity to the 5{prime} end of Pex cDNA, suggesting that Pex may be expressed in another calcified tissue, the tooth. The association of impaired mineralization of bone and teeth and disturbed renal phosphate reabsorption with altered expression of Pex suggests that the Pex gene product may play a critical role in these processes. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec


    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  5. The effect of permanent grafting materials on the preservation of the buccal bone plate after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the dog.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bashara, Haitham


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a novel bone substitute system (Natix(®)), consisting of porous titanium granules (PTG) and a bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss(®)), on hard tissue remodelling following their placement into fresh extraction sockets in dogs.

  6. Combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2 plasmid DNA with chemokine CXCL12 creates an additive effect on bone formation onset and volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.; Poldervaart, M. T.; van der Helm, Y. J.; Oner, F. C.; Dhert, W. J.; Alblas, J.


    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene delivery has shown to induce bone formation in vivo in cell-based tissue engineering. In addition, the chemoattractant stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α, also known as CXCL12) is known to recruit multipotent stromal cells towards its release site where

  7. Motion-preserving wrist reconstruction using a microsurgical medial femur condylus bone graft and radio-scapho-lunate (RSL limited fusion after osteomyelitis following open distal radius fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann, Claudia


    Full Text Available This case presents the microsurgical management in the rare situation after sequestering osteomyelitis of the distal radius to achieve both bony stability and partially preserved wrist motion. A 38-year-old patient underwent after sequestrectomy microsurgical reconstruction using a medial femoral condyle as a prerequisite for simultaneous motion-preserving radio-scapho-lunate (RSL fusion. As a result, 11 months postoperatively, a good functional result was achieved with range of motion of 60° in extension/flexion and 40° in ulnar/radial deviation and grip strength of 12 kg correspondeding to 33% of the dominant contralateral side. Upper extremity usability as measured by Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire improved from preoperative 24 to after the reconstruction and enabled the patient to resume his work without pain.

  8. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn


    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  9. Human identification and analysis of DNA in bones Identificação humana e análise de DNA em ossos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura


    Full Text Available The introduction of molecular biology techniques, especially of DNA analysis, for human identification is a recent advance in legal medicine. Substantial effort has continuously been made in an attempt to identify cadavers and human remains after wars, socio-political problems and mass disasters. In addition, because of the social dynamics of large cities, there are always cases of missing people, as well as unidentified cadavers and human remains that are found. In the last few years, there has also been an increase in requests for exhumation of human remains in order to determine genetic relationships in civil suits and court action. The authors provide an extensive review of the literature regarding the use of this new methodology for human identification of ancient or recent bones.A introdução das técnicas de biologia molecular, ou seja a análise de DNA para identificação humana é um avanço recente na Medicina Legal. A identificação de cadáveres e restos humanos faz-se necessária após guerras, distúrbios sócio-políticos e desastres de massa. Além desses casos, devido à dinâmica social das grandes metrópoles, existem pessoas desaparecidas e por outro lado, cadáveres e restos humanos sem identificação são encontrados. Nos últimos anos, também tem ocorrido um aumento nas solicitações para coleta de material biológico de restos humanos exumados e destinados à determinação de vínculo genético em processos civis. Os autores realizam uma extensa revisão da literatura sobre a utilização dessas novas metodologias em ossos, antigos ou recentes, para a identificação humana.

  10. 松墨天牛成虫标本保存及其DNA提取质量比较%Comparison of the quality of genomic DNA extracted from adult specimens of Monochamus alternatus preserved by different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲良建; 王丽娟; 王青华; 王玉珠; 张永安


    Objectives] To find which method of preserving Monochamus alternatus specimens produced the best quality genomic DNA. [Methods] Genomic DNA from Monochamus alternatus adults that had been preserved using different methods (liquid nitrogen, 100%ethanol at-20℃, 100%ethanol at room temperature and museum specimens) for more than 2 years, was extracted using the SDS-proteinase K method and the quality of the extracted genomic DNA compared. [Results] The best quality genomic DNA was obtained from specimens that had been stored in liquid nitrogen, and the next best from those that had been preserved in 100%ethanol at-20℃. [Conclusion] The best quality DNA was extracted from specimens that had been frozen in liquid nitrogen or preserved in 100%ethanol at-20℃. The DNA samples obtained from such specimens are suitable for PCR amplification and sequencing.%【目的】探讨适合DNA 提取的天牛成虫标本保存方法。【方法】采用SDS-蛋白酶K消化法对液氮中冷冻保存、无水乙醇-20℃冷冻保存、无水乙醇室温保存和干标本室温保存且保存时间在2年以上的松墨天牛Monochamus alternates Hope成虫标本基因组DNA进行提取,并对不同保存方式提取的DNA样本进行了质量比较和分析。【结果】在上述常见的松墨天牛成虫标本4种保存方式中,以液氮中冷冻保存效果最佳,其次为无水乙醇-20℃冷冻保存,插针干标本室温保藏效果最差。利用昆虫线粒体基因COⅠ和COⅡ的通用引物从上述DNA中均能够成功扩增出目的片段,测序结果证实扩增片段符合预期。【结论】液氮和无水乙醇-20℃冷冻保存适合松墨天牛成虫标本长期保存,且不影响后续的PCR扩增和测序。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena de Carvalho Penha


    . The objective of this study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of xenografts as a substitute for methalic implants. Animals were divided into two groups: five young cats and five adult cats. Clinically, the weight-bearing on the operated limb was observed the day after surgery in all animals, with complete remission of lameness at 15 days and bone union in 16.6 weeks. In five young animals, in two of them, the grafts were fractured carrying a serious bone bending without fracture of feline femur. In the last two young cats, remodeling was noted in mean time of 75 days or 10.7 weeks. In five adult cats, all of them suffered overriding of the fragments of osteotomized bone with various degrees, where two cases were considered severe cases dut to fracture of feline femur without bone bending. In the three remaining animals with slightly overriding, one was a case of delayed union, one suffered tow surgical procedures due to graft fracture and one did not show a radiographic exuberant bone callus, with remodeling at 110 days. The use of the bonive xenograft preserved in 98% glycerol in young and adult cats used as intramedularry nails was perfectly employed, offering mechanical support in time of bone consolidation in all of 10 animals.

    KEY WORDS: Cortical bovine graft, cats, femur, fracture, osteotomy.

  12. Digital Preservation. (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth


    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  13. Pyrazinamide potential effects on male rats DNA fragmentation, bone type I collagen amino acid composition, reproductive capability and posterity antenatal and postnatal development. (United States)

    Bondarenko, Larysa B; Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Byshovets, Taisiya F; Kovalenko, Valentina M


    Current therapeutic regimens with first-line antitubercular agents are associated with a high rate of adverse effects which can lead to therapeutic failure. Understanding the nature and the severity of these effects is important for treatment optimization. The aim of present study was to investigate pyrazinamide potential effects on male rats DNA fragmentation, amino acid composition of bone type I collagen, reproductive capability and their posterity antenatal and postnatal development. Wistar albino male rats (160-200 g b.w.) were divided into three groups: I--received pyrazinamide per os at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w./day, II--at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w./day, in both groups it was given for 60 days; III--control. After 60 days of the experiment, rats of the experimental (groups I and II) and control groups were mated with intact virgin females. The amino acids contents of male rat bone type I collagens were determined using amino acid analyzer, epididymis and testis DNA fragmentation--electrophoretically; posterity antenatal development indices and postnatal development--by standard procedures. The study of pyrazinamide effects (administered in different doses) on males bone type I collagen amino acid contents and testis DNA fragmentation demonstrated the presence of dose-dependent pyrazinamide-mediated quantitative and qualitative changes in male rat reproductive organs DNA and extracellular matrix proteins in comparison with control. Changes in nucleic acids and proteins structure were accompanied by alterations in processes of fertilization (with intact females), embryogenesis and by lowering of posterity survival.

  14. The comparision of the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction%骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss用于牙槽嵴保存效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 丁宇翔; 秦瑞峰; 侯锐; 周宏志; 张林林; 胡开进


    Objective:To compare the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction.Methods:280 patients were divided into two groups randomly.Each patient had single tooth extracted.The sockets were filled with calcined bovine bone in 140 patients and Bio-Oss graft in another 140 patients. After shaping,all the sockets were covered with Bio-Gide membrane.Buccal mucoperiosteal flap was released and sutured to close the alveolar sockets.The patients were regularly examined at the 1st,12th and 24th week after surgery.Physical examination and X-ray evaluation were applied to compare the outcomes of the two materials in alveolar ridge preservation.Results:No infection and re-jection occurred.The radiographic results showed the width and height of the alveolar bone were preserved well at the 12th and 24th weeks.No statistically difference was found in the two groups at the 1st and 24th weeks(P>0.05).Conclusion:The two graft ma-terials can effectively preserve alveolar bone after tooth extraction.%目的:对比骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss应用于拔牙后牙槽嵴保存的效果。方法:280例患者单颗牙拔除后,随机分为2组,将骨引导天然煅烧骨和Bio-Oss各植入140例拔牙窝中,塑形后均用Bio-Gide生物膜覆盖,颊侧黏骨膜翻瓣、滑行缝合、封闭拔牙创,并在术后第1周、12周、24周复查,拍摄全口曲面断层片及CT,评价2种植骨材料牙槽嵴保存的效果。结果:2组的大体观察均显示出了较好的结果,无感染及排斥反应。12周及24周影像学结果显示2组牙槽嵴的宽度和高度均得到了较好的保存,组间比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:2种植骨材料均能有效地保存拔牙后牙槽骨的骨量。

  15. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi


    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  16. Preserving Chile


    Brennand, Charlotte P.


    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  17. HOPE--a new fixing technique enables preservation and extraction of high molecular weight DNA and RNA of > 20 kb from paraffin-embedded tissues. Hepes-Glutamic acid buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect. (United States)

    Wiedorn, Klaus Hermann; Olert, Jürgen; Stacy, Robin A P; Goldmann, Torsten; Kühl, Heike; Matthus, Jutta; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Bosse, Alexander


    The growing number of molecular pathologic tools that are currently available require material with good long term preservation of morphology, nucleic acids, and antigenic structures. However, pathologic investigations of tissues done at a molecular level are often hampered by the fixatives in use. We thus endeavored to design a new fixing system, including subsequent paraffin-embedding and sectioning, that makes complete pathologic analyses possible, with special consideration of immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and molecular pathology. The optimized HOPE (Hepes-Glutamic acid buffer mediated Organic solvent Protection Effect) fixing technique allows us to preserve and extract high molecular weight DNA and RNA of > 20 kbp suitable for downstream applications, such as PCR and RT-PCR from HOPE-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues that are up to 5 years old. This technique will most probably lead to new impacts on molecular pathology.

  18. Two kinds of bone in the extraction socket preservation preliminary observation on the clinical ef ect of intraoperative%两种骨粉在拔牙窝保存术中临床效果的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:研究两种骨粉在拔牙窝保存术中的临床效果,比较不同骨代材料恢复和重建拔牙窝处软硬组织的能力。方法:将2013年5月-2014年12月份在我院口腔颌面外科拔除前牙或前磨牙的60例患者,随机分为3组,进口骨粉组和国产骨粉组于拔牙后分别应用 Bio -Oss、羟基磷灰石对拔牙窝进行填充,空白对照组拔牙后不进行任何干预。1、3、6个月复诊,观察拔牙窝愈合情况。拔牙前及拔牙6个月后进行口内取模灌注石膏模型并拍摄 X 线牙片,分别测量牙槽嵴的高度和宽度,进行统计学分析,P <0.05为差异具有统计学意义。结果:60例患者中,进口骨粉组和国产骨粉组拔牙窝均愈合良好,牙槽骨丰满,牙龈色、形、质与邻牙协调。牙槽窝骨质均得到有效保护,牙槽嵴的宽度均满足临床种植需求。而对照组牙槽嵴吸收、萎缩,高度降低、宽度显著缩小。经比较发现,进口骨粉(Bio -Oss)组各项指标变化最小,国产骨粉(羟基磷灰石)组次之,空白对照组变化最大。结论:将 Bio -Oss 或羟基磷灰石人工骨粉在拔牙后即刻植入牙槽窝中,均可以有效保护牙槽骨量,维持牙槽骨形态,顺利完成种植手术,软硬组织美学效果良好。国产骨粉更加经济和实用,适经济欠发达地区推广。%Objective:To study the two kinds of bone in the extraction socket preservation inclinical ef ect,comparison of dif erent reconstruction ability of tooth extraction socket of soft tissue and bone restoration materials.Methods:from 2013 May -2014 year in December 60 cases of oral and maxil ofacial surgery in our hospital were anterior teeth or premolars of patients, were randomly divided into 3 groups,imported meal group and domestic meal groupafter extraction respectively using Bio -Oss,hydroxyapatite on the sockets were fil ed,the blank control group after tooth

  19. Clinical study on two kinds of bone substitutes in socket preservation%两种骨代材料在拔牙位点保存术中的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常旭; 王立军


    目的 比较β-磷酸三钙(β-tricalcium phosphate ,β-TCP)和珊瑚羟基磷灰石( coral hydroxyapatite ,CHA)在拔牙位点保存术中的临床效果. 方法 纳入2013-06至2014-06于武警总医院口腔种植颌面外科拔除下颌磨牙的患者64例,随机分为4组,β-TCP组和CHA组各16例,拔牙同期分别植入两种骨代材料,植入组织补片( acellular dermal matrix ,ADM)组16例,自然愈合组16例. 测量拔牙前及6个月后牙槽嵴宽度及高度变化进行统计学分析,于6个月后种植术中取活检进行组织学观察. 结果 两实验组牙槽嵴宽度及高度的吸收值显著低于自然愈合组和组织补片组(P0.05).Conclusions Application of β-TCP and CHA combined with acellular dermal matrix for socket preservation can obtain both good effects in preserving the bone quantity .In the aspect of osteogenesis ,β-TCP is better than CHA .

  20. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample. (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged


    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit.

  1. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  2. Bone tumor (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Improved PCR amplification for molecular analysis using DNA from long-term preserved formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissue specimens. (United States)

    Taga, Masataka; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Shinohara, Tomoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Ito, Reiko; Yasui, Wataru; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hamatani, Kiyohiro


    Archival tissue specimens are valuable resources of materials for molecular biological analyses in retrospective studies, especially for rare diseases or those associated with exposure to uncommon environmental events. Although successful amplification with PCR is essential for analysis of DNA extracted from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, we have often encountered problems with poor PCR amplification of target fragments. To overcome this, we examined whether heat treatment in alkaline solution could efficiently restore the PCR template activity of DNA that had already been extracted from FFPE lung cancer tissue specimens. The effect of the heat treatment was assessed by PCR for the TP53 gene and other lung cancer-related gene loci. The heat treatment of DNA samples in borate buffer resulted in successful PCR amplification of DNA fragments ranging from 91 to 152 bp. This technique for restoration of template activity of DNA for PCR amplification is very simple and economical, and requires no special apparatus, so it may be applicable for molecular analysis of DNA samples from FFPE tissue specimens at various laboratories.

  4. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini


    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  5. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  6. A simple procedure for the extraction of DNA from long-term formalin-preserved brain tissues for the detection of EBV by PCR. (United States)

    Hassani, Asma; Khan, Gulfaraz


    Long-term formalin fixed brain tissues are potentially an important source of material for molecular studies. Ironically, very few protocols have been published describing DNA extraction from such material for use in PCR analysis. In our attempt to investigate the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), extracting PCR quality DNA from brain samples fixed in formalin for 2-22 years, proved to be very difficult and challenging. As expected, DNA extracted from these samples was not only of poor quality and quantity, but more importantly, it was frequently found to be non-amplifiable due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. Here, we describe a simple and reproducible procedure for extracting DNA using a modified proteinase K and phenol-chloroform methodology. Central to this protocol is the thorough pre-digestion washing of the tissues in PBS, extensive digestion with proteinase K in low SDS containing buffer, and using low NaCl concentration during DNA precipitation. The optimized protocol was used in extracting DNA from meninges of 26 MS and 6 non-MS cases. Although the quality of DNA from these samples was generally poor, small size amplicons (100-200 nucleotides) of the house-keeping gene, β-globin could be reliably amplified from all the cases. PCR for EBV revealed positivity in 35% (9/26) MS cases, but 0/6 non-MS cases. These findings indicate that the method described here is suitable for PCR detection of viral sequences in long-term formalin persevered brain tissues. Our findings also support a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of MS.

  7. Bone marrow failure in Fanconi anemia is triggered by an exacerbated p53/p21 DNA damage response that impairs hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Raphael; Parmar, Kalindi; Mouly, Enguerran; Delord, Marc; Kim, Jung Min; Regairaz, Marie; Pla, Marika; Vasquez, Nadia; Zhang, Qing-Shuo; Pondarre, Corinne; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Gluckman, Eliane; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Leblanc, Thierry; Larghero, Jérôme; Grompe, Markus; Socié, Gérard; D'Andrea, Alan D; Soulier, Jean


    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair deficiency syndrome. FA patients undergo progressive bone marrow failure (BMF) during childhood, which frequently requires allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pathogenesis of this BMF has been elusive to date. Here we found that FA patients exhibit a profound defect in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that is present before the onset of clinical BMF. In response to replicative stress and unresolved DNA damage, p53 is hyperactivated in FA cells and triggers a late p21(Cdkn1a)-dependent G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. Knockdown of p53 rescued the HSPC defects observed in several in vitro and in vivo models, including human FA or FA-like cells. Taken together, our results identify an exacerbated p53/p21 "physiological" response to cellular stress and DNA damage accumulation as a central mechanism for progressive HSPC elimination in FA patients, and have implications for clinical care.

  8. Effect of aging on mice bone marrow cell DNA%衰老对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明艳; 龚美蓉; 江励华; 谷宇; 姜海英; 许冬青; 鲍静; 蔡宝昌


    Objective To explore the effect of aging on mice bone marrow cell DNA. Methods Bone marrow cells from young and aging mice were obtained. Micronucleus, Tm value, cell cycle and p53 gene expression were detected. Results Compared with young mice, micronucleus rate was increased, DNA melting temperature was raised, the rate of bone marrow cell in G0-G1 stage was higher and lower in S stage and G2-M stage. The expression of p53 was higher in aging mice than that of young mice (P <0. 01, P <0. 05 ). Conclusions The structure and function of bone marrow cells in aging mice have some extent change, which maybe the concrete manifestation.%目的 探讨衰老对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA的影响.方法 取青年组、老年组小鼠的骨髓细胞,通过微核、Tm值、细胞周期及p53基因表达检测,观察老年小鼠骨髓细胞DNA的变化.结果 老年组与青年组相比,微核率明显升高(P<0.05);老年小鼠骨髓细胞DNA熔解温度高于青年小鼠;老年组小鼠骨髓细胞周期G0~G1期的比例高于青年组(P<0.01),S期、G2~M期细胞的比例低于青年组(P<0.01);老年小鼠p53基因表达高于青年小鼠(P<0.05).结论 老年小鼠骨髓细胞DNA结构和功能有一定变化,可能是小鼠衰老的具体表现.

