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Sample records for bones bildgebende verfahren

  1. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing; Bildgebende Verfahren fuer die Ultraschallpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    - Klassische Anwendungen und neuere Entwicklungen der Ultraschall-Bildgebung; 3. Innovative abbildende Ultraschallverfahren in der Forschung und Applikation; 4. Industrielle Ultraschallpruefung geometrisch komplexer Faserverbundstrukturen; 5. Visualisierung von Rissspitzen bei der Pruefung von Radsatzwellen mit Laengsbohrung zur Vermeidung unnoetiger Radsatzwechsel; 6. Flaechige Analyse der Ausbreitung von Lamb-Wellen an gekruemmten, anisotropen Strukturen; 7. Hochaufloesende Darstellung bei der Pruefung in Tauchtechnik; 8. Varianten zur Bilderzeugung aus Phased Array Messdaten - Praktische Beispiele an Kupfer, CFK und anderen Materialien; 9. GIUM - ein unkonventionelles Verfahren der Mikrostrukturabbildung mit Ultraschallanregung und laservibrometrischer Abtastung; 10. Innovative Pruefkonzepte im Luftultraschall zur verbesserten Bildgebung; 11. Nutzung von bildgebenden Verfahren zur Verbesserung der zfP-Pruefaussage; 12.Modellierung und Visualisierung der EMUS-Anregung als Hilfsmittel zur Wandleroptimierung; 13. Anwendung von SAFT im Energiemaschinenbau; 14. Bildgebende Ultraschallpruefung zur verbesserten Fehlercharakterisierung bei der Schweissnahtpruefung von laengsnahtgeschweissten Grossrohren; 15. SAFT-Rekonstruktion fuer die Querfehlerpruefung in austenitischen Schweissnaehten und Mischnaehten; 16. Bildgebendes Optimierungsverfahren zur quantitativen US-Pruefung an anisotropen und inhomogenen austenitischen Schweissverbindungen mit Bestimmung und Nutzung der elastischen Eigenschaften. Ein Beitrag wurde separat aufgenommen.

  2. Diagnostic imaging in psychiatry; Bildgebende Verfahren in der Psychiatrie

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    Stoppe, G.; Hentschel, F.; Munz, D.L. (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    The textbook presents an exhaustive survey of diagnostic imaging methods available for clinical evaluation of the entire range of significant psychiatric symptoms via imaging of the anatomy and functions of the brain. The chapters discuss: The methods and their efficient use for given diagnostic objectives, image analysis, description and interpretation of findings with respect to the clinical symptoms. Morphology and functional correlation of findings. The book is intended to help psychiatrists and neurologists as well as doctors in the radiology and nuclear medicine departments. (orig./CB) [German] Die Entwicklung der modernen Bildgebung ermoeglicht faszinierende Einblicke in Anatomie und Funktionen des Gehirns und ihre Veraenderungen bei psychiatrischen Erkrankungen. Die Methodik der Untersuchungsverfahren und die Befunde bei allen wichtigen psychiatrischen Krankheitsbildern sind in diesem Buch systematisch und umfassend beschrieben: - gezielter und effizienter Einsatz der Verfahren, - Bildanalyse und Befundbeschreibung, - Bewertung der Befunde und Beziehung zum klinischen Bild, - morphologische und funktionelle Korrelate der Befunde. Psychiater und Neurologen werden ebenso angesprochen wie Radiologen und Nuklearmediziner. (orig.)

  3. Entwicklung und Anwendung bildgebender Verfahren für die Messung der elektrischen Feldstärke mit Hilfe der Lochbrennspektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Balzer, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    In der Arbeit wird ein neues bildgebendes Verfahren zur optischen Sensorik der elektrischen Feldstärke vorgestellt, das auf der laserspektroskopischen Methode des stabilen spektralen Lochbrennens beruht. Hierbei erfolgt die Bestimmung der Feldstärkeverteilung durch Messung der E-Feldinduzierten Änderung der Absorption im Zentrum eines stabilen spektralen Loches, das mit einem schmalbandigen Laser in das Absorptionsspektrum einer Sensorschicht, bestehend aus dem Polymer Polyvinylbutyral dotier...

  4. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Bildgebende Darstellung neurokognitiver Dysfunktionen bei der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitaetsstoerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, I [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters der Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany); NMR-Forschung der Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany); Tost, H; Ruf, M; Ende, G [NMR-Forschung der Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Schmidt, M H [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters der Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    vorwiegend vererbte neurobiologisch begruendete Erkrankung hinweisen. Die Entwicklung nichtinvasiver bildgebender Verfahren in den letzten 15 Jahren hat die paediatrische Forschung auf diesem Gebiet entscheidend bereichert. Funktionell bildgebende Studien konnten deutliche Hinweise auf die neurobiologischen Korrelate gestoerter Exekutivfunktionen, mangelhafter Impulskontrolle und auffaelliger Psychomotorik erbringen. Die hierbei gefundenen Dysfunktionen frontostriataler Regelkreise stehen in Einklang mit den frueher beschriebenen Volumenminderungen frontaler Hirnstrukturen und pathologischer Veraenderungen der Basalganglien und des Cerebellums. Insbesondere die Steuerung visueller Aufmerksamkeit ist von Stoerungen dieser beschriebenen Hirnregionen beeintraechtigt. Aktuelle Untersuchungen konnten zeigen, dass bei ADHS-Kranken ebenfalls haeufig eine mangelhafte Kontrolle visuomotorischer Faehigkeiten vorliegt. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick zum aktuellen Forschungsstand funktioneller Bildgebung bei ADHS und geht dabei speziell auf okulomotorische Dysfunktionen und deren Erfassung bei kernspintomographischen Untersuchungen ein. (orig.)

  5. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system; Skelett und Knochenmark - nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei onkologischen und haematologischen Systemerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-10-01

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Therapie onkologischer und haematologischer Systemerkrankungen wie der malignen Lymphome, des Plasmozytoms und der Osteomyelofibrose hat in den letzten Jahren grosse Fortschritte durch die Anwendung neuer Therapiemodalitaeten (Hochdosischemotherapie, Knochenmark- und Stammzelltransplantation, Einsatz von Interferon u.a.) erfahren. Grundlage der Diagnostik ist nach wie vor die histologische Beurteilung des Knochenmarks nach Biopsie. Ergaenzend spielen bildgebende radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur makroskopischen Beurteilung morphologischer und funktioneller Veraenderungen des gesamten Knochenmarkraumes eine zunehmende Rolle. Die Knochenmarkszintigraphie mit Radiokolloiden bzw. die Knochenmarkimmunszintigraphie stellen hierbei wichtige Methoden alternativ oder ergaenzend zur Kernspintomographie dar. Die Skelettszintigraphie als bewaehrte Methode vermag zusaetzlich ossaere

  6. Dental magnetic resonance tomography (dental-MRT) as a method for imaging of the maxillo-mandibular bone; Dentale Magnetresonanztomographie (Dental-MRT) als Verfahren zur Darstellung des maxillomandibulaeren Zahnhalteapparates

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    Gahleitner, A.; Nasel, C.; Schick, S.; Dorffner, S.; Imhof, H.; Trattnig, S. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie; Bernhart, T.; Mailath, G.; Watzek, G. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Orale Chirurgie

    1998-10-01

    Purpose: To establish a new method for dental imaging using magnetic resonance tomography named Dental-MRT and to demonstrate its usefulness in diagnosing dentogen pathologies of the mandible and maxilla. Methods: Seven healthy volunteers, three patients with pulpitis, two patients with dentigerous cysts, two patients after tooth transplantation, and three patients with atrophic mandibles have been evaluated. Optimized axial T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted gradient echo and spin echo sequences in 2D and 3D technique have been established to perform studies of the jaws. The acquired images were reconstructed with a standard dental software package on a workstation as panorama and cross-sectional views of the mandible or maxilla. Results: The entire maxillo-mandibular bone, teeth, dental pulp, and the content of the mandibular canal were well depicted. Patients with pulpitis demonstrate bone marrow edema in the periapical region. Dentigerous cysts and their relation to the surrounding structures are clearly shown. After contrast media administration marked enhancement of the dental pulp can be demonstrated. Conclusion: Dental-MRT promises to provide a new tool for visualization and detection of dental diseases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Vorstellen der Dental-MRT als neue Methode zur Darstellung des Ober- und Unterkiefers und ihre Anwendung bei der Diagnose zahnmedizinischer Erkankungen. Methoden: 7 gesunde Probanden, drei Patienten mit Pulpitis, zwei Patienten mit odontogenen Zysten, zwei Patienten nach Zahntransplantationen und drei Patienten mit atrophem Unterkiefer wurden untersucht. Optimierte axiale T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichtete Gradienten-Echo- und Spin-Echo-Sequenzen in 2D und 3D-Technik wurden angewandt. Nach der Untersuchung wurden Panoramaschnitte und dentale Rekonstruktionen des Ober- und Unterkiefers, unter Verwendung einer gebraeuchlichen Dental-Software, angefertigt. Ergebnisse: Der gesamte Kieferbereich, Zaehne, Pulpa und der Inhalt des

  7. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging; Methoden und Anwendungen fuer bildgebende Verfahren mit hohen Neutronenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-02-07

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  8. Imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. Including DRG, cost and risks; Indikationstabellen Bildgebende Verfahren. Mit Hinweisen zu DRG, Kosten und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestmann, J.W. [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2005-07-01

    One important instrument of optimizing the establishing of indications for imaging diagnostics and interventional radiology is the introduction of indication-specific standards and guidelines. This book for the first time combines the presentation of meaningful and necessary imaging techniques for a large number of clinical indications with an economical assessment of this diagnostical techniques. The average costs of imaging techniques are shown in a way easy to comprehend and are compared with the average remuneration of the whole in-house treatment of the case.

  9. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy; Eagle Syndrom - Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Sonnenburg, M. [Fachbelegarztpraxis fuer Mund, Kiefer, Gesichtschirurgie und Plastische Operationen, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Scheufler, O. [Klinik fuer Plastische, Wiederherstellungs- und Handchirurgie, Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    ohrnahen Hals- oder Gesichtsschmerzen sollte differential-diagnostisch an ein Eagle-Syndrom gedacht werden. An vier Fallbeispielen werden rationale Diagnostik und Therapie erlaeutert. Vier Patienten stellten sich in der Ambulanz mit chronischen Beschwerden beim Kauen und Fremdkoerpergefuehl in der Tonsillenregion vor. Bei der gezielten Palpation unterhalb des Kieferwinkels verstaerkte sich ein in die Ohrregion hineinziehender Schmerz. Eine Lokalanaesthesie mittels Lidocain fuehrte bei allen Patienten lediglich zur temporaeren Beschwerdefreiheit. Die dann durchgefuehrte bildgebende Diagnostik umfasste zunaechst Schaedeluebersichtsaufnahmen nach Clementschitsch sowie im lateralen Strahlengang und ein OPTG. Danach erfolgte ein axiales Spiral-CT in Duennschichttechnik mit anschliessender 3-D Rekonstruktion. Eine elektive Resektion bei lateral externem Zugangsweg von retromandibulaer wurde als Therapie durchgefuehrt. In den Schaedeluebersichtsaufnahmen und in der OPTG zeigten sich auf der symptomatischen Seite hypertrophe Processus styloideii. Die geometrisch korrigierte Addition der axialen CT-Schnittbilder ergab eine absolute Laenge von 51-58 mm. Die 3-D Rekonstruktion erlaubte die Visualisierung der exakten Ausrichtung der Processus styloideii im Raum. Eine Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohyoideum konnte unter Beruecksichtigung der bildgebenden Verfahren in jedem Fall ausgeschlossen werden. Nach Resektion des Megastyloid waren alle Patienten vollstaendig beschwerdefrei. Zur exakten Lokalisations- und Groessenbestimmung eines Megastyloid ist die Spiral-CT mit anschliessender 3-D Rekonstruktion die Methode der Wahl, Schaedeluebersichtsaufnahmen nach Clementschitsch und im lateralen Strahlengang oder ein OPTG koennen eine erste Information liefern. Als Therapie der Wahl gilt die Resektion des Megastyloid, wobei sich ein von aussen lateral gewaehlter Zugangsweg bewaehrt hat. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Neonatal stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Neonatologie, angeborene Stoerungen und Intensivmedizin; Puig, S.; Prayer, D. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [German] Ein Infarkt im Stromgebiet der Zerebralarterien stellt eine wichtige Differentialdiagnose bei neurologischen Auffaelligkeiten in der Neonatalperiode dar. Die Inzidenz wird anhand von klinischer Daten auf 1:4000 Lebendgeborene geschaetzt. Da der Verlauf oft subklinisch ist, liegt die wahre Inzidenz wahrscheinlich hoeher. Diagnose: Bei der Diagnosestellung kommen dem Schaedelultraschall und der Doppelsonographie als leicht verfuegbaren Screening-Methoden eine zentrale Rolle zu. Die definitive Diagnose wird, je nach Verfuegbarkeit, mittels Computertomographie oder Kernspintomographie gestellt. Die Behandlung ist neben der symptomatischen (antikonvulsiven) Therapie auf die Vermeidung von ischaemischen Sekundaerschaeden gerichtet. Diskussion: Wir wollen mit der vorliegenden Arbeit anhand von 3 Kindern mit verschiedenen klinischen Verlaeufen eines sog. Neonatal stroke den Stellenwert der bildgebenden Verfahren bei der Diagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle aufzeigen und die Sensibilitaet fuer dieses vermutlich unterdiagnostizierte Krankheitsbild erhoehen

  11. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, B. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, CC6, Diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [German] In der Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung ist die Bildgebung ein wesentlicher Faktor. Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens ('battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI) als auch im ZNS ('shaken baby syndrome'). Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet. Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Bei schwerer Misshandlung ohne aeussere Verletzungszeichen ist das rechtzeitige Erfassen einer ZNS

  12. Bildgebendes Multispektralsystem zur Serienfarbmessung an goniochromatischen Oberflächenbeschichtungen in der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein multispektrales bildgebendes System zur Farbmessung von Metall- und Perleffektlacken in einem industriellen Umfeld vorgestellt. Der Zweck des vorgeschlagenen Systems ist die Serienüberwachung und daraus folgend, die Steuerung von Lackierprozessen in der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie, um das Qualitätsniveau anzuheben und Kosten zu reduzieren. Ausgehend von der Analyse der messtechnischen Anforderungen und den durch die Prozesstechnik gegebenen Randbedingungen wurde...

  13. Non-destructive testing of concrete structures with the impact-echo method; Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung von Betonbauteilen mit dem Impact-Echo-Verfahren

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    Algernon, Daniel; Feistkorn, Sascha; Scherrer, Michael [SVTI Schweizerischer Verein fuer technische Inspektionen, Wallisellen (Switzerland). Nuklearinspektorat

    2016-05-01

    The impact-echo method is based on the use of elastic waves. It was developed in the 1980 for the testing of concrete structures and is currently widespread. Main application areas are the component and coating thickness measurement and detection of delaminations, voids and other defects. Specifically, the method is also used to check the injection faults of clamping channels. Another application is the determination of mechanical material parameters such as the modulus of elasticity. Since the original development of the method has undergone several enhancements. The conversion of a single-point measurement method towards a area component testing, the use by the optimized measurement data acquisition and evaluation enlarged and delivered an important prerequisite for increasing the efficiency. The use of air-coupled sensors not only increases the measurement speed but also provides advantages in rough component surfaces. The imaging analysis in conjunction with signal processing algorithms simplifies the interpretation and allows statistical evaluation. [German] Das Impact-Echo-Verfahren beruht auf der Nutzung elastischer Wellen. Es wurde in den 1980er Jahren fuer die Pruefung von Stahlbetonbauteilen entwickelt und ist derzeit weit verbreitet. Haupteinsatzgebiete sind die Bauteil- und Schichtdickenmessung sowie die Detektion von Delaminationen, Hohl- und anderen Fehlstellen. Insbesondere wird das Verfahren auch zur Pruefung des Verpresszustandes von Spannkanaelen herangezogen. Eine weitere Anwendung ist die Bestimmung mechanischer Materialparameter wie dem Elastizitaetsmodul. Seit der urspruenglichen Entwicklung hat das Verfahren verschiedene Weiterentwicklungen erfahren. Die Ueberfuehrung von einem Einzelpunktmessverfahren hin zu einer flaechigen Bauteilpruefung hat die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten durch die optimierte Messdatenaufnahme und -auswertung vergroessert und eine wichtige Voraussetzung zur Erhoehung der Leistungsfaehigkeit geliefert. Der Einsatz

  14. Verfahren zur genbasierten Diagnose eines Legasthenierisikos

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcke, Arndt; Ahnert, Peter; Kirsten, Holger; Ligges, Carolin; Boltze, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Diagnose eines Legasthenierisikos, umfassend die Schritte: a) Bereitstellung einer Nukleinsäure beinhaltenden Probe von einem zu diagnostizierenden Menschen, b) Bestimmung des Genotyps der Nukleinsäure der Probe für mindestens eine chromosomale Region, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus der Region von Nukleotid 12091000 bis 12200000 des Chromosoms 1, der Region von Nukleotid 89066000 bis 89088000 des Chromosoms 15, der Region von Nukle...

  15. Imaging of chronic osteomyelitis; Chronische Infektionen des Skelettsystems. Bildgebende Diagnostik

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    Glaser, C.; Matzko, M.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-06-01

    The diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis is made on the basis of clinical, radiologic and histologic findings. The role of imaging in patients with known chronic osteomyelitis is to detect and to delineate areas of active infection. To correctly interpret the imaging findings, it is essential to take both the individual clinical findings and previous imaging studies into account. Reliable signs of active infection are bone marrow abscess, sequestra and sinus tract formation. Only the combined evaluation of bony changes together with alterations of the adjacent soft tissues provides good diagnostic accuracy. Projection radiography gives an overview of the condition of the bone, which provides the basis for follow-up and the selection of further imaging modalities. Computed tomography can be used to evaluate even discrete or complex bony alterations and to guide percutaneous biopsy or drainage. Magnetic resonance imaging achieves the best diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and provides superior contrast as well as anatomical resolution in both bone marrow and soft tissues. In this paper the features and clinical relevance of imaging in primary chronic osteomyelitis, posttraumatic osteomyelitis, tuberculous spondylitis and osteomyelitis of the diabetic foot are reviewed, with particular respect to MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnose der chronischen Osteomyelitis wird durch Klinik, Bildgebung und Histologie gestellt. Bei bekannter chronischer Osteomyelitis soll die Bildgebung einen floriden Prozess und die betroffenen Kompartimente herausarbeiten. Die Klinik des Patienten, seine individuelle Krankheitskonstellation und die Verlaufsbeobachtung sind essentiell fuer die Befundinterpretation. Erst die kombinierte Beurteilung der Veraenderungen am Knochen selbst sowie die der umgebenden Weichteile fuehrt zu einer validen Aussage. Sichere Zeichen einer floriden Osteomyelitis sind lediglich (Knochenmarks)abzess, Sequester und Fistelgang. Die Projektionsradiographie gibt

  16. Sensitivity and specifity of different imaging methods for the detection of cerebral aneurysms; Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet bildgebender Verfahren fuer den Nachweis intrakranieller Aneurysmen

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    Ringelstein, Adrian; Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence or cerebral aneurysms is estimated at 2 %. Out of these aciniform aneurysm, 0,1 % rupture each year. The 30-day-mortality after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is estimated at 45 %. Additionally, about 50 % of the patients suffer from severe persistent neurologic deficits. The most reliable way to prevent rupture is early detection and prophylactic therapy of an unruptured aneurysm. For this, knowledge of the different imaging methods currently available and their diagnostic potential is highly desirable. This review describes the potential of CT, MRI and catheter angiography in diagnosing cerebral aneurysms, as well as therapy planning and follow-up care of patients. Based on this, some recommendations are made for management of patients with SAH.

  17. Alar ligaments: radiological aspects in the diagnosis of patients with whiplash injuries; Stellenwert bildgebender Verfahren in der Diagnostik der Ligg. alaria nach Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaeule

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    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J.; Biederer, J.; Jahnke, Th.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Post-traumatic changes of the alar ligaments have been proposed to be the cause of chronic pain in patients after whiplash injury of the cervical spine. In addition to an asymmetric dens position, widening of the atlantodental distance to more than 12 mm can be an indirect sign of an alar ligament rupture. CT is recommended for detection of a avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle. Isolated ruptures of the alar ligaments are best visualized on MRI. In patients with chronic impairments after whiplash injuries changes of the alar ligaments on MRI must be differentiated from normal variants in healthy individuals. (orig.) [German] Posttraumatische Veraenderungen der Ligg. alaria werden als ursaechlich fuer chronische Beschwerden bei Patienten mit Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule angesehen. Eine asymmetrische Densposition sowie eine Erweiterung der anterioren atlantoaxialen Distanz auf ueber 12 mm koennen auf konventionellen Roentgenaufnahmen ein indirektes Zeichen fuer das Vorliegen einer Fluegelbandverletzung sein. Die Computertomographie ist die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer kondylaeren Ausrissfraktur des Lig. alare. Isolierte akute Bandverletzungen der Ligg. alaria sind hingegen in der MRT direkt nachweisbar. Bei Patienten mit chronischen Beschwerden nach Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule muessen allerdings morphologische Auffaelligkeiten der Ligg. alaria im MRT von Normvarianten abgegrenzt werden. (orig.)

  18. Image-producing procedures for non-medical applications. Benefits, risks, radiation protection; Bildgebende Verfahren im nicht medizinischen Bereich. Nutzen, Risiken, Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarwinski, Renate [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Estier, Sybille [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Liebefeld (Switzerland). Direktionsbereich Verbraucherschutz; Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lorenz, Bernd [Lorenz Consulting, Essen (Germany); Vahlbruch, Jan [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS); Henning, Ulrich; Michel, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    A survey is given of image-producing procedures for non-medical applications, and this under technical, juridical and radiation protection aspects. The historical development of these procedures is also described. An example is given for today's practical application.

  19. Sogenannte projektive Techniken: Verfahren zwischen Psychometrie, Hermeneutik und qualitativer Heuristik

    OpenAIRE

    Schaipp, Christian; Plaum, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Bezüglich der diagnostischen Tauglichkeit projektiver Verfahren existiert auf internationaler Ebene ein seit langem anhaltender Grundsatzstreit. In diesem Kontext wird deutlich gemacht, dass eine zweckmäßige Einordnung und ein angemessenes Verständnis projektiver Techniken erheblich erleichtert wird, wenn man drei wissenschaftstheoretische und methodologische Strömungen (Psychometrie, Hermeneutik, qualitative Heuristik) unterscheidet. Es wird dafür plädiert, derartige Verfahren vor allem in e...

  20. The Pyromelt process; Das Pyromelt-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redepenning, H.; Kremer, H.; Rizzon, H. [ML Entsorgungs- und Energieanlagen GmbH, Ratingen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    PyroMelt is a thermal process for waste treatment by pyrolysis followed by a melting stage. The pyrolysis process produces the more or less homogeneous products pyrolysis gas, oil, and coke. In the melting stage, the inorganic constituents of the waste materials are converted into an eluation-resistant, recyclable granulated slag, while the organic constitutents are combusted completely without residues. (orig) [Deutsch] PyroMelt ist ein thermisches Verfahren zur Behandlung von Abfaellen durch eine Kombination aus Pyrolyse mit einer nachgeschalteten Einschmelzung. Die Pyrolyse uebernimmt die Aufgabe der thermischen Vorbehandlung der Abfaelle in die vergleichsweise homogenen Produkte Pyrolysegas, -oel und -koks. In der Einschmelzung werden die anorganischen Bestandteile der Abfaelle in eine eluationsresistentes und verwertbares Schlackegranulat ueberfuehrt. Gleichzeitig werden die organischen Abfallbestandteile vollstaendig ausgebrannt. (orig)

  1. The Pyromelt process; Das Pyromelt-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redepenning, H; Kremer, H; Rizzon, H [ML Entsorgungs- und Energieanlagen GmbH, Ratingen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PyroMelt is a thermal process for waste treatment by pyrolysis followed by a melting stage. The pyrolysis process produces the more or less homogeneous products pyrolysis gas, oil, and coke. In the melting stage, the inorganic constituents of the waste materials are converted into an eluation-resistant, recyclable granulated slag, while the organic constitutents are combusted completely without residues. (orig) [Deutsch] PyroMelt ist ein thermisches Verfahren zur Behandlung von Abfaellen durch eine Kombination aus Pyrolyse mit einer nachgeschalteten Einschmelzung. Die Pyrolyse uebernimmt die Aufgabe der thermischen Vorbehandlung der Abfaelle in die vergleichsweise homogenen Produkte Pyrolysegas, -oel und -koks. In der Einschmelzung werden die anorganischen Bestandteile der Abfaelle in eine eluationsresistentes und verwertbares Schlackegranulat ueberfuehrt. Gleichzeitig werden die organischen Abfallbestandteile vollstaendig ausgebrannt. (orig)

  2. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary metastases: imaging findings and diagnostic accuracy; Bildgebende Diagnose und Differenzialdiagnose von Lungenmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Nuklearmedizin, Marienhospital Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Pulmonary metastases typically present as mostly multiple and bilateral, well-defined, non-calcified pulmonary nodules with predominantly basal and peripheral location. Ill-defined, cavitating, calcified and endobronchial metastases are uncommon. In the absence of pathognomonic findings precise differentiation from other - even benign - pulmonary nodules is almost impossible. Demonstration of contrast enhancement at CT or MRI or evidence of growth at serial examinations support the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. In uncertain cases percutaneous fine-needle aspiration or cutting needle biopsy will allow diagnosis with acceptable risk of complications and patient discomfort. The only relatively common complication of pneumothorax can and should be controlled by the interventional radiologist by aspiration or drainage. (orig.) [German] Lungenmetastasen stellen sich bildgebend typischerweise als meist multiple und bilaterale, scharf begrenzte weichteildichte Lungenrundherde mit basal und peripher betonter Lokalisation dar. Unscharfe Begrenzung, Einschmelzungen, Verkalkungen oder endobronchiale Lage sind selten. Aufgrund fehlender pathognomonischer Befunde ist eine eindeutige differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung von anderen - auch benignen - Lungenrundherden jedoch kaum moeglich. Der computertomographische oder magnetresonanztomographische Nachweis einer Kontrastmittelaufnahme oder von Wachstum in Verlaufsuntersuchungen unterstuetzt die Diagnose. In Zweifelsfaellen fuehrt die perkutane Biopsie als Feinnadelaspiration oder Stanzbiopsie bei vertretbarer Belastung des Patienten meist zur Diagnose. Die einzige relativ haeufige Nebenwirkung - der postpunktionelle Pneumothorax - kann und sollte vom interventionellen Radiologen durch Aspiration oder Katheterdrainage selbst therapiert werden. (orig.)

  3. Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur enzymkatalysierten Synthese eines strukturierten Triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Hans-Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die in der vorliegenden Arbeit durchgeführten Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur Synthese des strukturierten Triglycerides 1,3-Oleyl-2-palmitoylglycerin war die von Schmid [Schmid 1999] entwickelte lipase-katalysierte Zwei-Schritt-Synthese für strukturierte Triglyceride vom Typ ABA [European Patent Application; EP 0 882 797 A2]. In der ersten Reaktionsstufe dieser zweistufigen Umesterung wird in einer Folgereaktion das Substrat Tripalmitin mit Hilfe ein...