  9. Detection of minimal residual disease in patients with multiple myeloma using clonotype-specific PCR primers designed from DNA extracted from archival bone marrow slides. (United States)

    Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Yoshiyasu; Kobayashi, Noriko; Obata, Kazue; Narisawa, Tadashi; Nakayama, Kouji; Munemoto, Saori; Aoki, Go; Ohata, Kinya; Kumano, Yoshihisa; Ozaki, Jun; Murata, Ryoichi; Kondo, Yukio; Terasaki, Yasushi; Kurokawa, Toshiro; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Naomi; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ueda, Takanori; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakao, Shinji


    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative molecular complete remission (mCR) can be induced by stem cell transplantation in some patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with long-term progression-free survival (PFS). The detection of molecular minimal residual disease (MRD), however, requires fresh or frozen materials for designing clone-specific primers, which are not always readily available. In this study, we used DNA extracted from archival bone marrow (BM) slides for PCR to detect MRD in 50 patients with MM who received various induction therapies and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Clonotype-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) H PCR primers were prepared for 32 of 50 cases (64%) using BM slides, and for 9 of 14 cases (64%) using fresh BM cells. DNA in peripheral blood stem cell autografts of the 22 patients who achieved at least a partial response after ASCT was subjected to PCR to amplify clonotype-specific rearranged IgH gene sequences. The median PFS of the eight patients with MRD-positive autografts was 18 months, whereas that of 14 patients with MRD-negative autografts was not reached at a median follow-up of 27 months (p = 0.012). Post-ASCT PFS of the four patients who achieved mCR was 100% at a median follow-up of 47 months. These results indicate that archival BM slides can serve as a source of DNA for preparing clonotype-specific primers for MRD monitoring in patients with MM whose cryopreserved myeloma cells are not available for DNA preparation. Our results also suggest that patients with MM who received MRD-negative autografts and achieved mCR have a long PFS.

  10. In Vitro Expansion of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alters DNA Double Strand Break Repair of Etoposide Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hare


    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are of interest for use in diverse cellular therapies. Ex vivo expansion of MSCs intended for transplantation must result in generation of cells that maintain fidelity of critical functions. Previous investigations have identified genetic and phenotypic alterations of MSCs with in vitro passage, but little is known regarding how culturing influences the ability of MSCs to repair double strand DNA breaks (DSBs, the most severe of DNA lesions. To investigate the response to DSB stress with passage in vitro, primary human MSCs were exposed to etoposide (VP16 at various passages with subsequent evaluation of cellular damage responses and DNA repair. Passage number did not affect susceptibility to VP16 or the incidence and repair kinetics of DSBs. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ transcripts showed little alteration with VP16 exposure or passage; however, homologous recombination (HR transcripts were reduced following VP16 exposure with this decrease amplified as MSCs were passaged in vitro. Functional evaluations of NHEJ and HR showed that MSCs were unable to activate NHEJ repair following VP16 stress in cells after successive passage. These results indicate that ex vivo expansion of MSCs alters their ability to perform DSB repair, a necessary function for cells intended for transplantation.

  11. Variation of TTC Repeat Pattern In The Dna of Mycobacterium Leprae Isolates Obtained from Archeological Bones and Leprosy Patients From East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Adriaty


    Full Text Available The existence of leprosy or kusta or Morbus Hansen or Hansen’s disease has been known for years, including in Indonesia. Starting from the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from ancient bone (about 1.000 years B.C, the archaeological excavations results in East Nusa Tenggara, interesting questions arise about how the development of leprosy in eastern Indonesia is. Biology molecular study would become a powerful tool to investigate the presence of leprosy bacillary whether there are similarities between the genomes of M. leprae isolates in the primeval and the present. PCR examinations were performed on mandibular bone fragments from ancient human who lived 1000 years B.C. discovered in archaeological surveys on the island of Lembata and three leprosy patients from East Nusa Tenggara. The DNA extraction was performed using a kit from Qiagen products and its TTC repeating pattern was seen with the method of direct sequencing. It turned out that the TTC profile obtained from samples of archaeological was as many as 13 copies, while the repetition of TTC in three samples of leprosy patients were 15, 17 and 26 copies. The different number of TTC repetition shows the different isolates of M. leprae between in the ancient times and the present. Further studies are needed to verify the differences in the genome that occur, for example from the study of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  12. Protective effect of methanolic extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage in mouse bone marrow cells using the micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Salmani


    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide is a chemo-therapeutic agent used in the treatment of various cancers and autoimmune diseases. This composition has cytotoxic and clastogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of methanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. against DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in mouse bone marrow cells by the micronucleus test. The extract concentrations of 375, 750, 1500 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally (Ip into mice for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the last injection, cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg Ip was injected. 24 hours after cyclophosphamide injection, the animals were killed and the samples of bone marrow were prepared and stained using the standard methods. For each sample, 1000 cells of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE and the same number of normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE and the cells containing their micronucleus were counted. Cyclophosphamide increased the frequency of micronuclei polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCE and decreased cell proliferation (PCE/PCE+NCE. All doses of extracts significantly reduced the micronucleus frequency ratio (P<0.05. The cells proliferation ratio (PCE/PCE+NCE was also increased. The best effect in reducing the micronucleus frequency was at 1500 mg/kg dosage. Thymus extract is able to reduce the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide, due to its antioxidant properties, playing a protective role.

  13. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady


    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work `blamed' the mass media for these misunderstandings. This study aimed to determine whether that blame had any foundation by examining the media habits and conceptions about genes and DNA of Australian children. With little prior research considering the influence of entertainment mass media on children's academically relevant knowledge, this was an exploratory study with a mixed modes design. Data were collected by detailed media questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with 62 children aged 10-12 years, and subjected to content and thematic analysis. Specific mass media examples children reported using were examined for genetics content. Results indicate 5 h/day of media use, mostly television including crime shows, and that children perceived television to be their main source of information about genetics. Most children (89 %) knew DNA, 60 % knew genes, and more was known about uses of DNA outside the body such as crime solving or resolving family relationships than about its biological nature and function. Half believed DNA is only in blood and body parts used for forensics. These concepts paralleled the themes emerging from the media examples. The results indicate that the mass media is a pervasive teacher of children, and that fundamental concepts could be introduced earlier in schools to establish scientific concepts before misconceptions arise.

  14. Searching for DNA in museum specimens: a comparison of sources in a mammal species. (United States)

    Casas-Marce, M; Revilla, E; Godoy, J A


    The number of genetic studies that use preserved specimens as sources of DNA has been steadily increasing during the last few years. Therefore, selecting the sources that are more likely to provide a suitable amount of DNA of enough quality to be amplified and at the minimum cost to the original specimen is an important step for future research. We have compared different types of tissue (hides vs. bones) from museum specimens of Iberian lynx and multiple alternative sources within each type (skin, footpad, footpad powder, claw, diaphysis, maxilloturbinal bone, mastoid process and canine) for DNA yield and probability of amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Our results show that bone samples yield more and better DNA than hides, particularly from sources from skull, such as mastoid process and canines. However, claws offer an amplification success as high as bone sources, which makes them the preferred DNA source when no skeletal pieces have been preserved. Most importantly, these recommended sources can be sampled incurring minimal damage to the specimens while amplifying at a high success rate for both mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

  15. Quantifying murine bone marrow and blood radiation dose response following {sup 18}F-FDG PET with DNA damage biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Grainne [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kristina [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Finnon, Paul [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Badie, Christophe, E-mail: [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Mice received either a range of {sup 18}F-FDG activities or whole body X-ray doses. • Blood samples were collected at 24 and 43 h for MN-RET and QPCR analysis. • Regression analysis showed that both types of exposure produced a linear response. • BM doses of 33 mGy ({sup 18}F-FDG) and 25 mGy X-rays were significantly higher than controls. • No significant difference between internal ({sup 18}F-FDG) and external (X-ray) was found. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to quantify the poorly understood radiation doses to murine bone marrow and blood from whole-body fluorine 18 ({sup 18}F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), by using specific biomarkers and comparing with whole body external low dose exposures. Groups of 3–5 mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups, each receiving either a different activity of {sup 18}F-FDG: 0–37 MBq or whole body irradiated with corresponding doses of 0–300 mGy X-rays. Blood samples were collected at 24 h and at 43 h for reticulocyte micronucleus assays and QPCR analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Blood and bone marrow dose estimates were calculated from injected activities of {sup 18}F-FDG and were based on a recommended ICRP model. Doses to the bone marrow corresponding to 33.43 mGy and above for internal {sup 18}F-FDG exposure and to 25 mGy and above for external X-ray exposure, showed significant increases in radiation-induced MN-RET formation relative to controls (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that both types of exposure produced a linear response with linear regression analysis giving R{sup 2} of 0.992 and 0.999 for respectively internal and external exposure. No significant difference between the two data sets was found with a P-value of 0.493. In vivo gene expression dose–responses at 24 h for Bbc3 and Cdkn1 were similar for {sup 18}F-FDG and X-ray exposures, with significant modifications occurring for doses over 300 mGy for Bbc3

  16. Attempted DNA extraction from a Rancho La Brea Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi): prospects for ancient DNA from asphalt deposits. (United States)

    Gold, David A; Robinson, Jacqueline; Farrell, Aisling B; Harris, John M; Thalmann, Olaf; Jacobs, David K


    Fossil-bearing asphalt deposits are an understudied and potentially significant source of ancient DNA. Previous attempts to extract DNA from skeletons preserved at the Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California, have proven unsuccessful, but it is unclear whether this is due to a lack of endogenous DNA, or if the problem is caused by asphalt-mediated inhibition. In an attempt to test these hypotheses, a recently recovered Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) skeleton with an unusual pattern of asphalt impregnation was studied. Ultimately, none of the bone samples tested successfully amplified M. columbi DNA. Our work suggests that reagents typically used to remove asphalt from ancient samples also inhibit DNA extraction. Ultimately, we conclude that the probability of recovering ancient DNA from fossils in asphalt deposits is strongly (perhaps fatally) hindered by the organic compounds that permeate the bones and that at the Rancho La Brea tar pits, environmental conditions might not have been ideal for the general preservation of genetic material.

  17. Effect of the attachment remnant preservation on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction%保留残迹对前交叉韧带移植物腱骨愈合影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宗峤; 吴波; 李士光; 孙磊


    目的 探讨保留残迹重建前交叉韧带对移植物腱骨愈合的影响.方法 32只新西兰兔一期行双侧前交叉韧带重建术,一侧保留残端纤维,对侧切除残端纤维.重建术后6、12、18及24周时,采用HE染色、甲苯胺蓝染色观测,分析移植物腱骨愈合变化情况.结果 重建术后各观察时间点上,保留残迹组移植物腱骨界面组织构建更接近正常,术后24周时保留残迹组腱骨界面软骨细胞含量明显高于切除残迹组[(56.5±2.4) vs (45.7±2.7),P<0.05].结论 保留残迹重建前交叉韧带有助于移植物腱骨愈合.%Objective To investigate the effect of attachment remnant preservation on the healing of tendon-bone interface in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods 32 New Zealand rabbits were involved and both knees of each rabbit received transection of anterior cruciate ligament simultaneously. ACL of one knee was reconstructed with preservation of the residual portion of ligament, and the contralateral one was reconstructed with excision of the remnant. At6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks after reconstruction, the healing status and morphology of tendon-bone interface were observed in vitro by hemaetoxylin-eosin staining and Toluidine Blue staining. Results At each observation time point, the morphology and structure of tendon-bone interface in the remnant-preserved group were improved similar to normal, and the number of chondrocytes at the interface was significantly increased in the remnant-preserved group compared with that of control group [ (56. 5 ±2. 4) vs (45. 7 ±2. 7) , P <0. 05]. Conclusions The preservation of attachment remnant in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction could enhance the healing of tendon-bone interface.

  18. Bone Biopsy (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  19. Zinc fixation preserves flow cytometry scatter and fluorescence parameters and allows simultaneous analysis of DNA content and synthesis, and intracellular and surface epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Birk; Owens, David; Pedersen, Søren;


    Zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF) has proved advantageous in histochemical analyses conducted on intact tissues but has not been exploited in flow cytometry procedures that focus on quantitative analysis of individual cells. Here, we show that ZBF performs equally well to paraformaldehyde in the pre......Zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF) has proved advantageous in histochemical analyses conducted on intact tissues but has not been exploited in flow cytometry procedures that focus on quantitative analysis of individual cells. Here, we show that ZBF performs equally well to paraformaldehyde...... allowing subsequent quantitative PCR analysis or labeling for incorporation of the thymidine analog EdU following surface and intracellular epitope staining. Finally, ZBF treatment allows for long-term storage of labeled cells with little change in these parameters. Thus, we present a protocol for zinc...... salt fixation of cells that allows for the simultaneous analysis of DNA and intracellular and cell surface proteins by flow cytometry....

  20. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  1. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish (United States)

    Meacham, Amanda


    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  2. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian


    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  3. The application of polymer-mediated plasmid DNA transit systems in bone tissue engineering%聚合物介导质粒DNA转运系统在骨组织工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏伦果; 蒋欣泉; 张志愿


    Gene therapy can further promote osteogenesis in bone tissue engineering. By protecting DNA from degradation and maintaining the concentration of DNA effectively, polymer-mediated plasmid DNA transit systems could extend its endocytosis opportunities and enhance the efficiency of gene transfer. At present, polymer-mediated plasmid DNA transit systems used for bone tissue engineering mainly include plasmid DNA and collagen protein composite transit system, plasmid DNA and polyethylene glycol hyaluronic acid hydroge composite transit system, plasmid DNA and liposome composite transit system, plasmid DNA and cationic polymer composite transit systems. This review focuses on the present status of application of polymer-mediated plasmid DNA transit systems.%基因治疗技术应用于骨组织工程,可以进一步促进成骨.聚合物介导的质粒DNA转运系统通过保护DNA免受降解并维持DNA在效应浓度,延长其内吞的机会,从而提高基因转染效率.目前用于骨组织工程研究的聚合物介导的质粒DNA转运系统主要有质粒DNA与胶原蛋白复合转运系统、质粒DNA与聚乙二醇-透明质酸水凝胶复合转运系统、质粒DNA与脂质体复合转运系统、质粒DNA与阳离子聚合物复合转运系统等.本文对近年来聚合物介导的质粒DNA复合转运系统在骨组织工程中的应用进展做一综述.

  4. Antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding and prevents in vivo bone resorption induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (United States)

    Kim, Hyon Jong; Chang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Man; Lee, Seung Bok; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Su Kim, Ghi; Kim, Hong-Hee


    The relationship between oxidative stress and bone mineral density or osteoporosis has recently been reported. As bone loss occurring in osteoporosis and inflammatory diseases is primarily due to increases in osteoclast number, reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be relevant to osteoclast differentiation, which requires receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) frequently present in inflammatory conditions has a profound synergy with RANKL in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a strong antioxidant clinically used for some time, on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. At concentrations showing no growth inhibition, alpha-LA potently suppressed osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells driven either by a high-dose RANKL alone or by a low-dose RANKL plus TNF-alpha (RANKL/TNF-alpha). alpha-LA abolished ROS elevation by RANKL or RANKL/TNF-alpha and inhibited NF-kappaB activation in osteoclast precursor cells. Specifically, alpha-LA reduced DNA binding of NF-kappaB but did not inhibit IKK activation. Furthermore, alpha-LA greatly suppressed in vivo bone loss induced by RANKL or TNF-alpha in a calvarial remodeling model. Therefore, our data provide evidence that ROS plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation through NF-kappaB regulation and the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid has a therapeutic potential for bone erosive diseases.

  5. Comparison of DNA yield and STR success rates from different tissues in embalmed bodies. (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda; Czado, Natalia; Gangitano, David; Turnbough, Meredith; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree


    Formalin fixation is commonly used to preserve tissue sections for pathological testing and embalming cadavers for medical dissection or burial. DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissues may also provide an alternative source of genetic material for medical diagnosis and forensic casework, such as identifying unknown embalmed human remains. Formaldehyde causes DNA damage, chemical modifications, and degradation, thereby reducing the quantity and quality of DNA available for downstream genetic analyses. By comparing the DNA yield, level of DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) success of various tissue types, this study is the first of its kind to provide some guidance on which samples from embalmed bodies are likely to generate more complete STR profiles. Tissue samples were dissected from three male embalmed cadavers and included bone, cartilage, hair, muscle, internal organs, skin, teeth, and nail clippings. DNA was purified from all samples using the QIAamp® FFPE Tissue Kit (Qiagen), quantified using the QuantiFiler® Trio DNA Quantification kit (Life Technologies), and genotyped using the GlobalFiler® PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies). Results of this study showed variation in DNA quantity and STR success between different types of tissues and some variation between cadavers. Overall, bone marrow samples resulted in the highest DNA yields, the least DNA degradation, and greatest STR success. However, several muscle, hair, and nail samples generated higher STR success rates than traditionally harvested bone and tooth samples. A key advantage to preferentially using these tissue samples over bone (and marrow) and teeth is their comparative ease and speed of collection from the cadaver and processing during DNA extraction. Results also indicate that soft tissues affected by lividity (blood pooling) may experience greater exposure to formalin, resulting in more DNA damage and reduced downstream STR success than tissues under compression. Overall

  6. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail:; Chapman, S


    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  7. Reconstruction of multiple metacarpal bone defect using segmentated free fibular bone flap: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Evinc


    Full Text Available In this report we present a case of blast injury to hand, including multiple metacarpal bone defect. Bone defects were reconstructed using fibular flap. Structural integrity of metacarpal bones was preserved with good functional results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 29-32

  8. Reconstruction of multiple metacarpal bone defect using segmentated free fibular bone flap: Case report


    Rahmi Evinc; Can Kopal; Dogan Bek; Muzaffer Durmus


    In this report we present a case of blast injury to hand, including multiple metacarpal bone defect. Bone defects were reconstructed using fibular flap. Structural integrity of metacarpal bones was preserved with good functional results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000): 29-32

  9. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;


    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  10. Clinical application of site preservation in posterior area in order to prevent alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction%应用位点保存技术预防拔牙后牙槽骨吸收的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景辉; 杨瑛; 张方明


    目的:观察和评价应用位点保存技术预防拔牙后牙槽骨吸收的临床疗效。方法选取需要拔除下颌磨牙的患者40例,随机分为两组。实验组20例患者拔牙后即刻在拔牙窝内植入 Bio - Oss骨粉,创口表面覆盖 Bio -Gide胶原膜,对照组20例患者拔牙后进行常规处理。定期复查观察两组患者拔牙窝愈合情况,于拔牙后即刻与拔牙后6个月拍摄锥形束 CT(CBCT),观察和测量牙槽骨垂直向吸收量、牙槽骨高度与宽度、骨密度和新骨轮廓的变化,评价位点保存的临床效果。结果拔牙后6个月实验组牙槽骨垂直向吸收量明显小于对照组;实验组骨密度、新骨轮廓明显优于对照组,两组之间具有统计学差异( P <0.05)。CBCT 测量统计学分析后证实两组间牙槽骨高度与宽度的变化具有显著性差异( P <0.05)。结论位点保存技术可以有效减少因拔牙而造成的牙槽骨吸收,很好地维持拔牙位点的骨量,从而为后期的种植牙修复提供良好的位点条件,值得临床推广。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of site preservation in posterior area in order to prevent alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction. Methods Forty patients with posterior sick teeth were selected for this study,and they were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients in trial group were implanted with Bio - Oss in the alveolar socket immediately after tooth extraction,the wound surface covered by Bio- Gide collagen membrane,and the tooth extraction in 20 patients of control group had been performed by conventional treatment. The results of patients in these two groups were observed The changes in alveolar bone density,height,width and new bone contour were observed by CBCTscan-ning in patients of these 2 groups after 6 months. Results In comparison with these two groups,new bone contour and bone density in patients of trial group were significantly

  11. To Explore Application of CGF Composite Bone Induction Activity Material for Periodontitis Site Preservation of Teeth%探讨CGF复合骨诱导活性材料在牙周炎患牙位点保存中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满云娜; 刘菁; 丁锐


    Objective To explore application of CGF composite bone induction activity materials in periodontitis site preservation of tooth. MethodsFrom January 2015 to June 2016, 40 patients with chronic periodontitis were diagnosed as chronic periodontitis in urumqi oral hospital, a total of 46 teeth can not be preserved, randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 23 teeth in each group. Control group was treated with routine treatment, experimental group using CGF composite bone inducing active material for the patients with periodontitis, comparison of two groups of patients with therapeutic effect. Results The experimental group was significantly better than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion The use of CGF composite bone inducing active material for the preservation of dental site in patients with periodontitis, which can effectively improve the treatment of the disease.%目的:探讨CGF复合骨诱导活性材料在牙周炎患牙位点保存中的应用。方法选取2015年1月~2016年6月在乌鲁木齐市口腔医院就诊并诊断为慢性牙周炎患者40例,需拔出患牙46颗,随机分为实验组与对照组,每组各23颗。对照组采用常规方式治疗,实验组使用CGF复合骨诱导活性材料行牙周炎患牙位点保存术。比较两组患者治疗效果。结果实验组治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用CGF复合骨诱导活性材料行牙周炎患牙位点保存术,可有效提升该类病症的治疗效果。

  12. Arctic cultural heritage and climate change – the preservation of a permafrozen site in a warm future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, B.; Matthiesen, Henning


    of organic materials and increase the risk of losing unique information stored in these archaeological sites. Here we present a four year monitoring and research project taking place at Qajaa in the Disko Bay area in West Greenland. Qajaa is a large kitchen midden, containing frozen remains from 4000 years......Most pre-historical archaeological sites lack well-preserved organic artefacts because organic materials such as wood, bone, and DNA have been decomposed. However, at some archaeological kitchen middens in the Arctic, organic materials have been preserved due to a combination of high deposition...... rates, favorable hydrological (waterlogged) conditions and permafrost. At these sites extraordinary and important organic archaeological materials have been found and the potential of these sites to provide further insight into the earliest human expansions and living conditions, are considered...