  4. Imaging diagnostics of breast metastases from extramammary tumors; Bildgebende Diagnostik bei Brustmetastasen extramammaerer Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienbeck, S.; Lotz, J. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Nemat, S. [Universitaet Homburg/Saar, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Surov, A. [Universitaet Leipzig, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    klinischen Merkmale und die unterschiedlichen Bildgebungsbefunde intramammaerer Metastasen solider extramammaerer Tumoren aufgezeigt. Brustmetastasen werden haeufig zufaellig in Zusammenhang mit einer Computertomographie (CT) oder Positronenemissionstomographie-Computertomographie (PET-CT) entdeckt. Mammographisch weisen Brustmetastasen 2 unterschiedliche bildgebende Erscheinungsmuster im Sinne von Herdbefunden oder aber einer Architekturstoerung mit Kutisverdickung auf. Diese kommen in der Regel als solitaere, seltener als multiple runde Herdbefunde mit glatter Randbegrenzung zur Darstellung. Assoziierter Mikrokalk tritt selten auf. Eine diffuse Architekturstoerung mit Kutisverdickung kommt gehaeuft bei Brustmetastasen der meisten Magenkarzinome, Ovarialkarzinome und Rhabdomyosarkome vor. Sonographisch stellen sich die Befunde hypoechogen, oval oder rund mit glatter Randbegrenzung und dorsaler Schallverstaerkung dar. Die MR-Kriterien bei Brustmetastasen sind dagegen inkonstant und koennen nicht sicher als benigne oder maligne klassifiziert werden. Die erhobenen radiologischen Befunde imponieren hierbei eher benigne, sodass bei bekannter Malignomerkrankung stets an das Vorliegen von Brustmetastasen gedacht werden sollte. (orig.)

  5. Proton-MR-spectroscopy of vertebral bone marrow: normal age- and sex-related patterns; Protonen-MR-Spektroskopie des Wirbelkoerpermarks. Analyse des physiologischen Signalverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.M.; Kugel, H.; Schulte, O.; Heindel, W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-08-01

    Background. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown to be a sensitive method for diagnostics of the red bone marrow, the composition of which changes physiologically and during pathological processes. However, the interpretation of MRI in patients with disorders of the red bone marrow is very difficult. The aim of this study was the characterization of the proton spectrum of healthy bone marrow and its age- and sex-dependent changes to obtain a data basis for measurements in patients. Methods. 154 healthy volunteers have been examined. After imaging, a spectroscopic measurement was performed to determine the relative intensities of fat and water, and their respective T2 times. Results. While T2 (water: 46.9 ms and fat: 75.4 ms) does not depend on age or sex, the relative signal intensity of fat increases by about 6% per decade. In the age groups between 31 and 50 years it diverses significantly between men (43.5%) and woman (32.5%) (p{<=}0.01, Mann-Whitney-Test). Conclusions. Proton spectroscopy can increase the reliability of diagnosis by offering information on composition of the marrow. The analysis of spectroscopic measurements requires exact knowledge about normal physiological values. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund. Die Magnetresonanztomographie ist ein sensitives bildgebendes Verfahren zur Beurteilung des roten Knochenmarkraums. Die Zusammensetzung des Knochenmarks aendert sich mit zunehmenden Alter, aber auch bei krankhaften Prozessen. Als Basis fuer die Interpretation von Patientenuntersuchungen bei Erkrankungen des haematopoetischen Systems wurden im Rahmen der vorliegenden Studie an Probanden die alters- und geschlechtsabhaengigen Veraenderungen des Protoenenspektrums aus dem Knochenmarkraum analysiert. Methode. Bei 154 gesunden Probanden wurde nach einer MR-Bildgebung eine spektroskopische Messung des Lendenwirbelkoerpermarks zur Bestimmung der relativen Fett- und Wasseranteile sowie der T2-Relaxationszeiten durchgefuehrt. Ergebnis. Die T2-Zeiten (46,9 ms

  6. Ebenen des Verstehens: Überlegungen zu einem Verfahren zum Wurzelziehen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Martin

    Wir bemühen uns, insbesondere bei Kindern, den Lernprozess auch im Mathematikunterricht durch den Einsatz von Materialien zu unterstützen. Die Arbeitsschritte dienen dabei oft der Vorbereitung oder Herleitung von Verfahren - in der Hoffnung, dass durch die Veranschaulichung Zusammenhänge besser verstanden werden. Worin dann das Verstehen besteht, wenn im Ergebnis ein Verfahren von den Kindern erfolgreich abgearbeitet wird, ist nicht unmittelbar zu sehen.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of injuries and overuse in soccer players; Bildgebende Diagnostik von Verletzungen und Ueberlastungsschaeden bei Fussballern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, M.C. de; Maas, M.; Kuijk, C. van [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-10-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. There is a high incidence of injuries in soccer in which several intrinsic and extrinsic factors play a part. Most injuries are minor, self-limiting and do not need extensive medical treatment or imaging. Imaging can be required for several reasons e.g. when the clinical findings are doubtful, to replace arthroscopy (i. e. of the knee) or for prognostic reasons. All imaging modalities available to the radiologist can be used but MRI is the most valuable imaging modality with its superior contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Basically, injuries in the soccer player can occur anywhere in the body like in every sport. The lower extremities, more specific the knee and ankle, are however the most injured parts. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist eine der weltweit populaersten Sportarten, und Verletzungen sind mit hoher Inzidenz zu finden, wobei bestimmte intrinsische und extrinsische Faktoren eine pathogenetisch wesentliche Rolle spielen. Der Schweregrad von Verletzungen ist meist gering und selbstlimitierend, eine ausgiebige Behandlung oder die Durchfuehrung bildgebender diagnostischer Massnahmen sind nicht noetig. Die radiologische Untersuchung ist indiziert bei klinisch unklaren Befunden, zur Planung einer etwaigen Arthroskopie oder zur klinisch-prognostischen Einschaetzung der Veraenderungen. Von den verfuegbaren Modalitaeten ist die MRT von groesster Bedeutung. Verletzungen als Folge des Fussballspielens sind in allen Koerperabschnitten zu beobachten, v. a. an den unteren Extremitaeten und hier besonders an Knie- und Sprunggelenk. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic imaging of the hand. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Rainer [Herz und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Lanz, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The book on diagnostic imaging of the hand covers the following issues: projection radiography, cinematography, MRT and CR arthrography, arthroscopy, arteriography, skeleton scintiscanning, sonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, anatomy of forearm and carpus, anatomy of metacarpus and fingers, carpal function and morphometry, postoperative X-ray diagnostic, growing hand skeleton, normative variants, malformations and deformities, trauma of the distal forearm, lesions of the ulnocarpal complex (TFCC), scaphoid fractures, scaphoid arthrosis, fractures of other carpus bones, carpal luxations and luxation fractures, carpal instabilities, fractures of the metacarpalla, finger fractures, arthrosis deformans, enthesiopathies, sport induced soft tissue lesions, osteonecrosis, impingement syndromes, osteopenic skeletal diseases, metabolis diseases, crystal-induced osteoarthropaties, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatic fever, collagenoses, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infections, cystoids bone lesions, skeletal tumors, soft tissue tumors, carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve compression syndrome, arterial perfusion disturbances, differential diagnostic tables on hand lesions.

  9. Verfahren zur Hydroformylierung, Liganden mit von Bisphenol A abgeleiteter Struktur und Katalysator umfassend einen Komplex dieser Liganden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2002-01-01

    Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Hydroformylierung ethylenisch ungesättigter Verbindungen, wobei man als Hydroformylierungskatalysator wenigstens einen Komplex eines Metalss der VIII. Nebengruppe mit wenigstens einer phosphorhaltigen Verbindung als Liganden einsetzt, wobei diese

  10. Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Im Zeichen des Klimawandels haben sich führende Industrienationen geeinigt, ihre jeweiligen CO2-Emissionen signifikant zu senken. Diese Reduktionsziele können nur erreicht werden, wenn die Emissionen bei der Energieerzeugung deutlich gesenkt werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das sogenannte Chemical Looping Verfahren untersucht, bei dem Energie aus fossilen Energieträgern gewonnen und das dabei entstehende CO2 abgeschieden wird. Die aktuelle Forschung im Bereich Chemical Looping konzentr...

  11. Ein Verfahren zur schnellen experimentellen Charakterisierung der Quietschneigung von Kfz-Scheibenbremsen

    OpenAIRE

    Gödecker, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Die Hauptaufgabe der bei dieser Arbeit im Vordergrund stehenden Kfz-Scheibenbremse ist das Verzögern des Fahrzeuges durch den auftretenden Reibeffekt. Dabei kann es zu ungewollten selbsterregten Schwingungen und damit zu störenden Geräuschentwicklungen kommen. Dieses bei der Entwicklung und Konstruktion von Bremsen vorherzusagen und zu vermeiden ist ein großes Thema in Industrie und Forschung. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren beschrieben, mit dem experimentell schnell, noch vor dem Auft...

  12. Methods of heat transformation for solar facilities in buildings; Verfahren der Waermetransformation fuer die solare Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Gruppe Aktive Thermische Systeme; Treffinger, P. [Deutsche Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Lampoldshausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-02-01

    Processes in which a heat pump cycle is driven by thermal energy may be defined as heat transformation processes. The technical realization of this type of processes in general is based on sorption techniques. Depending on the temperature level of the utilized heat these technologies may be used for either cooling or heating of buildings. The paper presents state-of-the-art technologies and new developments. It comprises solar cooling of buildings, utilization of environmental energy sources (earth, air) by thermal driven heat pumps and seasonal storage of solar thermal energy by means of sorption processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter Waermetransformationsverfahren werden im allgemeinen Verfahren verstanden, in denen ein Waermepumpenprozess mit thermischer Energie angetrieben wird. Die technische Realisierung dieser Verfahren erfolgt ueberwiegend mit Hilfe von Sorptionsvorgaengen. Abhaengig vom Temperaturniveau des Nutzwaermestroms koennen solche Verfahren im Gebaeudebereich fuer die Kuehlung oder Heizung eingesetzt werden. Im Beitrag werden der Stand der Technik sowie neue Entwicklungen vorgestellt. Im einzelnen umfasst der Beitrag die solare Kuehlung von Gebaeuden, die Nutzung von Umweltenergie (Erdreich, Luft) mittels thermisch angetriebener Waermepumpen sowie die saisonale Speicherung von Solarenergie ueber Sorptionsprozesse. (orig.)

  13. Von Roll RCP method - first experiences; Von Roll RCP - Verfahren. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, P.; Engweiler, J. [Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The RCP method was designed as a residue-optimised alternative to the thermally optimised grate firing of residual wastes. Its technical realisation and development to market maturity took no more than 5 years. In the first process stage the waste is converted to high-carbon pyrolysis charcoal and high-rank gas in the absence of oxygen. In the second stage these substances are oxidised by addition of oxygen. The resulting temperature causes the non-combustible constituents of the slag to melt. In a third, optional, stage this molten slag can be liberated of (heavy) metals to such an extent that it can subsequently be used directly as additive for grinding. Further exhaust gas treatment is facilitated by the use of a circulatory fluidised-bed secondary combustion chamber. Despite the reduced flue gas volume and resultant higher pollutant concentrations in the crude gas, overall emissions are lower than in conventional plants. [Deutsch] Das reststoffoptimierte RCP Verfahren ist als Alternative zur thermisch optimierten Rostverbrennung von Restabfaellen konzipiert. In nur fuenf Jahren wurde das Verfahren technisch umgesetzt und zur Marktreife entwickelt. In einer ersten Stufe des Verfahrens wird der Abfall unter Luftabschluss in einen kohlenstoffreichen Pyrolysekoks und eine heizwertreiches Gas umgesetzt. Im zweiten Schritt werden diese Stoffe unter Zugabe von Sauerstoff oxidiert. Dabei treten Temperaturen auf, bei denen die nichtbrennbaren Bestandteile der Schlacke schmelzen. Optional wird diese Schmelzschlacke in einem dritten Schritt derart von (Schwer-) Metallen befreit, dass sie anschliessend direkt als Zement-Zumahlstoff eingesetzt werden kann. Die Nutzung der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht - Nachbrennkammer zur Abgasbehandlung vereinfacht die weitergehende Abgasbehandlung. Trotz verringertem Rauchgasvolumen und damit hoeheren Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Rohgas werden die Gesamtemissionen gegenueber konventionellen Anlagen verringert. (orig./SR)

  14. Processes, spheres of use and importance of sewage sludge disintegration; Verfahren, Einsatzgebiete und Bedeutung der Klaerschlammdesintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    The paper gives an overview of results attained by means of mechanical sludge disintegration methods and compares them with thermal and ozone treatment. The objective is to describe in scientific as well as application-oriented terms the opportunities held and limits to this process step of sludge treatment. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Beitrags wird eine Uebersicht ueber die mit mechanischen Verfahren der Schlammdesintegration erreichten Ergebnisse und ein Vergleich mit der Waerme- und der Ozonbehandlung gegeben. Ziel des Beitrages ist es, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieses Prozessschrittes der Schlammbehandlung aus wissenschaftlicher wie aus anwendungsorientierter Sicht darzustellen. (orig.)

  15. Typisierung von HLA-Klasse-II-Merkmalen mittels des TaqMan-Verfahrens

    OpenAIRE

    Tremmel, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    In Anlehnung an die konventionelle SSP-PCR-Methode wurde ein Low-Resolution-Panel mittels des TaqMan-Prinzips entwickelt und es wurde exemplarisch für DR4 und DR15/16 gezeigt, daß die auf dem 5 Nuklease-Assay beruhende Methode fähig ist, auch einzelne Punktmutationen voneinander zu unterscheiden. Das Grundprinzip dieser Methode basiert ähnlich dem der PCR-SSP auf dem Verfahren der PCR und auf dem Ausnutzen genetischer Unterschiede. So kommt es nur zu einer Amplifizierung wenn beide Primer spe...

  16. Narrative Kompetenz: Anforderungen an ein Verfahren der Sprach-standsfeststellung im Elementarbereich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kapica

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche Merkmale ein Verfahren zur Feststellung des Sprachstandes im Bereich Erzählkompetenz vereinen sollte, um nutzbare Informationen für die Planung an-schließender Fördermaßnahmen zu liefern. Dabei wird von der spracherwerbstheoretisch hergeleiteten Annahme ausgegangen, dass Förderangebote entwicklungssensitiv angelegt sein sollten, also von der erwartbaren Erwerbsprogression und dem jeweiligen Sprachstand des Kindes ausgehen sollten. Mit dieser diagnostischen Zielsetzung vor Augen werden anhand der Kategorien „entwicklungspsychologische/schulische Relevanz“, „profilanalytische Auswertung“ sowie „Authentizität der Sprachdaten“ Anforderungen an ein förderdiagnostisches Verfahren formuliert und exemplarisch auf Erkenntnisse der Spracherwerbsforschung zurückbezogen. The present article addresses the question of which characteristics a language proficiency assessment of children ́s narrative competence should possess to allow for its results to be used for planning subsequent assistance measures.The underlying assumption states that language acquisition processes follow their own inherent developmental pathway. Language promotion programmes should therefore be responsive to the children's development and be based on the respective proficiency level and the learning progress that may be expected. In view of this objective, the article specifies requirements on „interventional diagnostics” and correlates these with insights from languageacquisition research.

  17. Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes; Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren. Fachseminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    The experts` seminar on ``Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes`` is the third event of its kind to be held by the Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF=Centre for Waste Research). The purpose of the seminar is to de-emotionalise the debate going on between environment-oriented citizens, authorities, scientists, operators, and manufacturers and to find solutions that are acceptable in terms of costs as well as environmental impact. The seminar deals with traditional methods such as grate firing as well as with new methods such as low-temperature carbonisation, thermoselect, Noell-KRC, or RCP processes. [Deutsch] Das Fachseminar `Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren` ist die 13. Veranstaltung dieser Art, die durch das Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF) durchgefuehrt wird. Das Seminar soll dazu beitragen, die Diskussion zwischen umweltbewuessten Bevoelkerungsgruppen, Behoerden, Wissenschaft, Betreibern und Herstellern zu versachlichen und dabei Loesungen zu finden, die hinsichtlich der Kosten und der Umweltbeeintraechtigung vertretbar sind. Es werden sowohl die traditionellen Verfahren wie Rostfeuerung als auch neue Verfahren wie Schwelbrenn-, Thermoselekt-, Noell-KRC- oder RCP-Verfahren behandelt. (orig.)

  18. Fair in the face: modern diagnostics of midfacial trauma; Mitten ins Gesicht: Moderne bildgebende Diagnostik beim Gesichtsschaedeltrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajaczek, J.E.W. [Abt. Neuroradiologie (OE 8210), Zentrum Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Rodt, T.; Keberle, M. [Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Modern diagnostics of midfacial trauma are embedded in a diagnostic concept that is oriented to the therapeutic relevance for the individual. Critical analysis of the indicated and efficient radiological method in the acute phase shows that MSCT is currently the method of choice in the diagnosis of midfacial trauma. Besides extensive acquisition of data in the shortest time the possibilities of modern post-processing provide a three-dimensional picture of the often complex injuries in real time. Other perilous injuries are often more important especially for the polytrauma patient. With modern scan protocols intracranial injuries as well as injuries of bone and soft tissue of the head and neck region can be diagnosed during a single examination. Radiology plays a key role for the economically oriented strategy of patient care. (orig.)

  19. OCR-D - Koordinierte Förderinitiative zur Weiterentwicklung von OCR-Verfahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Herrmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Das Projekt OCR-D hat zum Ziel, das Verfahren der automatischen Texterkennung historischer Texte weiterzuentwickeln. Nach einer primären Phase der Bedarfsanalyse folgt 2018 die Modulprojektphase. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt in Kürze das in der ersten Projektphase erarbeitete Funktionsmodell von OCR-D und geht auf die Herausforderungen der einzelnen Prozessschritte ein. Für diese sollen die Modulprojekte zukünftig Lösungen erarbeiten. The OCR-D Project aims to refine the process of automatic text recognition especially for historical texts. After an initial analysis of the requirements in the first phase of the project, the second project phase – the module project phase – will start in 2018. The article describes the function model of OCR-D and addresses the challenges which have to be met at different process steps. These are supposed to be solved in the module projects

  20. The Siemens pyrolysis-combustion process; Das Siemens Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, D. [Siemens - KWU, Offenbach (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The market introduction fo the SIEMENS pyrolysis-combustion process is a technical and ecological milestone in thermal waste processing. It bridges the gap between conventional incineration and recycling and is ideally suited for the modern waste management philosophy. The innovative combination of pyrolysis followed by high-temperature combustion produces energy and reusable materials nearly without emissions. (orig/sr) [Deutsch] Die Markteinfuehrung des Schwel-Brenn-Verfahrens hat im Bereich der thermischen Muellentsorgung eine technologische und oekologische Zeitenwende eingeleitet. Es fuegt sich als Bruecke zwischen herkoemmlicher Muellverbrennung und stofflichem Muell-Recyling ideal in das Konzept einer oekologischen Kreislaufwirtschaft. Die innovative Kombination von Muellverschwelung (Pyrolyse) und anschliessender Hochtemperaturverbrennung wandelt den unvermeidbaren Restmuell nahezu rueckstandsfrei in Wertstoffe und Energie um. (orig/SR)

  1. The Siemens pyrolysis-combustion process; Das Siemens Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, D [Siemens - KWU, Offenbach (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The market introduction fo the SIEMENS pyrolysis-combustion process is a technical and ecological milestone in thermal waste processing. It bridges the gap between conventional incineration and recycling and is ideally suited for the modern waste management philosophy. The innovative combination of pyrolysis followed by high-temperature combustion produces energy and reusable materials nearly without emissions. (orig/sr) [Deutsch] Die Markteinfuehrung des Schwel-Brenn-Verfahrens hat im Bereich der thermischen Muellentsorgung eine technologische und oekologische Zeitenwende eingeleitet. Es fuegt sich als Bruecke zwischen herkoemmlicher Muellverbrennung und stofflichem Muell-Recyling ideal in das Konzept einer oekologischen Kreislaufwirtschaft. Die innovative Kombination von Muellverschwelung (Pyrolyse) und anschliessender Hochtemperaturverbrennung wandelt den unvermeidbaren Restmuell nahezu rueckstandsfrei in Wertstoffe und Energie um. (orig/SR)

  2. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Wirbelsäulenchirurgische Verfahren und Bedeutung bei osteoporotischen Wirbelkörperfrakturen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuscher R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotische Wirbelbrüche sind häufig. Der Großteil ist gutartig mit einem selbstlimitierenden Verlauf. Allerdings sehen wir in der Wirbelsäulenchirurgie zunehmend auch die Problemfälle: persistierende Instabilität/ Pseudarthrose nach einer Fraktur, der langsam progressive Verlust der Haltung/Wirbelsäulenbalance als Folge mehrerer Wirbelbrüche und schließlich neurologische Komplikationen in Verbindung mit einer osteoporotischen Fraktur. Die Injektion von Knochenzement zur Stabilisierung von Wirbelfrakturen ist effizient und hat sich bewährt. Damit erreicht man eine Stabilisierung des Wirbels und eine sehr wirksame Schmerzkontrolle. Zusätzlich (und häufig zu wenig beachtet können damit ein weiteres Einsintern des Knochens verhindert und Folgekomplikationen so vermieden werden. Wo diese einfache minimalinvasive Technik nicht mehr genügt, sind offene Verfahren notwendig. Auch dabei wird eine kombinierte Technik angewendet: Die Stabilisierung erfolgt nach den gängigen wirbelsäulenchirurgischen Prinzipien, zur Verankerung der Implantate im osteoporotischen Knochen wird ebenfalls Knochenzement verwendet.

  4. Imaging diagnostics of the wrist: MRI and Arthrography/Arthro-CT; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Handgelenkes: MRT und Arthrographie/Arthro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M.; Balas, R.; Neugebauer, F. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Betzdorf (Germany); Vrsalovic, V. [Handchirugie, Marienhospital Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    statistisch signifikant: Fuer die MRT lag er bei 0,94, fuer AG und ACT bei 0,99 resp. 0,98. In der Diagnostik traumatischer Verletzungen, speziell von Skaphoidfrakturen, war die MRT der AG und ACT deutlich ueberlegen. Ferner war die Moeglichkeit der funktionellen Beurteilung in der AG wertvoll zur Diagnostik von ligamentaeren Defekten (n=25). Schlussfolgerung: Fuer die Erkrankungen des ulno-karpalen Komplexes ist bei hoher Zuverlaessigkeit beider Verfahren die AG/ACT der MRT gering ueberlegen. In der Diagnostik von traumatischen und vaskulaeren Veraenderungen ist die MRT der AG/ACT vorzuziehen. (orig.)

  5. Percutaneous liver biopsy. Overview of different techniques; Perkutane Leberbiopsie. Uebersicht ueber verschiedene Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, J.; Blum, M.; El-RaBadi, K.; Langenberger, H.; Happel, B.; Berger, J.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2005-01-01

    To classify a liver tumor, image-guided percutaneous biopsy of a liver lesion is indicated. Using ultrasound (US) to guide a biopsy needle into a liver lesion has been proven useful and safe. If a lesion cannot be seen on US or the access to a lesion has been complicated by its position, CT-guided biopsy can be performed. If a lesion cannot be delineated on US or CT, MR-guided biopsy is recommended. Using hepatospecific contrast agents, the time span to delineate tumor tissue can be prolonged. To differentiate diffuse liver disease, transvenous biopsy under fluoroscopic control can be performed if a percutaneous biopsy is contraindicated. In recent years fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been increasingly replaced by coaxial 14-20 G core biopsy, which is a safe and efficient technique to classify liver lesions and has a low complication rate. (orig.) [German] Zur definitiven Klaerung der Dignitaet und Tumorklasse einer Leberlaesion ist eine bildgesteuerte perkutane Biopsie indiziert. Unter Verwendung der Sonographie ist das Verfahren treffsicher und einfach. Die computertomographiegezielte Biopsie ist wegen der ueberlagerungsfreien, reproduzierbaren Darstellung von Leberherden und ihren Nachbarstrukturen in vielen Faellen besser geeignet. Fuer Laesionen, die sich weder mit Ultraschall noch mit CT biopsieren lassen, bietet sich die Magnetresonanztomographie an. Durch den Einsatz leberspezifischer Kontrastmittel kann das Zeitfenster zur Durchfuehrung einer Biopsie verlaengert werden. Zur Abklaerung diffuser Lebererkrankungen wird bei kontraindizierter perkutaner Biopsie eine transvenoese Leberbiopsie unter Durchleuchtung empfohlen. Die in den 1980er Jahren propagierte Feinnadelaspirationsbiopsie wurde zunehmend durch Stanzbiopsien (Durchmesser 14-20 gg) in koaxialer Technik ersetzt, da diese eine zuverlaessige artdiagnostische Klassifikation bei niedriger Komplikationsrate ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  6. An algorithm for calculating unsteady flow with free surface; Ein Verfahren zur Berechnung instationaerer Stroemungen mit freier Oberflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetzky, B.

    2001-07-01

    A numerical model for the transient, free surface flow is implemented in a Finite-Element program for the unsteady calculation of incompressible flow with free surface. The program is used to calculate the flow in different components of a hydraulic turbine, the Pelton turbine. The movement of the fluid with free surface is described mathematically by introducing a partial differential equation for the volume fraction. This equation is simply a transport equation for f, i.e. the volume fraction is advected with the flow in time. The equations is solved numerically. (orig.) [German] Es wird ein Verfahren zur Modellierung von veraenderlichen, freien Oberflaechen vorgestellt und in einem Finite-Elemente-Programm zur numerischen Berechnung von instationaeren, inkompressiblen Stroemungen implementiert. Die veraenderliche, freie Oberflaeche wird mit einem Volume-Of-Fluid Ansatz erfasst. Zur Approximierung der freien Oberflaeche werden stueckweise konstante oder gestufte Verlaeufe im Element angesetzt. Es werden die Eigenschaften des Verfahrens an ausgewaehlten Beispielen mit freier Oberflaeche untersucht. Das erweiterte Programm wird auf instationaere Stroemungen mit freier Oberflaeche in einer hydraulischen Maschine, der Peltonturbine, angewandt. (orig.)

  7. Ultrasound-guided image fusion with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical utility for imaging and interventional diagnostics of hepatic lesions; Ultraschallgestuetzte Bildfusion mittels CT und MRT. Klinische Bedeutung fuer die bildgebende und interventionelle Diagnostik von Leberlaesionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevert, D.A.; Helck, A.; Paprottka, P.M.; Trumm, C.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Zengel, P. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Abdominal ultrasound is often the first-line imaging modality for assessing focal liver lesions. Due to various new ultrasound techniques, such as image fusion, global positioning system (GPS) tracking and needle tracking guided biopsy, abdominal ultrasound now has great potential regarding detection, characterization and treatment of focal liver lesions. Furthermore, these new techniques will help to improve the clinical management of patients before and during interventional procedures. This article presents the principle and clinical impact of recently developed techniques in the field of ultrasound, e.g. image fusion, GPS tracking and needle tracking guided biopsy and discusses the results based on a feasibility study on 20 patients with focal hepatic lesions. (orig.) [German] Bei der Bildfusion von Ultraschall mit anderen schnittbildgebenden Verfahren (CT, MRT) handelt es sich um ein relativ neuartiges Verfahren, welches unter Studienbedingungen jedoch bereits erfolgreich eingesetzt wurde. In der folgenden Machbarkeitsstudie soll der Nutzen weiterfuehrender Anwendungen der sonographischen Bildfusion, dem so genannten Global-Positioning-System- (GPS-) und Needle-Tracking, untersucht werden. Dabei handelt es sich um Instrumente, die insbesondere die Diagnostik und das Staging (GPS-Tracking) bzw. die bioptische Abklaerung (Needle-Tracking) von Patienten mit fokalen Leberlaesionen erleichtern. In diesem Artikel werden das Prinzip und die Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten dieser neuen Techniken anhand konkreter Beispiele in einem Kollektiv von 20 Patienten mit fokalen Leberlaesionen vorgestellt und erlaeutert. (orig.)