  13. [Preservatives in ophthalmology]. (United States)

    Messmer, E M


    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  14. Bone Markers (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  15. Bone scan (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  16. Bone Cancer (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  17. Bone Diseases (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  18. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross


    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  19. Osteoradionecrosois of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornley, G.D.; Gullane, P.J.; Ruby, R.R.; Heeneman, H.


    Six cases of osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone are described. Persistent symptoms of otitis externa refractory to local treatment measures should alert the physician to the possibility of underlying osteoradionecrosis. Treatment of superficial parotidectomy and partial temporal bone resection with preservation of the facial nerve is indicated if local aggressive conservative measures fail to control the disease. Benign mixed tumors of the parotid gland should be treated surgically with avoidance of radiotherapy.

  20. Modes of fossil preservation (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.


    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  1. Molecular and cellular functions of the FANCJ DNA helicase defective in cancer and in Fanconi Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Brosh


    Full Text Available The FANCJ DNA helicase is mutated in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer as well as the progressive bone marrow failure disorder Fanconi anemia (FA. FANCJ is linked to cancer suppression and DNA double strand break (DSB repair through its direct interaction with the hereditary breast cancer associated gene product, BRCA1. FANCJ also operates in the FA pathway of interstrand cross-link (ICL repair and contributes to homologous recombination (HR. FANCJ collaborates with a number of DNA metabolizing proteins implicated in DNA damage detection and repair, and plays an important role in cell cycle checkpoint control. In addition to its role in the classical FA pathway, FANCJ is believed to have other functions that are centered on alleviating replication stress. FANCJ resolves G-quadruplex (G4 DNA structures that are known to affect cellular replication and transcription, and potentially plays a role in the preservation and functionality of chromosomal structures such as telomeres. Recent studies suggest that FANCJ helps to maintain chromatin structure and preserve epigenetic stability by facilitating smooth progression of the replication fork when it encounters DNA damage or an alternate DNA structure such as a G4. Ongoing studies suggest a prominent but still not well-understood role of FANCJ in transcriptional regulation, chromosomal structure and function, and DNA damage repair to maintain genomic stability. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the molecular and cellular functions of FANCJ that are critical for chromosomal integrity.

  2. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian


    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  3. Self-preserving cosmetics. (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C


    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  4. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex. (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis


    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains.

  5. Experimental Study on Lyophilization Preservation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells%冷冻干燥法保存人骨髓间充质干细胞的实验初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范菊莉; 张绍志; 孙洁; 陈光明


    The lyophilization preservation of hBM-MSCs was conducted . 30% PVP and 20%Trehalose were used as freeze-drying protecta-nts. The vitrification temperatures of samples were measured by DSC in order to define the freeze-drying temperature scientifically. After lyophilization, hBM-MSCs were successfully resuscitated,the recovery rate reached at (55. 2 ± 7. 66)%. This work will make certain references to the researches of hBM-MSCs preservation.%尝试用冷冻干燥法来保存骨髓间充质干细胞.通过差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测量样品玻璃化转变温度,从而科学确定冻干工艺温度,合理设计冷冻干燥工艺,实验实现了以30% PVP、20%海藻糖为保护液的骨髓间充质干细胞的冻干保存,其复水率达(55.2±7.66)%.该研究对解决现有的hBM-MSCs的保存瓶颈具有一定的参考价值.

  6. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor


    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  7. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)


    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  9. Bone marrow aspiration (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  10. Identifying the bacterial community on the surface of Intralox belting in a meat boning room by culture-dependent and culture-independent 16S rDNA sequence analysis. (United States)

    Brightwell, Gale; Boerema, Jackie; Mills, John; Mowat, Eilidh; Pulford, David


    We examined the bacterial community present on an Intralox conveyor belt system in an operating lamb boning room by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria extracted in the presence or absence of cultivation. RFLP patterns for 16S rDNA clone library and cultures were generated using HaeIII and MspI restriction endonucleases. 16S rDNA amplicons produced 8 distinct RFLP pattern groups. RFLP groups I-IV were represented in the clone library and RFLP groups I and V-VIII were represented amongst the cultured isolates. Partial DNA sequences from each RFLP group revealed that all group I, II and VIII representatives were Pseudomonas spp., group III were Sphingomonas spp., group IV clones were most similar to an uncultured alpha proteobacterium, group V was similar to a Serratia spp., group VI with an Alcaligenes spp., and group VII with Microbacterium spp. Sphingomonads were numerically dominant in the culture-independent clone library and along with the group IV alpha proteobacterium were not represented amongst the cultured isolates. Serratia, Alcaligenes and Microbacterium spp. were only represented with cultured isolates. Pseudomonads were detected by both culture-dependent (84% of isolates) and culture-independent (12.5% of clones) methods and their presence at high frequency does pose the risk of product spoilage if transferred onto meat stored under aerobic conditions. The detection of sphingomonads in large numbers by the culture-independent method demands further analysis because sphingomonads may represent a new source of meat spoilage that has not been previously recognised in the meat processing environment. The 16S rDNA collections generated by both methods were important at representing the diversity of the bacterial population associated with an Intralox conveyor belt system.

  11. VT Historic Preservation Grant (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  12. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming


    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  13. Decellularized bone matrix grafts for calvaria regeneration (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Diachina, Shannon; Lee, Yan Ting; Zhao, Lixing; Zou, Rui; Tang, Na; Han, Han; Chen, Xin; Ko, Ching-Chang


    Decellularization is a promising new method to prepare natural matrices for tissue regeneration. Successful decellularization has been reported using various tissues including skin, tendon, and cartilage, though studies using hard tissue such as bone are lacking. In this study, we aimed to define the optimal experimental parameters to decellularize natural bone matrix using 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.1% NH4OH. Then, the effects of decellularized bone matrix on rat mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, osteogenic gene expression, and osteogenic differentiations in a two-dimensional culture system were investigated. Decellularized bone was also evaluated with regard to cytotoxicity, biochemical, and mechanical characteristics in vitro. Evidence of complete decellularization was shown through hematoxylin and eosin staining and DNA measurements. Decellularized bone matrix displayed a cytocompatible property, conserved structure, mechanical strength, and mineral content comparable to natural bone. To study new bone formation, implantation of decellularized bone matrix particles seeded with rat mesenchymal stem cells was conducted using an orthotopic in vivo model. After 3 months post-implantation into a critical-sized defect in rat calvaria, new bone was formed around decellularized bone matrix particles and also merged with new bone between decellularized bone matrix particles. New bone formation was analyzed with micro computed tomography, mineral apposition rate, and histomorphometry. Decellularized bone matrix stimulated mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, achieving effective bone regeneration and thereby serving as a promising biological bone graft. PMID:28228929

  14. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.


    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  15. 不同测量方法评价磨牙拔牙位点保存术后牙槽骨的变化%Evaluation with different measuring methods for the alveolar bone change of ridge preservation in molar sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽萍; 詹雅琳; 胡文杰; 徐涛; 危伊萍; 甄敏; 王翠


    目的:采用临床直接测量、平行投照根尖片和锥形束CT(cone-beam computed tomography,CBCT)评价存在骨缺损的磨牙拔牙同期位点保存6个月后牙槽骨的变化,并分析不同方法的测量效果。方法:纳入20名患者共23颗因牙周病变拔除的磨牙,牙齿拔除后应用去骨蛋白牛骨基质(deproteinized boving bone mineral,DBBM,Bio-Oss)和可吸收膜(bioabsorbable collagen membrane,Bio-Gide)进行拔牙位点保存术,术中临床直接测量,术后即刻及术后6个月拍摄平行投照根尖片和CBCT,通过上述3种方法测量分析术后6个月牙槽骨高度和宽度的变化并比较测量效果的异同。结果:比较23个拔牙位点的牙槽骨高度在拔牙位点中央、远中中央、颊侧远中3个观察点的术中临床测量与CBCT测量的结果,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),其他观察点的高度及宽度测量结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后6个月接受翻瓣再进入实施种植的10名患者中,拔牙位点中央相应观察点的牙槽骨高度显著增加,临床直接测量和CBCT测量分别增加(6.15±1.73)mm和(6.59±2.53)mm,牙槽骨宽度测量值分别为(8.45±1.18)mm和(8.52±1.27)mm,两种方法测量结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);应用平行投照根尖片观察术前和术后6个月拔牙位点中央的牙槽骨高度变化为增加(5.84±4.28)mm,测量数值与另两种方法接近。结论:存在骨缺损的磨牙应用Bio-Oss与Bio-Gide进行拔牙位点保存后,临床直接测量和CBCT测量两种方法对牙槽嵴顶骨高度和宽度变化的评价基本一致。%Objective:To investigate the changes of the vertical height and width of the alveolar bone six months after the alveolar ridge preservation in periodontal compromised molar sites of severe alveolar bone defects with clinical direct measurement

  16. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady


    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work "blamed" the mass media for these…

  17. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  18. Food Preservation beyond the Season. (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis


    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  19. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot


    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  20. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.


    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  1. 保骨量截骨全髋关节置换术治疗发育性髋关节发育不良%Treatment for adult developmental dysplasia of hip by total hip arthroplasty using bone-preserving femur osteotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太明; 刘祥; 高先亭; 许兴柏; 孔祥如; 朱爱祥; 杨光辉; 陈浩; 王博; 钱玉


    Objective To explore the operation method and therapeutic effect on adult developmental dysplasia of the hip ( DDH) combining osteoarthritis by total hip arthroplasty ( THA) using the technique of bone-preserving femur osteotomy .Methods From March 2008 to April 2014, 10 cases of 10 female patients with Crowe type Ⅳ of DDH combining osteoarthritis were treated in Department of Orthopaedic , the People's Hospital of Su Qian , Drum Tower Hospital Group of Nanjing , aged 41-55 (46 ±8) years.DDH Crowe type Ⅳ associated with osteoarthritis and greater trochanter the varus was a necessary enrolling creteria .Sliding osteotomy on greater trochanter without removing the top was used to correct varus .Subtrochanteric rotational shortening osteotomy was applied to treat limb lengthening and large femoral neck anteversion .The domestic S-R hip prosthesis was implanted .Inserts of the muscles were preserved on the osteomized bone to ensure that blood supply would be intact .The osteotomy gap was grafted with cancellous bones from proximal femur , femoral head and acetabulum reamers to promote healing.The femoral bone stock was preserved to the greatest extent .All the cases were followed up for (39 ±12)months (range, six months to six years).Results There was no limb discrepancy .No vascular or neural symptoms was found .The osteotomy gaps completely recovered with an average healing time of (7.5 ±1.5) weeks, ranged from six to eight weeks.The average preoperative modified Harris score was 44.5, which increased to 90.6 at the last follow-up.Conclusion The technique of THA using S-R implants and bi-osteotomy on proximal femur in treating adult DDH Crowe type Ⅳ associated with osteoarthritis might solve several problems during the surgery and preserve the femoral bone stock at the same time.%目的:探讨成人Crowe Ⅳ型发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)合并骨关节炎全髋关节置换的手术方式及骨量保存。方法选择2008年3月至2014年4月

  2. 乙草胺和胺苯磺隆对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA损伤作用%Effects of acetochlor and ethametsulfuron on DNA damage of mice bone marrow cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟雪莲; 徐成斌; 赵崴崴; 曹向宇; 马溪平; 惠秀娟


    目的 观察2种代表性除草剂(乙草胺和胺苯磺隆)对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA的损伤作用.方法 应用彗星实验检测在体外、体内2种条件下不同剂量的乙草胺和胺苯磺隆对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA的损伤作用.结果 体外给予5、10和20 mg/L乙草胺,小鼠骨髓细胞尾部DNA含量分别为(9.64±1.84)%、(23.67±4.5)%和(41.37±4.21)%,尾长分别为(8.80 ±2.57)、(34.90±6.33)和(44.70±7.64)px,尾矩分别为(0.95±0.24)、(5.76±1.12)和(24.82±3.22)TM,明显高于空白对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);体内给予100、200和400 mg/kg乙草胺,小鼠骨髓细胞尾部DNA含量分别为(9.72±3.16)%、(23.51±3.60)和(29.63±4.07)%,尾长分别为(7.40±2.67)、(20.60±3.72)和(24.50±4.32)px,尾矩分别为(0.93±0.30)、(7.27±0.71)和(14.46±2.60)TM,明显高于空白对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);体外、体内给予一定剂量的胺苯磺隆对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA无明显影响.结论 乙草胺对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA具有损伤作用,而胺苯磺隆对小鼠骨髓细胞DNA无明显影响.%Objective To study the effects of acetochlor and ethametsulfuron on DNA damage of mice bone marrow cells. Methods The comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage induced by acetochlor or ethametsulfuron at different dose in vitro and in vivo. Results For acetochlor at the concentrations of 5,10, and 20 mg/L in vitro, the tail DNA of mice bone marrow cells were 9.64 ± 1. 84,23.67 ±4.5,and41. 37 ±4.21% ; the tail length were 8. 80 ±2.57,34.90 ±6. 33,and 44.70 ±7.64 px,and the tail moments were 0.95 ±0.24,5. 76 ± 1.12,and 24. 82 ±3.22 TM,respectively. Compared with the control group, acetochlor could affect tail DNA, tail length and tail moment of mice bone marrow cells significantly (P0.05). Conclusion Acetochlor could cause DNA damage of mice bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo, while ethametsulfuron could not.

  3. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;


    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  4. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David


    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  5. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C


    in Genova (Italy) to participate in a workshop on the topic of "cancer and fertility preservation". A total of ten controversial issues were discussed at the conference. Experts were asked to present an up-to-date review of the literature published on these topics and the presentation of own unpublished...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  6. Epiphyseal preservation and reconstruction with inactivated bone in distal femur for metaphyseal osteosarcoma in children%保留骨骺灭活再植术治疗儿童股骨远端骨肉瘤及术后肢体功能恢复特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀淳; 刘晓平; 周银; 付志厚; 宋若先; 孙海宁; 徐明


    和肢体长度的保持.%BACKGROUND: Limb salvage operations with preservation of the epiphysis (LSPPE) had been used clinically in order to overcome discrepancy of affected limb and poorer limb function, but more post-operation complications existed, including infection, grafting bone resorption, fracture and internal fixation cinch.OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical related matters of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis in children limb salvage with osteosarcoma.DESIGN: Clinical observation regularly.SETTING: General Hospital of Jinan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Eleven patients corresponded selected standard and accepted treatment from January 1999 to January distal metastasis was found with lung X-ray check and CT scanning, the patient would be excluded this study. There were 5 males, 6 females, and the mean age of (8±2) years old (4-11 years). The disease history was 1-6 months.FO) were adopted. After 2 weeks of chemotherapy, the operations of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis were performed. The operation was performed under epidural or general anesthesia. The patient lied on operating table. The knee anteriomedialis incision was adopted. Firstly, femur periosteum was opened beyond proximal end 2-3 cm from tumor, subperiosteum stripping was done to the proximal femur, descend femur with wire saw, separated and disconnected aboral periosteum, blunt dissecting femur aboral blood vessel and nerves to the popliteal fossa,deligating blood vessel around the tumor. Attachment of gastroenemius was cut off. Epiphyseal plate was identified carefully. According to pre-operation MR, the distal femur descend level was determined and the femur was descend with electro-saw. It was determined with cytology that no tumor cell existed in descend level, and reconstruction of bone de-fect with inactivated tumor-bone shell with 95% alcohol and bone cement containing ADR (20 g bone cement: 10 mg ADR), the diaphysis was fixed by intramedullary

  7. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries. (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula


    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  8. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching


    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  9. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore. (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond


    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  10. Paints and Preservatives. (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  11. Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million-year-old dinosaur specimens. (United States)

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Maidment, Susannah C R; Kallepitis, Charalambos; Fearn, Sarah; Stevens, Molly M; Xie, Hai-nan


    Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of soft tissue. In one sample, we observe structures consistent with endogenous collagen fibre remains displaying ∼ 67 nm banding, indicating the possible preservation of the original quaternary structure. Using ToF-SIMS, we identify amino-acid fragments typical of collagen fibrils. Furthermore, we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood. Using advanced material characterization approaches, we find that these putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought. The preservation of protein over geological timescales offers the opportunity to investigate relationships, physiology and behaviour of long extinct animals.

  12. PCR amplification of microsatellites from single cells of Karenia brevis preserved in Lugol's iodine solution. (United States)

    Henrichs, D W; Renshaw, M A; Santamaria, C A; Richardson, B; Gold, J R; Campbell, L


    A simple and effective protocol is described for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of single cells of Karenia brevis. The protocol requires minimum processing, avoids additions that might dilute target DNA template, and can be used on cells preserved in Lugol's iodine preservative. Destaining of Lugol's-preserved cells with sodium thiosulfate allowed successful amplification of single-copy, nuclear-encoded microsatellites in single cells of K. brevis that have been preserved for up to 6 years.

  13. Home-Made Cost Effective Preservation Buffer Is a Better Alternative to Commercial Preservation Methods for Microbiome Research (United States)

    Menke, Sebastian; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Sommer, Simone


    The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially affecting biological interpretation is hardly known. Here, we sampled feces of 11 sheep (Ovis aries sp.) by using swabs and analyzed the effect of air-drying, an inexpensive self-made nucleic acid preservation buffer (NAP), DNA/RNA Shield™, and RNAlater®, each together with freezing (for 10 days) or storing at room temperature (for 10 days) prior to 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial communities. Results revealed that the proportions of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to a bacterial phylum were affected by the preservation treatments, and that alpha diversities [observed OTUs, Shannon index, and phylogenetic diversity (PD)] were lower in all preservation treatments than in samples taken by forensic swabs and immediately frozen which is considered as the favored preservation treatment in the absence of any logistic constraints. Overall, NAP had better preservation qualities than RNAlater® and DNA/RNA Shield™ making this self-made buffer a valuable solution in wildlife microbiome studies. PMID:28197142

  14. Early diagenesis and recrystallization of bone (United States)

    Keenan, Sarah W.; Engel, Annette Summers


    One of the most challenging problems in paleobiology is determining how bone transforms from a living tissue into a fossil. The geologic record is replete with vertebrate fossils preserved from a range of depositional environments, including wetland systems. However, thermodynamic models suggest that bone (modeled as hydroxylapatite) is generally unstable in a range of varying geochemical conditions and should readily dissolve if it does not alter to a more thermodynamically stable phase, such as a fluorine-enriched apatite. Here, we assess diagenesis of alligator bone from fleshed, articulated skeletons buried in wetland soils and from de-fleshed bones in experimental mesocosms with and without microbial colonization. When microbial colonization of bone was inhibited, bioapatite recrystallization to a more stable apatite phase occurred after one month of burial. Ca-Fe-phosphate phases in bone developed after several months to years due to ion substitutions from the protonation of the hydroxyl ion. These rapid changes demonstrate a continuum of structural and bonding transformations to bone that have not been observed previously. When bones were directly in contact with sediment and microbial cells, rapid bioerosion and compositional alteration occurred after one week, but slowed after one month because biofilms reduced exposed surfaces and subsequent bioapatite lattice substitutions. Microbial contributions are likely essential in forming stable apatite phases during early diagenesis and for enabling bone preservation and fossilization.

  15. A modified method of DNA extraction from bone tissue%一种改良的骨组织DNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 张林; 吴梅筠; 裴中惠; 辛军平; 徐振波


    @@ 骨组织耐腐败,当其他软组织已完全腐败后,只能用骨组织进行种属鉴定,性别鉴定和个人识别.骨组织DNA提取是骨组织DNA分析的关键.作者曾用多种方法提取过骨组织DNA,本文报道一种改良的骨组织DNA提取方法.

  16. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.


    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  17. Bone cutting. (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P


    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  18. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit


    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  19. Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO 2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tiainen


    Full Text Available Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

  20. Reconstrucción craneofacial compleja: malla de titanio, hueso autólogo preservado en óxido de etileno y reconstrucciones tridimensionales en polimetilmetacrilato (HTR-PMI Complex craneofacial reconstruction: titanium mesh, autologous bone preserved in ethylene oxide and tridimensional polimetilmetacrilate implants (HTR-PMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Lima


    Full Text Available La evolución de la Cirugía Craneofacial se inicio con Jean Paul Tessier, quien en 1967 preconizó el uso de injertos autólogos de hueso fresco en gran cantidad para cubrir extensas brechas óseas en la corrección de disóstosis craneofacial. Recientemente, diferentes tipos de reconstrucción utilizando hueso autólogo preservado en oxido de etileno y materiales como el polimetilmetacrilato poroso confeccionado a medida, han permitido también la corrección de grandes defectos óseos craneofaciales. Presentamos nuestra experiencia inicial en el uso de estas técnicas a través de un análisis retrospectivo sobre 21 pacientes operados por un equipo multidisciplinario entre Enero del 2007 y Marzo del 2009 en el Hospital Militar, Centro Panamericano de Ojos y Hospital de Diagnóstico de El Salvador, en los que se utilizaron formas alternativas pera reconstrucción de calota craneana, piso de órbita, fosa craneal anterior, área órbito-cigomática y maxilar superior. No registramos casos de infección o retirada de material de osteosíntesis aloplástico o de los injertos autólogos, ni hubo fístulas. Si se presentó una úlcera postraumática en una zona de unión de tejido desvitalizado, que se resolvió con tratamiento conservador. Los resultados estéticos obtenidos fueron de aceptables a buenos. Como conclusión, el equipo multidisciplinario, la combinación de técnicas quirúrgicas y el uso de material protésico para la reconstrucción craneofacial compleja ha dado como resultado avances significativos desde el punto de vista funcional y estético ante lesiones que involucran esta compleja área anatómica.The evolution of craniofacial surgery began with Jean Paul Tessier, who in 1967 supported the use of fresh autologous bone to cover bone defects in the craniofacial area. Recently different types of reconstructions using autologous bone preserved in ethylene oxide and advanced custom-made polimetacrilate implants that have allowed

  1. Effect of Preservation Conditions on the Quality of Whole Blood Genomic DNA%保存条件对提取全血基因组DNA质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓岩; 杨志岗


    Objective To compare the quality of genomic DNA extracted from fresh and frozen whole blood.Methods 300 μL fresh whole blood samples were applied to extract the genomic DNA using whole blood genomic DNA Extraction Kit. The samples also were frozen at -75℃ for three months, and then the genomic DNA was extracted by the same method. UV spectrophotometer, electrophoresis and PCR were used to detect the purity and quantity.Results The total genomic DNA extracted from fresh and frozen blood samples were (16.2±12.12)μg and (7.94±4.18)μg, respectively, the A260/A280 purity was: (1.85±0.01) and (1.84±0.02). Conclusion The total genomic DNA extracted from fresh blood samples was signiifcantly more than that from frozen blood samples, while the purity was observed with no signiifcant difference between the two groups. In this way, low temperature freezing could decrease the yield of genomic DNA from whole blood cells.%目的:比较从新鲜和冻存全血中提取基因组DNA的效果。方法分别取300μL抗凝新鲜和-75℃冻存3个月的血样,用全血基因组DNA提取试剂盒抽提基因组DNA,通过紫外分光光度计、电泳、PCR进行检测。结果抗凝新鲜和冻存血样提取的基因组DNA总量分为:(16.62±12.12)μg和(7.94±4.18)μg;纯度分别为(1.85±0.01)和(1.84±0.02)。结论新鲜血样提取的基因组DNA总量要高于冻存血样差异显著,纯度无显著差别,低温冷冻保存使提取全血基因组DNA的产量降低。

  2. 两种骨替代材料复合用于上颌前牙拔牙位点即刻保存的可行性%Feasibility of site preservation techniques in maxillary anterior with two kinds of composite bone substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 李淑慧; 尼加提·吐尔逊; 张晓倩; 吴佩玲


    Objective To discuss the repair effect of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) composite on instant site preservation techniques in anterior extraction sockets. Methods 6 healthy beagle dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups as experimental subject. PRF/ CHA composite was immediately implanted into group A once the extraction of both the maxillary incisors was completed. CHA was implanted into group B and group C were left to heal naturally. All experimental animals were sacrificed after 4 and 12 weeks to prepare tissue samples and by morphological measurements, histological observation and photographs of CBCT to evaluate the healing of extraction socket. Results Vernier caliper observation:After 4 weeks and 12 weeks, the labial-lingual alveolar ridge width difference of the three groups obvious differences, the labial-lingual width difference was smaller in the experimental group(group A); General observation: At 4 weeks and 12 weeks, extraction area bone reabsorption Abone in group A, was significantly denser and superior in health to that of B and C. At 12 weeks new bone structure in group A, was superior in quality to that of B and C, bone regeneration was more significant than that of B and C. Conclusion PRF+CHA composite can reduce the absorption of the alveolar ridge in maxillary anterior with the promotion of new bone formation, and preservation of the socket site.%目的:探讨富血小板纤维蛋白(platelet-rich fibrin,PRF)复合羟基磷灰石生物陶瓷(coralline hydroxyapatite,CHA)对上颌前牙拔牙位点保存的修复效果。方法 Beagle犬6只,随机分成三组,拔除上颌左右第二切牙后,A组植入PRF+CHA

  3. Evaluation of techniques for human bone decalcification and amplification using sixteen STR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Balayan


    Full Text Available Efficient DNA extraction procedures, as well as accurate DNA amplification, are critical steps involved in the process of successful DNA analysis of skeletal samples. Unfortunately, at present there is no infallible method to recover DNA from highly degraded samples due to variations in DNA yield from larger bone fragments, which may be attributed to heterogeneity within bones. We evaluated two different protocols for bone decalcification in the DNA extraction procedure for bones. This study is important for analysis of challenging forensic samples.

  4. DNA mini-barcodes. (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; McKenna, Charly


    Conventional DNA barcoding uses an approximately 650 bp DNA barcode of the mitochondrial gene COI for species identification in animal groups. Similar size fragments from chloroplast genes have been proposed as barcode markers for plants. While PCR amplification and sequencing of a 650 bp fragment is consistent in freshly collected and well-preserved specimens, it is difficult to obtain a full-length barcode in older museum specimens and samples which have been preserved in formalin or similar DNA-unfriendly preservatives. A comparable issue may prevent effective DNA-based authentication and testing in processed biological materials, such as food products, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. In these cases, shorter DNA sequences-mini-barcodes-have been robustly recovered and shown to be effective in identifying majority of specimens to a species level. Furthermore, short DNA regions can be utilized via high-throughput sequencing platforms providing an inexpensive and comprehensive means of large-scale species identification. These properties of mini-barcodes, coupled with the availability of standardized and universal primers make mini-barcodes a feasible option for DNA barcode analysis in museum samples and applied diagnostic and environmental biodiversity analysis.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction....... This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  6. Bone x-ray (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  7. FIAs (Foliation Intersection/Inflection Axes) Preserved in Porphyroblasts,the DNA of Deformation: A Solution to the Puzzle of Deformation and Metamorphism in the Colorado, Rocky Mountains, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAH Afroz Ahmad


    FIAs have been used extensively for more than a decade to unravel deformation and metamorphic puzzles. Orogenic processes developing early during the history or orogenesis challenge scientists because compositional layering in rocks always reactivates where multiple deformations have occurred, leaving little evidence of the history of foliation development preserved in the matrix. The foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, USA contain a succession of four FIA sets (trends) that would not have been distinguishable if porphyroblasts had not grown during the multiple deformation events that affected these rocks or if they had rotated as these events took place. They reveal that both the partitioning of deformation and the location of isograds changed significantly as the deformation proceeded.

  8. Exogenous double-stranded DNA induces immunophenotypic changes of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells%双链DNA抗原冲激导致髓源性树突细胞免疫表型变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏育民; 方春红; 江珊; 程鸿


    目的 探索外源性双链DNA物质对小鼠髓源性树突细胞(DC)免疫表型的影响.方法 采用免疫磁珠法分离C57小鼠骨髓lin-CD117+干细胞,用多种细胞因子诱导后其增殖并发育成不同成熟阶段的DC.提取马疫锥虫动基体DNA(kDNA),对上述DC进行冲激.采用流式细胞法和激光共聚焦显微镜检测DC免疫表型和形态学变化.结果 冲激前,未成熟、半成熟和成熟DC的MHCⅡ阳性率依次为11.42%±2.56%、27.08%±5.29%与44.63%±10.37%,CD80阳性率为8.54%±2.01%、31.35%±6.40%与52.96%±10.34%,CD86阳性率为10.22%±3.47%、32.15%±6.83%与64.72%±9.68%.冲激后,这三组DC的MHCⅡ阳性率分别上升15.63%、9.66%、4.12%,与冲激前比较,t值分别为6.21、4.35与2.82,P值均半成熟DC>成熟DC.结论 双链DNA抗原可促进髓源性DC表达成熟免疫表型,且成熟程度越低的DC受影响越显著.%Objective To study the effects of exogenous double-stranded DNA antigen on the immunophenotypic changes of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from stem cells in mouse bone marrow. Methods LinCD117 (c-kit)+ hemopoietic stem cells were obtained from the bone marrow of C57 mice by magnetic affinity cell sorting. Some cytokines, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α and so on, were used to enhance the proliferation or differentiation of stem cells to obtain mature, semimature and immature DCs. The double stranded DNA of kinetoplast (kDNA) was isolated from Trypanosoma equiperdum, and added to the culture media to pulse DCs. The immunophenotypic and morphologic features of DCs were analyzed by using flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy respectively. Results The expression rates of CD117 and CD11c in DCs showed no significant changes after kDNA pulse compared with those before the pulse. In unpulsed immature, semi-mature and mature DCs, the expression rate was 11.42% ± 2.56%, 27.08% ± 5.29% and 44.63% ± 10.37% for MHC

  9. Bone health in disorders of sex differentiation. (United States)

    Bertelloni, S; Baroncelli, G I; Mora, S


    Sex steroids are main regulators of skeletal growth, maturation and mass in both men and women. People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may experience problems in developing normal bone growth, structure and mass, because abnormal sex steroid secretion or action may be operative. In complete androgen insensitivity syndrome several reports documented reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Reduced BMD is evident in patients with not removed or removed gonads, but it is poorer in the latter, mainly when compliance with estrogen replacement therapy is not guaranteed. Large impairment of BMD does not seem to be present in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency, providing that gonads are not removed or that substitutive therapy is optimized. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, BMD may be impaired as a result of not optimal glucocorticoid administration. In Turner syndrome, impaired BMD may result from the combined actions of estrogen deficiency, low bone dimensions, altered bone geometry, deficient cortical bone, and trabecular bone loss. Optimal estrogen administration seems to be important in preserving bone mass and enhancing trabecular bone volume. On the whole, bone health represents a main clinical issue for the management of persons with disorders of sex differentiation, and well designed longitudinal studies should be developed to improve their bone health and well-being.

  10. The Pontic-Shield: Partial Extraction Therapy for Ridge Preservation and Pontic Site Development. (United States)

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice


    Augmentive ridge preservation techniques aim to manage the postextraction ridge. The partial extraction of teeth may better preserve the ridge form by maintaining the bundle bone-periodontal ligament apparatus. Root submergence has been demonstrated to retain the periodontal tissues and preserve the ridge beneath dentures or fixed prostheses. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results contributory to esthetic implant treatment. A retrospective 10-patient case series treating 14 partial extraction sites demonstrates how a modification of the socket-shield technique can successfully develop pontic sites and preserve the ridge.

  11. Preserving reptiles for research (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth


    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  12. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie


    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  13. Bone graft (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  14. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Bone and bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle.

  15. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick


    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Seismic fault preserving diffusion (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick


    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  17. Antarctic science preserve polluted (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  19. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D


    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  20. Establishing a temporal bone laboratory: considerations for ENT specialist training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennessy, B G


    Cadaveric temporal bone dissection in a temporal bone laboratory is a vital component in training safe, competent otorhinolaryngologists. Recent controversies pertaining to organ retention have resulted in a more limited supply of temporal bones. Consequently, current trainees are dissecting far fewer bones than their consultants. We discuss the establishment of a temporal bone laboratory in the Department of Anatomy in the University College Cork, from the timely preparation and preservation of the tissue to its disposal. Comparisons are drawn between our experience and that of the United States training schemes. The temporal bone laboratory in Cork is the only one in existence in Ireland. The exposure and experience obtained by registrars rotating through Cork, has resulted in noticeable improvements in their operative abilities. The temporal bone laboratory remains a core component to training. It is hoped that this article may facilitate other units overcoming obstacles to establish a temporal bone laboratory.

  1. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard


    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  2. Low Bone Density (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments. (United States)

    Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; García, Nuria; Pääbo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias


    Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp.

  4. Papilla Preservation Flap as Aesthetic Consideration in Periodontal Flap Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Olivia


    Full Text Available Flap surgery is treatment for periodontal disease with alveolar bone destruction. Surgical periodontal flap with conventional incision will result in gingival recession and loss of interdental papillae after treatment. Dilemma arises in areas required high aesthetic value or regions with a fixed denture. It is challenging to perform periodontal flap with good aesthetic results and minimal gingival recession. This case report aimed to inform and to explain the work procedures, clinical and radiographic outcomes of surgical papilla preservation flap in the area that requires aesthetic. Case 1 was a surgical incision flap with preservation of papillae on the anterior region of teeth 11 and 12, with a full veneer crown on tooth 12. Case 2 was a surgical incision flap with preservation of papillae on the posterior region of tooth 46 with inlay restoration. Evaluation for both cases were obtained by incision papilla preservation of primary closure was perfect, good aesthetic results, minimal gingival recession and the interdental papillae can be maintained properly. In conclusion, periodontal flap surgery on the anterior region or regions that require high aesthetic value could be addressed with papilla preservation incision. Incision papilla preservation should be the primary consideration in periodontal flap surgery if possible.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.144

  5. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes


    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR...... for different digital material with different requirements for bit integrity and confidentiality. This case shows that the methodology, including the tools used, is useful for this purpose....

  6. Bone marrow transplant (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  7. Modelling Organizational Preservation Goals to Guide Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert


    Full Text Available This paper is an extended and updated version of the work reported at iPres 2008. Digital preservation activities can only succeed if they go beyond the technical properties of digital objects. They must consider the strategy, policy, goals, and constraints of the institution that undertakes them and take into account the cultural and institutional framework in which data, documents and records are preserved. Furthermore, because organizations differ in many ways, a one-size-fits-all approach cannot be appropriate. Fortunately, organizations involved in digital preservation have created documents describing their policies, strategies, work-flows, plans, and goals to provide guidance. They also have skilled staff who are aware of sometimes unwritten considerations. Within Planets (Farquhar & Hockx-Yu, 2007, a four-year project co-funded by the European Union to address core digital preservation challenges, we have analyzed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. This paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation.

  8. DNA barcoding for plants. (United States)

    de Vere, Natasha; Rich, Tim C G; Trinder, Sarah A; Long, Charlotte


    DNA barcoding uses specific regions of DNA in order to identify species. Initiatives are taking place around the world to generate DNA barcodes for all groups of living organisms and to make these data publically available in order to help understand, conserve, and utilize the world's biodiversity. For land plants the core DNA barcode markers are two sections of coding regions within the chloroplast, part of the genes, rbcL and matK. In order to create high quality databases, each plant that is DNA barcoded needs to have a herbarium voucher that accompanies the rbcL and matK DNA sequences. The quality of the DNA sequences, the primers used, and trace files should also be accessible to users of the data. Multiple individuals should be DNA barcoded for each species in order to check for errors and allow for intraspecific variation. The world's herbaria provide a rich resource of already preserved and identified material and these can be used for DNA barcoding as well as by collecting fresh samples from the wild. These protocols describe the whole DNA barcoding process, from the collection of plant material from the wild or from the herbarium, how to extract and amplify the DNA, and how to check the quality of the data after sequencing.

  9. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)


    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  10. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation. (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly


    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  11. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.


    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  12. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  13. [Bone transplant]. (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A


    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  14. Preservation Methods for Digital Library (United States)

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.


    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  15. User Experience and Heritage Preservation (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan


    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  16. Preservation of corals in salt-saturated DMSO buffer is superior to ethanol for PCR experiments (United States)

    Gaither, M. R.; Szabó, Z.; Crepeau, M. W.; Bird, C. E.; Toonen, R. J.