  8. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  9. Radiography in construction and combination of other NDT methods; Radiografie im Bauwesen und Kombination anderer ZfP-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenstab, Andreas [Ingenieurbuero Dr. Hasenstab GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Redmer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung- und pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Radiography is in material examination one of the important research methods. So in the steel and plant construction a variety of studies are carried out. In construction, the dominance is the investigations with radar, ultrasonic echo and so in this contribution especially applications with radiographic methods are discribed. Furthermore the combination with different NDT methods should be presented. In all examples there was a combination of radiography and other non-destructive testing methods. In the first example, there is a combination of radiography with ultrasound echo and drilling resistance to an old oak beam from the St. Mary´s church in Lutherstadt Wittenberg (Germany). Measurements by reinforcement locating and radiography of steel plates in the vault of castle Lustheim near Munich and studies using radar and radiography at a temple in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin round off the examples. [German] Die Radiografie stellt in der Materialuntersuchung eine der bedeutendsten Untersuchungsmethoden dar. So werden im Stahl- und Anlagenbau eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. Im Bauwesen liegt die Dominanz der Untersuchungen bei den Verfahren Radar, Ultraschallecho und so sollen im folgenden Beitrag vor allem Anwendungsbeispiele mit radiographischen Methoden beschrieben werden. Weiter soll die Kombination unterschiedlicher ZfP-Verfahren dargestellt werden. Bei allen Beispielen kam es zu einer Kombination von Radiografie mit anderen zerstoerungsfreien Pruefverfahren. Im ersten Beispiel kommt es zu einer Kombination von Radiografie mit Ultraschallecho und Bohrwiderstand an einem alten Eichenbalken aus der Marienkirche aus Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Messungen mittels Bewehrungsortung und Radiografie an Stahllaschen im Gewoelbe des Schlosses Lustheim bei Muenchen und Untersuchungen mittels Radar und Radiografie an einem Tempel im Pergamonmuseum in Berlin runden die Beispiele ab.

  10. Mechanical/thermal dehydration - a new process for treatment of peat and coal; Mechanisch/Thermische Entwaesserung - ein neues Verfahren zur Veredelung von Torf und Kohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergins, C; Berger, S; Strauss, K [Dortmund Univ. (Germany); Elsen, R O [RWE Energie, Essen (Germany); Erken, M [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Bielfeldt, F B [Dieffenbacher, Eppingen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In order to keep German brown coal competitive, new technologies for enhanced efficiency of power generation from brown coal were developed in the past few years. At a water content of 50-60 percent by weight, much energy is lost for evaporation. Reduction of the water content will incur a 5 percent effiency enhancement. A new process was developed at Dortmund university, i.e. mechanical/thermal dehydration in which the water contained in brown coal is removed by heat and mechanical pressure. The process is described, and its applicability for other moist fuels, e.g. peat or waste from the paper and wood processing industry ist discussed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Damit Braunkohle in Deutschland als heimischer und subventionsfreier Energietraeger diesen Stellenwert behaupten und in Zukunft weiter ausbauen kann, wurde in den letzten Jahren verstaerkt die Entwicklung neuer Technologien zur Effizienzsteigerung der Braunkohleverstromung vorangetrieben. Bei der Verbrennung von Braunkohlen mit Wassergehalten von 50-60 Gew.-% ist in herkoemmlichen Kraftwerken ein erheblicher Teil des Energieinhaltes zur Verdampfung des Wassers mit Hilfe von heissen Rauchgasen in sogenannten Mahltrockungsanlagen erforderlich. Durch eine energetisch guenstige Reduzierung des Wassergehaltes vor der Verbrennung sind hier Wirkungsgradsteigerungen um bis zu 5 Prozentpunkte moeglich. Ein neues, fuer diese Aufgabenstellung einsetzbares Verfahren ist das am Lehrstuhl Energieprozesstechnik und Stroemungsmechanik der Universitaet Dortmund entwickelte Mechanisch/Thermische Entwaesserungsverfahren (MTE-Verfahren). Durch die kombinierte Anwendung von Waerme und mechanischem Druck laesst sich das in der Kohle enthaltene Wasser in fluessiger Form entfernen. Neben der Darstellung des MTE-Verfahrens am Beispiel von Braunkohle soll im folgenden auch auf die Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung des Verfahrens fuer andere feuchte Brennstoffe wie Torf und Abfaelle aus der Papier- und Holzverarbeitung eingegangen werden

  11. Mechanical-biological waste treatment with thermal processing of partial fractions; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Technologies for mechanical-biological treatment of waste in the Land of Hessen were compared including thermal processes like combustion and gasification. The new and more rigid limiting values specified in the Technical Guide for Municipal Waste Treatment (Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall - TASI) get a special mention. [Deutsch] Verschiedene Technologien der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung im Raum Hessen wurden unter Einbezug thermischer Verfahren (Verbrennung, Vergasung) miteinander verglichen. Dabei wurden besonders auf die verschaerften Grenzwerte der Technischen Anleitung Siedlungsabfall (TASI) eingegangen. (ABI)

  12. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  14. Zur Entwicklung eines interaktiven Verfahrens der Sprachstandsermittlung bei mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindern – von der Idee zu ersten Umsetzungsschritten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Roche et al.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag skizziert ein Konzept zur Sprachstandsermittlung, das aufbauend auf Ergebnissen der gebrauchsbasierten Spracherwerbsforschung die sprachlichen Fähigkeiten von Vorschulkindern in quasi-natürlichen Gesprächssituationen misst. Den Maßstab bilden dabei die altersgemäßen Deutschkompetenzen monolingualer und bilingualer Kinder im Vorschulalter. Mit dem neuen Verfahren soll eine akkurate Bewertung der kommunikativen Kompetenzen der Kinder am Übergang zur Schule erfolgen, die eine systematische Benachteiligung mehrsprachig aufwachsender Kinder aufgrund von Vergleichen mit zielsprachlichen Erwachsenennormen vermeidet. Das neuartige Erhebungsverfahren wird dabei in Form einer digitalen Spielumgebung (App entwickelt, die eine Umsetzung der Prinzipien des handlungsorientierten Sprachenlernens erlaubt. This paper presents the implementation of a new concept of first and second language assessment for pre-school children between four and six years. The concept is theoretically grounded in usage-based linguistics. It assesses language in authentic communicative settings in a game based app. The settings provide the children with incentives to engage in communication. As a result, the assessment tool does not evaluate formal aspects of language. Instead it relies on functional categories for evaluation. Norms for evaluations are derived from longitudinal corpus studies of authentic child language production. The goal of the new approach is to generate an accurate and fair assessments of the children’s communicative capacities. Pilot studies indicate that children with L2 German appear to be more advanced than shown by traditional form-based assessment methods.

  15. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  16. Development of a method for influencing the nutrient content ofs stabilised sewage sludge by further treatment. Final report; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Beeinflussung der Naehrstoffgehalte bei der weitergehenden Behandlung von stabilisierten Klaerschlaemmen. Verfahren der Aerob-Anoxischen Nachbehandlung - AAN-Verfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlaender, G.; Lopp, M.

    2002-11-01

    -N-Rueckbelastungen in die KA um etwa 70% reduziert, waehrend sich die N-Frachten im entwaesserten Klaerschlamm um etwa 45% vermindern. Die Trockensubstanzgehalte im Klaerschlamm werden durch weiteren Abbau organischer Verbindungen um 20...25% reduziert. Dies kommt einer aequivalenten Mengenreduzierung des entwaesserten Klaerschlammes gleich. Die Entwaesserungseigenschaften des Schlammes werden deutlich verbessert. Vor allem die erhoehte Trennschaerfe und somit die verbesserte Schlammwasserqualitaet bedeutet im praktischen Einsatz eine Einsparung an Betriebskosten fuer Chemikalien (z.B. Polyelektrolyt). Tests in der Kammerfilterpresse und Flockungstest zeigten ebenfalls verbesserte Entwaesserungseigenschaften. Weiterhin ist festzustellen: Die Moeglichkeit der Faulzeitverkuerzung (ca. 15 d) bringt weitere Einsparpotentiale im Bereich der Schlammfaulung. Die zusaetzliche Rueckbelastungsreduzierung in Bezug auf P und schwer abbaubaren CSB entlastet die KA. Die Kombination mit der Klaerschlammdesintegration kommt vor allem bei sehr kurzen Faulzeiten (ca. 10 d) zum Tragen. Die Erprobung des Verfahrens fuer simultan aerob stabilisierte Schlaemme fuehrte, auch in Kombination mit der Klaerschlammdesintegration, nur zu Stickstoffreduzierungen von bis zu 15% und blieb damit unter den Erwartungen. Insgesamt laesst sich feststellen, dass das Projekt inhaltlich erfolgreich abgeschlossen wurde, dass die Ergebnisse in Bezug auf die Hauptzielrichtungen ausserordentlich positiv ausfielen und das der vorgesehene Kostenrahmen eingehalten wurde. Die Reduzierung der Stickstoffgehalte wird in absehbarer Zeit vorrangig der landschaftsbaulichen Verwertung zugute kommen. Insbesondere die Kombination der genannten Effekte macht das Verfahren fuer die praktische Anwendung interessant. (orig.)

  17. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  18. Gasification of residual waste by the PreCon {sup trademark} process on the basis of high-temperature Winkler gasification (HTW); Vergasung von Restmuell nach dem PreCon {sup trademark} -Verfahren auf Basis der Hochtemperatur-Winkler Vergasung (HTW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J; Luetge, C; Deutsch, M [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Wischnewski, R; Mittelstaedt, A [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The HTW process is an established technology. Experiments in the laboratory and in a demonstration plant resulted in a valid design basis for the PreCon {sup trademark} process. The economic efficiency and competitive strength of the process is outlined. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das HTW-Verfahren praesentiert sich als eine bewaehrte, grosstechnisch erprobte Technologie fuer eine geaenderte Applikation. Die Umsetzung der in den Versuchen im Technikum und an der Demonstrationsanlage gewonnenen positiven Ergebnisse fuehrt zu einer abgesicherten Auslegungsgrundlage fuer das PreCon {sup trademark} -Verfahren. Die Wirtschaftlichkeit und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit des Verfahrens laesst sich schon heute darstellen. (orig./SR)

  19. Investigations on pretreatment of waste prior to fermentation by percolation using the ISKA {sup registered} process; Untersuchungen zur Vorbehandlung von Abfaellen vor der Vergaerung mittels Perkolation nach dem ISKA {sup registered} -Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). FG Abfallwirtschaft; Fricke, K. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfallwirtschaft; Engelhard, T.; Widmer, C. [ISKA GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Waste treatment prior to fermentation is a key aspect in achieving economic efficiency. One process is presented here in particular: percolation, in which waste is hydrolyzed aerobically, treated mechanically, and washed out with the aid of process water. The process involves a percolation stage followed by a fermentation stage. The process water burdened with organic matter is passed into a fermentation reactor in which the organic components are reacted anaerobically into biogas and bacterial mass, and the process water is recirculated into the percolation reactor. (orig.) [German] Vergaerungstechnologien zaehlen zu den etablierten Verfahren zur Gewinnung regenerativer Energien aus Biomasse. Fuer die Energieeffizienz dieser Verfahren sind die Leistung der Vergaerungsstufe, die Hoehe der Verfuegbarkeit der anaerob abzubauenden organischen Substanzen und der spezifische Energiebedarf des Behandlungsverfahrens massgeblich. Eine Schluesselstellung fuer die Optimierung beider Faktoren nimmt die Abfallaufbereitung vor der Vergaerung ein. Eine Technoloie zur Aufbereitung vor der Vergaerung basiert auf dem Verfahren der Perkolation, in der der Abfall aerob hydrolysiert,mechanisch aufgeschlossen und durch Zugabe von Prozesswasser ausgewaschen wird. Das Verfahren besteht aus einer Aufbereitung - der Perkolation - sowie einer nachgeschalteten Vergaerung. Das mit vergaerbarer Organik beladene Prozesswasser wird einem Vergaerungsreaktor zugefuehrt, in dem die organischen Komponenten anaerob zu Biogas und Bakterienmasse umgesetzt werden. Das aufbereitete Prozesswasser wird anschliessend wieder dem Perkolationsreaktor zugefuehrt. (orig.)

  20. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  1. Role of imaging procedures in clarification of complications of pneumonia; Rolle der bildgebenden Verfahren zur Abklaerung von Pneumoniekomplikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampichler, K. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    oder Rhythmusstoerungen koennen sich im Rahmen einer Pneumonie entweder neu manifestieren oder infektbedingt verschlimmert werden. Eine fruehzeitige Diagnose und Therapie dieser teils lebensbedrohlichen Komplikationen sind entscheidend und beeinflussen den Therapieerfolg massgeblich. Zu den wichtigsten bildgebenden Verfahren zaehlen das Lungenroentgen und die Computertomographie des Thorax. Eine eindeutige Charakterisierung der Pathologie ist sowohl im Lungenroentgen als auch in der CT manchmal schwierig oder gar nicht moeglich, trotzdem ergeben sich wichtige Hinweise auf intra- und extrapulmonale Komplikationen einer Pneumonie, die mithilfe der Radiologie fruehzeitig erkannt werden koennen. Als zusaetzliche portable Untersuchungsmodalitaet direkt am Patienten eignet sich der Pleuraultraschall zur weiteren Diagnosesicherung und Interventionshilfestellung. Das Lungenroentgen ist sowohl als unkomplizierte initiale Bildgebung als auch zur Kontrolle des Therapieverlaufs wichtig. Bei Verdacht auf Komplikationen, Fortschreiten der Erkrankung oder Diskrepanz zur klinischen Symptomatik sollte eine weiterfuehrende CT des Thorax durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  2. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  3. Überblick zu Additive-Manufacturing-Verfahren im Industrie-Einsatz: Vortrag gehalten auf dem 1. VDI-Strategiekongress "Additive Manufacturing" 2017, Technologien - Globale Produktionsverbünde 4.0 - neue Geschäftsmodelle, 21. - 22. März 2017, Stuttgart

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Die additive Fertigung von Komponenten ermöglicht vollkommen neue Wege in der Entwicklung und Fertigung innovativer Bauteile und Produkte. Das Spektrum am Markt verfügbarer sowie neu an den Markt gelangender additiver Fertigungsverfahren ist weit und unübersichtlich. Einige wenige Verfahren haben bereits heute einen Status erreicht, der serienhafte industrielle Applikation möglich macht. Dazu gehört zum Beispiel das pulverbett- und laserbasierte Verfahren Laser-Strahlschmelzen zur additiven H...

  4. Part project 1. Methods and concepts of biological waste composting. Comparison - evaluation - recommendations; Teilbericht 1. Verfahren und Konzepte der Bioabfallkompostierung. Vergleich - Bewertung - Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Helm, M.; Schoen, H. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Topics of this article are: composting of biological wastes; techniques, operation modes, regional concepts, engineering, hygienical, ecological, economical aspects. (SR) gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das uebergeordnete Ziel des Weihenstephaner Verbundvorhabens bestand darin, fachliche Grundlagen und Entscheidungshilfen fuer den Bereich der Kompostierung und der Verwertung von biogenen Reststoffen, insbesondere der getrennt erfassten organischen Abfaelle aus den Haushaltungen (Bioabfall), zu schaffen. In diesem Rahmen sollen sowohl verschiedene Verfahren und Techniken der Kompostierung als auch regionale Konzepte hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer, hygienischer, oekologischer, oekonomischer und die Entsorgungssicherheit betreffender Aspekte untersucht und bewertet werden. (orig./SR)

  5. Part project 1. Methods and concepts of biological waste composting. Comparison - evaluation - recommendations; Teilbericht 1. Verfahren und Konzepte der Bioabfallkompostierung. Vergleich - Bewertung - Empfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A; Helm, M; Schoen, H [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik der Technischen Univ. Muenchen-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Topics of this article are: composting of biological wastes; techniques, operation modes, regional concepts, engineering, hygienical, ecological, economical aspects. (SR) gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das uebergeordnete Ziel des Weihenstephaner Verbundvorhabens bestand darin, fachliche Grundlagen und Entscheidungshilfen fuer den Bereich der Kompostierung und der Verwertung von biogenen Reststoffen, insbesondere der getrennt erfassten organischen Abfaelle aus den Haushaltungen (Bioabfall), zu schaffen. In diesem Rahmen sollen sowohl verschiedene Verfahren und Techniken der Kompostierung als auch regionale Konzepte hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer, hygienischer, oekologischer, oekonomischer und die Entsorgungssicherheit betreffender Aspekte untersucht und bewertet werden. (orig./SR)

  6. The fuel index method as a new planning instrument in the erection and redevelopment of residential estates; Das Brennstoffkennzahl-Verfahren als neues Planungsinstrument fuer Neubau- und Sanierungsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsenberger, U. [Industrie und Communal Consulting GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Boese, M.; Diefenbach, N.; Petersdorff, C.; Schultze, K. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Inst. A

    1998-12-31

    The fuel index method aims at the largest possible exploitation of conservation potentials in residential thermal energy supply. The introduction of a thermal quality standard for thermal energy systems lays the foundation in process engineering terms for a competition between environment-friendly thermal energy supply and thermal insulation, with the aim to save energy and cost. Using higher-grade thermal energy at higher cost than current energy costs is approved of if its use involves an ambitious conservation aim. In this way, particularly rational energy techniques are promoted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Brennstoffkennzahl-Verfahren zielt auf eine effektive Erschliessung weitgehender Einsparziele bei der Waermeversorgung von Wohngebieten. Mit der Einfuehrung der Waermequalitaet als Guetemass eines Waermeversorgungssystems werden die verfahrenstechnischen Grundlagen fuer eine auf kostenguenstige Energieeinsparung ausgerichtete Konkurrenz zwischen umweltfreundlicher Waermeversorgung und Waermeschutz geschaffen. Waerme hoeherer Qualitaet darf bei Vorgabe eines ehrgeizigen Einsparziels teurer sein als heute ueblich. Damit wird der Einsatz besonders rationeller Energietechniken gefoerdert. (orig.)

  7. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  8. Untersuchungen zum Fettsäurestoffwechsel bei koronarer Herzkrankheit

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Wolf-Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Die nicht-invasive bildgebende Diagnostik hat bei koronarer Herzkrankheit einen wichtigen Stellenwert für die Diagnosestellung und Therapieplanung. In diesem Zusammenhang liefern nuklearmedizinische Verfahren wichtige Daten zur Gewebsperfusion und erlauben die bildliche Darstellung und Quantifizierung relevanter Details des kardiomyozytären Stoffwechsels. Die quantitativ bedeutendste Methode der nuklearmedizinischen Herzdiagnostik ist die Perfusionsszintigraphie mit Tl-201 oder einem der Tc-9...

  9. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  10. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  11. Posttherapeutic changes in bone marrow; Posttherapeutische Veraenderungen am Knochenmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geith, T.; Stellwag, A.C.; Baur-Melnyk, A. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The bone marrow basically consists of red blood-forming bone marrow and yellow fat. In the skeleton, there is an age-dependent distribution of these two parts. In the context of medical interventions or therapies, bone marrow changes can occur, whereby the normal bone marrow can basically be replaced by fat, edema, or fibrosis/sclerosis. Here, specific signal intensities and patterns are shown in imaging. After irradiation therapies, edematous changes, hemorrhages, and osteoradionecroses are observed. Likewise, insufficiency fractures, impairment of the growth gaps, or the development of tumors is possible. In patients on dialysis, deposit of protein in the bone marrow is possible in the case of the so-called amyloidosis osteoarthropathy. Postoperative bone marrow edema, insufficiency fractures, or osteonecrosis can be observed after arthroscopy. Changes in the distribution of fat markers and blood-forming bone marrow can be observed after stem cell transplants. In the therapy with cortisone, insufficiency fractures and osteonecroses are possible. Depending on their effect on the hematopoietic system, chemotherapies can first lead to edematous changes and then to fatty bone marrow, which is reversible after therapy. Angiogenesis inhibitors in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents often lead to mixed images of stimulated and fatty bone marrow. (orig.) [German] Das Knochenmark besteht grundsaetzlich aus rotem blutbildenden Knochenmark und gelbem Fettmark. Im Skelett besteht eine altersabhaengige Verteilung dieser beiden Anteile. Im Rahmen von aerztlichen Eingriffen oder Therapien kann es zu Veraenderungen des Knochenmarks kommen, wobei das normale Knochenmark grundsaetzlich durch Fett, Oedem oder Fibrose/Sklerose ersetzt werden kann. Dabei zeigen sich in bildgebenden Verfahren spezifische Signalintensitaeten und Muster. Nach Bestrahlungstherapien sind oedematoese Veraenderungen, Haemorrhagien und Osteoradionekrosen zu beobachten. Ebenso sind

  12. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  13. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several inches long with a hollow core to capture the bone specimen. The CT scanner is typically ... IV), ultrasound machine and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How ...

  14. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  15. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  16. Männer und Frauen sind nicht gleich. Über Geschlechterstereotype in juristischen Verfahren Men and Women are not Equal. On Gender Stereotypes in Legal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fröhlich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Weibliche und männliche Angeklagte wurden in den NS-Prozessen nach 1945 nicht gleich behandelt. In den Aufsätzen des von Ulrike Weckel und Edgar Wolfrum herausgegebenen Sammelbandes ‚Bestien‘ und ‚Befehlsempfänger‘. Frauen und Männer in NS-Prozessen nach 1945 werden der unmittelbar nach der Kapitulation Deutschlands von den Alliierten initiierte Nürnberger Prozess gegen die Hauptkriegsverbrecher, die Verfahren gegen SS-Aufseherinnen sowie die Hochverratsprozesse in der Weimarer Republik und im Nationalsozialismus analysiert. Daneben ist die Berichterstattung über den Nürnberger Prozess als einem „medialen Großereignis“ ebenso Gegenstand der Untersuchung wie die Fernsehberichterstattung über das in den 1970er Jahren geführte Majdanek-Verfahren gegen SS-Aufseher und -Aufseherinnen. Die Autorinnen fragen, ob und welche Geschlechterstereotype Rechtsprechung und Berichterstattung geprägt haben, welche Funktionen den dabei formulierten Männer- und Frauenbildern im Kontext der Konstituierung der beiden deutschen Gesellschaften nach 1945 zukamen und wie sie kulturgeschichtlich zu verorten sind. Nach der mittlerweile etablierten Täterinnenforschung rückt ein geschlechtergeschichtlicher Ansatz in das Blickfeld der Forschung zu NS-Prozessen und ihrer Wahrnehmung, der frauen- und männergeschichtliche Studien gleichermaßen anregen kann.Accused men and women were not treated equally in the Nazi trials after 1945. In the articles of the volume edited by Ulrike Weckel und Edgar Wolfrum ‘Bestien’ und ‘Befehlsempfänger’. Frauen und Männer in NS-Prozessen nach 1945, the Nuremberg Trials—initiated by the Allies against the main war criminals immediately after the capitulation of Germany, trials against SS concentration camp guards, and trials of high treason during the Weimar Republic and National Socialism are analyzed. A further subject of the study is the reporting of the Nuremberg Trials as a “major media event”, as

  17. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  18. Protection of the unborn child in diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures; Schutz des ungeborenen Lebens bei diagnostischen und interventionellen radiologischen Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojreh, A.; Prosch, H.; Karanikas, G.; Trattnig, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Homolka, P. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer medizinische Physik und biomedizinische Technik, Wien (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    The radiation exposure of an unborn child should be principally avoided, whenever it is medically reasonably possible; therefore, the identification of pregnant patients is the first and the most important step in radiation protection of the unborn child. However, in cases of emergency saving the life of the patient has a higher priority than the radiation protection of the unborn child. In this review article, we present a longitudinal section through the national and international literature and guidelines as a basis for radiological management of a (possibly) pregnant patient. We also list some radiological procedures recommended in the literature for a series of maternal indications considering the contraindications of each method during pregnancy and radiation protection of the unborn child. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlenexposition eines ungeborenen Kindes ist prinzipiell, wann immer dieses medizinisch sinnvoll moeglich ist, zu vermeiden. Daher ist die Identifizierung der schwangeren Patientinnen der erste und wichtigste Schritt zum Strahlenschutz des ungeborenen Kindes. In einer Notfallsituation hat allerdings das Leben der Patientin hoechste Prioritaet. In dieser Uebersichtsarbeit praesentieren wir einen Laengsschnitt durch die nationale und internationale Literatur und Leitlinien, die als Grundlage fuer das radiologische Management einer (moeglicherweise) schwangeren Patientin angewendet werden kann. Wir stellen auch einige in der Literatur empfohlene radiologische Verfahren fuer eine Reihe von Indikationen in der Schwangerschaft vor. Dabei werden sowohl die Kontraindikationen der jeweiligen Methode waehrend der Schwangerschaft als auch der Strahlenschutz des ungeborenen Kindes beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  19. Tanne plant - first results of soil treatment according to the anaerobic/aerobic method; Werk Tanne - Erste Ergebnisse der Bodenbehandlung nach dem Anaerob-Aerob-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Walter, U. [Umweltschutz Nord GmbH, Ganderkesee (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Biological remediation of STV contaminated sites has been a major focus of the promotion activities of the Federal Research and Education Ministry (BMFB) for some years now. For this purpose the BMFB has drawn together diverse integrated research projects to bring a well-coordinated force of activities to bear on this problem in a manner unprecedented in Germany. Its declared aim in doing so is, firstly, to compile a guide on biological remediation and, secondly, to funnel the output of all ongoing German research in this field into the second phase of its research activities at the ''Tanne'' plant in Clausthal-Zellerfeld, which is dedicated to practice-oriented testing of methods for the biological remediation of STV contaminated sites. [German] Die biologische Sanierung von Standorten, welche mit STV kontaminiert sind, ist seit einigen Jahren eines der markanten Ziele der BMBF-Forschungsfoerderungen. Durch die bislang in der bundesweiten Forschung einmalige, Forschungsverbund uebergreifende, koordinierte Buendelung saemtlicher wissenschaftlicher Aktivitaeten ist es erklaertes Ziel, zum einen einen Leitfaden zur biologischen Sanierung herauszuarbeiten, zum anderen, die aktuellen, bundesweiten, wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse in die seit Mai 1998 am Standort 'Werk Tanne' in Clausthal-Zellerfeld laufende Phase 2 der BMBF-Forschungsaktivitaeten, naemlich die praxisorientierte Erprobung von Verfahren zur biologischen Sanierung von STV-belasteten Standorten, einzugreifen. (orig.)

  20. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  1. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  2. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  3. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  4. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Parents / Broken Bones What's in this ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  5. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  6. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  7. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  8. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  9. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  10. The semidry acid-anhydrite process (the use of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum by development of a new process for the production of FGD anhydrite); Das quasitrockene Saeure-Anhydrit-Verfahren (Erweiterung der Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Hueller, R. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Limmer, B. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    -Anhydrit untersucht. Die Reaktion erfolgt mit feuchtem, feinteiligem REA-Gips unter der katalytischen Wirkung kleiner Mengen Schwefelsaeure bei Temperaturen um 100 bis 200 C. Es wird wasserfreier REA-Anhydrit mit orthorhombischer Kristallstruktur erhalten. Die Umwandlung des Kristallgitters von Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat in Calciumsulfat-Anhydrit II vollzieht sich dabei direkt durch Mineralneubildung. Diese Umwandlung wird zu einem Verfahren entwickelt und als `Quasitrockenes Saeure-Anydrit-Verfahren` bezeichnet. Die Reaktion und ihr Mechanismus wurde zuerst in Laborversuchen untersucht. Als Ausgangsstoff ist jedes feinteilige Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat geeignet. Der bereits im Kraftwerk feinteilig-kristallin erzeugte REA-Gips mit 10% Restfeuchte ist besonders vorteilhaft, da er fuer diese Verwendung vorher nicht getrocknet und nicht gemahlen werden muss. Die Verfahrensentwicklung wurde bis in den halbtechnischen Massstab durchgefuehrt und Auslegungsgrundlagen fuer Grossanlagen an Kraftwerksstandorten erarbeitet. Als Reaktionsaggregat zeigte sich der direkt beheizte Drehrohrofen geeignet. Der REA-Anhydrit wird in diesem Verfahren als trockenes feinteiliges Produkt mit reproduzierbaren Teilchengroessen um 2 Mikron erhalten und besitzt neuartige technologische Eigenschaften. Seine Verwendungsmoeglichkeit wurde fuer die Zementindustrie sowie als Rohstoff zur Herstellung von Fuellstoffen untersucht. Fuer die Zementindustrie ist er grundsaetzlich geeignet. Der Einsatz als Fuellstoff ermoeglicht eine erweiterte Verwendung des REA-Gipses ausserhalb der traditionellen Bereiche der Gipsindustrie. Erste Versuche erlauben die Schlussfolgerung, dass der REA-Anhydrit nach einer Aufbereitung, die ebenfalls labormaessig neu entwickelt wurde, die fuer einen hochwertigen Fuellstoff notwendigen guten Eigenschaftsmerkmale hat. (orig.)

  11. The scintigraphic reaction pattern of traumatic bone lesions; Das szintigraphische Reaktionsmuster knoecherner Verletzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, J. [Praxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Staedtisches Klinikum Wiesbaden (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    The indications for bone scintigraphy in traumatology result: 1. Definite exclusion of bone lesions by normal scintigraphic findings (except for the scull). 2. Unclear result of X-ray or a mismatch between clinical investigation and X-ray result. 3. Screening after multiple injury which leads to the detection of an unknown bone lesion in every second patient. 4. Suspicion of a complicated healting course in cases of doubtful X-ray results. 5. The estimation of relative fracture age. This question always rises, if a pre-existing trauma or morphologic changes in X-ray make a clear diagnosis impossible. The additional information gained by bone scintigraphy is in part exclusive and not to be drawn from any other imaging modality. This renders bone scintigraphy to an important tool in the work up of medico-legal questions in traumatology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus den speziellen szintigraphischen Eigenschaften knoecherner Verletzungen ergeben sich die Indikationen fuer die Skelettszintigraphie in der Traumatologie: 1. Ausschluss einer ossaeren Laesion durch einen szintigraphischen Normalbefund (bei Einhaltung eines ausreichenden Abstandes zum Trauma bilden nur die Schaedelknochen eine Ausnahme); 2. ein unklarer Roentgenbefund oder eine Diskrepanz zwischen Klinik, Anamnese und Roentgenbild; 3. das Screening nach Polytrauma, das bei jedem zweiten unfallverletzten Patienten eine zusaetzliche, bis dahin noch nicht bekannte und radiologisch dann nachvollziehbare Fraktur nachweist; 4. der Verdacht auf einen gestoerten Heilungsverlauf, soweit die primaer eingesetzte Roentgendiagnostik keine verbindliche Interpretation erlaubt; 5. die Bestimmung des relativen Frakturalters, die von Bedeutung ist, wenn vorbestehende Unfaelle in der Anamnese oder morphologische Veraenderungen die Interpretation des Roentgenbildes beeintraechtigen. Die mit Hilfe der Skelettszintigraphie erhaltenen Informationen sind zum Teil exklusiv und mit keinem anderen bildgebenden Verfahren so einfach zu

  12. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  13. Simulation of thermal radiation, illustrated by the Bridgman casting process for directional solidification of turbine blades; Simulation von Waermestrahlung am Beispiel des Bridgman-Verfahrens zur gerichteten Erstarrung von Turbinenschaufeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, N

    1996-12-31

    Directionally solidified turbine blades for high-temperature applications today are commonly produced by the Bridgman casting process. The production of a newly constructed turbine blade requires a number of costly and time-consuming casting experiments. The author develops a numerical simulation model based on the finite element method and net radiation method for low-cost and short-term simulation and optimisation of the casting experiments. Several different numerical methods for calculating thermal radiation are compared (radiosity, ray tracing and the finite difference method), and the simulation results are presented for several exemplry turbine blades. Further, an optimisation strategy for improving the quality of the turbine blade casting process is presented. (orig.). 65 figs., 8 tabs. [Deutsch] Gerichtet erstarrte Turbinenschaufeln mit hoher Einsatztemperatur werden nach dem heutigen Stand der Technik nach dem Bridgman-Verfahren gegossen. Die Herstellung einer neu konstruierten Turbinenschaufel verlangt eine Reihe von kosten- und zeitaufwendigen Giessexperimenten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein numerisches Simulationsmodell auf Basis der Finiten Elemente Methode und Net Radiation Methode entwickelt, mit dem sich kostenguenstig und in kurzen Zeitraeumen die Giessversuche simulieren und optimieren lassen. Die Arbeit vergleicht verschiedene numerische Loesungsverfahren fuer die Waermestrahlung (Radiosity, Ray Tracing und Finite Differenzen Verfahren) und stellt am Beispiel einiger Turbinenschaufeln die Simulationsergebnisse dar. Weiterhin wird eine Optimierungsstrategie fuer Verbesserung der Gussqualitaet von Turbinenschaufeln vorgestellt. (orig.)

  14. Prüfungen zur Beurteilung der Brandgefahr; Beispiele für Verfahren zur Beurteilung einer Brandgefahr und für die Auslegung von Ergebnissen; 3.1: Kennwerte der Verbrennung und Übersicht über Prüfverfahren zu ihrer Ermittlung; Identisch mit IEC 60695-3-1, Ausgabe 1982

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsches Institut für Normung. Berlin

    1986-01-01

    Prüfungen zur Beurteilung der Brandgefahr; Beispiele für Verfahren zur Beurteilung einer Brandgefahr und für die Auslegung von Ergebnissen; 3.1: Kennwerte der Verbrennung und Übersicht über Prüfverfahren zu ihrer Ermittlung; Identisch mit IEC 60695-3-1, Ausgabe 1982

  15. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  16. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  17. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  18. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  19. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  20. Postoperative and posttherapeutic changes after primary bone tumors. What's important for radiologists?; Postoperative und posttherapeutische Veraenderungen nach primaeren Knochentumoren. Was ist wichtig fuer den Radiologen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, T. [Klinikum Augsburg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Augsburg (Germany); Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M. [Med. Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2017-11-15

    Posttreatment imaging of primary bone tumours represents a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Depending on the primary bone tumour common radiological procedures, such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are employed. Radiography and CT are particularly useful in benign bone tumours and in matrix-forming bone tumours. MRI comes into consideration with malignant tumour recurrence and tumoral soft tissue infiltration. Bone scintigraphy is of superior importance if a primarily multifocal manifestation of bone tumour or metastasizing tumour disease is suspected. Molecular imaging (FDG-PET and hybrid imaging, using CT) are gaining increasing importance in light of monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and detecting recurrent tumour appearance. The current literature shows sensitivity and specificity values for recurrent detection of up to 92% and 93%. Diagnostic accuracy is as high as 95%, thus, exceeding accuracy values for CT (67%) and MRI (86%) by far. Likewise, this is also applicable for the assessment of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, PET-based modalities are able to establish prognostic statements using SUV-threshold values at baseline (especially for Ewing sarcomas). Advanced imaging techniques have made a great diagnostic step forward and have proven to be relevant and reproducible with respect to both relapse detection and treatment assessment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether a higher detection rate of early tumour recurrence will inevitably lead to better outcome and survival. (orig.) [German] Die posttherapeutische Bildgebung primaerer Knochentumoren stellt eine diagnostische Herausforderung fuer jeden Radiologen dar. In Abhaengigkeit vom primaeren Knochentumor werden zur Nachsorge die gaengigen radiologischen Standardverfahren eingesetzt (Projektionsradiographie, Computertomographie [CT] und Magnetresonanztomographie [MRT]). Die Projektionsradiographie und CT haben einen besonderen Stellenwert v. a

  1. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  2. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  3. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  4. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  5. Gear's method with a BICG variant - solutions, algorithms, applications in temperature calculation in fire protection and thermal insulation; Das Verfahren von Gear mit BICG-Loeser - Grundlagen, Algorithmen und Anwendungen auf Temperaturberechnungen aus dem Brand- und Waermeschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebau, F. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich 3 - Mathematik; Rudolphi, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    If we apply the multistep method of W. Gear for the integration of a system of ordinary differential equations to the nonlinear heat conduction equation in the implementation EPISODE, this results in memory problems due to the band structure of the Jacobian, because EPISODE uses a LU-decomposition with pivoting. The report describes measures which suit this method to the actual conditions. If we use the storage scheme for sparse matrices from Liebau, Rudolphi, only the nonzero elements of the Jacobian are stored. In case of a linear problem, this matrix only has to be computed once. The BI-CGSTAB-method, an iterative method, replaces the LU-decomposition resp. the solution of the linear (and possibly non-symmetric) system of equations resulting from the corrector step. If {tau} is the time step length and h the space step length, this BICG-variant has good convergence properties for a moderate ratio of {tau}/h{sup 2}. The report also includes a short description of the program INSTATCP developed in Borland Delphi 4/Object Pascal. Two applications from the field of fire protection and thermal insulation in buildings (fire insulated steel column and vertically perforated brick) show that the modifications of the Gear method work effectively. (orig.) [German] Wird das Mehrschnittverfahren von W. Gear zur Integration eines Systems gewoehnlicher Differentialgleichungen in der Implementation EPISODE auf die nichtlineare Waermeleitungsgleichung angewandt, so ergeben sich aufgrund der Bandstruktur der Jacobi-Matrix Speicherplatzprobleme, da EPISODE eine LU-Zerlegung mit Pivot-Wahl benutzt. Der Bericht beschreibt Massnahmen, mit denen das Verfahren an die hier vorliegende Situation angepasst wird. Durch die Verwendung des Speicherschemas fuer Sparse-Matrizen aus Liebau, Rudolphi werden nur die Nichtnullelemente der Jacobi-Matrix gespeichert. Liegt insbesondere ein lineares Problem vor, so braucht diese Matrix nur einmal berechnet zu werden. Das BI-CGSTAB-Verfahren, also

  6. Functional MRI procedures in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging; Funktionelle MR-Verfahren in der Diagnostik intraaxialer Hirntumoren. Perfusions- und Diffusions-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Neurologische Klinik, Abteilung Neuroradiologie; Heiland, S.; Sartor, K.

    2002-08-01

    Despite the increased diagnostic accuracy of contrast material enhanced MR imaging, specification and grading of brain tumors are still only approximate at best: neither morphology, nor relaxation times or contrast material enhancement reliably predict tumor histology or tumor grade. As histology and tumor grade strongly influence which therapy concept is chosen, a more precise diagnosis is mandatory. With diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI, PWI) it is now possible to obtain important information regarding the cellular matrix and the relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) of brain tumors, which cannot be obtained with standard MR techniques. These dynamic-functional imaging techniques are very useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, lymphomas, and metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from abscesses, atypical ischemic infarctions, and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, they appear suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy and therapy. After therapy these techniques are helpful to better assess the tumor response to therapy, possible therapy failure and therapy complications such as radiation necrosis. (orig.) [German] Die radiologische Diagnostik intraaxialer Hirntumoren ist durch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) erheblich verbessert worden, besonders nach Einfuehrung der paramagnetischen Kontrastmittel. Mit konventionellen MR-Verfahren ist aber noch keine verlaessliche Unterscheidung zwischen Gliomen, Metastasen, primaeren Lymphomen und tumorsimulierenden entzuendlichen Erkrankungen moeglich. In dieser Hinsicht vielversprechend sind neue, funktionell-dynamische MR-Verfahren, mit denen sich nicht-invasiv die zerebrale Wasserdiffusion und Mikrozirkulation erfassen lassen und die eine bessere Gewebecharakterisierung erlauben als die herkoemmlichen MR-Methoden. Die Perfusions-MRT erfasst

  7. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondain, J.E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  8. Vladimir Byurchiev, Ankle Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Vladimir says that today not many children play with ankle bones. He recalls when he was young, children played with bones more often. According to Vladimir, various games using ankle bones develop flexibility, agility, and muscle in children’s hands. Ankles bones are taken from the back legs of a cow or a sheep. It is possible to determine the age and health of animals by examining this particular bone. Arcadia

  9. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  10. Using the tool of Life Cycle Assessment for evaluating processes of waste water and sludge treatment; Einsatzmoeglichkeiten des Life Cycle Assessment in der Bewertung von Verfahren der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigerl, T.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik; Wiebusch, B. [Eurawasser Aufbereitungs- und Entsorgungs GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Whenever advances in waste water treatment were achieved in the past they have spelt technically more sophisticated processes for the elimination of water-toxic products. At present, waste water treatment technology faces further demands. Apart from the issue of economy and the avoidance of excessive burdens to citizens, a question increasingly raised is whether waste water cleaning processes are themselves environment-friendly. Related studies are internationally known as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). (orig.) [German] Fortschritte in der Abwasserreinigung bedeuteten bisher jeweils technisch aufwendigerere Loesungen zur Eliminierung gewaesserschaedigender Stoffe. Heute muss sich die Abwassertechnik weiteren Anforderungen stellen. Neben der Wirtschaftlichkeit und damit der Vermeidung unzumutbarer Belastungen fuer die Buerger wird immer mehr die Frage gestellt, ob die Verfahren der Abwasserreinigung selbst umweltvertraeglich sind. Die damit verbundenen Untersuchungen werden international als 'Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)' bezeichnet. (orig.)

  11. Chair of geotechnical processes at the Institute for geotechnics and mine surveying at Clausthal Technological University; Professur fuer Geotechnische Verfahren am Institut fuer Geotechnik und Marktscheidewesen der TU Clausthal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, N. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Institut fuer Geotechnik und Marktscheidewesen (Germany)

    2003-08-14

    The Chair of Geotechnical Processes at the Institute for Geotechnics and Mine Surveying at Clausthal Technological University is concerned primarily with practical fundamental research in addition to teaching, in which comprehensive theoretical and practical experience from all areas of geotechnics is imparted. (orig.) [German] Der Lehrstuhl Geotechnische Verfahren am Institut fuer Geotechnik und Markscheidewesen der TU Clausthal befasst sich neben der Lehre, in der umfangreiche theoretische und praktische Erfahrungen aus allen Bereichen der Geotechnik vermittelt werden, in erster Linie mit der praxisnahen Grundlagenforschung. Die bearbeiteten Problemstellungen liegen bei der Bauwerk-Baugrund-Interaktion, Stabilitaetsproblemen bei Unterwasserboeschungen, der Umweltgeotechnik, der Geomesstechnik und dem Einsatz von Geokunststoffen in der Geotechnik und dem Bergbau. Die Forschungsvorhaben werden in enger Kooperation mit der Industrie durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  12. Applicability of geostatistical procedures for the evaluation of hydrogeological parameters of a fractured aquifer in the Ronneburg mine district; Anwendbarkeit geostatistischer Verfahren zur Beurteilung hydrogeologischer Parameter eines heterogenen Kluftaquifers im Ronneburger Bergbaurevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasshoff, C.; Schetelig, K. [RWTH Aachen, Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie (Germany); Tomschi, H. [Harress Pickel Consult GmbH, Huerth (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The following paper demonstrates, how a geostatistical approach can help interpolating hydrogeological parameters over a certain area. The basic elements developed by G. Matheron in the sixties are represented as the preconditions and assumptions, which provide the best results of the estimation. The variogram as the most important tool in geostatistics offers the opportunity to describe the correlating behaviour of a regionalized variable. Some kriging procedures are briefly introduced, which provide under varying circumstances estimating of non-measured values with the theoretical variogram-model. In the Ronneburg mine district 108 screened drill-holes could provide coefficients of hydraulic conductivity. These were interpolated with ordinary kriging over the whole investigation area. An error calculation was performed, which could prove the accuracy of the estimation. Short prospects point out some difficulties handling with geostatistic procedures and make suggestions for further investigations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der folgende Artikel soll aufzeigen, inwiefern ein geostatistischer Ansatz hilfreich ist, um hydrogeologische Parameter flaechenhaft zu interpolieren. Dabei werden die von Matheron in den sechziger Jahren entwickelten Grundlagen vorgestellt und die Voraussetzungen definiert, unter denen die geostatistischen Schaetzmethoden die besten Ergebnisse liefern. Das Variogramm, als wichtigstes Werkzeug, bietet die Moeglichkeit, die raeumliche Korrelation der untersuchten Variable zu belegen. Mehrere Kriging-Verfahren werden skizzenhaft vorgestellt, die es unter unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen ermoeglichen, an den Stellen des Untersuchungsgebietes, wo keine Messungen vorliegen, Schaetzungen aus dem Variogramm-Modell zu errechnen. Im Ronneburger Bergbaugebiet wurden aus 108 verfilterten Bohrungen k{sub f}-Werte gewonnen, die mittels Ordinary Kriging flaechenhaft ueber das gesamte Untersuchungsgebiet interpoliert wurden. Eine Fehlerabschaetzung gibt ueber die

  13. Roentgenological semiotics of bone and bone joints pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented

  14. Verfahren zum Elektrodialysieren von Fluessigkeiten

    OpenAIRE

    Boergardts, P.

    1998-01-01

    This new method is used for the electrodialysis of fluids, accompanied by water electrolysis. Fluid containing a salt undergoes monopolar electrodialysis. Concentrate flowing from this stage is then subjected to bipolar electrodialysis. A novel feature of this process is that the concentrate stream undergoing bipolar electrodialysis, is mixed with fluid which has been reduced in concentration by bipolar electrodialysis, i.e. resultant dilutate. Also claimed is the equipment to carry out the p...

  15. Verfahren zur Gerbung von Tierhaeuten

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, M.; Weidner, E.; Geishler, H.

    2009-01-01

    DE 102009018232 A1 UPAB: 20101112 NOVELTY - Tanning an animal skin, comprises: (a) staining and picking the animal skin in an aqueous solution; (b) reducing the liquid content of the animal skin; (c) replacing at least part of the liquid content removed in the above step from the animal skin with a tanning solution; and (d) treating the tanning solution containing the animal skin with a compressed gas in a pressure container for a period of at least 15 minutes. USE - The method is useful for ...

  16. Vorrichtung und Verfahren zur Lichtintensitaetsmodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schnupp, R.; Thomas, J.

    2000-01-01

    WO 200052514 A UPAB: 20001223 NOVELTY - The modulator includes a surface element (1) with a reflective surface (3), and a base element (2) which is formed in one piece with the surface element. The surface element can be pivoted w.r.t the base element. The surface element and the base element have dimensions in the range between micrometers and millimeters. The elements are formed from semiconductor material, and at least a region of the surface element is covered with a layer of ferromagneti...

  17. VERFAHREN ZUM VERBINDEN METALLISCHER SCHAUMWERKSTOFFE

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetzner, H.; Horn, H.

    2003-01-01

    WO 200218089 A UPAB: 20020528 NOVELTY - Joining a first object (1) made of a metallic foam material to a second metallic object (2) in a connecting region (7) comprises moving a rotating friction stud (6) between the objects in the connecting region in a friction fit so that the objects are heated and plasticized as a result of friction and pressure exerted on the objects by the stud and then welding the two objects together. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Preferred Features: The friction stud is rot...

  18. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone ...

  19. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  20. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The doses of thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) don’t harm bone and shouldn’t be cause for concern. Only high doses, used for thyroid cancer treatment, can cause bone loss. High doses or long- ...

  1. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  2. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  3. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  4. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  5. Development of production-integrated methods of reducing environmental pollution by reducing energy and materials consumption in a textile finishing plant. Final report; Entwicklung produktionsintegrierter Verfahren zur Reduzierung von Umweltbelastungen durch Minimierung der Energie- und Stoffstrommassenstroeme am Beispiel eines Textilveredlungsbetriebes. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    The textile finishing industry is an industry with high consumption of energy, materials (dyes, finishing agents, chemicals), and water, and with a complex technology. The industry is forced to reduce organic water pollutants as well as the consumption of energy and water. This research project is to provide the fundamentals for further research. [German] Die mittelstaendisch strukturierte Textilveredlungsindustrie ist hinsichtlich ihres Energie- und Hilfsstoffbedarfs (Farbstoffe, Textilhilfsmittel, Chemikalien), des Bedarfs an Wasser als Loesemittel bzw. Medium fuer den Stofftransfer und der vorgegebenen Prozesstechnik zunehmend gezwungen, produktionsintegrierte Konzepte zur Reduzierung gewaesserrelevanter organischer Stoffe als auch des spezifischen Energie- und Wasserbedarfs zu entwickeln. Das geplante Forschungsvorhaben soll Grundlagen fuer produktionsintegrierte Massnahmen bzw. Verfahren schaffen, die zukunftsweisend - mit ausgepraegt oekonomischen Wirkungen - weitere Fortschritte bei Entlastung der Umweltkompartimente Wasser und Boden generieren. In diesem Sinne kommen anstelle der bislang ueberwiegend angewandten additiven Technologien nur Verfahren in Frage, die sich auf spezifisch belastete Abwasserteilstroeme konzentrieren, deren Behandlungsfaehigkeit vor dem Hintergrund der erwarteten Inhaltsstoffe untersucht werden soll. (orig.)

  6. Gracile bone dysplasias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O.; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera

    2002-01-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  7. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of gynecologic emergencies; Bildgebende Diagnostik gynaekologischer Notfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Matthias W. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Imaging and Imaging Science; John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Pediatrc Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology; Kubik, Rahel A. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Baden (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-09-15

    Acute abdominal pain related to the female genital organs is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Gynecological emergencies are diseases of the female reproductive system that are potentially life-threatening and peril the sexual function and fertility. In the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain, a wide variety of differential diagnoses needs to be considered depending on the age of the patient and a concomitant pregnancy. There is significant clinical overlap with gastrointestinal emergencies. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in diagnosing the cause of the pain and the planning of the therapy. The aim of this review is to illustrate the significant role of imaging in frequently encountered gynecologic emergencies.

  9. Diagnostic imaging of compression neuropathy; Bildgebende Diagnostik von Nervenkompressionssyndromen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weishaupt, D.; Andreisek, G. [Universitaetsspital, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    Compression-induced neuropathy of peripheral nerves can cause severe pain of the foot and ankle. Early diagnosis is important to institute prompt treatment and to minimize potential injury. Although clinical examination combined with electrophysiological studies remain the cornerstone of the diagnostic work-up, in certain cases, imaging may provide key information with regard to the exact anatomic location of the lesion or aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis. In other patients with peripheral neuropathies of the foot and ankle, imaging may establish the etiology of the condition and provide information crucial for management and/or surgical planning. MR imaging and ultrasound provide direct visualization of the nerve and surrounding abnormalities. Bony abnormalities contributing to nerve compression are best assessed by radiographs and CT. Knowledge of the anatomy, the etiology, typical clinical findings, and imaging features of peripheral neuropathies affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle will allow for a more confident diagnosis. (orig.) [German] Kompressionsbedingte Schaedigungen peripherer Nerven koennen die Ursache hartnaeckiger Schmerzen im Bereich des Sprunggelenks und Fusses sein. Eine fruehzeitige Diagnose ist entscheidend, um den Patienten der richtigen Therapie zuzufuehren und potenzielle Schaedigungen zu vermeiden oder zu verringern. Obschon die klinische Untersuchung und die elektrophysiologische Abklaerungen die wichtigsten Elemente der Diagnostik peripherer Nervenkompressionssyndrome sind, kann die Bildgebung entscheidend sein, wenn es darum geht, die Hoehe des Nervenschadens festzulegen oder die Differenzialdiagnose einzugrenzen. In gewissen Faellen kann durch Bildgebung sogar die Ursache der Nervenkompression gefunden werden. In anderen Faellen ist die Bildgebung wichtig bei der Therapieplanung, insbesondere dann, wenn die Laesion chirurgisch angegangen wird. Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und Sonographie ermoeglichen eine direkte Visualisierung der Nerven und ihrer umgebenden Strukturen. Knoecherne Laesionen, die zu einem Nervenkompressionssyndrom fuehren koennen, werden am besten mittels konventionellem Roentgenbild und/oder Computertomographie (CT) dargestellt. Die Kenntnis der anatomischen Gegebenheiten, Ursachen und klinischen Befunde sowie der Bildbefunde ist fuer die richtige Diagnose entscheidend. (orig.)

  10. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  11. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2007. When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 ...

  13. Cortical bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M. Jr.; Rogers, L.F.; Hendrix, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed

  14. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  16. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  17. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxi, Tarvinder; Sud Seema; Vohra, Rakesh; Sud, Aditi; Singh, Satnam

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the temporal bone is rare. The nature of the underlying disorder that converted into the ABC might, however, be difficult to ascertain on imaging as well as on histopathology. The unusual CT and MRI findings in a case of ABC of the temporal bone are presented. This had transdural intracerebral spread with a large component of solid enhancing matrix but no peripheral calcific rim. The patient was an adult of 45 years with a history of headache for more than 1 year Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  19. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  20. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  1. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  2. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  3. [Bone homeostasis and Mechano biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    The weight-bearing exercises help to build bones and to maintain them strength. Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. During bone remodeling, resorption by osteoclasts precedes bone formation by osteoblasts. Based on the osteocyte location within the bone matrix and the cellular morphology, it is proposed that osteocytes potentially contribute to the regulation of bone remodeling in response to mechanical and endocrine stimuli.

  4. Process development for utilizing asbestos cement waste in rotary kilns for the cement industry. Final report; Erarbeitung eines Verfahrens zur stofflichen Verwertung von zementgebundenen Asbestprodukten in Drehrohroefen fuer die Zementindustrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, R.; Kieser, J.; Kraehner, A.