    Specimen collection is time consuming and expensive, yet few laboratories test preservation methods before setting out on field expeditions. The most common preservation buffer used for coral specimens is >70% EtOH. However, alternatives exist that are less flammable, easier to ship, and are widely used in other taxa. Here, we compare the effects of salt-saturated DMSO (SSD) and EtOH preservation buffers on post-extraction DNA quantity and quality. We found that soft tissue integrity was better maintained and higher quantities of DNA were extracted from EtOH-preserved specimens; however, by all other measures, SSD was a superior preservative to EtOH. Extractions of SSD-preserved specimens resulted in higher molecular weight DNA, higher PCR success, and more efficient amplification than specimens preserved in EtOH. Our results show that SSD is generally a superior preservative to EtOH for specimens destined for PCR studies, but species-specific differences indicate that preservation comparisons should be undertaken before collection and storage of samples.

  17. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives. (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella


    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  18. Bone biopsy (image) (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  19. Bone lesion biopsy (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  20. Facts about Broken Bones (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  1. Calcium and bones (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  2. Broken Bones (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  3. Mid-Holocene vertebrate bone Concentration-Lagerstätte on oceanic island Mauritius provides a window into the ecosystem of the dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) (United States)

    Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.; Hume, Julian P.; Bunnik, Frans; Florens, F. B. Vincent; Baider, Claudia; Shapiro, Beth; van der Plicht, Johannes; Janoo, Anwar; Griffiths, Owen; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Cremer, Holger; Vernimmen, Tamara; De Louw, Perry G. B.; Bholah, Assenjee; Saumtally, Salem; Porch, Nicolas; Haile, James; Buckley, Mike; Collins, Matthew; Gittenberger, Edmund


    Although the recent history of human colonisation and impact on Mauritius is well documented, virtually no records of the pre-human native ecosystem exist, making it difficult to assess the magnitude of the changes brought about by human settlement. Here, we describe a 4000-year-old fossil bed at Mare aux Songes (MAS) in south-eastern Mauritius that contains both macrofossils (vertebrate fauna, gastropods, insects and flora) and microfossils (diatoms, pollen, spores and phytoliths). With >250 bone fragments/m 2 and comprising 50% of all known extinct and extant vertebrate species ( ns = 44) of Mauritius, MAS may constitute the first Holocene vertebrate bone Concentration-Lagerstätte identified on an oceanic volcanic island. Fossil remains are dominated by extinct giant tortoises Cylindraspis spp. (63%), passerines (˜10%), small bats (7.8%) and dodo Raphus cucullatus (7.1%). Twelve radiocarbon ages [four of them duplicates] from bones and other material suggest that accumulation of fossils took place within several centuries. An exceptional combination of abiotic conditions led to preservation of bones, bone collagen, plant tissue and microfossils. Although bone collagen is well preserved, DNA from dodo and other Mauritian vertebrates has proved difficult. Our analysis suggests that from ca 4000 years ago (4 ka), rising sea levels created a freshwater lake at MAS, generating an oasis in an otherwise dry environment which attracted a diverse vertebrate fauna. Subsequent aridification in the south-west Indian Ocean region may have increased carcass accumulation during droughts, contributing to the exceptionally high fossil concentration. The abundance of floral and faunal remains in this Lagerstätte offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct a pre-human ecosystem on an oceanic island, providing a key foundation for assessing the vulnerability of island ecosystems to human impact.

  4. Microspectroscopic evidence of cretaceous bone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindgren

    Full Text Available Low concentrations of the structural protein collagen have recently been reported in dinosaur fossils based primarily on mass spectrometric analyses of whole bone extracts. However, direct spectroscopic characterization of isolated fibrous bone tissues, a crucial test of hypotheses of biomolecular preservation over deep time, has not been performed. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous proteinaceous molecules are retained in a humerus from a Late Cretaceous mosasaur (an extinct giant marine lizard. In situ immunofluorescence of demineralized bone extracts shows reactivity to antibodies raised against type I collagen, and amino acid analyses of soluble proteins extracted from the bone exhibit a composition indicative of structural proteins or their breakdown products. These data are corroborated by synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopic studies demonstrating that amino acid containing matter is located in bone matrix fibrils that express imprints of the characteristic 67 nm D-periodicity typical of collagen. Moreover, the fibrils differ significantly in spectral signature from those of potential modern bacterial contaminants, such as biofilms and collagen-like proteins. Thus, the preservation of primary soft tissues and biomolecules is not limited to large-sized bones buried in fluvial sandstone environments, but also occurs in relatively small-sized skeletal elements deposited in marine sediments.

  5. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.


    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421

  6. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López


    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  7. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A


    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone...

  8. Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. H. Rosenthal


    Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.

  9. Surgical technique of alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation in management of malignant bone tumor around knee%保留关节的瘤段切除酒精灭活再植术在膝关节周围恶性骨肿瘤治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宋锋; 于秀淳; 徐明; 刘晓平; 宋若先; 付志厚


    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome of alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation in management of malignant bone tumor around knee, and explain the surgical technique. Methods Seven patients were treated with alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation from January 2010 to November 2011, including six males and one female, with the median age of 21 years (16 to 23 years). Five neoplasms were located in left distal femur, one in right distal femur, and one in left proximal fibula involving tibia. According to Enneking tumor staging, six patients were identified as stage ⅡB,one as stage Ⅲ. Six patients were diagnosed as osteosarcoma and one as non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma. The postoperative results were evaluated by MSTS limb function score system and ISOLS composite graft evaluation method. Combining the operation process, surgical technique and perioperative key points were explained. Results All seven patients achieved primary healing. With the mean follow-up time of 17 months (8 to 24 months), there was no infection, recurrence, loosening or limb length inequality. The mean ISOLS graft score was 31 (87% ) (range 30 -34). The mean MSTS function score was 25 (84%) (range 22-25 ). Conclusions These results suggest that alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation with articulation preservation could improve the short-term limb function, avoiding complications of prosthesis. With strict indications, good surgical technique and perioperative managements, fine clinical outcome could be achieved. It is relatively economic- applicable for patients and could be an option among surgical treatments. The clinical outcomes in long-term still need to be investigated.%目的 探讨保留关节的酒精灭活骨再植术在膝关节周围恶性骨肿瘤治疗中的应用,并阐述其手术技术要点.方法 2010年1月至2011年5月采用保留关节的瘤段切除酒精灭活再植术治疗

  10. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus


    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  11. Preservation of ancestral Cretaceous microflora recovered from a hypersaline oil reservoir (United States)

    Gales, Grégoire; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Neria, Isabel; Alazard, Didier; Coulon, Stéphanie; Lomans, Bart P.; Morin, Dominique; Ollivier, Bernard; Borgomano, Jean; Joulian, Catherine


    Microbiology of a hypersaline oil reservoir located in Central Africa was investigated with molecular and culture methods applied to preserved core samples. Here we show that the community structure was partially acquired during sedimentation, as many prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the extracted DNA are phylogenetically related to actual Archaea inhabiting surface evaporitic environments, similar to the Cretaceous sediment paleoenvironment. Results are discussed in term of microorganisms and/or DNA preservation in such hypersaline and Mg-rich solutions. High salt concentrations together with anaerobic conditions could have preserved microbial/molecular diversity originating from the ancient sediment basin wherein organic matter was deposited.

  12. Bacteriological evaluation of bone grafts stored by cryogenic freezing at –24°C from a canine (Canis familiaris bone bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline França dos Santos


    Full Text Available The scientific basis of bone transplantation was established during the mid-nineteenth century, when the osteogenic properties of the bone and periosteum, beneficial influence of cold preservation of bones, and first conventional attempt to store bones for elective use, were described. A bone bank has several advantages, such as the immediate availability of grafts in large quantities, and different shapes and sizes, and maintenance of osteoinductive activity in grafts. In addition, it reduces patient blood loss, surgical time, and quantity of anesthetics required. Clinical applications include the correction of comminuted fractures, treatment of non-union bones, and replacement of bone loss due to infections or malignancies. The success of these procedures depends on the preservation and integrity of the graft. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of maintaining a canine bone bank (Canis familiaris by quantifying the bacterial contamination of bone grafts preserved at –24°C. The samples were evaluated through a monthly assessment of bacteriological cultures over a period of 6 months. The harvest method was efficient and sterile, reducing the risk of contamination. We conclude that the techniques chosen for the implementation of a bone bank were effective and feasible (use of a common freezer reaching a temperature below –24°C. The viability of the bones was attested during a 6-month period, and the samples demonstrated a 100% sterility rate.

  13. Frontal sinus osteoma removal with the ultrasonic bone aspirator. (United States)

    Ehieli, Eric; Chu, Jaemi; Gordin, Eli; Pribitkin, Edmund A


    Osteomas, the most common skull tumors, are typically excised through either an open or endoscopic ostectomy using a high-speed drill, a technically challenging procedure that can result in injury to adjacent soft tissue structures. Osteoma removal through ultrasonic bone emulsification and aspiration (UBA) offers the advantages of decreased blood loss, preservation of adjacent soft tissue structures, and precise bone removal. UBA was used to successfully remove a forehead osteoma without injury to adjacent nerves and with a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We describe skull osteoma removal with an ultrasonic bone aspirator, which offers potential advantages over conventional bone removal techniques.

  14. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  15. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  17. A Black Hole Life Preserver

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J R; Freedman, Deborah L.


    Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

  18. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ormerod


    Full Text Available e wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A_2+A_1^{(1}, may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  19. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens


    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  20. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.


    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  1. Long bone histology of the subterranean rodent Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae): ontogenetic pattern of cortical bone thickening. (United States)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Chinsamy, Anusuya


    Patterns of bone development in mammals are best known from terrestrial and cursorial groups, but there is a considerable gap in our understanding of how specializations for life underground affect bone growth and development. Likewise, studies of bone microstructure in wild populations are still scarce, and they often include few individuals and tend to be focused on adults. For these reasons, the processes generating bone microstructural variation at intra- and interspecific levels are not fully understood. This study comprehensively examines the bone microstructure of an extant population of Cape dune molerats, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae), the largest subterranean mammal endemic to the Western Cape of South Africa. The aim of this study is to investigate the postnatal bone growth of B. suillus using undecalcified histological sections (n = 197) of the femur, humerus, tibia-fibula, ulna and radius, including males and females belonging to different ontogenetic and reproductive stages (n = 42). Qualitative histological features demonstrate a wide histodiversity with thickening of the cortex mainly resulting from endosteal and periosteal bone depositions, whilst there is scarce endosteal resorption and remodeling throughout ontogeny. This imbalanced bone modeling allows the tissues deposited during ontogeny to remain relatively intact, thus preserving an excellent record of growth. The distribution of the different bone tissues observed in the cortex depends on ontogenetic status, anatomical features (e.g. muscle attachment structures) and location on the bone (e.g. anterior or lateral). The type of bone microstructure and modeling is discussed in relation to digging behavior, reproduction and physiology of this species. This study is the first histological assessment describing the process of cortical thickening in long bones of a fossorial mammal.

  2. In vitro osteoinduction of demineralized bone. (United States)

    Torricelli, P; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Giardino, R


    Among numerous available materials for osseous repair and reconstruction, those presenting osteoinductive characteristics and promoting bone regeneration are preferable. Fresh autologous bone is one of the most effective, but it has some disadvantages and risks. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is considered to be a valid alternative, because it seems to show osteogenic potential, ascribed to the presence of bone morphogenetic proteins. In addition it can be prepared without difficulty and preserved without losing osteoinductive properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the osteoinductive ability of xenogenic DBM, by testing DBM powder obtained from rabbit long bones, in cell culture of murine fibroblasts, alone or associated with electromagnetic field (EMF), that are known to exhibit biologic effects on cells: in particular they are used in orthopedics to improve bone formation. At the end of experiment, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium levels and cell proliferation and morphology were evaluated. A statistically significant stimulation of ALP activity and cell proliferation and a morphological change of fibroblasts were found. The results obtained show how DBM and EMF have different effects on cells, and that together they have synergic action toward bone induction.

  3. Monitoring Biodiversity using Environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis

    was less successful than acoustic detections. However, at one site, long-finned pilot whale – a species rarely sighted in the target area – was detected. Another study examines DNA extracted from leeches to account for biodiversity of terrestrial mammals, on which they have been feeding. The persistence......, a study tests the applicability of non-destructive DNA extraction from old and ancient insect remains. DNA is successfully retrieved, amplified and equenced from dried museum beetle specimens up to 188 years old, ermafrost-preserved macrofossils up to 26.000 years old and directly from 1800-3000 years old......As any species interacts with its environment, most of them will at some point expel DNA to their surroundings. Such DNA can be picked up in environmental samples, isolated and analysed. Within the last decade, this has become a multidisciplinary research field known as Environmental DNA (eDNA...

  4. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome. (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel


    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  5. Burden of metastatic bone disease from genitourinary malignancies. (United States)

    Mulders, Peter F; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Bukowski, Ronald M


    Bone metastases are common among patients with stage IV genitourinary cancers. Most patients with bone metastases develop at least one debilitating and potentially life-limiting skeletal-related event. These events are associated with increased medical expenses and decreased quality of life. Current guidelines recommend screening for bone metastases in men with high-risk prostate cancer, but guidance for screening and treatment of bone metastases from genitourinary cancers varies by country and setting. Several bisphosphonates have been evaluated in the advanced genitourinary cancer setting. Zoledronic acid has demonstrated efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from a broad range of solid tumors including prostate, renal and bladder cancers, and is recommended for preserving bone health.

  6. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation. (United States)

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C


    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  7. Smoking and Bone Health (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  8. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  9. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  10. Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Glocker


    Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

  11. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates. (United States)

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F


    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently.

  12. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use. PMID:27621697

  13. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems. (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  14. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser


    Full Text Available The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital Preservation (CMDP, the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been supplemented with findings from the literature, and our own knowledge and experience. The identified cost-critical activities have subsequently been deconstructed into measurable components, cost dependencies have been examined, and the resulting equations expressed in a spreadsheet. Currently the model can calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA. The study found that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration projects, while it reinstates an often underestimated cost, which is the cost of developing migration software. The model has proven useful for estimating the

  15. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth H


    by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In order to identify the molecular phenotype associated with enhanced migration, we carried out comparative DNA microarray analysis of gene expression of hBMSC-derived high bone forming (HBF) clones versus low bone forming (LBF) clones. RESULTS: HBF clones were exhibited higher ex...

  16. Implementing Metadata that Guide Digital Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert


    Full Text Available Effective digital preservation depends on a set of preservation services that work together to ensure that digital objects can be preserved for the long-term. These services need digital preservation metadata, in particular, descriptions of the properties that digital objects may have and descriptions of the requirements that guide digital preservation services. This paper analyzes how these services interact and use these metadata and develops a data dictionary to support them.

  17. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam. (United States)

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  18. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives. (United States)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L


    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  19. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model. (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki


    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone.

  20. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.


    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... lambs were randomly assigned to two weight-matched groups at birth. During the first 14 days of life AKG was administered orally to the experimental group (n=12) at the dosage of 0.1 g/kg body weight per day, while the control group (n=11) received an equal dose of the vehicle. Lambs were slaughtered...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  1. A Comparison of Limb-Socket Kinematics of Bone-Bridging and Non-Bone-Bridging Wartime Transtibial Amputations (United States)


    This flap was a full thickness periosteal flap with small pieces of cortical bone adherent to the flap. A tibial bevel was created to reshape the...technique, the tibial perios teum was preserved to help build a reconstructive bone bridge across the distal parts of the tibia and fibula. The periosteum...the fibula and the tibia. The tibial osteoperiosteal flap was then sutured in place with absorbable suture. Meticulous attention was paid to the

  2. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.


    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  3. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W


    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  4. Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation method using three dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two dimensional histometric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Seung Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Sophia; Kim, Taeil; Lee, Young Kyu; Heo, Min Suk [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

  5. Studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shou-Peng; XIAO Dong; HAN Xiao-Feng


    The apoptosis in human bone tumor cells induced by internal irradiation with 153Sm was studied. The morphological changes in bone tumor cells were observed by electronic and fluorescent microscopy, as well as DNA agarose gel eletrophoresis. DNA chain fragmentation, microautoradiographic tracing and the inhibition rate of proliferation in bone tumor cells exposed to 153Sm with different duration time were examined. It was demonstrated that the bone tumor cells exposed to 153Sm displayed nuclear fragmentation, pyknosis, margination of condensed chromatin, and formation of membrane bounded apoptotic bodies, whereas the percentage of DNA chain fragmentation of bone tumor cells increases in direct proportion to the duration of irradiation with 153Sm, as well as DNA ladder formation in apoptotic cells. Also a marked inhibition effect of proliferation in bone tumor cells after exposure with 153Sm was observed.

  6. Advancing Treatment for Metastatic Bone Cancer: Consensus Recommendations from the Second Cambridge Conference (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Guise, Theresa A.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Berenson, James R.; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boyce, Brendan F.; Calvi, Laura M.; Hadji, Peyman; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Saad, Fred; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.; Taichman, Russell S.; Vessella, Robert L.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.


    Purpose Summarize current knowledge, critical gaps in knowledge, and recommendations to advance the field of metastatic bone cancer. Experimental Design A multidisciplinary consensus conference was convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess critical gaps in current knowledge, and prioritize recommendations to advance research in the next 5 years. The program addressed three principal topics: biology of metastasis, preserving normal bone health, and optimizing bone-targeted therapies. Results A variety of specific recommendations were identified as important to advance research and clinical care over the next 5 years. Conclusions Priorities for research in bone biology include characterizing components of the stem cell niche in bone, developing oncogenic immunocompetent animal models of bone metastasis, and investigating the unique contribution of the bone microenvironment to tumor growth and dormancy. Priorities for research in preserving normal bone health include developing methods to measure and characterize disseminating tumor cells, assessing outcomes from the major prevention trials currently in progress, and improving methodologies to assess risks and benefits of treatment. Priorities for optimizing bone-targeted therapies include advancing studies of serum proteomics and genomics to reliably identify patients who will develop bone metastases, enhancing imaging for early detection of bone metastases and early response evaluation, and developing new tests to evaluate response to bone-directed treatments. PMID:18927277

  7. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C


    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  8. Preservation Planning in the OAIS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The OAIS model has gained widespread acceptance as the fundamental design reference model for an archival system by the digital library community.One of its core entities is Preservation Planning,for which central functional entities are given yet without every detail breaking down into activities requirements.The Planets Preservation Planning approach addresses this by providing a way to make informed and accountable decisions on which preservation strategy to implement in order to most suitably preserve digital objects for a given preservation context.It allows the explicit definition of requirements and goals and offers a systematic way to evaluate preservation strategies.This paper shows the implementation of the Develop Preservation Strategies and Standards function of the OAIS model through the Planets Preservation Planning approach.Moreover,the paper examines the information flows within the OAIS Preservation Planning entity and with other functional entities with respect to the Planets model.

  9. Orchestration of bone remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moester, Martiene Johanna Catharina


    In healthy individuals, a balance exists between bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can lead to higher or lower bone mass, and disease such as osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis generally inhibits bone resorption, but does not rebuild bone to a healthy strength. More kno

  10. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar


    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  11. Bone Marrow Diseases (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  12. Long-term room temperature preservation of corpse soft tissue: an approach for tissue sample storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caputo Mariela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disaster victim identification (DVI represents one of the most difficult challenges in forensic sciences, and subsequent DNA typing is essential. Collected samples for DNA-based human identification are usually stored at low temperature to halt the degradation processes of human remains. We have developed a simple and reliable procedure for soft tissue storage and preservation for DNA extraction. It ensures high quality DNA suitable for PCR-based DNA typing after at least 1 year of room temperature storage. Methods Fragments of human psoas muscle were exposed to three different environmental conditions for diverse time periods at room temperature. Storage conditions included: (a a preserving medium consisting of solid sodium chloride (salt, (b no additional substances and (c garden soil. DNA was extracted with proteinase K/SDS followed by organic solvent treatment and concentration by centrifugal filter devices. Quantification was carried out by real-time PCR using commercial kits. Short tandem repeat (STR typing profiles were analysed with 'expert software'. Results DNA quantities recovered from samples stored in salt were similar up to the complete storage time and underscored the effectiveness of the preservation method. It was possible to reliably and accurately type different genetic systems including autosomal STRs and mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Autosomal STR typing quality was evaluated by expert software, denoting high quality profiles from DNA samples obtained from corpse tissue stored in salt for up to 365 days. Conclusions The procedure proposed herein is a cost efficient alternative for storage of human remains in challenging environmental areas, such as mass disaster locations, mass graves and exhumations. This technique should be considered as an additional method for sample storage when preservation of DNA integrity is required for PCR-based DNA typing.

  13. Genomic and post-genomic effects of anti-glaucoma drugs preservatives in trabecular meshwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzotti, Alberto, E-mail: [Mutagenesis Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino – IST, Genova (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna Tindara; Longobardi, Maria Grazia [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Saccà, Sergio Claudio [Ophthalmology Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genova (Italy)


    Highlights: • Glaucoma drug preservatives induce DNA damage in trabecular meshwork cells. • Cellular alteration is related with the occurrence of activation of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. • Drug preservatives unable to induce cell damage are ineffective in killing bacteria. • Anti glaucoma drugs should be formulated as single-dose usage devoid of genotoxic preservatives. - Abstract: Oxidative stress plays an important role in glaucoma. Some preservatives of anti-glaucoma drugs, commonly used in glaucoma therapy, can prevent or induce oxidative stress in the trabecular meshwork. The aim of this study is to evaluate cellular and molecular damage induced in trabecular meshwork by preservatives contained in anti-glaucoma drugs. Cell viability (MTT test), DNA fragmentation (Comet test), oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-dG), and gene expression (cDNA microarray) have been evaluated in trabecular meshwork specimens and in human trabecular meshwork cells treated with benzalkonium chloride, polyQuad, purite, and sofzia-like mixture. Moreover, antimicrobial effectiveness and safety of preservative contents in drugs was tested. In ex vivo experiments, benzalkonium chloride and polyQuad induced high level of DNA damage in trabecular meshwork specimens, while the effect of purite and sofzia were more attenuated. The level of DNA fragmentation induced by benzalkonium chloride was 2.4-fold higher in subjects older than 50 years than in younger subjects. Benzalkonium chloride, and polyQuad significantly increased oxidative DNA damage as compared to sham-treated specimens. Gene expression was altered by benzalkonium chloride, polyQuad, and purite but not by sofzia. In in vitro experiments, benzalkonium chloride and polyQuad dramatically decreased trabecular meshwork cell viability, increased DNA fragmentation, and altered gene expression. A lesser effect was also exerted by purite and sofzia. Genes targeted by these alterations included Fas and effector caspase-3

  14. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck in resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Brixen, Kim;


    Resurfacing total hip arthroplasty (RTHA) may preserve the femoral neck bone stock postoperatively. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by the hip position, which might bias longitudinal studies. We investigated the dependency of BMD precision on type of ROI and hip position....

  15. Bone Health and Osteoporosis. (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl


    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  17. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L


    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  18. The Preservation of Adobe Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian


    Full Text Available Whether built in the 17th or in the 20th centuries, adobe buildings share common problems of maintenance and deterioration. These types of buildings represent today in Romania a traditional house for country people. It also makes recommendations for preserving adobe buildings. By its composition, adobe construction is inclined to deteriorate; however, the buildings can be made durable and renewable when properly maintained.



    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M


    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  20. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.


    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  1. Phase-preserved optical elevator (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei


    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  2. Preservation Is Not a Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Abrams


    Full Text Available Normal 0 The Digital Preservation Program of the California Digital Library (CDL is engaged in a process of reinvention involving significant transformations of its outlook, effort, and infrastructure. This includes a re-articulation of its mission in terms of digital curation, rather than preservation; encouraging a programmatic, rather than a project-oriented approach to curation activities; and a renewed emphasis on services, rather than systems. This last shift was motivated by a desire to deprecate the centrality of the repository as place. Having the repository as the locus for curation activity has resulted in the deployment of a somewhat cumbersome monolithic system that falls short of desired goals for responsiveness to rapidly changing user needs and operational and administrative sustainability. The Program is pursuing a path towards a new curation environment based on the principle of devolving curation function to a set of small, simple, loosely coupled services. In considering this new infrastructure, the Program is relying upon a highly deliberative process starting from first principles drawn from library and archival science. This is followed by a stagewise progression of identifying core preservable values, devising strategies promoting those values, defining abstract services embodying those strategies, and, finally, developing systems that instantiate those services. This paper presents a snapshot of the Program's transformative efforts in its early phase.

  3. Power Preservation Friendly Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittipong Khemapech


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an important area with a major technological impact. Power preservation is one of the important issues in communication protocol development for WSNs. This article presents a review of Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport (ESRT which is specifically developed for an event-based WSNs application. Five characteristic regions and corresponding algorithms have been proposed in ESRT. At the end of each cycle, the reliability is observed and the data reporting rate is adjusted accordingly. Two main contributions of this study include an evaluation of the algorithms proposed by ESRT on their capabilities of power preservation and convergence to the optimal state where a sink receives a desired number of received packets and there is no congestion. According to the results, all of the algorithms demonstrate profound reporting rate adjustments. Moreover, both transmitting and receiving powers can be significantly preserved in the case when the sources generated more packets than required and the network is congested. Therefore, the proposed algorithms unlikely require any enhancements. Moreover, ESRT is analysed how well it can fit in some of the existing WSNs applications. The application category which may deploy ESRT is the event detection and tracking where complete reliability is not required.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Bone (United States)


    DISEASE Both age and disease can affect the structure of bone, the effects of which are often similar. The most common bone disease is osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis is a disease that results in reduced bone mass and density. This reduction of bone mass and density has a greater impact on trabecular...Bone loss in females is linked to a decrease in estrogen ; the decrease of estrogen associated with menopause increases osteoclast activity [89]. This

  5. Identification of HPV Types and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in Historical Long-Term Preserved Formalin Fixed Tissues in Different Human Organs (United States)

    Hühns, Maja; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Obliers, Annette; Röpenack, Paula


    University anatomical-pathological collections represent huge sources of human tissues and preparations from a variety of different diseases. With the help of modern genetic and histological methods, preserved fixed tissues from pathological collections can be used to re-evaluate former diagnoses. We analysed 25 specimens from our pathological collection with ages ranging from 78 to 112 years. The tissues originated from the oral cavity, lip, tongue, lung, bone, kidney, spleen, thymus, larynx, lymph node, penis and uterine cervix with an original diagnosis of epithelial cancers or tuberculosis. Amplifiable DNA was extracted and in epithelial cancers, potential HPV infection was investigated. Specimens with an original diagnosis of tuberculosis were examined for mycobacterial infection. The tissues were also examined using modern histological methods. Our data showed that in 24/25 specimens the histological structure was preserved and in 10/11 specimens the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma could be confirmed. Additionally, HPV type 16 was detected in 8 specimens. The histological pattern of tuberculosis was found in 11/14 specimens and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was ascertained in four specimens. Our study showed that pathogens such as HPV or Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be detected in historical pathological preparations, and that these collections are suitable for further epidemiological research. PMID:28114406

  6. How we do: optimizing bone marrow biopsy logistics for sign-out within 2 days. (United States)

    de Laak-de Vries, I; Siebers, A G; Burgers, L; Diepenbroek, C; Link, M; Groenen, P; van Krieken, J H J M; Hebeda, K M


    Since the introduction of fast diagnostic tracks in many areas of oncology, the traditional processing of bone marrow biopsies (BMB), requiring either resin embedding or lengthy fixation and decalcification, is due to an upgrade. Thanks to a growing number of new commercially available tissue processors, microwave-enhanced processing is becoming a standard tool in the pathology laboratory, allowing rapid fixation and decalcification of BMB with preserved morphology and antigens. In this short report, we describe the use of a commercially available EDTA-based decalcification fluid (USEDECALC, Medite, Orlando, USA) in combination with the LOGOS J (Milestone, Bergamo, Italy), a closed microwave-enhanced tissue processor, for overnight fixation, decalcification, and paraffin impregnation of the BMB. This allows next-day reporting without impaired morphology or immunohistochemistry, and even improved DNA quality of the BMB.

  7. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst. (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K


    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  8. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos


    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  9. Tailor made preservation strategies : Food Innovation Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, J.


    High quality, long shelf life, clean label, less salt: food must comply with many requirements. From genomics and mild preservation to a ‘Quick Scan’ for process hygiene, TNO helps manufacturers to develop a tailor made preservation strategy.


    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  11. Digital preservation technology for cultural heritage

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke


    ""Digital Preservation Technology for Cultural Heritage"" discusses the technology and processes in digital preservation of cultural heritage. It covers topics in five major areas: Digitization of cultural heritage; Digital management in the cultural heritage preservation; Restoration techniques for rigid solid relics; Restoration techniques for paintings; Digital museum. It also includes application examples for digital preservation of cultural heritage. The book is intended for researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Graphics and Image Processing as well as Cu

  12. Regulation of Bone Metabolism. (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi


    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

  13. Regulation of Bone Metabolism (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi


    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX). PMID:28367467

  14. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala. (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel


    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  15. Freeze-dried bone allografts sterilized with gamma radiation and the clinical use in harelip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Cruz A, L. C. [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, Toluca 50130, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez R, M. A., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro de Especialidades Odontologicas, Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon esquina Felipe Angeles s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Bone for transplant is part of the musculoskeletal tissue join with fascia lat, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Bone is formed by cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and extracellular matrix formed mainly by collagen and hydroxyapatite, which gives strength and elasticity to the bone. The bone function in the body is to move, support, organs protection, production of blood cells and store minerals. The musculoskeletal tissue is processed in specialized tissue banks using gamma radiation of cobalt-60 for sterilization at 25 kGy doses at very low temperature or at room temperature, getting tissues with high quality for clinical applications in injured patients. The process of the bone for transplants varies depend on the size and the surgeon likes, nevertheless in general the large ones are preserved at low temperature (-80 C), meanwhile the short ones are freeze-dried preserved. The musculoskeletal diseases represent the most common physical incapacity, which affect million of people around the world. Due to the human body has 206 bones, during a bone injury each bone can be replaced or repaired with several devices, in general the surgeon goes to a specialized tissue banks, to get the bone, due to the high bone quantity on the body and the number of bone injuries and diseases, the bone is the most transplanted around the world only behind the blood. The bone can be processed in several sizes and shapes, one of these is bone powder from allograft, which is used over all for bone filling, this can be take advantage for cleft lip and palate defects, which is a birth defect, this can affect the way the child's face looks, it can also lead to problems with eating, talking and ear infections. The description of the bone powder process is presented and the clinical use of this powder in several pediatric patients for cleft lip and palate defects is described. (Author)

  16. Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E


    Memory institutions such as libraries, archives, galleries and museums all share pressing concerns about preserving heritage. This book charts the diversity of preservation management in the contemporary information landscape, and offers guidance on preservation methods for the sustainability of collections from a range of international experts.

  17. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals. (United States)

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  18. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 8 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions... any rules of particular applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open...

  19. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akın, Hasan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Zirve University, Gaziantep, 27260 (Turkey); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia P.O. Box, 141, 25710, Kuantan Pahang (Malaysia)


    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  20. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.


    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  1. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone. (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine


    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface.

  2. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X


    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  3. A DNA Study of the Neolithic Human Bones from the Jiangjialiang Site in Yangyuan County,Hebei%河北阳原县姜家梁遗址新石器时代人骨DNA的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Mitochondrial DNA has been successfully extracted from 10 specimens from tour tombs at Jiangjialiang. Hypervariable region I (HVRI) in the mitochondrial DNA has been amplified and sequenced. Altogether 10 distinct haplotypes with 15 polymorphic sites have been obtained. A phylogenitic tree of the 10 sequences has been constructed by means of the maximum likelihood method. Four clusters,corresponding to the four tombs, have been presented in the tree. The fact that mitochondrial DNA is inherited exclusively in the female line and the features of graves in matriarchal society suggest that the Jiangjialiang population should not be taken to be a matriarchal community.

  4. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  5. Blogs as Objects of Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Gkotsis, George; Kalb, Hendrik;


    on the existing InSPECT framework and improving its capabilities of working with complex/compound objects like blogs. The modifications enable a more thorough analysis of object structures, accentuate the differences and similarities between the framework’s two streams of analysis (i.e. Object and Stakeholder...... analysis) and, subsequently, improve the final reformulation of the properties. To demonstrate the applicability of the modified framework, the paper presents a use case of a blog preservation initiative that is informed by stakeholder interviews and evaluation of structural and technological foundations...... of blogs. It concludes by discussing the limitations of the approach and suggesting directions for future research....

  6. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding


    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  7. Digital preservation for libraries, archives, and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Corrado, Edward M


    Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums is designed for all types of information professionals who are interested in digital preservation. This is not a how-to book giving step-by-step processes for certain materials in a given kind of system. Instead, it addresses a broad group of resources that could be housed in any number of digital preservation systems. Finally, this book is about "Things (not technology; not how-to; not theory) I wish I had known before I got started." It is divided into four parts based on the Digital Preservation Triad: Situating Digital Preservation, I


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eHenning


    Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a necessary and important constituent of the body which is provided by food intake of retinyl esters and carotenoids. Vitamin A is known best for being important for vision, but in addition to the eye, vitamin A is necessary in numerous other organs in the body, including the skeleton. Vitamin A is converted to an active compound, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, which is responsible for most of its biological actions. ATRA binds to intracellular nuclear receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RAR, RAR, RAR. RARs and closely related retinoid X receptors (RXR, RXR, RXR form heterodimers which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. It has been known for many years that hypervitaminosis A promotes skeleton fragility by increasing osteoclast formation and decreasing cortical bone mass. Some epidemiological studies have suggested that increased intake of vitamin A and increased serum levels of retinoids may decrease bone mineral density and increase fracture rate, but the literature on this is not conclusive. The current review summarizes how vitamin A is taken up by the intestine, metabolized, stored in the liver and processed to ATRA. ATRA’s effects on formation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts are outlined, and a summary of clinical data pertaining to vitamin A and bone is presented.

  9. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A


    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  10. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang


    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. [New frontiers in myocardial preservation]. (United States)

    Juffe Stein, A


    The high hospital mortality due to primary graft failure, together with the ever more frequent use of "Suboptimum" donors because of the scarcity of organs has, in the recent years, caused renewed interest in perfectioning techniques of cardiac preservation. The numerous studies supporting the benefits of a period of controlled warm reperfusion after global ischemia, and the growth of the continuous warm blood cardioplegia, led us to the evolution of our own technique for myocardial protection during transplantation. Dr John Wallwork introduced the concept of donor "resuscitation" in the attempt to improve the hemodynamic state of the donor, by preload and afterload manipulation and pharmacological treatment of the unstable or "marginal" donor. The Juan Canalejo Hospital introduced the concept "Resuscitation during the implantation" using continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Maintenance of normothermia during heart transplantation produces what is referred to as "cell repair" or "resuscitation during the implantation" and avoid the reperfusion damage. From january 1992 to april 1995, 91 orthotopic heart transplantation were performed at our institution. By harvesting we have employed the conventional preservation technique. We performed a controlled continuous anterograde/retrograde warm blood cardioplegic reperfusion of the graft, before and during the implantation in 53 patients. Since january 1994 we performed in 38 cases the same controlled continuous warm blood reperfusion, but only anterograde. Continuous warm blood cardioplegia in heart transplantation is a safety myocardial protection method. Trasplant programs require the optimal use of the available donors.

  12. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.


    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  13. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan


    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  14. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex


    and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  15. A Framework for Distributed Preservation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmidt


    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing a service-oriented environment for the definition and evaluation of preservation strategies for human-centric data. It focuses on the question of logically preserving digital materials, as opposed to the physical preservation of content bit-streams. This includes the development of preservation tools for the automated characterisation, migration, and comparison of different types of Digital Objects as well as the emulation of their original runtime environment in order to ensure long-time access and interpretability. The Planets integrated environment provides a number of end-user applications that allow data curators to execute and scientifically evaluate preservation experiments based on composable preservation services. In this paper, we focus on the middleware and programming model and show how it can be utilised in order to create complex preservation workflows.

  16. What Is Bone Cancer? (United States)

    ... start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body. There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on ...

  17. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor) (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  18. What causes bone loss? (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  19. Bone mineral density test (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  20. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation). (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W


    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of VIRI bone samples using ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Kana [Faculty of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    Ultrafiltration can effectively remove low-molecular-weight (LMW) contaminants from bone gelatin to extract high-molecular-weight (HMW) proteins that are derived from original bone collagen, though it cannot remove HMW collagen crosslinked with humic acids. Therefore, ultrafiltration is often used to obtain more accurate {sup 14}C dates of bones. However, ultrafiltration may introduce new contaminants to bone gelatins, mainly from ultrafilters used. To study the effects of ultrafiltration on {sup 14}C age, we analyzed the C/N ratio, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values, and {sup 14}C ages of acid-soluble bone collagen obtained by decalcification, gelatin extracted from acid-insoluble bone collagen, and the HMW gelatin and LMW fractions produced during ultrafiltration of the extracted gelatin. Bone samples from the Fifth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (VIRI) were used: VIRI-E (mammoth), -F (horse), -G (human), and -I (whale). In this study, carbon and nitrogen content and gelatin yields were used to evaluate collagen preservation in the VIRI bone samples. Radiocarbon ages, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} and {delta}{sup 15}N{sub AIR} values of unfiltered and HMW gelatins were obtained and compared with the published consensus values. The LMW fraction was found to exhibit different values from those of the other fractions, indicating the possible presence of extraneous contamination. The Vivaspin Trade-Mark-Sign 6 ultrafilters used in this study were analyzed and radiocarbon dated both before and after cleaning. We present evidence to suggest that LMW fraction contaminants could be derived from the ultrafilters rather than humic substances. Excessively long ultrafiltration time was suspected to have contaminated the bone samples with material from the ultrafilter, because those samples exhibited older {sup 14}C ages than did those filtered for shorter durations. The results in this study indicate that {sup 14}C ages of unfiltered

  2. Comparative evaluation of a biomimic collagen/hydroxyapatite/β-tricaleium phosphate scaffold in alveolar ridge preservation with Bio-Oss Collagen (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Gui-feng; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiu-mei; Tang, Zhi-hui


    Bone scaffolds are critical in current implant and periodontal regeneration approaches. In this study, we prepared a novel composite type-I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricaleium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (CHTS) by incorporating type-I collagen and bovine calcined bone granules, prepared as a mixture of 50% HA and 50% TCP, by freeze drying. We then characterized the CHTS and determined its cytotoxic effects. Additionally, ridge preservation experiments were carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of the CHTS. The results demonstrated that the composite scaffolds had good surface morphology and no cytotoxicity. Additionally, an in vivo experiment in an animal model showed that the CHTS performed equally as well as Bio-Oss Collagen, a widely used bone graft in ridge preservation. These findings revealed that the CHTS, which contained natural constituents of bone, could be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration and clinical use.