    1999-11-01

    The law for recycling and waste demands the utilization also for waste of asbestos cement (ac). The procedure of thermal utilization of ac in the flame of a rotary cement kiln was developed and patented by the research institute IBU-tec Weimar, Germany. The ac-material has to be pre-pulverized and grinded to a degree of fineness of R{sub 90}<15%. Considerations of safety engineering lead to the idea of common fine grinding of old oil (oo) and ac. This new procedure was searched in FuE-project in 1998/99 (financial support by BMBF). A mash of ac and oo was generated as a utilization product ready for firing which was injected into the flame of the rotary cement kiln. This particles of ac smelt to spherical shaped particles at a temperature above 1500 C. They were utilized by clinker formation. The material and gas stream leaving the kiln does not contain fibres of asbestos. This was demonstrated in a small equipment burning test. The industrial realization concerning cement plant Ruedersdorf, near Berlin, was searched, technologically described and safety engineeringly and financially assessed by a project study. Process-technical and financial advantages were seen for the dry fine grinding. The wet fine grinding with old oil could be used in cement plants using old oil as fuel. (orig.) [German] Das Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (1994) fordert u.a. die stoffliche Verwertung auch fuer Asbestzementabfaelle (AZ). Das vom Institut fuer Baustoff- und Umweltschutz-Technologie Weimar 1995 entwickelte und patentierte Verfahren zur thermischen Verwertung von AZ in der Flamme eines Zementdrehrohrofens erfuellt diese Forderung. Das AZ-Material muss vorzerkleinert und bis zur Rohmehlfeinheit (R{sub 90}<15%) feingemahlen werden. Sicherheitstechnische Ueberlegungen fuehrten zu der Idee, die Feinmahlung zusammen mit Altoel (AOe) zu erproben. Diese Verfahrensvariante wurde im Rahmen eines FuE-Projektes 1998/99 untersucht (finanzielle Foerderung durch das BMBF). Als

  5. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  6. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    is an ordered array of bone fibers in a matrix material [1]. It is the dominant form of bone and closely resembles a layered fiber - reinforced ...mineral [3], [14]. These fibers are not independent structures, but exist only within the complex lamellar bone [13], similar to a fiber reinforced ...accuracy of this method. What this model does not provide is the transverse properties or a Poisson ’ s ratio for TC. Thus, we must assume that

  8. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, T.S.; Nilsson, O.S.; Lindholm, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45 Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  9. Development and application of a parallel finite volume method for flow simulation on unstructured grids with local refinement; Entwicklung und Anwendung eines parallelen Finite-Volumen-Verfahrens zur Stroemungssimulation auf unstrukturierten Gittern mit lokaler Verfeinerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, V.

    1997-11-01

    A finite vomume method for calculation of steady and unsteady flow on unstructured grids is parallelized by local spatial and time decomposition. In the first case, a parallel variant of the conjugated gradient method with multiple local preconditioning is formulated and analyzed. The method is tested for simple applications (e.g. flow around a cylinder). The second part of the publication describes a direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow around a sphere at a Reynolds number of 5000 (based on flow velocity and sphere diameter). Current and Reynolds-averaged flow fields are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on coordinate-independent representation of the anisotropy ratios of the Reynolds tensor and dissipation tensor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Finite-Volumen-Verfahren fuer die Berechnung stationaerer und instationaerer Stroemungen auf unstrukturierten Netzen wird durch Gebietszerlegung im Raum und Zeit parallelisiert. Fuer die raeumliche Zerlegung wird eine parallele Variante der konjugierten Gradienten Methode mit mehrfacher, lokaler Vorkonditionierung formuliert und analysiert. Anhand einfacher Anwendungsbeispiele (Zylinderumstroemung, deckelgetriebene Nischenstroemung) wird das entwickelte Gesamtverfahren getestet und seine Effizienz bestimmt. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit beschreibt eine direkte numerische Simulation der turbulenten Kugelumstroemung bei einer Reynolds-Zahl von 5 000 (basierend auf Anstroemgeschwindigkeit und Kugeldurchmesser). In der Ergebnisauswertung werden augenblickliche und Reynolds-gemittelte Stroemungsfelder diskutiert und besonderer Wert auf eine koordinatenunabhaengige Darstellung der Anisotropieverhaeltnisse des Reynolds-Tensors und des Dissipationstensors gelegt. (orig.)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  11. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  12. Bone Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Start here to find information on bone cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  13. Bone-building exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise plays an important role in the retention of bone density in the aging person. Studies show that exercises requiring muscles to pull on bones cause the bones to retain and possibly gain density.

  14. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  15. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, women generally have less bone tissue than men. So, it’s especially important for girls to build up their bone “bank account” during their teenage years by exercising regularly and getting enough calcium and vitamin D. What to do for strong bones—today and tomorrow Osteoporosis is usually a ...

  16. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  17. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine is the bone scintiscanning with labelled compounds for obtain skeletal images. The main sections in this work are: (1) bone composition and anatomy;(2)skeletal radiopharmaceutical development;(3)physical properties of radionuclides;(4)biological behaviour and chemical structures;(5)radiopharmaceuticals production for skeletal scintillation;(6)kits;(7)dosimetry and toxicity.tabs

  18. Treated unicameral bone cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, J.; Servaes, S.; Anupindi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course

  19. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  20. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  1. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  2. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  3. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  4. [Biomaterials in bone repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Mervi; Aho, Allan J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics, traumatology, and craniofacial surgery, biomaterials should meet the clinical demands of bone that include shape, size and anatomical location of the defect, as well as the physiological load-bearing stresses. Biomaterials are metals, ceramics, plastics or materials of biological origin. In the treatment of large defects, metallic endoprostheses or bone grafts are employed, whereas ceramics in the case of small defects. Plastics are employed on the artificial joint surfaces, in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and as biodegradable screws and plates. Porosity, bioactivity, and identical biomechanics to bone are fundamental for achieving a durable, well-bonded, interface between biomaterial and bone. In the case of severe bone treatments, biomaterials should also imply an option to add biologically active substances.

  5. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  6. Gut microbiome and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lidia; Rouleau, Matthieu; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2018-04-11

    The gut microbiome is now viewed as a tissue that interacts bidirectionally with the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine and nervous systems, affecting the cellular responses in numerous organs. Evidence is accumulating of gut microbiome involvement in a growing number of pathophysiological processes, many of which are linked to inflammatory responses. More specifically, data acquired over the last decade point to effects of the gut microbiome on bone mass regulation and on the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis) and of inflammatory joint diseases characterized by bone loss. Mice lacking a gut microbiome have bone mass alteration that can be reversed by gut recolonization. Changes in the gut microbiome composition have been reported in mice with estrogen-deficiency osteoporosis and have also been found in a few studies in humans. Probiotic therapy decreases bone loss in estrogen-deficient animals. The effect of the gut microbiome on bone tissue involves complex mechanisms including modulation of CD4 + T cell activation, control of osteoclastogenic cytokine production and modifications in hormone levels. This complexity may contribute to explain the discrepancies observed betwwen some studies whose results vary depending on the age, gender, genetic background and treatment duration. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved is needed. However, the available data hold promise that gut microbiome manipulation may prove of interest in the management of bone diseases. Copyright © 2018 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  8. Mechanotransduction by bone cells in vitro: mechanobiology of bone tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, M.; El Haj, A.J.; Yang, Y.; van Duin, M.A.; Burger, E.H.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical force plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodelling in intact bone and bone repair. In vitro, bone cells demonstrate a high responsiveness to mechanical stimuli. Much debate exists regarding the critical components in the load profile and whether different components, such

  9. Making silent bones speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , Obšrūtai and Kamšai were subjected to the AMS dating, tandem mass spectrometry for animal species identification as well as technological and use-wear analysis. The results revealed that all four bone points could be dated to the Boreal period and imply early-to-middle Mesolithic dates. Harpoons from...... of the present research, the paper shortly describes other scientific methods which could be applied to orphaned bone and antler tools including biomolecular and stable isotope analysis. Digital recording methods can be useful for bone artefact recording. This is relevant today, as the demand for good quality...

  10. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  11. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  12. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  13. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  14. Radionuclide bone image in growing and stable bone island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, R.T.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Wehbe, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A normal radionuclide bone image can facilitate distinction between a bone island and significant pathologic processes, especially an osteoblastic metastasis. This distinction becomes more crucial when growth is detected in an isolated sclerotic bone lesion or if a relatively large sclerotic lesion is detected de novo in patients with a known neoplasm. This report presents three patients with isolated bone islands: two with interval growth, the other with a relatively large stable lesion; all showing a normal radionuclide bone image. (orig.) [de

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... Defect reconstruction and fixation of the graft: The defect of ... where all loose fragments of fractured frontal bone was removed via the ... Mandible. • Ilium. • Allograft ... pediatric patients owing to skull growth. Thus, autologous ...

  1. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  2. Sodium and bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teucher, B.; Dainty, J. R.; Spinks, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor for osteoporosis because it induces calciuria, but the effects of salt on calcium metabolism and the potential impact on bone health in postmenopausal women have not been fully characterized. This study investigated adaptive mechanisms in response.......9 Versus 11.2 g) diets, reflecting lower and upper intakes in post men opausal women consuming a Western-style diet, were provided. Stable isotope labeling techniques were used to measure calcium absorption and excretion, compartmental modeling was undertaken to estimate bone calcium balance......, and biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were measured in blood and urine. Moderately high salt intake (11.2 g/d) elicited a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion (p = 0.0008) and significantly affected bone calcium balance with the high calcium diet 0.024). Efficiency of calcium absorption...

  3. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adults...... (n = 34) and subadults (n = 24). Additional samples of dentine from the root of 1st molars were taken from 16 individuals. The skeletal material is from a medieval cemetery (AD 1200-1573) in Holbaek, Denmark. Our results indicate that the petrous bone has an isotopic signal that differs significantly...... from that of femur and rib within the single skeleton (P bone and the 1st molar. The intraskeletal variation may reflect differences...

  4. Bone and glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Karine

    2018-06-01

    Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the most frequent cause of osteoporosis in young people. Bone loss and fracture risk increase rapidly after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy and are proportional to dose and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurement, as it is also related to impaired bone quality and increased risk of falls. Prevention should be considered in all patients beginning corticosteroid therapy, especially as the underlying inflammation in itself impairs bone quality. Bisphosphonates and teriparatide have shown efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Several national and international guidelines are available to improve management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains inadequate. Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the progression of the underlying inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  6. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  7. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  8. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  9. Treated unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A

    2013-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  11. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.D.; Nesbit, M.E.; Griffiths, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  13. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Bone scintigraphy is an integral part of the evaluation of bone disease in children. Common indications are suspected infection or inflammation, bone tumours and metastases, trauma and avascular necrosis. In all these disorders the sensitivity of scintigraphy is high. Gallium scintigraphy is often useful in children with clinical signs of infection not responding to treatment but the radiation dose is high. High quality images are essential. They depend on the full participation and co-operation of the child, parents and radiographers, the administration of appropriate analgesics, gentle but firm handling of the child, the injection of the appropriate amount of radiopharmaceutical, good positioning and immobilization, optimised equipment, and the acquisition of a suitable number of counts in an appropriate matrix size. Unless there are specific reasons for not doing so, we routinely perform two phase bone scintigraphy. This usually involves whole body blood pool and delayed images followed by static images of selected areas and, less often, pinhole images or SPECT. The interpretation of bone scan images in children requires knowledge of the age dependent differences in bone metabolism in the developing skeleton and the effect on the appearance of the maturing skeleton. (author)

  14. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan

    1998-01-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Guided bone regeneration : the influence of barrier membranes on bone grafts and bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn Frans Marie

    2008-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) can be described as the use of a barrier membrane to provide a space available for new bone formation in a bony defect. The barrier membrane protects the defect from in-growth of soft tissue cells and allows bone progenitor cells to develop bone within a blood clot

  17. Electrokinetic remediation - a new process for in-situ remediation of polluted land used as construction terrain; Elektrokinetische Bodensanierung - Ein neues Verfahren fuer die in-situ Sanierung bebauter Altlaststandorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    Electrokinetic Remediation is a coming up technology for the clean up of contaminated sites based on the electrokinetic phenomena in fine grained sediments. The following investigations offer theoretical and experimental consideration about the dependence of electrokinetic remediation techniques on the clay mineralogical composition of various clays. Finally, laboratory tests on the electroosmotic remediation of a chromate contaminated loess loam are presented. Different voltages applied led to important changes in the direction of chromate transport. When using low voltage (1 V) chromate transport was in the direction of water flow, and an increase of chromate in the effluent of the cathode could be measured. In contrast the application of high voltages up to 30 V changed the transport mechanism and high concentrations of chromate chould be detected in the anode reservoir. The results show that the clay mineral composition and the applied electric field controls the electroosmotic permeability, removal efficiency as well as the transport mechanism of the electrokinetic remediation technology in fine grained sediments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Elektrokinetische Verfahren werden in der Geotechnik zur Entwaesserung, Boeschungsstabilisierung und Bodenverbesserung von bindigen Sedimenten eingesetzt. Unter dem sanierungstechnischen Aspekt von kontaminierten Altlaststandorten ermoeglichen elektrokinetische Prozesse erstmals eine gezielte Mobilisierung von Schadstoffen (Schwermetalle, organische Verbindungen) auch in feinkoernigen Gesteinen. Entscheidend ist hierbei die Moeglichkeit eines in situ-Einsatzes unter Vermeidung des Bodenaushubes. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen vertiefen in theoretischen und versuchstechnischen Betrachtungen die Abhaengigkeit elektrokinetischer Sanierungsverfahren von der tonmineralogischen Zusammensetzung bindiger Gesteine. Oberflaechenladung und Oberflaechenpotential ausgewaehlter Tonminerale werden quantifiziert und den Ergebnissen aus

  18. The Institut for Mining - Chair in the Theory of Mining Methods and Operations at Clausthal Technological University; Das Institut fuer Bergbau - Professur fuer Bergbauliche Verfahrens- und Betriebslehre der TU Clausthal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, W.; Mischo, H. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2002-09-05

    The Chair in the Theory of Mining Methods and Operations (Deep Mines) at the Institute for Mining at Clausthal Technological University deals with the theory of and research into underground extraction of solid mineral raw materials. With the concentration and concentration of the German mining industry the department has focussed more attention on foreign mining industries and utilisation of the earth's crust in general. The extractive mining industry is augmented by the underground utilisation of cavities for disposal purposes and for infrastructural tasks. Accordingly the courses offered have been extended towards environmental protection and geotechnics. In particular basic research in the field of disposal in mines has become one of the main areas of research in the department not least of all because of the financing from public funds. Theory, research and further training now cover underground extraction in mines, disposal in mines and rehabilitation of contaminated industrial sites. (orig.) [German] Die Proffesur fuer Bergbauliche Verfahrens- und Betriebslehre (Tiefbau) am Institut fuer Bergbau der TU Clausthal befasst sich in Lehre und Forschung mit der untertaegigen Gewinnung von festen mineralischen Rohstoffen. Mit dem Rueckgang und der Konzentration des deutschen Bergbaus hat sich der Lehrstuhl staerker dem Auslandsbergbau und allgemein der Erdkrustennutzung zugewandt. Der Gewinnungsbergbau findet seine Ergaenzung in der untertaegigen Nutzung von Hohlraeumen fuer Entsorgungszwecke und fuer Infrastrukturaufgaben. Dementsprechend ist das Studienangebot in Richtung Umweltschutz und Geotechnik erweitert worden. Insbesondere die Grundlagenforschung auf dem Gebiet des Entsorgungsbergbaus ist zu einem Forschungsschwerpunkt des Lehrstuhls geworden, nicht zuletzt aufgrund der Finanzierung aus oeffentlichen Mitteln. Lehre, Forschung und Weiterbildung decken heute den untertaegigen Gewinnungsbergbau, den Entsorgungsbergbau sowie die Sanierung von

  19. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  20. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth.The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests.The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect.Our findings suggested a new bioactive

  1. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Straehl, Fiona; Scheyer, Torsten; Forasiepi, Analia Marta; Macphee, Ross; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xen...

  2. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  3. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taconis, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  4. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone histomorphometry of remodeling, modeling and minimodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriaki; Shimakura, Taketoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    Bone histomorphometry is defined as a quantitative evaluation of bone remodeling. In bone remodeling, bone resorption and bone formation are coupled with scalloped cement lines. Another mechanism of bone formation is minimodeling which bone formation and resorption are independent. The finding of minimodeling appeared in special condition with metabolic bone disease or anabolic agents. We need further study for minimodeling feature and mechanism.

  5. Differential diagnostics of the musculoskeletal system in sports medicine; Differenzialdiagnostische Untersuchung in der Sportmedizin des Bewegungsapparats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrer, S. [Donau-Universitaet Krems, Department fuer Klinische Medizin und Biotechnologie, Zentrum fuer Regenerative Medizin, Krems (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    sowie die Untersuchung unter Einschluss funktioneller Tests stehen wie immer am Anfang der diagnostischen Strategie; wobei der Verletzungsmechanismus und das sportspezifische Belastungsmuster beruecksichtigt werden muessen. Regionale Inspektions-, Palpations- und Testbefunde der verletzten Struktur weisen auf eine Verdachtsdiagnose hin, die durch bildgebende Verfahren bestaetigt oder auch widerlegt werden kann. Durch den effizienten Einsatz bildgebender Methoden kann dann rasch die entsprechende Therapie eingeleitet werden. Die Sonographie gibt hier, aufgrund ihrer raschen Verfuegbarkeit, vor allem im Bereich von Muskeln, Sehnen und Baendern u. U. wertvolle Hinweise. Die nativradiologische Abklaerung im Bereich des Knochens muss oft durch Zielaufnahmen ergaenzt werden. Die MRT stellt im Bereich der Gelenkverletzungen den Goldstandard dar, wobei eine exakte differenzialdiagnostische Fragestellung hilfreich ist, das Untersuchungsprotokoll entsprechend durchzufuehren, um die fraglich pathologischen Strukturen moeglichst klar darzustellen. (orig.)

  6. Relative 238Pu content of bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Selected bones from a dog that inhaled 238 PuO 2 were subjected to ultrasonic cell disruption to separate the marrow elements from bone, in order to determine the plutonium content of the two components of the skeleton

  7. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  8. Fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sang Wook; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Young Sook

    1983-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a skeletal development anomaly of unknown etiology characterized by single or multiple areas of fibrous tissue replacement of medullary cavity of one or more bones. The disease may be localized to single bone (monostotic form) or may affect multiple bones (polyostotic form). Eighteen cases of fibrous dysplasia diagnosed by roentgenlogic or histologic assessment at Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University Hospital and Kwangju Christian Hospital during recent ten tears were analyzed clinically and radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. 16 case of them had monostotic involvement, and 2 cases showed polyostotic disease, but none of our series presented Albright's syndrome. 2. The male to female ratio in this series was 10 : 8, but then 2 polyostotic forms of them were females. In age distribution, peak incidence at the time of diagnosis was in the age group of second decade (10 cases). 3. Maxilla (6 cases) and femur (4 case) were frequently involved sites in patients with monostotic lesion, whereas polyostotic lesions diffusely affected skull, pelvis, ribs and limb bones. 4. The clinical symptoms according to the extent and site of disease were very variable, which were localized painless or painful swelling, nasal obstruction, deformity of face or extremity and incidentally during routine roentgen study. 5. The chemical abnormality of blood serum was moderate degree of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in only one patients with monostotic lesion. 6. The main radiologic findings of fibrous dysplasia were relatively well circumscribed single or multiloculated cystilike appearance, bone expansion, cortical thinning and/or erosion, bony deformity and pathologic fracture, but especially in maxilla, dense homogenous area with expanding lesion was observed in our series

  9. Prebiotics and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisner, Corrie M; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancements in food science have resulted in the extraction and synthesis of novel dietary fibers or prebiotics. Subsequently, great interest has emerged in developing strategies to improve metabolic conditions like osteoporosis by modulating the intestinal microbiome with fiber. Prebiotics have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower gut of both animals and humans as well as improve measures of bone mineral density and strength in rodent models. Fewer data are available in humans, but data from growing children and postmenopausal women suggest that prebiotics have both short- and long-term effects that beneficially affect bone turnover and mineral accretion in the skeleton. Currently, the exact mechanism by which these products elicit their effects on bone is poorly understood, but emerging data suggest that the gut microbiota may be involved in one or more direct and indirect pathways. The most well-accepted mechanism is through microbial fermentation of prebiotics which results in the production of short-chain fatty acids and a concomitant decrease in pH which increases the bioavailability of calcium in the colon. While other mechanisms may be eliciting a prebiotic effect on bone, the current data suggest that novel dietary fibers may be an affordable and effective method of maximizing mineral accretion in growing children and preventing bone loss in later years when osteoporosis is a greater risk. This chapter will discuss the dynamic role of prebiotics in bone health by discussing the current state of the art, addressing gaps in knowledge and their role in public health.

  10. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  11. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  12. Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sol

    2007-07-01

    Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal

  13. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  14. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  15. Solitary (unicameral) bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struhl, S.; Edelson, C.; Pritzker, H.; Seimon, L.P.; Dorfman, H.D.; Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    1989-01-01

    The fallen fragment sign is a prominent radiologic feature in a minority of cases of unicameral bone cyst (20% in this series). This sign is always associated with pathologic fracture. Intramedullary fracture fragments may be single or multiple and may or may not be entirely dislodged from overlying periosteum. The finding appears limited to unicameral bone cysts in patients with open physes. When present, the fallen fragment is a pathognomonic finding as it defines the interior of the cyst as nonsolid. (orig./GDG)

  16. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  17. Significance of bone scintollography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wioland, M.; Milhaud, G.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial radioactivity enables visualisation of the principal organs in the forms of scintiscans, introduces a new order of sensitivity in quantitative hormonal analysis, thanks to radio-immunology and remains unrivalled in compartmental analyses of the various metabolism. The diagnosis of local skeletal conditions is reviewed and the indications for this quantitative examination are described for the diagnosis of numerous bone metabolic diseases. Finally, mono- and bi- photonic absorptiometry, the latest developments in isotopic techniques, are introduced. They are likely to provide numerical data on the state of mineralisation of bone tissue. The use of these nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and surveillance of osteoporosis is detailed [fr

  18. Hydrated disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishwani, A.H.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    A case of primary hydatid disease of the right femur is reported that presented with pathological fracture and was diagnosed at the time of exploration for biopsy. The patient was treated by removal of all cysts, irrigation with colloidal solution, bone grafting and immobilization of the fracture followed by four cycles of oral Albendazole. Eosinophilia and serological tests reverted to normal but the patient died due to acute myocardial infarction six months later. This uncommon condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures, bone pain or osteolytic lesions, especially in patients of rural and farmer background.(author)

  19. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  20. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  5. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  6. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  8. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  9. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral

  10. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  12. Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

    2006-01-01

    Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-(micro)m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality

  13. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J.; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  14. Electron Microscopy of Bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, V.; Hoeben, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized tissues like bone, dentin and mineralized cartilage are difficult to prepare for ultrastructural analysis. In general, the higher the level of mineralization is, the more difficult it is to obtain ultrathin sections of these tissue. Tissues with a low level of mineral, e.g. from young

  15. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.; Basset, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan [fr

  16. Bone Marrow Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  17. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  18. Wounded to the bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucherie, Alexandra; Jørkov, M L S; Smith, Martin

    2017-01-01

    avenue for achieving both greater detail and accuracy through digital microscopy. Patterns of injury were investigated among 45 individuals from a Medieval Danish mass grave (Sandbjerget, AD 1300–1350). Injuries were recorded on every anatomical element, except hand and foot bones. Each was photographed...

  19. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  20. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of…

  1. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  2. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  3. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  4. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  5. Nanotechnology and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.

  6. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  7. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  8. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases.

  9. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the loss of alveolar bone mineral density leaves bone more susceptible to periodontal bacteria, increasing the ... bone density will have a favorable impact on dental health. Bisphosphonates, a group of medications available for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been linked to the development ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  11. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  12. Understanding the Structure of Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    OI Issues: Understanding Bone Structure Introduction: Structural Organization of Bone The structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or a bridge. When the building or bridge is first assembled, an initial frame ...

  13. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-01-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with 99m TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout. (orig.) [de

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  15. Development of an aerobic/anaerobic process for in-situ-rehabilitation of a mostly with mineral oil contaminated location. Final report; Entwicklung eines aeroben/anaeroben Verfahrens zur `In situ-Sanierung` eines vorwiegend mineraloelkontaminierten Altlaststandortes. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C; Winsel, E; Wartenberg, G

    1994-12-31

    -situ-Bodensanierung ueber eine hydraulische Versorgung der Boden-Mikroorganismen nicht zu. - Eine In-situ-Bodensanierung ueber Bodenluftabsaugung und Belueftung, auch zur Versorgung der Boden-Mikroorganismen, ist selbst unter stark anisotropen Bodenverhaeltnissen durchfuehrbar. - Es wurden Erkenntnisse zur variablen Verfilterung und Verrohrung und somit zur optimalen Anpassung der Sanierung an den Schadensfall gewonnen. - Es wurden Geraete fuer die In-situ-Sanierung kleiner und mittlerer Standorte entwickelt, die auch fuer biologische Verfahren anwendbar sind. - Die Verwertbarkeit des Belueftungsgeraetes ist auf Grund der umweltsicheren Nutzungsmoeglichkeit gross. (orig.)

  16. Super bone scans on bone scintigraphy in patients with metastatic bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1988-01-01

    Eight patients with malignant tumor (3 with gastric cancer, 4 with prostatic cancer, 1 with transitional cell carcinoma), which showed diffusely increased uptake of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound in axial skeleton (''Super Bone Scan'') on bone scintigraphy were clinically studied. No relationship with its histological type of the tumor was recognized. All cases revealed extremely high serum ALP concentration, which might reflect increased osteoblastic activity. Furthermore, on bone roentgenograms all cases showed predominantly osteosclerotic change in the metastatic bones, while some did locally osteolytic change. In three cases with gastric cancer, although they had diffuse skeletal metastases, two had no evidence of liver metastases. Thus, it seemed that clinical study of patients with ''Super Bone Scan'' was interesting to evaluate the mechanism of accumulation of 99m Tc labelled phosphorous compound to bone and bone metabolism, and the pathophysiology in the pathway of bone metastases. (author)

  17. Alterations to the subchondral bone architecture during osteoarthritis : bone adaptation versus endochondral bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by loss of cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone architecture. Changes in cartilage and bone tissue occur simultaneously and are spatially correlated, indicating that they are probably related. We investigated two hypotheses regarding this

  18. Bone metastases from gastric cancer. Clinical evaluation on bone scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-07-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N/sub 0/ or N/sub 1/ regional lymph node metastases, highly differentiated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone metastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer.

  19. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  20. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  1. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona R Straehl

    Full Text Available Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua, with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

  2. Multicellular tumor spheroid interactions with bone cells and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezeman, F.H.; Guzzino, K.M.; Waxler, B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of 3 H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to 3 H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of 45 Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, 45 Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of 45 Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products

  3. Metastases to bone in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, P.T.; Azouz, E.M.; Hoeffel, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a relatively common intracranial neoplasm in childhood. Its extraneural spread was, until recently, thought to be a rare occurrence. Metastases are most commonly to bone. Five patients with medulloblastoma metastatic to bone are presented, and findings are compared to those of previous reports. Two of the five cases showed patchy extensive osteosclerosis of the pelvis and/or proximal femora. One case had concurrent lymph node involvement. In patients with past or present medulloblastoma and bone pain, metastases to bone should be excluded. Medulloblastoma metastatic to bone is a rare cause of extensive osteosclerosis. (orig.)

  4. Bone metastases from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi

    1983-01-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  6. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in AN is associated with a significant risk of fractures and therefore treatments to prevent bone loss are critical. In this review, we discuss the hormonal determinants of low bone mass in AN and treatments that have been investigated in this population. PMID:24419863

  7. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  8. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  9. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Rikushi (Shiga Univ. of Medical Sciences, Otsu (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.).

  10. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  11. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  12. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  13. Occipital bone lacunae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, P.; Sciascia, R.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients with lacunar alterations of the squamous occipital bone were studied in various radiographic projections; in many cases studies were also performed. In 7 cases lacunae in the cerebral fossa were observed, with an average diameter of 3 cm. These defects were due to a thinning of the inner table of the theca. In 9 cases smaller lacunae were demonstrated bilaterally, which were more radiolucent, isolated or confluent, located in the area corresponding to the internal occipital protuberance at the ridges of cruciform eminence. The latter were representative of diploic venous lakes, as the best demonstrated in lateral projection. This kind of lacunae are considered as anatomic variants, because no bone destruction is demonstrable, as confirmed by technetium scintigraphy

  14. Risk estimates for bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone sarcoma data for 226 228 Ra and 224 Ra are analyzed within the dosage ranges where the observed risk is zero. The uncertainty in the risk may be effectively illustrated by using pairs of functions based on a statistically-based measure of confidence. For radiation protection, the appropriate measure of risk is cumulative incidence in the presence of competing risks, as this takes into account the reduction of radiation effects brought about by natural mortality

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  16. HIV and bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dockrell, David; Bowman, Christine; McCloskey, Eugene

    2010-11-01

    Advances in management have resulted in a dramatic decline in mortality for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This decrease in mortality, initially the result of improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections but later mediated by the use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to the need to consider long-term complications of the disease itself, or its treatment. Bone disease is increasingly recognised as a concern. The prevalence of reduced BMD and possibly also fracture incidence are increased in HIV-positive individuals compared with HIV-negative controls. There are many potential explanations for this - an increased prevalence of established osteoporosis risk factors in the HIV-positive population, a likely direct effect of HIV infection itself and a possible contributory role of ARV therapy. At present, the assessment of bone disease and fracture risk remains patchy, with little or no guidance on identifying those at increased risk of reduced BMD or fragility fracture. Preventative and therapeutic strategies with bone specific treatments need to be developed. Limited data suggest bisphosphonates may be beneficial in conjunction with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the treatment of reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients but larger studies of longer duration are needed. The safety and cost-effectiveness of these and other treatments needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Long bone reconstruction using multilevel lengthening of bone defect fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzunov, Dmitry Y

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents experimental findings to substantiate the use of multilevel bone fragment lengthening for managing extensive long bone defects caused by diverse aetiologies and shows its clinical introduction which could provide a solution for the problem of reducing the total treatment time. Both experimental and clinical multilevel lengthening to bridge bone defect gaps was performed with the use of the Ilizarov method only. The experimental findings and clinical outcomes showed that multilevel defect fragment lengthening could provide sufficient bone formation and reduction of the total osteosynthesis time in one stage as compared to traditional Ilizarov bone transport. The method of multilevel regeneration enabled management of critical-size defects that measured on average 13.5 ± 0.7 cm in 78 patients. The experimental and clinical results proved the efficiency of the Ilizarov non-free multilevel bone plasty that can be recommended for practical use.

  18. Denosumab for bone diseases: translating bone biology into targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourdi, Elena; Rachner, Tilman D; Rauner, Martina; Hamann, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2011-12-01

    Signalling of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL) through RANK is a critical pathway to regulate the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and, hence, a master regulator of bone resorption. Increased RANKL activity has been demonstrated in diseases characterised by excessive bone loss such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteolytic bone metastases. The development and approval of denosumab, a fully MAB against RANKL, has heralded a new era in the treatment of bone diseases by providing a potent, targeted and reversible inhibitor of bone resorption. This article summarises the molecular and cellular biology of the RANKL/RANK system and critically reviews preclinical and clinical studies that have established denosumab as a promising novel therapy for metabolic and malignant bone diseases. We will discuss the potential indications for denosumab along with a critical review of safety and analyse its potential within the concert of established therapies.

  19. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  20. [Guided bone regeneration: general survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.

  1. Bone disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E.; Silva, Barbara C.; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047

  2. Paget's disease of bone resembling bone metastasis from gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.

  3. Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  5. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiyuki Tominaga; Moritoshi Itoman; Izumi, T.; Wakita, R.; Uchino, M.

    1999-01-01

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  6. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  7. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ruisen; Luo Qiong; Lu Haikui; Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong

    2009-01-01

    Characteristic images of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)

  8. Study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-04-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).

  9. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  10. Development of an ultratrace analysis method for elements of the platinum group contained in environmental and geological samples using an ICP-QMS with isotope dilution analysis and suitable separation techniques; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Ultraspurenbestimmung der Platingruppenelemente in Umwelt- und geologischen Proben mit einem ICP-QMS unter Verwendung der Isotopenverduennungsanalyse sowie geeigneter Separationstechniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.

    2001-07-01

    environment of elements of the platinum group. [German] Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit war die Verfahrensentwicklung zur Ultraspurenbestimmung der PGE in Umwelt- und geologischen Proben unter Verwendung der massenspektrometrischen Isotopenverduennungsanalyse mit anschliessender Bestimmung an einem Quadrupol ICP-MS (ICP-QMSIVA). Das in dieser Arbeit entwickelte Verfahren zur Ultraspurenbestimmung der PGE mit ICPQMSIVA wurde im Rahmen des Projektes ''Production and certification of a road dust reference material for platinum, palladium and rhodium (PGEs) in automative catalytic converters (PACEPAC)'' der Europaeischen Union zur Zertifizierung von zwei Referenzmaterialien fuer Umweltproben eingesetzt. Hierbei wurde in der Vorrunde der Zertifizierung (''intercomparison round'') eine sehr gute Uebereinstimmung der Ergebnisse mit dem gewichteten Mittelwert der Ergebnisse fuer Pd und Pt mit den uebrigen teilnehmenden Laboratorien festgestellt. Die mit der hier entwickelten Methode erhaltenen Ergebnisse wurden ohne Ausnahme fuer alle gemessenen Elemente zur vorlaeufigen Zertifizierung herangezogen. Damit leistete die vorliegende Arbeit einen erheblichen Beitrag zum erfolgreichen Abschluss dieses Projekts. Den Erwartungen hinsichtlich Richtigkeit und Reproduzierbarkeit des entwickelten Verfahrens wurde somit voll entsprochen. Erneut konnte die grosse Bedeutung der Isotopenverduennungstechnik fuer die Zertifizierung von Referenzmaterialien aufgezeigt werden, da mit dieser Technik bei sachgerechtem Einsatz Ergebnisse hoher Richtigkeit erzielt werden. Durch vergleichende Messungen mit der NiS-Dokimasie und NAA, die in einer Kooperation mit dem Kernchemischen Institut der Universitaet Mainz durchgefuehrt wurden, und dem hier verwendeten Verfahren, konnten uebereinstimmende Daten, hinsichtlich der Abnahme der Konzentrationen von Pd und Pt in Abhaengigkeit von der Entfernung zu einer Autobahn, erzielt werden. Diese Arbeit und die Forschungsergebnisse, die

  11. Management of auxiliary aggregates - development and testing of methods for improved use of auxiliary aggregates of diesel and spark ignition engines in stationary and unstationary operation. Final report; Nebenaggregate-Management - Entwicklung und Erprobung von Verfahren zum verbesserten Einsatz der Nebenaggregate an Diesel- und Ottomotoren bei stationaerem und instationaerem Betrieb. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M; Lenzen, B; Groef, S; Isermann, R [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Hohenberg, G [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    1998-07-01

    Aggregate management is aimed at aggregate operation in consideration of demand, consumption and exhaust. Demands on reliability are high. Investigations were made using modelling, simulation, model reduction and identification, with the focus on model reduction. The resulting concepts for consumption reduction vary depending on the vehicle type and application. [German] Das Nebenaggregate-Management hat den bedarfs-, verbrauchs- und abgasorientierten Betrieb der Nebenaggregate im Kraftfahrzeug zum Ziel. Der sehr weit gespannte Einsatzbereich von Kraftfahrzeugen und die hohen Anforderungen an die Betriebszuverlaessigkeit stellen entsprechende Anforderungen an das Management. Zur Untersuchung eines verbesserten Betriebs von Nebenaggregaten wrden Verfahren der Regelungstechnik wie z.B. Modellbildung, Simulation, Modellreduktion und Identifikation eingesetzt, wobei der Modellreduktion in anbetracht des komplexen Gesamtsystems Kraftfahrzeug eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen sind Konzepte zur Verringerung des Verbrauchsanteils der Nebenaggregate, die je nach Fahrzeugtyp und Einsatzzweck variieren. (orig.)

  12. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  13. Tarsal bone disintegration in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverson, G.; Warren, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)

  14. Stress fractures and bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method

  15. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  16. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis. (orig.)

  17. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation

  18. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Therapy success in bone sarcoma is significantly better compared to history cohorts with 60 - 70 % overall survival to date. Unfortunately, there is yet no shift and movement in better survival of patients with relapsed and refractory bone sarcomas during last twenty years. This article reviews targeted therapeutics for bone sarcomas which are under investigation and which could give chance to patients suffering from relapsed and chemo resistant bone sarcomas. Majority of the targeted drugs are given as part of phase 1 or 2 studies. (author)

  19. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.

  20. Closing loops for material flows in surface treatment processes. Pt. 14: ecological and economic assessment and optimization. Final report and appendix; Stoffkreislaufschliessung bei abtragenden Verfahren in Prozessloesungen. Teilprojekt 14: Oekologische und oekonomische Beurteilung und Optimierung. Endbericht und Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, G.; Ackermann, R.; Scholz, C. [and others

    2001-09-01

    besonders ueberwachungsbeduerftige Abfaelle deponiert werden muessen. Verbesserungen der Prozesstechniken bei galvanotechnischen und metallchemischen Verfahren bieten deshalb eine wirksame Moeglichkeit, die Ursachen dieser Umweltbelastung zu verringern. Ziel dieses Teilvorhabens war es, potentielle Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten fuer die betrachteten Unternehmen oekologisch und oekonomisch zu beurteilen und bei der Optimierung mitzuwirken. Fuer dieses Teilvorhaben wurde festgelegt, im Sinne der systemanalytischen Bottom-up-Vorgehensweise zu arbeiten. Daraus ergibt sich fuer die methodische Vorgehensweise eine Ableitung des verallgemeinerungsfaehigen Instrumentes aus der Analyse der Vorgehensweisen bei den speziellen Beispielen, die als Musterloesungen bearbeitet werden. Mit der Vorgabe des methodischen Rahmens erfolgte eine Vorauswahl der methodischen Elemente aus der Oekobilanzmethode und der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. Zusaetzlich zu diesen beiden Methoden wurden zur inhaltlichen und strukturellen Gliederung verfahrenstechnische und systemanalytische Methoden angewandt. Innerhalb dieses Teilvorhabens wurde fuer die Zielerfuellung ein objektives Beurteilungs- und Optimierungsinstrument entwickelt und erprobt. Mit Hilfe dieses Instrumentes koennen Veraenderungen in einem System dahingehend beurteilt werden, ob sie in den Gesamtsystemgrenzen die oekologischen und oekonomischen Belastungen tatsaechlich reduzieren. Zur Unterstuetzung des Instrumentes wurden mehrere EDV-Programme genutzt und entwickelt. Des weiteren wurden verallgemeinerungsfaehige Prozessmodelle erarbeitet und Algorithmen zur Ermittlung und Durchsetzung von stoffflussminimierten Technologien abgeleitet und in allgemeingueltiger Weise dargestellt. (orig.)

  1. Seminar of the expert committee ultrasonic testing. Abstracts; Seminar des Fachausschusses Ultraschallpruefung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    This seminar volume contains 13 papers focusing on the following topics: 1. Test methods in the automotive sector, 2. Characterization of metallic and non-metallic materials, 3. Industrial test approaches, 4. Fiber composite materials and structures, and 5. Defect characterization using imaging techniques. One paper was separately analyzed for this database. [German] Dieser Seminarband enthaelt 13 Beitraege mit folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: 1. Pruefansaetze im Automobilbereich, 2. Charakterisierung metallischer und nicht-metallischer Materialien, 3. Pruefansaetze im industriellen Umfeld, 4. Faserverbundwerkstoffe und -strukturen, und 5. Fehlercharakterisierung mittels bildgebender Verfahren.

  2. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  3. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  4. The Dragon Bone Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Finding of a dinosaur fossil skeleton sparks excitement among paleontologists and locals in a poor Henan village Avillager’s accidental discovery four years ago has made known to the world a rich mine of dinosaur fossils in Ruyang County,central China’s Henan Province.At the same time,the fate of the small village has been changed. Li Chui,a farmer in Shaping Village, thought he had found bones of a"dragon"when he dug up stones for his new house on an April morning in 2005.

  5. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki

    1986-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99m Tc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  6. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  7. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  8. Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Weiguo; Jin, Xingliang; Tan, Yi; Xiao, Linda; Padula, Matthew P.; Bishop, David P.; Reedy, Brian; Ong, Madeleine; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Qu, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. PMID:28930133

  9. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using ... ing of a HA powder in a chitosan solution and coating of. HA particle .... system and the cell parameters were calculated using the.

  10. ETVS - a process for decentral processing of liquid, pasty and solid organic residues into electrical energy and ash, optionally with hydrosoft high-pressure dewatering, fluidized-bed drying, fluidized-bed gasification and heat-and-power cogeneration using product gas; ETVS - Ein Verfahren zur dezentralen Verwertung von fluessigen, pastoesen und festen biologischen Reststoffen in elektrische Energie und Asche, bedarfsweise mit Hydrosoft-Hochdruckentwaesserung, Wirbelschicht-Trockner, Wirbelschicht-Vergaser und Produktgas-Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, C.; Eder, G. [Christian Eder Technology, Neunkirchen (Germany); Wied, E. [Bisanz GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    By means of the ETVS process, predominantly liquid organic residues can be converted into electrical energy and mineral ash decentrally, i.e. where they accrue. The process is exemplified with reference to sewage sludge. Sludge containing at least about 4 % dry residue is dewatered to the highest dry substance content possible. The obtained filter cakes are indirectly dried in a fluidized-bed drier using internal process waste heat. Then the organic sewage sludge constituents are gasified in an atmospheric fluidized bed system. The cleaned product gas is used to generate power in a cogeneration power plant, meeting the sewage treatment plant's in-house power demand. The ETVS process is self-sufficient in terms of thermal energy requirement from an initial dry substance content of the filter cake > 40 %. Incineration is a means of disposing of sewage sludge in accordance with the boundary conditions for sewage sludge disposal from 2005, laid down in the technical code on municipal waste. Combining the ETVS process with modern biological treatment stages makes for a substantial cut in the construction and operating cost of sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [German] Mit dem ETVS-Verfahren koennen ueberwiegend fluessige biologische Reststoffe dezentral, d.h. an der Anfallstelle in eigennutzbare elektrische Energie und mineralische Asche umgewandelt werden. Das Verfahren wird am Klaerschlamm beispielhaft dargestellt. Der Klaerschlamm wird ab einem Trockensubstanzgehalt von ca. 4%TR auf moeglichst hohe Trockensubstanzgehalte entwaessert und die dabei erzeugten Filterkuchen mit internen Prozessabwaermen in einem Wirbelschichttrockner indirekt getrocknet. Die organischen Bestandteile des Klaerschlammes werden anschliessend in einer ebenfalls atmosphaerischen Wirbelschichtanlage vergast. Der mit dem gereinigten Produktgas in einer KWK-Anlage erzeugte Strom wird zur Deckung des Eigenbedarfs der Klaeranlage verwandt. Durch die Veraschung liefert das ab einem

  11. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  12. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  13. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...

  14. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  15. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  16. Verfahren zur Herstellung von korrosionsgeschuetztem Stahlblech

    OpenAIRE

    Goedicke, K.; Metzner, C.; Berner, K.; Ehlers, K.D.; Steinhoff, H.; Duerr, W.; Schuhmacher, B.

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing of corrosion-resistant thin steel sheet, in which a zinc-contg. coating (5) of at least 80 wt. % Zn is produced upon carbon-deficient thin steel sheet (1) by electrolytic means or immersion in a metal melt, is novel in that one or more metals (4) apart from Zn, or a metal alloy not contg. Zn is deposited by vacuum coating on the zinc-coated thin metal sheet, and then, without exposing it to an oxidising atmosphere, the sheet is heat treated in an inert gas atmosphere. ...

  17. Laser und Verfahren zur Erzeugung von Laserstrahlung

    OpenAIRE

    Herziger, G.; Loosen, P.; Treusch, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    The active material (10) is pumped by the light (11) of a gas discharge lamp (12). Thus higher power levels can be attained with the laser and the useful life of the gas discharge lamp (12) is prolonged if the gas discharge lamp (12) is excited at high frequency. The active material (10) is pumped by the light (11) of a gas discharge lamp (12). Thus higher power levels can be attained with the laser and the useful life of the gas discharge lamp (12) is prolonged if the gas discharge lamp (12)...

  18. Verfahren zur lokal gezielten Waermebehandlung von Werkstueckoberflaechen

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, T.; Morgenthal, L.; Pollack, D.; Quitzow, A.

    2000-01-01

    DE 19853733 C UPAB: 20000426 NOVELTY - The temperature of the laser spot or at least its direct vicinity is measured with local resolution, with the temperature measurement spot (2,2') covered by at least one pyrometer being smaller than the laser spot. The temperature measurement spot synchronously follows the motion of the laser spot over the workpiece surface. Several controllers or control loops are used for sequential control of the laser output power. USE - For local heat treatment (com...

  19. Verfahren zur simultanen Mikrostrukturierung und Passivierung

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, K.; Kray, D.

    2009-01-01

    DE 102009004902 B3 UPAB: 20100524 NOVELTY - Silicon-containing solids microstructuring and passivation involves guiding a fluid jet over area of solid, where the fluid jet contains precursor for passivation of the solid surface. A laser jet is coupled in the fluid jet, where the solid surface is heated locally by the laser jet and is partially structured in sectional manner. Free surface connections formed by the structuring are saturated by the precursor. A passivation layer is made of silic...

  20. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  1. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Beschichtung eines Substrats

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Martin; Töpper, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The method involves applying coating material (7) on surface (2) of recess (3) formed in substrate (1). A liquid auxiliary agent (6) is applied on substrate surface, such that recess is filled with auxiliary agent. The coating material is subsequently applied to auxiliary agent on substrate. A coating material portion in auxiliary agent is transported by coating material diffusion. The agent is subsequently separated from coating material, such that coating material on substrate surface is le...

  2. Elektrochemischer Sensor und Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung

    OpenAIRE

    Vonau, W.; Kaden, H.; Kretzschmar, C.; Otschik, P.; Krabbes, I.; Woithe, W.; Grosse, M.

    2002-01-01

    Electro-chemical sensor for the detection of ion activity comprises a selective glas membrane (4) in direct contact with a metal electrode (3) or in direct contact with a variable conducting glas layer (4a), which is itself in contact with (3). (3), (4) and (4a) are plated onto a steel-ceramic substrate using screen-print technology. The thermal expansion coefficients of the steel-ceramic substrate and the glas layers differ by a maximum of = 6 multiply 10-7 K-1. USE - The sensor is especiall...

  3. Verfahren zur Herstellung von OSB-Platten

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholzer, P.

    2003-01-01

    DE 10222955 C UPAB: 20030910 NOVELTY - Manufacture of oriented strand board comprises: (a) producing macro-chips from wood which are suitable for the surface layer;(b) impregnating these with a flame-proofing agent; (c) forming them into a surface layer; (d) spreading adhesive-coated chips suitable for a central layer on to the adhesive-coated surface layer; and (e) pressing to form a board. USE - Manufacture of oriented strand board. ADVANTAGE - The boards produced can be used in more applic...

  4. Vorrichtung und Verfahren zum Schaetzen eines Motordrehmoments

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    WO2004051212 A UPAB: 20040716 NOVELTY - The method for determining the torque of a combustion engine by measurement (1) of a measurement value representative of an angular velocity of the combustion engine and measurement of a second measurement value representative the charging pressure of the combustion engine or simulation of a charging pressure dependent on the first measurement value. Typically the torque is determined from the engine speed or the average indicated pressure. DETAILED DES...

  5. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer kristallinen organischen Halbleiterschicht

    OpenAIRE

    Burghart, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The method involves applying (10) a layer of an organic semiconductor material on a carrier. The organic semiconductor material layer is heated at a temperature, so as to generate (20) recrystallization of organic semiconductor material and for increasing the crystallinity of the organic semiconductor material. A cooling down layer is formed such that the raised crystallinity of the organic semiconductor material is maintained. The organic semiconductor material is applied to the region of la...

  6. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Herstellung von Distickstoffpentoxid

    OpenAIRE

    Frenck, C.; Janitschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    EP 983965 A UPAB: 20000412 NOVELTY - A secondary gas stream is injected into the main gas stream in a mixing chamber at an angle of 10-170 deg. to the main gas stream. The flow cross-section of the main gas stream before the injection site of the secondary gas stream into the main gas stream is reduced in such a way that the flow speed of the main gas stream is increased. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Production of dinitrogen pentoxide comprises: (a) forming ozone containing a main gas stream; (b) f...

  7. Partiell oberflaechengehaertete Riffelwalze und Verfahren zum Oberflaechenhaerten

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, H.; Krumphold, R.; Pollack, D.; Burck, P.; Kraegelin, L.; Neubert, P.

    1997-01-01

    DE 3711450 A UPAB: 19970307 Worn top surfaces of grooved rolls are renewed by producing a hard area (2) having a max. thickness of 0.4 mm and a width (3) determined by the tangent to the grooved surface from a plane cutting across the top of the groove equal to 45 deg.. The wear experienced by the roller corresponds to the shape of the hardened area therefore any soft annealing prior to machining is avoided. The energy beam used for hardening is pref. a CO2 laser and the ridge area is axially...

  8. Tropfenschlagerosionsgeschuetzte Turbinenschaufel und Verfahren zu ihrer Herstellung

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, B.; Storch, W.; Wiedemann, G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention refers to the surface hardening of machine components. The objective of the invention of providing and manufacturing turbine blades with better protection against droplet impact erosion is solved according to the invention et al. by the fact that the constant surface hardness of a very hard layer (2) of the turbine blade represented in the drawing corresponds to the maximum hardness of the steel selected, the depth of this very hard layer (2) is 0.1 to 0.9 mm, the total hardenin...

  9. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer wasserfreien Siliziumdioxidschicht

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, A.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the production of a moistureless silicon dioxide layer starting from a silicate layer, polysiloxane is photoinduced, polymerized and separated, whereupon the polysiloxane layer is converted into a silicate layer. By transforming the the silicate layer by chemical reaction of the water bound in said layer by means of silane, the silicate layer is converted into a moistureless silicon dioxide layer.

  10. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the following methods: a) one or more screws inserted across the break to hold it. b) a steel plate held by screws drilled into the bone. c) a long fluted metal pin with holes in it, is driven down the shaft of the bone ...

  11. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Kiminori; Kure, Yoshio; Suzuki, Akira; Sekino, Haruo; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Goto, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Akihiko

    1990-01-01

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  12. Radioisotope bone scanning in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenburrow, D.P.; Bowring, C.S.; Vennart, W.

    1984-01-01

    The detection of radionuclide activity in the living equine skeleton, using bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals and a hand-held radiation detector, is reported. Pathological changes in bone can be detected and subsequent development monitored. The availability and use of this diagnostic technique in equine practice is discussed

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...

  14. Multicentric epitheloid haemangioendothelioma of bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fracture of the right tibia as a complication of EHE. Diagnosis was suspected on radiographs and confirmed on histology. Whole-body bone scintigraphy and CT scan of the chest were performed, which confirmed multiple bone lesions and metastases to the lungs. South African Journal of Radiology Vol. 11 (1) 2007: pp.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears ...

  16. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  17. Complications of occipital bone pneumatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, Mary; Roche, Jim; Biggs, Michael; Forer, Martin; Fagan, Paul; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Four cases of occipital bone pneumatization and subsequent complications are described, which include a pathological fracture of C 1 and the occipital bone, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumatocele formation. Reviews of the published literature and possible aetiological factors have been discussed Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  18. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari', C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio', I.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudofractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease

  19. Bone scintigraphy and metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari' , C.; Catafau, A.; Carrio' , I. [Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelone (Spain). Serv. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the main clinical value of bone scan in metabolic bone disease: its detection of focal conditions or focal complications of such generalized disease, its most common use of being the detection of fractures in osteoporosis, pseudo fractures in osteomalacia and the evaluation of Paget's disease.

  20. Management Strategy for Unicameral Bone Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Chuo; Yin-Chih Fu; Song-Hsiung Chien; Gau-Tyan Lin; Gwo-Jaw Wang

    2003-01-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of t...

  1. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  2. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2......Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  3. Antiepileptic drugs and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labban Barbara

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-epileptic medications encompass a wide range of drugs including anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, enzyme inducers or inhibitors, with a variety effects, including induction of cytochrome P450 and other enzyme, which may lead to catabolism of vitamin D and hypocalcemia and other effects that may significantly effect the risk for low bone mass and fractures. With the current estimates of 50 million people worldwide with epilepsy together with the rapid increase in utilization of these medications for other indications, bone disease associated with the use of anti-epileptic medications is emerging as a serious health threat for millions of people. Nevertheless, it usually goes unrecognized and untreated. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone disease associated with anti-epileptic use, including effect of anti-epileptic agents on bone turnover and fracture risk, highlighting various strategies for prevention of bone loss and associated fractures a rapidly increasing vulnerable population.

  4. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G E [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  5. Roentgenologic bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe; Shang Yanning; Yu Weimin; Li Yongfa; Wang Yongchun; Wang Wu

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To report the bone X-ray changes in phenylketonuria. Methods: Thirty-seven cases of phenylketonuria were reported. Among the 37 cases, 25 were males and 12 were females. The age of this series ranged from 6 months to 9 years. X-ray examination of the hands, wrists, and knees and laboratory examination were performed in all cases. Results: The bone changes of the 37 cases were divided into 6 groups: no abnormal findings, osteoporosis, metaphyseal changes, special changes, the bone age method, and miscellaneous changes. Special changes included striations into the diaphysis (12 cases) and beak of the metaphyseal margin (21 cases). Conclusion: The mechanism causing the bone changes in phenylketonuria is not quite clear. The authors conclude that specific bone changes may be important X-ray signs suggestive of phenylketonuria

  6. Radiodiagnosis of hemophiliac bone pseudotumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.V.; Chantseva, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis

  7. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  8. Chronic Alcohol Abuse Leads to Low Bone Mass with No General Loss of Bone Structure or Bone Mechanical Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...

  9. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  10. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  11. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  12. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  13. Assessment of bone mineral content in the internal bone volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Alho, A.; Husby, T.; Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo

    1991-01-01

    A method for assessing values related to bone density and mass is described. Mean attenuation and pixel area are measured in pixels selected on the basis of CT units. The method is to a large extent computerized and not dependent on manual positioning or outlining of a region of interest. Because it is not dependent on a comparatively large volume of homogeneous bone it can be used to make assessments even in very heterogeneous bones including cortical bone. The method is adaptable for measurement in all parts of the skeleton and values related to both bone density (DRV) and bone mass (MRV) are derived. The measurements in the femoral condyles were shown to have a precision of approximately 0.25 to 0.30 Z-score units (standard deviation of the measurements expressed in Z-score units). The agreement between chemically analyzed calcium density (weight of calcium per volume) and DRV was little less than 0.50 Z-scores and 0.30 Z-scores for the chemically determined calcium mass and the MRV. The agreement with mechanical bone strength was 0.78 Z-scores for DRV and 0.64 for the MRV. Altering scan parameters or measuring approaches gave systematic differences in the measurements. There were, however, good linear correlations between the measurements which show that these different measuring approaches essentially gave identical measurements. (orig.)