  3. Androgens and bone. (United States)

    Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Boonen, Steven; Lindberg, Marie K; Bouillon, Roger; Ohlsson, Claes


    Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and

  4. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)


    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  5. The Digital Astronaut Project Computational Bone Remodeling Model (Beta Version) Bone Summit Summary Report (United States)

    Pennline, James; Mulugeta, Lealem


    prescriptions on preserving bone. More specifically, the model will accept loading history due to muscle and joint force on bone and produce quantified remodeling within the bone region under influence of the applied stress. Furthermore, because they tend to respond differently, the bone remodeling model includes both trabecular bone and cortical bone.

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun


    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments.

  7. AMS radiocarbon age for fossil bone by XAD-2 chromatography method (United States)

    Minami, Masayo; Nakamura, Toshio


    The XAD-2 chromatography method was examined for its ability to efficiently eliminate exogenous organic matter from fossil bones and to improve the accuracy of radiocarbon ( 14C) dating and stable isotope determinations on bone proteins. The fossil bones used in the experiment were animal fossil bones collected from the Awazu submarine archaeological site, Shiga, Japan. For comparison, the gelatin-extraction method was also applied to the same samples. It was found that the gelatin-extraction method is sufficient for 14C dating on well-preserved bones, but insufficient on poorly preserved bones, containing less than 1% extractable gelatin. The XAD-2 resin is useful for the clean up of proteins especially from poorly preserved bones. The carbon stable isotope fractionation of around 1‰ by XAD-2 treatment on modern collagen standards was larger than reported previously. The isotopic variation by sequential extraction of bones probably originates from changes in the amino acid composition and seems to be less sensitive to the indication of the removal of organic contamination.

  8. Beyond the Scope of Preservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikke, Stenbro,; Riesto, Svava


    Why are some parts of the built environment protected as national heritage and others not? Listing is the most restrictive tool of Norwegian and Danish preservation in the built environment and creates a specific version of the past told through buildings and sites. The heritage authorities in both...... countries present listing as an instrument to protect a representative sample of all the country’s built structures and environments (in theory for eternity). The article examines the role of mass housing complexes, a significant product of the welfare states from the 1950s and onwards, in the practice...... established in architectural history and other mechanisms effect contemporary decisions about whether to list mass housing areas. In conclusion, we question the role of the official criteria for listing and instead call for a more open discussion about why and how listing creates national history....

  9. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo


    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals.

  10. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research. (United States)

    Cho, Soowon; Epstein, Samantha W; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles; Kawahara, Akito Y


    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world's natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized "wing vouchers" of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda


    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  12. Oxytocin and bone (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta


    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR−/− mice injected with 17β-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  13. Effect of socket preservation therapies following tooth extraction in non-molar regions in humans: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Heggeler, J.M.A.G.; Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.


    Objective: To assess, based on the existing literature, the benefit of socket preservation therapies in patients with a tooth extraction in the anterior or premolar region as compared with no additional treatment with respect to bone level. Material and methods: MEDLINE-PubMed and the Cochrane Centr

  14. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D. (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma


    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.

  15. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology


    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  16. DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis



    Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutage...

  17. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  18. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn


    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  19. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik


    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  20. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options. (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder


    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.

  1. Bone scintiscanning updated. (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I


    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto


    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  3. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation


    Robert R. Gaines; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemic...

  4. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review


    Cichello, Simon Angelo


    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen imperme...

  5. Science Data Infrastructure for Preservation - Earth Science


    Albani, Mirko; Marelli, Fulvio; Giaretta, David; Shaon, Arif


    The proper preservation of both current and historical scientific data will underpin a multitude of ecological, economic and political decisions in the future of our society. The SCIDIP-ES project addresses the long-term persistent storage, access and management needs of scientific data by providing preservation infrastructure services. Taking exemplars from the Earth Science domain we highlight the key preservation challenges and barriers to be overcome by the SCIDIP-ES infrastructure. SCIDI...

  6. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone


    Starup-Linde, Jakob


    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  7. The ZEUS long term data preservation project

    CERN Document Server



    The ZEUS data preservation (ZEUS DP) project assures continued access to the data and documentation related to the experiment. It aims to provide the ability to continue the generation of valuable scientific results from these data in the future. This talk presents analysis opportunities within the ZEUS DP project and its benefits for the physics community. The implications of the preserved data are discussed in the context of current data analyses, verification of contemporary and future theoretical models and the planning of future experiments and analyses. The detailed documentation on the data preservation effort can serve as an example for the data preservation efforts in current and future experiments.

  8. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite...

  9. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. (United States)

    Holland, Steven M


    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  10. Differential Bone Loss in Mouse Models of Colon Cancer Cachexia (United States)

    Bonetto, Andrea; Kays, Joshua K.; Parker, Valorie A.; Matthews, Ryan R.; Barreto, Rafael; Puppa, Melissa J.; Kang, Kyung S.; Carson, James A.; Guise, Theresa A.; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Robling, Alexander G.; Couch, Marion E.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers, Teresa A.


    Cachexia is a distinctive feature of colorectal cancer associated with body weight loss and progressive muscle wasting. Several mechanisms responsible for muscle and fat wasting have been identified, however it is not known whether the physiologic and molecular crosstalk between muscle and bone tissue may also contribute to the cachectic phenotype in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether tumor growth associates with bone loss using several experimental models of colorectal cancer cachexia, namely C26, HT-29, and ApcMin/+. The effects of cachexia on bone structure and strength were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro computed tomography (μCT), and three-point bending test. We found that all models showed tumor growth consistent with severe cachexia. While muscle wasting in C26 hosts was accompanied by moderate bone depletion, no loss of bone strength was observed. However, HT-29 tumor bearing mice showed bone abnormalities including significant reductions in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but no declines in strength. Similarly, cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mice was associated with significant decreases in BMD, BMC, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th as well as decreased strength. Our data suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with muscle wasting and may be accompanied by bone loss dependent upon tumor type, burden, stage and duration of the disease. It is clear that preserving muscle mass promotes survival in cancer cachexia. Future studies will determine whether strategies aimed at preventing bone loss can also improve outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer cachexia. PMID:28123369

  11. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the assessment of bone strength in most of bone affecting conditions in developmental age: a review. (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Cavalli, Loredana; Cavalli, Tiziana; de Martino, Maurizio; Brandi, Maria Luisa


    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography provides an automatical scan analysis of trabecular and cortical bone compartments, calculating not only their bone mineral density (BMD), but also bone geometrical parameters, such as marrow and cortical Cross-Sectional Area (CSA), Cortical Thickness (CoTh), both periosteal and endosteal circumference, as well as biomechanical parameters like Cross-Sectional Moment of Inertia (CSMI), a measure of bending, polar moment of inertia, indicating bone strength in torsion, and Strength Strain Index (SSI). Also CSA of muscle and fat can be extracted. Muscles, which are thought to stimulate bones to adapt their geometry and mineral content, are determinant to preserve or increase bone strength; thus, pQCT provides an evaluation of the functional 'muscle-bone unit', defined as BMC/muscle CSA ratio. This functional approach to bone densitometry can establish if bone strength is normally adapted to the muscle force, and if muscle force is adequate for body size, providing more detailed insights to targeted strategies for the prevention and treatment of bone fragility. The present paper offers an extensive review of technical features of pQCT and its possible clinical application in the diagnostic of bone status as well as in the monitoring of the skeleton's health follow-up.

  12. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  13. A model of trabecular bone and an application to osteoporosis (United States)

    Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Mohanty, Kishore K.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.


    Large bones consists of an outer compact shaft and an inner porous segment, known as the trabecular architecture (TA). The TA is the principal load carrier in bones from older adults, and the aim of therapeutic interventions is to preserve their strength. It is argued that forms for broad-based diagnostic tools for osteoporosis can be identified through an analysis of simple model systems. A model based on elastic networks is introduced, and shows that weak networks can only utilize a small fraction of themselves for stress transmission. This observation is used to argue that the ratio of linear response of a network to DC and AC strain can be used as a surrogate for bone strength. We discuss the possibility of using this measure to identify osteoporotic bone and to monitor the efficacy of therapy.

  14. Disruption of bone and skeletal muscle in severe burns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon L Klein


    Severe burn injury triggers the body’s nonspecific adaptive responses to acute insult, including the systemic inflammatory and stress responses, as well as the sympathetic response to immobilization. These responses trigger inflammatory bone resorption followed by glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and probably osteocytes. Because these patients are catabolic, they suffer concomitant muscle wasting and negative nitrogen balance. The use of anabolic agents such as recombinant human growth hormone and oxandrolone results in improved bone mineral content and muscle strength after approximately 1 year. Use of bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of a severe burn completely blocks the resorptive bone loss and has the added advantage of appearing to preserve muscle protein from excessive breakdown. The mechanism for the protective effect on muscle is not currently known. However, if the effect of bisphosphonates on muscle can be confirmed, it raises the possibility that bone communicates with muscle.

  15. DNA Nanotechnology (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji


    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  16. Material Properties of the Mandibular Trabecular Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Lakatos


    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical simulation aided, experimental method for the measurement of Young’s modulus of the trabecular substance in the human mandible. Compression tests were performed on fresh cadaveric samples containing trabecular bone covered with cortical layer, thus avoiding the destruction caused by the sterilization, preservation, and storage and the underestimation of the stiffness resulting from the individual failure of the trabeculae cut on the surfaces. The elastic modulus of the spongiosa was determined by the numerical simulation of each compression test using a specimen specific finite element model of each sample. The received mandibular trabecular bone Young’s modulus values ranged from 6.9 to 199.5 MPa.

  17. Anatomic Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Remnant Preservation Using Outside-In Technique. (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Ill; Kwon, Sai-Won; Choi, Hyung-Suk; Chun, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Byoung-Min


    This report describes a modified anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique using the FlipCutter guide pin (Arthrex, Naples, FL) as a retrograde drill and a cortical suspensory fixation device (TightRope; Arthrex) with an adjustable graft loop length. Preservation of the ACL remnant as a biological sleeve for the graft is an important issue from the viewpoints of acceleration of revascularization and ligamentization, preservation of the proprioceptive nerve fibers, enhancement of the biological environment for healing, and maintenance of the anchor point at the native tibial attachment, in addition to yielding a lower incidence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement. The goal of our technique is to obtain some advantages of the remnant-preserving technique through an anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, which is performed to minimize damage to the ACL tibial remnant.

  18. Viral DNA in horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus.


    Rice, N R; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Casey, J W; Lahn, S; Stephens, R. M.; Edwards, J.


    The amount and distribution of viral DNA were established in a horse acutely infected with the Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The highest concentration of viral DNA were found in the liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. The kidney, choroid plexus, and peripheral blood leukocytes also contained viral DNA, but at a lower level. It is estimated that at day 16 postinoculation, almost all of the viral DNA was located in the tissues, with the liver alone containing...

  19. A ray of hope for the hopeless: Hemisection of mandibular molar with socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K Verma


    Full Text Available Introduction: The management, treatment and long-term retention of mandibular molar teeth with furcation involvement have always been a challenge in periodontal therapy. Hemisection has been used successfully to retain teeth with furcation involvement. The term hemisection refers to the sectioning of a molar tooth, with the removal of an unrestorable root which may be affected by periodontal, endodontic, structural (cracked roots, or caries. Case Report : This case report describes a simple procedure of hemisection in a mandibular molar with socket preservation with help of an alloplastic bone graft and subsequent restoration of the tooth with fixed prothesis. Discussion: Hemisection represents a form of conservative procedure, which aims at retaining as much of the original tooth structure as possible. It may be a suitable alternative to extraction. Hemisection of the affected tooth allows the preservation of tooth structure, alveolar bone and cost savings (time and money over other treatment options. The preservation of posterior abutment teeth permits oral rehabilitation with fixed bridges instead of removable prosthesis. Conclusion: The keys to long term success appear to be thorough diagnosis followed by interdisciplinary approach with endodontic, surgical and prosthetic procedures. Preservation of a hopeless tooth is possible by selecting patients with good oral hygiene, and careful surgical and restorative management.

  20. DNA Methylation


    Alokail, Majed S.; Alenad, Amal M.


    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication e...

  1. Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Tantikanlayaporn

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an active phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb, diarylheptanoid (DPHD, (3R-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, was found to strongly promote human osteoblast function in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated the protective effect of DPHD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss (OVX in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 µg/kg Bw as a positive control. Treatment of OVX animals with DPHD at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Bw for 12 weeks markedly increased bone mineral density (BMD of tibial metaphysis as measured by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT. Histomorphometric analysis of bone structure indicated that DPHD treatment retarded the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone microstructure. Ovariectomy resulted in a marked decrease in trabecular bone volume, number and thickness and these changes were inhibited by DPHD treatment, similar to that seen with E2. Moreover, DPHD decreased markers of bone turnover, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. These results suggest that DPHD has a bone sparing effect in ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and prevents deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover. Therefore, DPHD appears to be a promising candidate for preserving bone mass and structure in the estrogen deficient women with a potential role in reducing postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas


    Clustering is a very important tool in data mining and is widely used in on-line services for medical, financial and social environments. The main goal in clustering is to create sets of similar objects in a data set. The data set to be used for clustering can be owned by a single entity, or in s...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner......., or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol...

  3. Current status and future of site preservation techniques%位点保存技术的现状与未来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Alveolar bone resorption is common outcome after tooth extraction, often resulting in bone deficiency and aesthetic problem in implant and repair. Periodontal sites preservation technology is taken to reduce alveolar bone and soft tissue absorption, or increase bone formation after the tooth extraction. Filling of autogenous bone graft or bone substitute material is the most commonly used method of periodontal sites preservation technology. In the article, the preservation technology status and the properties of different bone filling material were reviewed.%牙槽骨吸收是拔牙后的常见结果,常造成后期种植植入时骨量不足,损害修复后的美学效果。牙周位点保存技术就是在拔牙即刻或者拔牙后所采取的减少牙槽嵴及软组织吸收或增加拔牙窝骨形成的干预措施。应用骨或骨替代材料填充拔牙窝来减少牙槽骨吸收是牙周位点保存技术的最常用方法。该文对位点保存技术的现状、不同骨填充材料的性能进行综述。

  4. 五指毛桃水提液对60Coγ射线致小鼠骨髓细胞DNA损伤的防护作用%Protective Role of Aqueous Extract from Fici Hirtae Radix for DNA Damage of Bone Marrow Cells by 60Coγ-Ray in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓平; 段丽菊; 黄翔; 岑业文; 李桂芬


    目的 探讨五指毛桃水提液对60Coγ射线所致的小鼠骨髓细胞DNA损伤的防护作用.方法 40只SPF级♂小鼠随机分为5组:阴性对照组给予生理盐水,辐射模型组单纯接受照射,3个五指毛桃剂量组分别给予相当于生药5,10,20五指毛桃水提液,连续灌胃7d.除阴性对照组外,所有小鼠接受全身一次性60Coγ射线照射,照射剂量为6Gy.照射24 h后处死小鼠,取股骨,制作骨髓单细胞悬液,用单细胞凝胶电泳实验检测小鼠骨髓细胞DNA损伤情况.结果 辐射模型组小鼠骨髓细胞DNA的尾部DNA百分率(Tail DNA%)和尾矩(Tail Moment)高于阴性对照组(P<0.01),五指毛桃各剂量组的 Tail DNA%和Tail Moment均显著低于辐射模型组(P<0.01),且随着给药剂量的增加,Tail DNA%和Tail Moment降低.结论 五指毛桃水提液对60Coγ射线损伤小鼠骨髓细胞DNA具有一定的防护作用.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the protective role of aqueous extract from Fici Hirtae Radix for bone marrow cells DNA of 60Coγ-ray irradiated mice. METHODS Forty SPF male mice were randomized into 5 groups. Negative control group was given normal saline, irradiated group was radiation model group and 3 Fici Hirtae Radix dose groups were orally given aqueous extracts from Fici Hirtae Radix of 5, 10, 20 g·kg-1·d-1 for 7 consecutive days. Except the negative control group, all mice received 6 Gy irradiation of whole body. After 24 h of irradiation, mice were sacrificed on femur. Single cell suspension was produced. DNA damage was detected using single cell gel electrophoresis experiment. RESULTS The results showed that Tail DNA% and Tail Moment of radiation model mice were higher than negative control group (P<0.01). Tail DNA% and Tail Moment of all Fici Hirtae Radix dose groups were significantly lower than radiation model group(P<0.01). As the dose increased,Tail DNA% and Tail Moment reduced. CONCLUSION Aqueous extracts from Fici Hirtae Radix have

  5. Beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage and alteration in the expression patterns of DNA repair-related genes. (United States)

    Attia, Sabry M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Hassan, Memy H; Bakheet, Saleh A


    Beryllium metal has physical properties that make its use essential for very specific applications, such as medical diagnostics, nuclear/fusion reactors and aerospace applications. Because of the widespread human exposure to beryllium metals and the discrepancy of the genotoxic results in the reported literature, detail assessments of the genetic damage of beryllium are warranted. Mice exposed to beryllium chloride at an oral dose of 23mg/kg for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in the level of DNA-strand breaking and micronuclei formation as detected by a bone marrow standard comet assay and micronucleus test. Whereas slight beryllium chloride-induced oxidative DNA damage was detected following formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase digestion, digestion with endonuclease III resulted in considerable increases in oxidative DNA damage after the 11.5 and 23mg/kg/day treatment as detected by enzyme-modified comet assays. Increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also directly correlated with increased bone marrow micronuclei formation and DNA strand breaks, which further confirm the involvement of oxidative stress in the induction of bone marrow genetic damage after exposure to beryllium chloride. Gene expression analysis on the bone marrow cells from beryllium chloride-exposed mice showed significant alterations in genes associated with DNA damage repair. Therefore, beryllium chloride may cause genetic damage to bone marrow cells due to the oxidative stress and the induced unrepaired DNA damage is probably due to the down-regulation in the expression of DNA repair genes, which may lead to genotoxicity and eventually cause carcinogenicity.

  6. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation (United States)

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia


    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  7. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa


    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  8. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine. (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  9. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update


    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna


    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment or nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Established methods include sperm cryopreservation or experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation for males, and oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation for females. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed throug...

  10. Discretising geometry and preserving topology I

    CERN Document Server

    de Beauce, V; Beauce, Vivien de; Sen, Siddhartha


    A discretisation scheme that preserves topological features of a physical problem is extended so that differential geometric structures can be approximated while preserving topological features present. Issues of convergence and a numerical implementation are discussed. The follow-up article covers the resulting discretisation of Riemannian geometry and some applications.

  11. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  12. Orthogonality preserving property, Wigner equation, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmieliński Jacek


    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the orthogonality preserving property in the class of mappings phase-equivalent to linear or conjugate-linear ones. We give a characterization of approximately orthogonality preserving mappings in this class and we show some connections between the considered stability and the stability of the Wigner equation.

  13. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides]. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua


    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  14. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice. (United States)

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  15. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... of September 23, 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the...) Resolve complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission....

  16. Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Deichmann


    Full Text Available Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL. Preservation had significanteffects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrink proportionally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.

  17. The Challenge of Preserving Digital Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Stenvall


    Full Text Available This paper addresses some general matters on the preservation of different types of digital materials. The well-known technical problems are explained and also some of the usual strategies to resolve these problems. Digital maps and their preservation is considered in the light of the future legal deposit act in Finland.

  18. Dna Sequencing (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.


    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  19. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas (United States)

    Conway, Paul


    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  20. Bone building with bortezomib (United States)

    Roodman, G. David


    In this issue of the JCI, Mukherjee et al. report that bortezomib, a clinically available proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma, induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) — rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells — into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning on page 491). These results were observed when MSCs were implanted subcutaneously in mice or were used to treat a mouse model of postmenopausal bone loss. Others have reported that immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., thalidomide and lenalidomide), which are active against myeloma, also block the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These results reflect the utility of targeting endogenous MSCs for the purpose of tissue repair and suggest that combining different classes of agents that are antineoplastic and also inhibit bone destruction and increase bone formation should be very beneficial for myeloma patients suffering from severe bone disease. PMID:18219395

  1. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld


    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  2. Adrenal gland and bone. (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S


    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  3. Bone scanning in otolaryngology. (United States)

    Noyek, A M


    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  4. Preserving and documenting the Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkut


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of preservation may be described as a physical process that depends onconceptual facts. When observed from a conceptual point of view, ‘values’ cause the divergencesin the preservation process, which could be named as the pre-requisites of the construction.Values carry emotional and physical points of view. The emotional context, of course, dependson recognizing and remembering while physical context depends on direction of research. They are indicators of cultural characteristics and historical identity. ‘Cultural values’1, more over, explains the meanings attributed to the cultural property, which meanings will be preserved, and the reasons for their preservation. On behalf of this context, the preservation process may be defined as the preservation of the cultural heritage within an effective system. This effective system isaimed at attaining the total quality as a result of a synthesis of the technology, technique, and material originally deployed with those of the present. Besides, one of the most important inputin the preservation process is the priorities of the intervention to be held, as the latter will determine the decisions and types of intervention during the implementation phase of the preservation project. As a significant paradox, the most important parameter that shapes both a preservationproject and its process appears to be the risks that consist of indefinite input preventing theproject from a proper definition of its context. Since all physical problems and the social statusof the cultural property to be preserved have direct impact upon the design process of thepreservation project, these priorities and the risks should be clarified in the course of pre-assessment phase at the beginning of the preservation process.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lipid virulence factors preserved in the 17,000-year-old skeleton of an extinct bison, Bison antiquus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona Y-C Lee

    Full Text Available Tracing the evolution of ancient diseases depends on the availability and accessibility of suitable biomarkers in archaeological specimens. DNA is potentially information-rich but it depends on a favourable environment for preservation. In the case of the major mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, robust lipid biomarkers are established as alternatives or complements to DNA analyses. A DNA report, a decade ago, suggested that a 17,000-year-old skeleton of extinct Bison antiquus, from Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, was the oldest known case of tuberculosis. In the current study, key mycobacterial lipid virulence factor biomarkers were detected in the same two samples from this bison. Fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC indicated the presence of mycolic acids of the mycobacterial type, but they were degraded and could not be precisely correlated with tuberculosis. However, pristine profiles of C(29, C(30 and C(32 mycocerosates and C(27 mycolipenates, typical of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, were recorded by negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectrometry of pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives. These findings were supported by the detection of C(34 and C(36 phthiocerols, which are usually esterified to the mycocerosates. The existence of Pleistocene tuberculosis in the Americas is confirmed and there are many even older animal bones with well-characterised tuberculous lesions similar to those on the analysed sample. In the absence of any evidence of tuberculosis in human skeletons older than 9,000 years BP, the hypothesis that this disease evolved as a zoonosis, before transfer to humans, is given detailed consideration and discussion.

  6. Sex Steroids and Bone Health Status in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin


    Full Text Available Male osteoporosis is a health problem which deserves more attention as nearly 30% of osteoporotic fractures happen in men aged 50 years and above. Although men do not experience an accelerated bone loss phase and testosterone deficiency is not a universal characteristic for aged men, osteoporosis due to age-related testosterone deficiency does have a negative impact on bone health status of men. Observations from epidemiological studies indicate that elderly men with higher testosterone can preserve their BMD better and thus are less prone to fracture. Observations on men with estrogen resistance or aromatase deficiency indicate that estrogen is equally important in the maintenance of bone health status. This had been validated in several epidemiological studies which found that the relationships between estrogen and bone health indices are significant and sometimes stronger than testosterone. Studies on the relationship between quantitative ultrasound and bone remodeling markers suggest that testosterone and estrogen may have differential effects on bone, but further evidence was needed. In conclusion, both testosterone and estrogen are important in the maintenance of bone health in men.

  7. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.


    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  8. Glutamate signalling in bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBrakspear


    Full Text Available Mechanical loading plays a key role in the physiology of bone, allowing bone to functionally adapt to its environment, however characterisation of the signalling events linking load to bone formation is incomplete. A screen for genes associated with mechanical load-induced bone formation identified the glutamate transporter GLAST, implicating the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, in the mechanoresponse. When an osteogenic load (10N, 10Hz was externally applied to the rat ulna, GLAST (EAAT1 mRNA, was significantly down-regulated in osteocytes in the loaded limb. Functional components from each stage of the glutamate signalling pathway have since been identified within bone, including proteins necessary for calcium-mediated glutamate exocytosis, receptors, transporters and signal propagation. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been shown to regulate the phenotype of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Furthermore, glutamatergic nerves have been identified in the vicinity of bone cells expressing glutamate receptors in vivo. However, it is not yet known how a glutamate signalling event is initiated in bone or its physiological significance. This review will examine the role of the glutamate signalling pathway in bone, with emphasis on the functions of glutamate transporters in osteoblasts.

  9. Blood: bone equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, M.W.


    The conundrum of blood undersaturation with respect to bone mineralization and its supersaturation with respect to bone's homeostatic function has acquired a new equation. On the supply side, Ca/sup 2 +/ is pumped in across bone cells to provide the needed Ca/sup 2 +/ x P/sub i/ for brushite precipitation. On the demand side, blood is in equilibrium with bone fluid, which is in equilibrium with a mineral more soluble than apatite. The function of potassium in this equation is yet to be found.

  10. Olecranon bone graft: revisited. (United States)

    Mersa, Berkan; Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Kabakas, Fatih; Sacak, Bulent; Aydin, Atakan


    Autogenous bone grafts are frequently in use in the field of reconstructive upper extremity surgery. Cancellous bone grafts are applied to traumatic osseous defects, nonunions, defects after the resection of benign bone tumors, arthrodesis, and osteotomy procedures. Cancellous bone grafts do not only have benefits such as rapid revascularization, but they also have mechanical advantages. Despite the proximity to the primary surgical field, cancellous olecranon grafts have not gained the popularity they deserve in the field of reconstructive hand surgery. In this study, the properties, advantages, and technical details of harvesting cancellous olecranon grafts are discussed.

  11. Archival bone marrow samples: suitable for multiple biomarker analysis. (United States)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Landsem, Veslemøy M; Rasmussen, Kirsten K; Borst, Louise; Gupta, Ramneek; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Klungland, Helge


    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole genome amplification (WGA), multiple marker analysis including 10 short tandem repeats, and finally a comprehensive genotyping of 33,683 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with multiplexed targeted next-generation sequencing. A total of 73 samples from 21 bone marrow smears and 13 bone marrow biopsies from 18 Danish and Norwegian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients were included and compared with corresponding blood samples. Samples were grouped according to the age of sample and whether WGA was performed or not. We found that measurements of DNA concentration after DNA extraction was dependent on detection method and that spectrophotometry overestimated DNA amount compared with fluorometry. In the short tandem repeat analysis, detection rate dropped slightly with longer fragments. After WGA, this drop was more pronounced. Samples stored for 0 to 3 years showed better results compared with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP analysis seems feasible, but the method has to be further optimized.

  12. Effect of preservation method on the assessment of bacterial community structure in soil and water samples. (United States)

    Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Ambrosini, Roberto


    The methods used in sample preservation may affect the description of the microbial community structure by DNA-based techniques. This study aims at evaluating the effect of different storage conditions, including freezing, adding two liquid-based preservatives or simply storing samples with no preservative, on the structure of the microbial communities in aliquots of organic-rich soil and water samples as revealed by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results showed that the number of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in soil aliquots stored with LifeGuard(™) solution was significantly lower than that of samples analyzed immediately after sampling. Moreover, cluster and PCA analyses showed that soil aliquots stored using LifeGuard(™) clustered separately from those stored with the other methods. Conversely, soil and water aliquots stored with DMSO-EDTA-salt solution did not show either significant reduction in the number of TRFs or any change in the structure of the microbial community. Finally, the number of TRFs and the structure of microbial communities from soil aliquots stored with no preservative did not differ from those of aliquots analyzed immediately after sampling. Preservation methods should therefore be accurately evaluated before collecting samples that have to be stored for long time before DNA extraction.

  13. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Full-Length cDNA Encoding Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7%人骨形态发生蛋白-7全长基因cDNA的克隆和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新友; 刘淼; 李曙明; 姚煜; 王全颖; 杨广笑


    Objective: To clone the full-length human bone morphogenetic protein-7 ( BMP-7) gene and analyse its sequence, to aid in investigation of its function and structure. Methods: TotalRNA was isolated from Chinese fetal kidney by the acid guanidinium thiocyanate phenol-chloroformmethod. Two overlapping segments of human BMP-7 cDNA were obtained by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR. Fallowing application, the two segments were ligated to each other and subcloned intoPGEM-7 easy vector to form PEGM-T easy/hBMP-7 recombinant plasmid. Sanger dideoxy chain-ter-mination method was used to sequence the cDNA. Results: There was 750 bp fragment obtained RT-PCR using # 2 primer from 5' end of BMP-7 gene (PCR by using # 2 and # 1) ,and 540 bp frag-merit from 3' end was generated by RT-PCR using # 4 primer (PCR using # 3 and # 4). Full-lengthcDNA encoding BMP-7 was obtained by religation of two segments. When compared with hBMP-7 se-quence in Gene bank (XM30619) ,our full-length BMP- 7 cDNA has a G instead of a T at nucleotide862. This change results in valine substituting for phenylalanine in the protein. Conclusion: This isthe first time that BMP-7 cDNA was successfully cloned from Chinese fetal kidney. BMP-7 cDNAplays an important role in healing injuries of the osteo-articular system. This makes BMP-7 is an at-tractive target for various clinical applications.%目的:克隆人骨形态发生蛋白-7(BMP-7)全长基因,并进行测序及序列分析,研究其结构和功能.方法:采用异硫氰酸胍一步法从人胎儿肾中提取总RNA,利用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)的方法,分段扩增出hBMP-7全长基因cDNA,与PGEM-T easy连接成PGEM-T easy/hBMP-7重组质粒,采用Sanger双脱氧链终止法测定基因序列.结果:以4号特异引物引导的RT-PCR扩增出BMP-7基因3'端540 bp片段,以2号特异引物引导的RT-PCR扩增出BMP-7基因5'端750 bp片段,重组连接两片段得到BMP-7全长基因cDNA.与Genebank上发表的hBMP-7序列(XM30619)

  14. Competition for DNA binding sites using Promega DNA IQ™ paramagnetic beads. (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; De Moors, Anick


    The Promega DNA IQ™ system is easily amenable to automation and has been an integral part of standard operating procedures for many forensic laboratories including those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) since 2004. Due to some failure to extract DNA from samples that should have produced DNA using our validated automated DNA IQ™-based protocol, the competition for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ magnetic beads was more closely examined. Heme from heavily blooded samples interfered slightly with DNA binding. Increasing the concentration of Proteinase K during lysis of these samples did not enhance DNA recovery. However, diluting the sample lysate following lysis prior to DNA extraction overcame the reduction in DNA yield and preserved portions of the lysates for subsequent manual or automated extraction. Dye/chemicals from black denim lysates competed for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ beads and significantly reduced DNA recovery. Increasing the size or number of black denim cuttings during lysis had a direct adverse effect on DNA yield from various blood volumes. The dilution approach was successful on these samples and permitted the extraction of high DNA yields. Alternatively, shortening the incubation time for cell lysis to 30 min instead of the usual overnight at 56 °C prevented competition from black denim dye/chemicals and increased DNA yields.

  15. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients. (United States)

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela


    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose ... bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  18. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles


    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  19. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)


    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  20. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz


    for confidentiality, availability, costs, additional to the requirements of ensuring bit safety. A few examples are: • The way that digital material is represented in files and structures has an influence on whether it is possible to interpret and use the bits at a later stage. Consequentially, the way bits represent....... • There will be requirements for the availability of the bit preserved digital material in order to meet requirements on use of the digital material, e.g. libraries often need to give fast access to preserved digital material to the public, i.e. the availability of the bit preserved material must support the use...

  1. Heating or freezing bone. Effects on angiogenesis induction and growth potential in mice. (United States)

    Leunig, M; Yuan, F; Berk, D A; Gerweck, L E; Jain, R K


    We have characterized the effect of bone graft treatment by heating or freezing (with or without dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). Tissue culture and dorsal skin-fold chambers in mice were used as sites to quantify the effect on angiogenesis, growth and calcification of neonatal femora. Fresh femora increased in both length and cartilage diameter (calcification in vivo only), but cryopreservation or heating abolished the increase in femoral dimensions. In vivo, femora of all experimental groups elicited an angiogenic response from the host tissue, which was most pronounced for fresh femora, weaker for DMSO-preserved frozen bone and poor for unprotected frozen bone and boiled femora. Freezing in the presence of a cryopreservative (DMSO) was found to preserve the angiogenic potential of frozen bone, whereas unprotected heating or freezing significantly impaired angiogenesis induction and growth potential.

  2. A modified technique of four-bone fusion for advanced carpal collapse (SLAC/SNAC wrist). (United States)

    Garcia-López, A; Perez-Ubeda, M J; Marco, F; Molina, M; López-Duran, L


    This study reports the outcome of 16 patients treated with a modified four-bone fusion for symptomatic stage II and III advanced carpal collapse. The technique is based on fusion of the capitate, lunate, hamate and triquetrum using an autogenous corticocancellous bone-graft fixed with screws. The void left behind after scaphoid excision was filled with an extensor carpi radialis longus anchovy. After an average follow up of 3 years; there were 13 excellent and three good outcomes. In every patient pain relief was achieved with preservation of joint motion and grip strength. All the patients were able to return to their previous activities and jobs. Radiographic evaluation showed bone fusion in all 16 patients with a slight decrease in carpal height but a well preserved radiolunate joint space. In conclusion, this technique provides immediate stable fixation and early mobilization and assures bone fusion.

  3. B cell-autonomous somatic mutation deficit following bone marrow transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, A.M.


    The bone marrow is the major haematopoietic organ and is critically involved in the production of all formed blood elements in postnatal life. The bone marrow contains rapidly dividing cells and therefore is sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In certain types of cancers where a high dose of radiation

  4. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair


    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li


    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  5. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE. (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.


  6. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)


    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children with vario

  7. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.


    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  8. Osteotransductive bone cements. (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P


    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  9. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  10. DNA repair and transcription deficiency syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Vermeulen (Wim)


    textabstractThe genetic information of all living organisms is stored in DNA, a long macromolecule composed of four different nucleotides. Preservation of the sequence of nucleotides, defining the genetic code, is a prerequisite for a faithful transmission of the genetic information to subsequent ge

  11. Final Report: Bone Mass Inheritance: A Project to Identify the Genetic Regulation of Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recker, Robert R., M.D.


    This project was designed to find human chromosomal locations that contain genes regulating peak bone density. It is part of a whole genome search for those loci,each responsible for at least 15% of the variation in the peak adult bone density. We accomplished this with a sib pair design, combined with simultaneous examination of extended kindreds. This project gave partial support of the recruitment which has now been completed. The project will extend into 2003. During the remainder of the project, a whole genome scan will be performed from the entire cohort of 2226 persons who have DNA archived, followed by linkage analysis. This project will meet the scientific objective leading eventually to expanded options for treating the condition that leads to bone thinning osteoporosis, and potential fractures in aging populations.

  12. Experimental study of oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Deng, Xiaohong; Tuo, J


    of dative DNA damage and tumour formation. In principle the level of oxidative DNA damage in an organ or cell may be studied by measurement of modified bases in extracted DNA by immunohistochemical visualisation, and from assays of strand breakage before and after treatment with repair enzymes. However......Animal experiments allow the study of oxidative DNA damage in target organs and the elucidation of dose-response relationships of carcinogenic and other harmful chemicals and conditions as well as the study of interactions of several factors. So far the effects of more than 50 different chemical...... to induce oxidative DNA damage in experimental animals. The hepatocarcinogen 2-nitropropane induces up to 10-fold increases in 8-oxodG levels in rat liver DNA. The level of 8-oxodG is also increased in kidneys and bone marrow but not in the testis. By means of 2-nitropropane we have shown correspondence...

  13. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes



    The bone marrow is an invaluable source of adult pluripotent stem cells, as it gives rise to hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal cells, amongst others. The use of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMC) transplantation (BMT) may be of assistance in achieving tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in modulating immune responses in the context of autoimmunity and transplantation. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the effects of BMC to preserve functiona...

  14. Orbital Emphysema Causing SyncopeChiari Malformation with Thick Occipital Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A case of a Chiari malformation with an extraordinarily thick occipital bone is described. The thick occipital bone might make the posterior fossa narrow with consequent herniation of the cerebellar tonsils to the foramen magnum and formation of a syrinx. At dural plasty, well-developed marginal and occipital sinuses should be deliberately handled with the preservation of normal venous drainage. This case gives us the essence of the occurrence mechanisms of Chiari malformation and foramen magnum decompression.

  15. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang;


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted...... soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits......, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique...

  16. Ambient Preservation of Clinical Analytes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is in response to the In-flight Biological Sample Preservation and Analysis topic and offers a non-invasive, proven, space and cost and time...

  17. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  18. Improved Edge Awareness in Discontinuity Preserving Smoothing

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Stuart B


    Discontinuity preserving smoothing is a fundamentally important procedure that is useful in a wide variety of image processing contexts. It is directly useful for noise reduction, and frequently used as an intermediate step in higher level algorithms. For example, it can be particularly useful in edge detection and segmentation. Three well known algorithms for discontinuity preserving smoothing are nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, bilateral filtering, and mean shift filtering. Although slight differences make them each better suited to different tasks, all are designed to preserve discontinuities while smoothing. However, none of them satisfy this goal perfectly: they each have exception cases in which smoothing may occur across hard edges. The principal contribution of this paper is the identification of a property we call edge awareness that should be satisfied by any discontinuity preserving smoothing algorithm. This constraint can be incorporated into existing algorithms to improve quality, and usually ha...

  19. A Monograph on St. Vincent's Game Preserve (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the geography, history, climate, and wildlife of St. Vincent’s Game Preserve. Photographs, maps, articles, and letters are included.

  20. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...