  14. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  16. Re-evaluation of bone pain in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease suggests that bone crises occur in small bones as well as long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Weisz Hubshman, Monika; Bar-Sever, Zvi; Kornreich, Liora; Shkalim Zemer, Vered; Cohen, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Bone crises in type 1 Gaucher disease are reported in long bones and occasionally in weight bearing bones and other bones, but rarely in small bones of the hands and feet. We retrospectively examined the incidence of bone pain in patients followed at the Rabin Medical Center, Israel, before and following the initiation of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and evaluated them for bone crises. Of 100 type I Gaucher disease patients, 30 (30%) experienced one or more bone crises. Small bone crises represented 31.5% of all bone crises and were always preceded by crises in other bones. While the incidence of long bone crises reduced after the initiation of ERT, small bone crises increased. Almost 60% of patients with bone crises were of the N370S/84GG genotype suggesting a greater susceptibility of N370S/84GG patients to severe bone complications. These patients also underwent the greatest number of splenectomies (70.6% of splenectomised patients). Splenectomised patients showed a trend towards increased long and small bone crises after surgery. Active investigation of acute pain in the hands and feet in patients in our cohort has revealed a high incidence of small bone crises. Physicians should consider imaging studies to investigate unexplained pain in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone health in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), concerning for an increased risk of fractures, and decreased bone accrual in adolescents, concerning for suboptimal peak bone mass. This review discusses causes of impaired bone health in anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Low BMD in anorexia nervosa is consequent to decreased lean mass, hypogonadism, low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia and alterations in hormones impacted by energy availability. Weight gain causes some improvement in bone accrual, but not to the extent observed in controls, and vitamin D supplementation does not increase BMD. Oral estrogen is not effective in increasing BMD, likely from IGF-1 suppressive effects. In contrast, transdermal estrogen replacement is effective in increasing bone accrual in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, although not to the extent seen in controls. Recombinant human IGF-1 increases bone formation in adolescents, and with oral estrogen increases BMD in adults with anorexia nervosa. Bisphosphonates increase BMD in adults, but not in adolescents, and should be used cautiously given their long half-life. Summary Further investigation is necessary to explore therapies for low BMD in anorexia nervosa. Weight gain is to be encouraged. Transdermal estrogen in adolescents, and bisphosphonates in adults, have a potential therapeutic role. PMID:21897220

  18. Bone position emission tomography with or without CT Is more accurate than bone scan for detection of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Lee, Wom Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Na1 8F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na1 8F , and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 9 9mT c-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p 8F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation.

  19. Myxoid chondrosarcoma of sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K Chowhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is usually seen in soft tissues where it is known as chordoid sarcoma or parachordoma. Rarely, it involves bone and when it does, cranial bones are the preferred location. This tumor is frequently amalgamated with the chondroid variant of chordoma, especially when the lesion occurs in the sphenoid bone/spheno-occipital region, because of their similar clinical presentations, anatomical locations, radiological findings, and mistaken histopathological features. It is essential to distinguish myxoid chondrosarcoma from the chondroid variant of chordoma, because of the different treatment protocol and prognostic importance. We present such a location-based diagnostic dilemma, solved successfully with ancillary immunohistochemistry.

  20. Evaluation of bone diseases using dynamic bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Tamura, Kenji; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Kajita, Akiyoshi

    1983-12-01

    Dynamic bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was performed on 96 patients with various bone diseases. The dynamic scintigrams obtained were then used to aid in the differential diagnosis of malignant (49 cases) and benign (8 cases) diseases. Short-term local deposition of the tracer in all cases of malignant bone diseases was observed in vascular (10-40 sec. after injection), and blood pool (1-3 min. after injection) phases. In the cases of malignant bone tumors where osteosclerotic lesions were present, tracer accumulation appeared in the blood pool phase. If osteolytic lesions were present, accumulation appeared in the vascular phase, and when the lesion was larger than 2 cm, accumulation was frequently found in the arterial phase. Scintigraphic differentiation of early primary and metastatic bone tumors from other lesions was facilitated by performing the dynamic scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP. Dynamic bone scintigraphy also allowed early diagnosis of avascular necrosis (14 cases) prior to the appearance of minimally abnormal X-ray findings, especially in cases of corticosteroid-induced necrosis.

  1. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  2. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  3. CT assisted biomimetic artificial bone des

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-gang; ZHANG Chao-zong; GUO Zhi-ping; TIAN Jie-mo

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the recent years, bioceramic materials have been widely used in the clinics. They are mainly fabricated as the substitution of human hard tissue, such as artificial bone and false tooth. As a medical implant, those that have similar structure to human bone have better biocompatibility and osteoinductional property. So it is necessary to design bone model close to human bone.

  4. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and

  5. Insulin resistance and bone: a biological partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Caterina; Epstein, Solomon; Napoli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    Despite a clear association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fracture risk, the pathogenesis of bone fragility in T2D has not been clearly elucidated. Insulin resistance is the primary defect in T2D. Insulin signalling regulates both bone formation and bone resorption, but whether insulin resistance can affect bone has not been established. On the other hand, evidence exists that bone might play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. This article reviews the available experimental and clinical evidence on the interplay between bone and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a bilateral relationship between bone and insulin resistance seems to exist that unites them in a biological partnership.

  6. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  7. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  8. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  9. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis and African American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women (繁體中文) Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  12. Systemic therapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripekova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Complications of bone metastases can seriously influence quality of life of the patients including of their independence in activities of daily living. Bisfosfonates are reducing skeletal morbidity in solid tumors and in multiple myeloma by 30 - 50% (1). They are not only used in active antineoplastic therapy in the prevention of skeletal complications by bone metastases but they are also significantly useful in prevention of the decrease of osseous mass by hormonal manipulation. Preclinical and in part clinical data suppose that there is some role of bisfosfonates in prevention of formation of metastases by early cancer. Denosumab is fully humanized antibody against RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand) which is very important in pathogenesis of bone resorption induced by osteoclasts. In this work we discuss about pathological mechanisms of bone resorption in multiple myeloma and solid tumors, we resume data from randomized clinical trials and we focus on the application of anti resorption therapy in clinical practice. (author)

  13. Bone scintigraphy in renal osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.J.; Gahl, G.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1976-01-01

    25 patients with chronic renal disease are investigated. In 16 cases with conservative treatment the bone scintigram showed pathological uptake according to the creatinine level, mainly in the joints of iliosacrum, hip, knee and ankles. In three patients increased uptake in the skull was found. The bone uptake found by scintigraphy was highly pronounced in the patients treated by dialysis. The most frequently involved regions were the joints of iliocacrum and hip, facial cranium, skull, pelvis and metatarsus. The count-rate ratio of cranium to chest was significantly increased in 6 patients. The investigations 6 months later showed in 4 cases a further increase compared with the first values. Count-rates of the skull were found to be comparable to the highly increased uptake in Paget's disease. Bone scintigraphy is a suitable method to estimate semiquantitatively the bone turnover in renal disease. (orig.) [de

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths ... the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  2. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they are good for your heart, swimming and biking DO NOT increase bone density. Other Lifestyle Changes ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise and Physical Fitness ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  5. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    CONCLUSION: EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever there is a bony destructive lesion involving alveolar bone of the Jaws. Early diagnosis and surgical ... radiographic examination, these lesions should be biopsied.

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  14. Digital Astronaut: Bone Remodeling Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant progress has been made with regard to the plan outlined in the 2014 report for building in the effects of exercise induced loading on preserving bone...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  18. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2014-05-07

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might

  19. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing

  20. BONE CALCIUM AND STRONTIUM DISCRIMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, L.; Armstrong, W. D.

    1964-04-15

    The effect of the fluoride content of the skeleton on the deposition of Sr/sup 87/ and Ca/sup 45/ in calcified tissues was investigated in rats and in samples of fat-free or ashed bone. Results indicate that the fluoride parameters investigated did not influence the ratio of Ca/sup 45//Sr/sup 87/ deposition in bone. (C.H)

  1. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  2. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  3. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cas...

  4. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered

  5. Bone culture research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  6. Bone health in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hoyos, Marta; Riancho, José Antonio; Valero, Carmen

    2017-07-21

    Patients with Down syndrome have a number of risk factors that theoretically could predispose them to osteoporosis, such as early aging, development disorders, reduced physical activity, limited sun exposure, frequent comorbidities and use of drug therapies which could affect bone metabolism. In addition, the bone mass of these people may be affected by their anthropometric and body composition peculiarities. In general terms, studies in adults with Down syndrome reported that these people have lower areal bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) than the general population. However, most of them have not taken the smaller bone size of people with Down syndrome into account. In fact, when body mineral density is adjusted by bone size and we obtain volumetric body mineral density (g/cm 3 ), the difference between both populations disappears. On the other hand, although people with Down syndrome have risk factor of hypovitaminosis D, the results of studies regarding 25(OH)D in this population are not clear. Likewise, the studies about biochemical bone markers or the prevalence of fractures are not conclusive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D and Bone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

  8. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We ...

  9. THE PATHOLOGY OF BONE MARROW FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Leguit , Roos; Van Den Tweel , Jan G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerable between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group, inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children a...

  10. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  11. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered) ). Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research highlights: → 3-Day imatinib treatment. → Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. → Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. → Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  12. [Bone remodeling and modeling/mini-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio

    Modeling, adapting structures to loading by changing bone size and shapes, often takes place in bone of the fetal and developmental stages, while bone remodeling-replacement of old bone into new bone-is predominant in the adult stage. Modeling can be divided into macro-modeling(macroscopic modeling)and mini-modeling(microscopic modeling). In the cellular process of mini-modeling, unlike bone remodeling, bone lining cells, i.e., resting flattened osteoblasts covering bone surfaces will become active form of osteoblasts, and then, deposit new bone onto the old bone without mediating osteoclastic bone resorption. Among the drugs for osteoporotic treatment, eldecalcitol(a vitamin D3 analog)and teriparatide(human PTH[1-34])could show mini-modeling based bone formation. Histologically, mature, active form of osteoblasts are localized on the new bone induced by mini-modeling, however, only a few cell layer of preosteoblasts are formed over the newly-formed bone, and accordingly, few osteoclasts are present in the region of mini-modeling. In this review, histological characteristics of bone remodeling and modeling including mini-modeling will be introduced.

  13. Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-05-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life.

  14. No Bones (or Bone Treats) About It: Reasons Not to Give Your Dog Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are notorious for helping themselves to the turkey carcass or steak bones disposed of there. Talk with ... 2017 back to top More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  15. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Florencio-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  16. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis. Recently, it has been recognized that, during bone remodeling, there are an intricate communication among bone cells. For instance, the coupling from bone resorption to bone formation is achieved by interaction between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Moreover, osteocytes produce factors that influence osteoblast and osteoclast activities, whereas osteocyte apoptosis is followed by osteoclastic bone resorption. The increasing knowledge about the structure and functions of bone cells contributed to a better understanding of bone biology. It has been suggested that there is a complex communication between bone cells and other organs, indicating the dynamic nature of bone tissue. In this review, we discuss the current data about the structure and functions of bone cells and the factors that influence bone remodeling.

  17. [Diet, nutrition and bone health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition is an important "modifiable" factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and in the prevention of osteoporosis. The improvement of calcium intake in prepuberal age translates to gain in bone mass and, with genetic factor, to achievement of Peak Bone Mass (PBM), the higher level of bone mass reached at the completion of physiological growth. Individuals with higher PBM achieved in early adulthood will be at lower risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. Achieved the PBM, it is important maintain the bone mass gained and reduce the loss. This is possible adopting a correct behaviour eating associated to regular physical activity and correct life style. The diet is nutritionally balanced with caloric intake adequate to requirement of individual. This is moderate in protein (1 g/kg/die), normal in fat and the carbohydrates provide 55-60% of the caloric intake. A moderate intake of proteins is associated with normal calcium metabolism and presumably does'nt alter bone turnover. An adequate intake of alkali-rich foods may help promote a favorable effect of dietary protein on the skeleton. Lactose intolerance may determinate calcium malabsorption or may decrease calcium intake by elimination of milk and dairy products. Omega3 fatty acids may "down-regulate" pro-inflammatory cytokines and protect against bone loss by decreasing osteoclast activation and bone reabsorption. The diet is characterized by food containing high amount of calcium, potassium, magnesium and low amount of sodium. If it is impossible to reach the requirement with only diet, it is need the supplement of calcium and vitamin D. Other vitamins (Vit. A, C, E, K) and mineral (phosphorus, fluoride, iron, zinc, copper and boron) are required for normal bone metabolism, thus it is need adequate intake of these dietary components. It is advisable reduce ethanol, caffeine, fibers, phytic and ossalic acid intake. The efficacy of phytoestrogens is actually under investigation. Some

  18. [CHARACTERISTICS OF OSTEOCYTE CELL LINES FROM BONES FORMED AS A RESULT OF MEMBRANOUS (SKULL BONES) AND CHONDRAL (LONG BONES) OSSIFICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Doktorov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the literature data and the results of authors' own research, to answer the question--if the osteocytes of bone tissues resulting from membranous and chondral ossification, belong to one or to different cell lines. The differences between the cells of osteocyte lines derived from bones resulting from membranous and chondral ossification were established in: 1) the magnitude of the mechanical signal, initiating the development of the process of mechanotransduction; 2) the nature of the relationship between the magnitude of the mechanical signal that initiates the reorganization of the architecture of bone structures and the resource of their strength; in membranous bones significantly lower mechanical signal caused a substantially greater increment of bone strength resource; 3) the biological activity of bone structures, bone fragments formed from membranous tissue were more optimal for transplantation; 4) the characteristics of expression of functional markers of bone cells at different stages of their differentiation; 5) the nature of the reaction of bone cells to mechanical stress; 6) the sensitivity of bone cells to one of the factors controlling the process of mechanotransduction (PGI2); 7) the functioning of osteocytes during lactation. These differences reflect the functional requirements to the bones of the skeleton--the supporting function in the bones of the limbs and the shaping and protection in the bones of the cranial vault. These data suggest that the results of research conducted on the bones of the skull, should not be transferred to the entire skeleton as a whole.

  19. Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padalecki, Susan

    2002-01-01

    .... Treatment with androgen deprivation therapy leads to an increase in bone turnover as indicated by the loss of bone mineral density and the increase in markers of bone turnover in patients on treatment...

  20. Impact of bone graft harvesting techniques on bone formation and graft resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone fo......: Transplantation of autogenous bone particles harvested with four techniques in the present model resulted in moderate differences in terms of bone formation and graft resorption.......BACKGROUND: Harvesting techniques can affect cellular parameters of autogenous bone grafts in vitro. Whether these differences translate to in vivo bone formation, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of different harvesting techniques on bone...... formation and graft resorption in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four harvesting techniques were used: (i) corticocancellous blocks particulated by a bone mill; (ii) bone scraper; (iii) piezosurgery; and (iv) bone slurry collected from a filter device upon drilling. The grafts were placed into bone defects...

  1. Injection of demineralized bone matrix with bone marrow concentrate improves healing in unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Claudia; Dozza, Barbara; Frisoni, Tommaso; Cevolani, Luca; Donati, Davide

    2010-11-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are benign lesions that usually spontaneously regress with skeletal maturity; however, the high risk of pathologic fractures often justifies treatment that could reinforce a weakened bone cortex. Various treatments have been proposed but there is no consensus regarding the best procedure. We compared the healing rates and failures of two methods of cure based on multiple injections of corticosteroid or a single injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in association with bone marrow concentrate (BMC). We retrospectively reviewed 184 patients who had one of the two treatments for unicameral bone cysts with cortical erosion. Clinical records were reviewed for treatment failures and radiographs for healing in all patients. The minimum followup was 12 months for the Steroids Group (mean, 48 months; range, 12-120 months) and 12 months for the DBM + BMC Group (mean, 20 months; range, 12-28 months). After one treatment we observed a lower healing rate of cysts treated with multiple injections of steroids compared with the healing after the first injection of DBM + BMC (21% versus 58%, respectively). At last followup, 38% healed with steroids and 71% with DBM + BMC. The rate of failure after one steroid injection was higher than after a single injection of BDM + BMC (63% versus 24%, respectively). We observed no difference in fracture rates after treatment between the two groups. A single injection of DBM added with autologous bone marrow concentrate appears to provide a higher healing rate with a lower number of failures compared with a single injection of steroids.

  2. Bone-Inspired Spatially Specific Piezoelectricity Induces Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Lin, Zefeng; Liu, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaolan; Yang, Haoqi; Li, Kang; Yi, Xin; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of bone can be pictured as a material made of parallel interspersed domains of fibrous piezoelectric collagenous materials and non-piezoelectric non-collagenous materials. To mimic this feature for enhanced bone regeneration, a material made of two parallel interspersed domains, with higher and lower piezoelectricity, respectively, is constructed to form microscale piezoelectric zones (MPZs). The MPZs are produced using a versatile and effective laser-irradiation technique in which K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 (KNN) ceramics are selectively irradiated to achieve microzone phase transitions. The phase structure of the laser-irradiated microzones is changed from a mixture of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (with higher piezoelectricity) to a tetragonal dominant phase (with lower piezoelectricity). The microzoned piezoelectricity distribution results in spatially specific surface charge distribution, enabling the MPZs to bear bone-like microscale electric cues. Hence, the MPZs induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo even without being seeded with stem cells. The concept of mimicking the spatially specific piezoelectricity in bone will facilitate future research on the rational design of tissue regenerative materials.

  3. Bone mineral content measurement by bone mineral analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Itsuo; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Torizuka, Kanji; Kosaka, Tadako.

    1976-01-01

    With a bone mineral analyzer (Studsvik Bone Scanner 7102), bone mineral content (BMC) was validated using various concentrations of standard CaCO 3 . Seventy-five normal subjects, nineteen patients with rheumathoid arthritis (RA) and twenty-two patients with abnormal thyroid function were investigated by this method. Some inherent problems concerning the present measurements were also discussed. Reproducibility of BMC in sixteen normal subjects during a four months interval was +-4% on the mid-shaft of the radius and +-5% on the distal head of the radius, respectively. Although correlation of the single energy method and the dual energy method with the bone scanner was high (r=0.970), the single energy method was probably underestimated due to the fat layer. BMC in normal subjects was highest in 30th and 40th decades for both males and females, and gradually decreased with aging. Males had higher BMC and BMC/bone width than did females. All of the stage 1 group of RA patients, according to roentgenographic staging, revealed normal BMC, but most of stage 2 and 3 groups had abnormally low BMC, suggesting that progression of the disease may be an important factor in BMC values. The BMC of hyperthyroid patients was low, whereas that of euthyroid patients was normal. Serial measurements of BMC in a hyperparathyroid patient and a hyperthyroid patient revealed distinct recurrence of BMC after treatment. (Evans, J.)

  4. Granulocyte-mobilized bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcese, William; De Angelis, Gottardo; Cerretti, Raffaella

    2012-11-01

    In the last few years, mobilized peripheral blood has overcome bone marrow as a graft source, but, despite the evidence of a more rapid engraftment, the incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease is significantly higher with, consequently, more transplant-related mortality on the long follow-up. Overall, the posttransplant outcome of mobilized peripheral blood recipients is similar to that of patients who are bone marrow grafted. More recently, the use of bone marrow after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) donor priming has been introduced in the transplant practice. Herein, we review biological acquisitions and clinical results on the use of G-CSF-primed bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. G-CSF the increases the HSC compartment and exerts an intense immunoregulatory effect on marrow T-cells resulting in the shift from Th1 to Th2 phenotype with higher production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The potential advantages of these biological effects have been translated in the clinical practice by using G-CSF primed unmanipulated bone marrow in the setting of transplant from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor with highly encouraging results. For patients lacking an HLA-identical sibling, the transplant of G-CSF primed unmanipulated bone marrow from a haploidentical donor combined with an intense in-vivo immunosuppression is a valid alternative achieving results that are well comparable with those reported for umbilical cord blood, HLA-matched unrelated peripheral blood/bone marrow or T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplant.

  5. Management strategy for unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuo, Chin-Yi; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chien, Song-Hsiung; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2003-06-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of treatment is to prevent pathologic fracture, to promote cyst healing, and to avoid cyst recurrence and re-fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 cases of unicameral bone cysts (12 in the humerus, 3 in the femur, 2 in the fibula) managed by conservative observation, curettage and bone grafting with open reduction and internal fixation, or continuous decompression and drainage with a cannulated screw. We suggest percutaneous cannulated screw insertion to promote cyst healing and prevent pathologic fracture. We devised a protocol for the management of unicameral bone cysts.

  6. Dynamics of bone graft healing around implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Venkataraman

    2015-01-01

    A few questions arise pertaining to the use of bone grafts along with implants are whether these are successful in approximation with implant. Do they accelerate bone regeneration? Are all defects ultimately regenerated with new viable bone? Is the bone graft completely resorbed or integrated in new bone? Does the implant surface characteristic positively affect osseointegration when used with a bone graft? What type of graft and implant surface can be used that will have a positive effect on the healing type and time? Finally, what are the dynamics of bone graft healing around an implant? This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone graft healing in general and in vicinity of another foreign, avascular body, namely the implant surface, and further, the role of bone grafts in osseointegration and/or clinical success of the implants.

  7. Fracture of phalanx from simple bone cyst: A rare bone lesion in the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Inozu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solitary bone cysts, also known as unicameral bone cysts or simple bone cysts, are benign tumors of the bone full of liquid. While typically seen on proximal humerus and femur bones, they are rarely seen on other bones. Simple bone cysts, diagnosed with X-ray. incidentally or for other reasons, are usually asymptomatic. In this case, a 25-year-old male patient with pathologic fracture of the proximal phalanx from an undiagnosed simple bone cyst was reported and referred to the authors' clinic to be treated with curettage. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 100-103

  8. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. The effect of parathyroid hormone and teriparatide on bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Continuous exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to hypercalcemia and a decrease in bone volume, which is referred to as its catabolic effect, while intermittent exogenously administered PTH leads to an anabolic effect on bone. Intermittent administration of PTH dramatically increases bone remodeling and modeling through their direct and indirect effects on the functional cells of bone remodeling units and their precursors. These effects on bone metabolism differ according to dosing frequency of PTH. Therefore, different dosing frequency of PTH shows different therapeutic effects on bone in terms of bone volume and bone quality in patients with osteoporosis.

  9. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieske, Oliver; Wittmann, Alexandra; Zaspel, Johannes; Löffler, Thomas; Rubenbauer, Bianka; Trentzsch, Heiko; Piltz, Stefan

    2009-12-15

    Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG) or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM). From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10) or DBM-augmentation (n = 10). At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014). Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group) and 41.2 months (DBM-group). All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20%) whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146). No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20%) (p = 0.146). Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326). However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031). With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160 euro/case). Nevertheless, this study demonstrated that the

  10. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  11. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH) 2 D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic

  12. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  13. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Als, O.S.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied 159 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with a variety of drugs. Stratification of the patients was done according to treatment, sex, menopausal state, duration of the disease, and functional impairment. Forearm bone mineral content (BMC) and total body bone mineral (TBBM) were measured by single and dual photon absorptiometry. Bone turnover was estimated by biochemical markers. All patients had significantly decreased BMC and TBBM compared to normals. Comparing glucocorticoid and penicillamine treatment in premenopausal patients, they found significantly lower BMC and TBBM values in the glucocorticoid treated group. However, no differences in BMC and TBBM values were found in the corresponding postmenopausal groups. In the premenopausal glucocorticoid group with the duration of treatment and cumulated dose correlated with BMC, whereas no such correlations were found in the postmenopausal women. In the patients who did not receive glucocorticoids they found significant relationships between BMC and functional impairment as well as duration of the disease. Indices of bone turnover rose with increasing functional, impairment, particularly those of bone resorption

  15. Nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sílvia; Vial, Stephanie; Reis, Rui L; Oliveira, J Miguel

    2017-05-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) envisions the creation of functional substitutes for damaged tissues through integrated solutions, where medical, biological, and engineering principles are combined. Bone regeneration is one of the areas in which designing a model that mimics all tissue properties is still a challenge. The hierarchical structure and high vascularization of bone hampers a TE approach, especially in large bone defects. Nanotechnology can open up a new era for TE, allowing the creation of nanostructures that are comparable in size to those appearing in natural bone. Therefore, nanoengineered systems are now able to more closely mimic the structures observed in naturally occurring systems, and it is also possible to combine several approaches - such as drug delivery and cell labeling - within a single system. This review aims to cover the most recent developments on the use of different nanoparticles for bone TE, with emphasis on their application for scaffolds improvement; drug and gene delivery carriers, and labeling techniques. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:590-611, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  17. Neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ): diagnosis, differential diagnosis and intervention; Neoplasien des Temporomandibulargelenks (TMG). Diagnostik, Differenzialdiagnostik und Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Abolmaali, N.; Schedel, H.; Bergh, B. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Maeurer, J. [Radiologische Praxis am Prinzregentenplatz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and interventional radiological techniques for neoplastic lesions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Material and methods. Modern diagnosis of the TMJ is based on the clinical use of conventional X-ray techniques, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional techniques like biopsies, vascular occlusion and ablation. Results. Conventional X-ray still forms the basic diagnostic procedure applied in open and closed mouth position. CT improves the diagnostic information and serves as the standard diagnostical instrument for cartaliganeous or osseous neoplastic lesions. MRI evaluates soft tissue infiltration in multiplanar techniques and high spatial resolution. Interventional vascular and ablative techniques improve the treatment of neoplastic disorders. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung. Vorstellung der Wertigkeit bildgebender Verfahren fuer die diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie des Temporomandibulargelenks (TMG). Material und Methodik. Die moderne Radiologie des TMG basiert auf dem Einsatz der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik, der Computertomographie (CT) und der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), sowie interventioneller Verfahren wie der Biopsie, vaskulaerer Embolisationsverfahren und tumorablativer Verfahren. Ergebnisse. Als Basisdiagnostik dient die konventionelle Diagnostik in offener und geschlossener Mundposition der Erfassung von Funktionsstoerungen sowie ossaerer Destruktionen. Die CT erweitert das diagnostische Spektrum und verbessert die Differenzialdiagnostik fuer ossifizierende Prozesse. Der Einsatz der MRT erlaubt die Erfassung der Weichteilinfiltration sowie der Gelenkstrukturen. Vaskulaere interventionelle Verfahren dienen der praetherapeutischen Okklusion bzw. der palliativen Tumortherapie in Form der okklusiven Embolisation, der Chemoembolisation, oder auch der Tumorablation. (orig.)

  18. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Jae Tae; Baek, Jin Ho

    1998-01-01

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99m Tc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  19. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  20. CT diagnosis of occipital bone pacchionian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianguo; Xu Xiaolin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To improve the recognition of the CT findings of occipital bone pacchionian depression, in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods: occipital bone pacchionian depression underwent CT with plain scan and intravenous contrast enhancement in 11 cases, and then the CT findings were analyzed. Results: Occipital bone pacchionian depression situated beside the torcular herophilia in 11 cases. The depression or bone defect were found at occipital bone inner plate, they can reach diploe or outer plate and had no enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusions: CT scans play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of occipital bone pacchionian depression

  1. The clinical research of bone scan in patients with fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhibin; Yu Jianfang; Luo Quanyong; Lu Hankui; Zhu Jifang; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of fibrous dysplasia of bone in bone imaging and evaluate the diagnostic value of radionuclide bone scan in fibrous dysplasia of bone. Methods: All 42 cases of fibrous dysplasia of bone patients had radionuclide bone scan performed and compared with other imaging modalities. A retrospective study method was used to analyze the imaging results. Results: Although fibrous dysplasia of bone showed uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the images, its appearance characteristic was different from those metastatic bone tumors and other bone diseases. Combining with X rays and other imaging modalities can improve the diagnostic accuracy of this disease. Conclusion: Radionuclide bone scan has got certain value in the diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia of bone. Combining with other imaging modality can make up its disadvantage of low specificity

  2. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections.

  3. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99 sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.) [de

  4. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  5. Bone shortening of clavicular fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsmark, A H; Muhareb Udby, P; Ban, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim of this ......BACKGROUND: The indication for operative treatment of clavicular fractures with bone shortening over 2 cm is much debated. Correct measurement of clavicular length is essential, and reliable measures of clavicular length are therefore highly requested by clinical decision-makers. The aim......-fracture bone lengthening that indicated methodological problems. The Hill et al. and Silva et al. methods had high minimal detectable change, making their use unreliable. CONCLUSION: As all three measurement methods had either reliability or methodological issues, we found it likely that differences...

  6. Nuclear medicine in bone diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feine, U.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    This book on nuclear medicine in bone diagnostics and other complementary imaging methods is composed out of the 51 presentations of the 2nd Tuebinger bone symposium held on the 11th and 12th January 1985; it gives an overview of newer methods of nuclear medicine and other imaging methods such as magnetic-resonance tomography and sonography. While the 1st Tuebinger Symposium in January 1981 dealt with the clinical application of classical bone scintigraphy and the possibilities of the results of differential diagnosis, the present book is concerned with indications, alternative radiopharmaceuticals for skeleton scintigraphy and other techniques. The intention is to give a survey of the developments made over the last few years. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Design and optimization of the low frequency eddy current technique for the volumetric inspection of austenitic small diameter tubes with a wall thickness up to 12 mm; Auslegung und Optimierung des Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahrens fuer die volumetrische Pruefung von austenitischen Neben- und Kleinleitungen mit Wandstaerken bis 12 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R; Bessert, S; Disque, M; Weiss, R [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The low-frequency eddy current technique discussed is a suitable external inspection technique detecting defects at the inner walls of small-diameter tubes and measuring their depths via the ligament. A testing system with optimized sensor lus software for image recording, evaluation, display and documentation is available. The current state of development of the system permits detection and measurement of defects up to 20 mm in size in austenitic inner walls 12.5 mm thick down to a depth of 3 mm. This applies both to the homogenous base metal and the weld with {delta} ferrite. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahren ist geeignet, bei Pruefung von aussen Fehler an der Innenseite von Klein- und Nebenleitungen nachzuweisen und ueber das Ligament deren Tiefe zu bestimmen. Ein entsprechendes Pruefsystem mit optimiertem Sensor und der Software zur Aufnahme, Auswertung, Darstellung und Dokumentation der Wirbelstrom-Urdaten steht zur Verfuegung. Beim jetzigen Entwicklungsstand liegt die Nachweisgrenze fuer einen 20 mm langen Innenfehler in einer 12.5 mm dicken austenitischen Wandung bei einer Fehlertiefe von 3 mm. Dies gilt sowohl fuer den homogenen Grundwerkstoff als auch fuer Schweissgefuege mit {delta}-Ferrit. (orig./MM)

  8. Scintigraphic findings of bone and bone-marrow and determination of bone mineral density using photon absorptiometry in osteopetrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    On a 15-year-old girl with osteopetrosis, bone and bonemarrow scintigraphy were performed. Also, bone mineral density (BMD) with quantitative CT (QCT), single photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) were measured. On bone scintigraphy the diffusely increased skeletal uptake and relatively diminished renal uptake were noted. On the other hand, on bone marrow scintigraphy poor accumulation in central marrow and peripheral expansion were shown. BMD value by QCT and DPA (mainly trabecular bone) was markedly high, while BMD by SPA (mainly cortical bone) was within normal range. Thus, it was shown that bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy combined with BMD measurement by photon absorptiometry were useful and essential in evaluating the pathophysiology of osteosclerosis. (author)

  9. Functional adaptation to loading of a single bone is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Susannah J; Behan, Mary; Smith, Lesley; Oldenhoff, William E; Markel, Mark D; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; Miletic, Vjekoslav; Muir, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be neuronally regulated. Load-induced responses in the left and right ulnas and humeri were determined after loading of the right ulna in male Sprague-Dawley rats (69 +/- 16 days of age). After a single period of loading at -760-, -2000-, or -3750-microepsilon initial peak strain, rats were given calcein to label new bone formation. Bone formation and bone neuropeptide concentrations were determined at 10 days. In one group, temporary neuronal blocking was achieved by perineural anesthesia of the brachial plexus with bupivicaine during loading. We found right ulna loading induces adaptive responses in other bones in both thoracic limbs compared with Sham controls and that neuronal blocking during loading abrogated bone formation in the loaded ulna and other thoracic limb bones. Skeletal adaptation was more evident in distal long bones compared with proximal long bones. We also found that the single period of loading modulated bone neuropeptide concentrations persistently for 10 days. We conclude that functional adaptation to loading of a single bone in young rapidly growing rats is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones. Persistent changes in bone neuropeptide concentrations after a single loading period suggest that plasticity exists in the innervation of bone.

  10. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Assessment of bone quality using Raman and infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Hiromi Kimura

    2015-10-01

    Bone quality, which was defined as "the sum total of characteristics of the bone that influence the bone's resistance to fracture" at the National Institute of Health (NIH) conference in 2001, contributes to bone strength in combination with bone mass. Bone mass is often measured as bone mineral density (BMD) and, consequently, can be quantified easily. On the other hand, bone quality is composed of several factors such as bone structure, bone matrix, calcification degree, microdamage, and bone turnover, and it is not easy to obtain data for the various factors. Therefore, it is difficult to quantify bone quality. We are eager to develop new measurement methods for bone quality that make it possible to determine several factors associated with bone quality at the same time. Analytic methods based on Raman and FTIR spectroscopy have attracted a good deal of attention as they can provide a good deal of chemical information about hydroxyapatite and collagen, which are the main components of bone. A lot of studies on bone quality using Raman and FTIR imaging have been reported following the development of the two imaging systems. Thus, both Raman and FTIR imaging appear to be promising new bone morphometric techniques.

  11. Palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koswig, S.; Buchali, A.; Boehmer, D.; Schlenger, L.; Budach, V.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The effect of the palliative irradiation of bone metastases was explored in this retrospective analysis. The spectrum of primary tumor sites, the localization of the bone metastases and the fractionation schedules were analyzed with regard to palliation discriminating total, partial and complete pain response. Patients and Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients are included in this retrospective quantitative study from April 1992 to November 1993. Two hundred fifty-eight localizations of painful bone metastases were irradiated. The percentage of bone metastases of the total irradiated localizations in our department of radiotherapy in the Carite-Hospital, the primary tumor sites, the localizations and the different fractionation schedules were explored. The total, partial and complete pain response was analyzed in the most often used fractionation schedules and by primary tumor sites. Results: Eight per cent of all irradiated localizations in the observation period were bone metastases. There were irradiated bone metastases of 21 different tumor sites. Most of the primary tumor sites were breast cancer (49%), lung cancer (6%) and kidney cancer (6%). The most frequent site of metastases was the vertebral column (52%). The most often used fractionation schedules were: 4x5 Gy (32%), 10x3 Gy (18%), 6x5 Gy (9%), 7x3 Gy (7%), 10x2 Gy (5%) and 2x8 Gy. The total response rates in this fractionation schedules were 72%, 79%, 74%, 76%, 75% and 72%, the complete response rates were 35%, 32%, 30%, 35%, 33% and 33%. There were no significant differences between the most often irradiated primary tumor sites, the most frequent localizations and the palliation with regard to total, partial and complete pain response. (orig.) [de

  12. Bone scintigraphy on chronic hemodialyzed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yoshiko

    1990-01-01

    Patients with renal osteodystrophy (ROD) are classified into four types (secondary hyperparathyroidism: HPT, osteomalasia, ectopic calcification and normal bone scintigram type) according to findings of whole body bone scintigrams. Markedly high accumulations of Tc-99m-MDP are seen in the skull, especially in patients with HPT. For a quantitative evaluation of bone mineral dynamics, factor analysis (FA) was performed on bone scintigraphy in 36 patients with ROD and in 17 controls. Four were examined before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX). In the early phase (20 min) of bone scintigraphy, the bone factor was clearly extracted by FA. Two original parameters were calculated, one is bone radionuclide (RN) uptake count (BUC), the product of the total RN uptake count of the head and the contribution ratio, the other is bone RN uptake count ratio (BUR) derived by the time activity curve (physiological component of bone) of FA. Bone factor shown by FA is significantly different among patients with HPT, osteomalasia and controls. The value of BUC in patients with HPT is high compared to findings in the controls. The results of FA of ROD correlate well with planar images of bone scintigrams and with data on bone minerals, measured by quantitative methods such as single photon absorptiometry, CT attenuation number of the frontal bone, RN activity ratio ([frontal bone]/[brain]), using SPECT of bone scan. In the cases of PTX, the value of BUC was improved compared to preoperative data. FA of bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and useful method for quantitative evaluation of bone mineral dynamics and to assess the therapeutic effects in ROD. (author)

  13. [Preparation of nano-nacre artificial bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-ting; Tang, Yong-zhi; Zhang, Jian-gang; Wang, Jian-jun; Xiao, Ying

    2008-12-01

    To assess the improvements in the properties of nano-nacre artificial bone prepared on the basis of nacre/polylactide acid composite artificial bone and its potential for clinical use. The compound of nano-scale nacre powder and poly-D, L-lactide acid (PDLLA) was used to prepare the cylindrical hollow artificial bone, whose properties including raw material powder scale, pore size, porosity and biomechanical characteristics were compared with another artificial bone made of micron-scale nacre powder and PDLLA. Scanning electron microscope showed that the average particle size of the nano-nacre powder was 50.4-/+12.4 nm, and the average pore size of the artificial bone prepared using nano-nacre powder was 215.7-/+77.5 microm, as compared with the particle size of the micron-scale nacre powder of 5.0-/+3.0 microm and the pore size of the resultant artificial bone of 205.1-/+72.0 microm. The porosities of nano-nacre artificial bone and the micron-nacre artificial bone were (65.4-/+2.9)% and (53.4-/+2.2)%, respectively, and the two artificial bones had comparable compressive strength and Young's modulus, but the flexural strength of the nano-nacre artificial bone was lower than that of the micro-nacre artificial bone. The nano-nacre artificial bone allows better biodegradability and possesses appropriate pore size, porosity and biomechanical properties for use as a promising material in bone tissue engineering.

  14. The effect of antiresorptives on bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Robert R; Armas, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Currently, antiresorptive therapy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis includes bisphosphonates, estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene), and denosumab (a human antibody that inactivates RANKL). The original paradigm driving the development of antiresorptive therapy was that inhibition of bone resorption would allow bone formation to continue and correct the defect. However, it is now clear increases in bone density account for little of the antifracture effect of these treatments. We examined the antifracture benefit of antiresorptives deriving from bone quality changes. We searched the archive of nearly 30,000 articles accumulated over more than 40 years in our research center library using a software program (Refman™). Approximately 250 publications were identified in locating the 69 cited here. The findings document antiresorptive agents are not primarily anabolic. All cause a modest increase in bone density due to a reduction in the bone remodeling space; however, the majority of their efficacy is due to suppression of the primary cause of osteoporosis, ie, excessive bone remodeling not driven by mechanical need. All of them improve some element(s) of bone quality. Antiresorptive therapy reduces risk of fracture by improving bone quality through halting removal of bone tissue and the resultant destruction of microarchitecture of bone and, perhaps to some extent, by improving the intrinsic material properties of bone tissue. Information presented here may help clinicians to improve selection of patients for antiresorptive therapy by avoiding them in cases clearly not due to excessive bone remodeling.

  15. [The injection of acrylic bone cement prevents bone collapse in the intercalar bones lacking bony support: an experimental sheep semilunar bone model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Murat; Tetik, Cihangir; Erol, Bülent; Cabukoğlu, Cengiz

    2003-01-01

    In a sheep semilunar bone model, we investigated whether collapse in the intercalar bones lacking bony support could be prevented by the injection of acrylic bone cement. The study included 16 limbs of eight sheep. Preoperatively, anteroposterior and lateral views of the carpal joints in the fore limbs were obtained. The animals were divided into four groups. In group 1 (n=3) no surgical procedure was performed in the right semilunar bones, whereas the periosteum on the contralateral side was elevated (group 2; n=3). The first two groups were left as controls. In Group 3 (n=5) the left semilunar bones were filled with acrylic bone cement following decancellation of the bone, while the right semilunar bones were left decancellated (group 4; n=5). The sheep were monitored for three months. Radiographs of the carpal joints were obtained to evaluate collapse occurrence in the semilunar bones. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the semilunar bones were excised for biomechanical and histological examinations. Osteonecrosis and cartilage damage were sought and resistance to compressive forces was investigated. Radiologically, the extent of collapse was statistically significant in the semilunar bones in group 4 (pbone cement was found to prevent collapse in group 3, with no significant difference being noted between preoperative and postoperative semilunar bone heights (p>0.05). Biomechanically, the least resistance to compressive forces was measured in group 4 (pbone cement prevents collapse in the semilunar bones, without inducing any cartilage damage or osteonecrosis.

  16. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  17. Reconstruction of segmental bone defect of long bones after tumor resection by devitalized tumor-bearing bone

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Huayi; Guo, Wei; Yang, Rongli; Li, Dasen; Tang, Shun; Yang, Yi; Dong, Sen; Zang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background The reconstruction of an intercalary bone defect after a tumor resection of a long bone remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Though several methods have been adopted to enhance the union of long segmental allografts or retrieved segmental autografts to the host bones, still more progresses are required to achieve a better union rate. Several methods have been adopted to devitalize tumor bone for recycling usage, and the results varied. We describe our experiences of using de...

  18. Viktor Dordzhiev, Bone Carving: Chess

    OpenAIRE

    Ubushieva, Bamba; Kornyakova, Saglara; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Viktor has been playing chess since childhood. He can carve chess pieces in 10 different ways or styles. The chess pieces that he shows in this video have been carved in a historically informed style from cow and sheep bones. In Kalmykia chess pieces have different names to what they are called in Europe. For example, the rook is called yurt, the bishop is the camel and the king is called the khan.Another item that Viktor shows is a vase for incenses made from a cow bone. Arcadia

  19. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  20. Time Simulation of Bone Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The structural adaptation of a three-dimensional finite element model ofthe proximal femur is considered. Presuming the bone possesses the optimalstructure under the given loads, the bone material distribution is foundby minimizing the strain energy averaged over ten load cases with avolume....... The remodeling algorithm is derived directly from theoptimization recurrence formula, and in a time increment the materialdistribution changes towards the optimal structure for the present load case.The speed of remodeling is taken from clinical data.Numerical examples of respectively increasing and reducing...

  1. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  2. Measurement of fluoride in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrision, J.E.; Hancock, R.; McNeill, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The fluorine concentration in bone biopsy samples was measured by neutron activation analysis. The fluorine content was expressed in terms of the calcium content. Samples were irradiated in a reactor to induce the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reactions and after rapid transport from the reactor the resulting activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Reproducibility was better than 10% for the F/Ca ratio. The detection limit for F is 50 μg. This nondestructive technique will be used to assess the effect of fluoride therapy on bone metabolism of patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. (author)

  3. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed.......This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...

  4. Aneurysmal bone cysts treated by curettage, cryotherapy and bone grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, HWB; Veth, RPH; Pruszczynski, M; Lemmens, JAM; Molenaar, WM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    We treated 26 patients with 27 aneurysmal bone cysts by curettage and cryotherapy and evaluated local tumour control. complications and functional outcome. The mean follow-up time was 37 months (19 to 154), There was local recurrence in one patient. Two patients developed deep wound infections and

  5. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    ... conduction transmission, and the use of the bone conduction pathway for communication. Bone conduction for the transmission of communication is effective and feasible for Soldiers because it provides a means of providing radio communication in combination with hearing protection devices.

  6. Current treatment approach of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez Cabrera, Erasmo Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The document deals with the cancer situation in Cuba; the factors that produce and causes destruction of bone metastases. It also describes osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions; and details the different treatments for bone metastases

  7. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  8. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, M.J.; Mayerhoefer, M.E.; Hofmann, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.) [de

  9. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe May 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last En español Send ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  10. Bone and Joint Problems Associated with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone metabolism (diabetic osteodystrophy): Time for recognition. Osteoporosis International. 2016;27:1931. Hull B, et al. Diabetes and bone. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2016;351:356. What people with diabetes need ...

  11. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  12. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  13. Strategies for delivering bone morphogenetic protein for bone healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begam, Howa [School of Bioscience and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Nandi, Samit Kumar, E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery, Radiology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700037 (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chanda, Abhijit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most significant growth factors that belong to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) super-family. Though more than twenty members of this family have been identified so far in humans, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two growth factors: BMP-2 and BMP-7 for treatments of spinal fusion and long-bone fractures with collagen carriers. Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in the repair of long bone defects. The efficiency of BMPs depends a lot on the selection of suitable carriers. At present, different types of carrier materials are used: natural and synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate and ceramic-polymer composite materials. Number of research articles has been published on the minute intricacies of the loading process and release kinetics of BMPs. Despite the significant evidence of its potential for bone healing demonstrated in animal models, future clinical investigations are needed to define dose, scaffold and route of administration. The efficacy and application of BMPs in various levels with a proper carrier and dose is yet to be established. The present article collates various aspects of success and limitation and identifies the prospects and challenges associated with the use of BMPs in orthopaedic surgery. - Highlights: • Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in repair of long bone defects. • Different types of carrier materials are used: natural, synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate and ceramic-polymer composite • Efficacy and application of BMPs in various levels with proper carrier and dose is yet to be established • Number of research articles has been published on minute intricacies of loading process and release kinetics of BMPs • Present article collates success, limitation and identifies prospects, challenges for use of BMPs in orthopaedic surgery.

  14. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  15. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  16. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-09-02

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  17. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found in lum.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  18. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Kazuyuki, Takahashi

    2017-06-06

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  19. Increased bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; de Graeff, J.; te Velde, J.; Kleiverda, K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1982-04-01

    Bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy was investigated in 35 dialysis patients by correlating the results of quantitative bone scintigraphy with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the total skeletal activity and the biochemical (iPTH and alkaline phosphatase), and histologic parameters of hyperparathyroidism. These clinical results strongly suggest that increased bone turnover i.e. hyperparathyroidism, rather than osteomalacia is the major cause of increased skeletal uptake in renal osteodystrophy.

  20. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  1. Determinants of bone mass and bone geometry in adolescent and young adult women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Hoorneman, G.; Väänänen, K.; Charles, P.; Ando, S.; Maggiolini, M.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Deloraine, A.; Heikkinen, J.; Juvin, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    2000-01-01

    Bone mass and bone geometry are considered to have independent effects on bone strength. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on bone mass and geometry in young female populations and how they are influenced by body size and lifestyle factors. In a cross-sectional, observational study in six

  2. Hydroxyapatite particles maintain peri-implant bone mantle during osseointegration in osteoporotic bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tami, A.E.; Leitner, M.M.; Baucke, M.G.; Mueller, T.L.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Müller, R.; Ito, K.

    2009-01-01

    In osteoporotic bones, resorption exceeds formation during the remodelling phase of bone turnover. As a consequence, decreased bone volume and bone contact result in the peri-implant region. This may subsequently lead to loss of fixation. In this study we investigated whether the presence of

  3. Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow in patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncker, C.M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Estorch, M.; Alonso, C.; Ojeda, B.; Blanco, R.; Germa, J.R.; Ortega, V.

    1990-01-01

    Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow was performed by technetium-99m- (99mTc) labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody BW 250/183 (AGMoAb) scans in 32 patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer. AGMoAb scans showed bone marrow defects in 25/32 (78%) patients; bone invasion was subsequently confirmed in 23 (72%) patients. Conventional bone scans performed within the same week detected bone metastases in 17/32 (53%) patients (p less than 0.001). AGMoAb scans detected more sites indicating metastatic disease than bone scans in 12 of these 17 patients (71%). All patients with bone metastases in the axial skeleton had bone marrow defects at least at the sites of bone metastases. Of 15 patients with normal, or indicative of, benign disease bone scans, 8 patients (53%) presented with bone marrow defects in the AGMoAb scans. Bone invasion was confirmed in six of them. AGMoAb bone marrow scans provide a method for the early detection of bone metastatic invasion in patients with breast cancer and suspected bone metastases

  4. Premature loss of bone remodeling compartment canopies is associated with deficient bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Søe, Kent

    2011-01-01

    A remarkable property of bone remodeling is that osteoblasts form bone matrix exactly where and when osteoclasts have removed it. The bone remodeling compartment (BRC) canopies that cover bone surfaces undergoing remodeling, were proposed to be critical players in this mechanism. Here, we provide...

  5. Printing bone : the application of 3D fiber deposition for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Bone chips are used by orthopaedic surgeons for treating spinal trauma and to augment large bone defects. A potential alternative to autologous bone is regeneration of bone tissue in the lab by developing hybrid implants consisting of osteogenic (stem) cells seeded on supportive matrices.

  6. Reconstruction of segmental bone defect of long bones after tumor resection by devitalized tumor-bearing bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huayi; Guo, Wei; Yang, Rongli; Li, Dasen; Tang, Shun; Yang, Yi; Dong, Sen; Zang, Jie

    2015-09-24

    The reconstruction of an intercalary bone defect after a tumor resection of a long bone remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Though several methods have been adopted to enhance the union of long segmental allografts or retrieved segmental autografts to the host bones, still more progresses are required to achieve a better union rate. Several methods have been adopted to devitalize tumor bone for recycling usage, and the results varied. We describe our experiences of using devitalized tumor-bearing bones for the repairing of segmental defects after tumor resection. Twenty-seven eligible patients treated from February 2004 to May 2012 were included. The segmental tumor bone (mean length, 14 cm) was resected, and then devitalized in 20% sterile saline at 65 °C for 30 min after the tumor tissue was removed. The devitalized bone was implanted back into the defect by using nails or plates. Complete healing of 50 osteotomy ends was achieved at a median time of 11 months (interquartile range (IQR) 9-13 months). Major complications included bone nonunion in four bone junctions (7.4%), devitalized bone fracture in one patient (3.7%), deep infection in three patients (11.1%), and fixation failure in two patients (7.4%). The bone union rates at 1 and 2 years were 74.1 and 92.6%, respectively. The average functional score according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) 93 scoring system was 93 % (IQR 80-96.7%). Incubation in 20% sterile saline at 65 °C for 30 min is an effective method of devitalization of tumor-bearing bone. The retrieved bone graft may provide as a less expensive alternative for limb salvage. The structural bone and the preserved osteoinductivity of protein may improve bone union.

  7. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upper arm ( 1 ). Chondrosarcoma , which begins in cartilaginous tissue. Cartilage pads the ends of bones and lines the joints. Chondrosarcoma occurs most often in the pelvis (located between the hip ... in soft tissue (muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels , or other ...

  8. Chondroblastoma of the sphenoid bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrocíni, Tomas Gomes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chondroblastoma is an uncommon cartilaginous benign neoplasm, highly destructive, which specifically appears in the epiphysis of long bones in young patients. Its occurrence is extremely rare in the cranial base, normally occurring in the temporal bone. Objective: To describe a rare case in a patient presenting with a sphenoid bone chondroblastoma that invaded the middle cranial cavity, submitted to a successful surgical resection, without recurrence after 2 years. Case Report: W.J.S, 37 years old, male, forwarded to the otorhinolaryngology service with persistent and strong otalgia for 3 months. He had normal otoscopy and without visible tumorations. The computerized tomography confirmed tumor mass in the left infra-temporal cavity, invading the middle cranial cavity. The biopsy suggested giant cells tumor. After wide resection by frontal approach via orbitozygomatic osteotomy. During the surgery, we confirmed tomographic statements and didn't find temporal bone involvement. The histopathological exam confirmed chondroblastoma. After 18 months after the surgery, he doesn't present with complaints, without motor, sensitive deficits or of cranial nerves and without recurrence tomographic signals. Conclusion: The importance of differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma is remarkable in the cranial base lesions and its therapeutic approach, whose objective must always be the major possible resection with the maximum function conservation.

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Bone ...

  11. Bone and soft tissue ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Brown, M.L.; Joyce, J.W.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses clinical features and imaging techniques for ischemic necrosis, a common problem in the foot, particularly in diabetics and patients with other vascular diseases. Necrosis of bone and soft tissues will be considered separately as the underlying etiology and imaging evaluation differ considerably

  12. Bone Metabolism after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elaine W.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277

  13. Rhabdomyolysis detected by bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis involves necrosis of skeletal muscle and may arise from multiple conditions both traumatic and nontraumatic. Bone imaging with Technetium-99m phosphates is a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and may be used to visualize the extent of rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. A case of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis is presented

  14. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium concentration in bone from an individual injected with 239 Pu has been determined, using the fission-track method. The data are consistent with those reported about 10 years ago by Welford and Baird for New York City area residents and by Hamilton in England. They are at variance with the more recent data of Welford et al

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  17. Roentgenologic study of sesamoid bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Son Young; Park, Byung Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyuk

    1980-01-01

    A radiological study on sesamoid bones of hands and feet was done in Korea adults who visited the Capital Armed Forces General Hospital Of Korea during last 10 months from Jan. 1, to Oct, 30, 1970. The incidence of presence or absence of sesamoid bones in each possible site and shape and partition were studied in 250 males and 200 females. The results are follow: 1. In hands, two sesamoids are present at metacarpophalangel joint of thumb in all and one at metacarpophalangeal joint of little finger in half, metacarpophalangeal joint of index, interphalangeal joint of thumb. Metacarpophalangeal joint of ring finger were other sites, in order of frequency. 2. In feet, two sesamoid are present at metacarpophalangeal joint of great toe in all, but the incidence at other sites are much lower comparison to hands and the sites are interphalangeal joint of great toe, metacarpophalangeal joint of 5th toe, metacarpophalangeal joint of 2nd toe, and metacarpophalangeal joint of 4th toe in order frequency. 3. In comparison with sexes, the incidence is a little greater in female at every site. 4. In general, the partition line of sesamoid bone is transverse, and fracture line of sesamoid is longitudinal. 5. In comparison with Europeans, the incidence of sesamoid bone at interphalangeal joint of thumb and great toe is about half, and at other sites, except metacaso phalangeal joint of thumb abd great toe, the incidence was smaller in each site.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  20. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)