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Sample records for bone-sparing treatments exert

  1. Isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments exert a low activity on reproductive organs and on hepatic metabolism of estradiol in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phrakonkham, Pascal; Chevalier, Joelle; Desmetz, Catherine; Pinnert, Marie-France; Berges, Raymond; Jover, Emmanuel; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Coxam, Veronique; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2007-01-01

    The use of soy isoflavones is a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal bone-loss prevention. Nevertheless, phytoestrogens can target other organs and may disrupt cell proliferation, or could modify endogenous steroid hormone metabolism. These mechanisms could be linked to an increased risk of developing cancer. We therefore studied the possible side effects of such treatments in an experimental model of menopause. Forty adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and fed with a genistein-, daidzein- or equol-supplemented diet at bone-sparing levels (10 mg/kg BW/day) for 3 months. The estrogenic effects were assessed by histological and molecular analyses on reproductive organs. The impact on the oxidative metabolism of estradiol and on associated cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities was evaluated in liver microsomes. The relative wet weights of both the uterus and the vagina were increased in the equol group, but no significant changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen or hormone receptor mRNA expression were noticed. In contrast, genistein and daidzein did not induce uterotrophy but caused an overexpression of estrogen receptor α mRNA which could correspond to a long-lasting effect of physiological concentrations of estrogens. The hepatic metabolism of estradiol was influenced by daidzein which increased the synthesis of putative mutagenic derivatives. At the same time, genistein favored estrogen 2-hydroxylation, and equol decreased 4-hydroxyestrogen production. Surprisingly, no significant alteration in hepatic CYP activities was detected. Taken together, these results demonstrate that isoflavonoid-based bone-sparing treatments are able to cause side effects on other estrogen-sensitive target organs when given in the long-term

  2. NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Gavrilov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.

  3. Improvement of Bone-Sparing Effect of Soy Isoflavones by Pre- and Probiotics in Postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mathey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phytoestrogens consumption is targeted as a possible way to achieve hormonal permeation in postmenopausal women. However, their health effect could depend on their bioavailability. Objectives As phytoestrogens bioavailability could be improved by modulating intestinal microflora, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether isoflavones and pre-or probiotics may improve bone markers. Design An intervention trial (2 months was carried out on 39 postmenopausal women receiving 100 mg of IF aglycon equivalents daily, incorporated in two jelly milk and two cereal bars. After the first month, the participants were randomised into three treatment groups: soy (control group, soy + fructooligosaccharides (prebiotics group and soy + yoghurt cultures (probiotics group. Results Level of isoflavone intake was associated with a significant increase in plasma isoflavone levels from baseline to day 15 which was maintained until day 60. Probiotics consumption was associated with increased plasma equol levels at day 60. A 5% increase of bone alkaline phosphatase was elicited on day 30, compared to initial values. Pre- or probiotics did not modulate this parameter. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was slightly increased at day 60. Prebiotics and probiotics consumption improved this parameter. The effect of prebiotics was exacerbated in early compared to late postmenopausal women. Conclusion Addition of prebiotics or probiotics to a diet providing isoflavones is able to improve parameters of bone turnover in early menopause.

  4. Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of different treatments (i.e., treatment with ice water immersion vs. natural recovery) and the effect of exercise intensities (i.e., low vs. high) for restoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices during recovery from exertional heat stress (EHS). Nine healthy adults (26 ± 3 years, 174.2 ± 3.8 cm, 74.6 ± 4.3 kg, 17.9 ± 2.8 % body fat, 57 ± 2 mL·kg·(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four EHS sessions incorporating either walking (4.0-4.5 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) or jogging (~7.0 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment (40 °C, 20-30 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho for a slow or fast rate of rectal temperature (T re) increase, respectively. Upon reaching a T re of 39.5 °C, participants recovered until T re returned to 38 °C either passively or with whole-body immersion in 2 °C water. A comprehensive panel of 93 HRV measures were computed from the time, frequency, time-frequency, scale-invariant, entropy and non-linear domains. Exertional heat stress significantly affected 60/93 HRV measures analysed. Analyses during recovery demonstrated that there were no significant differences between HRV measures that had been influenced by EHS at the end of passive recovery vs. whole-body cooling treatment (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the cooling treatment required statistically significantly less time to reduce T re (p whole-body immersion in 2 °C water results in faster cooling, there were no observed differences in restoration of autonomic heart rate modulation as measured by HRV indices with whole-body cold-water immersion compared to passive recovery in thermoneutral conditions.

  5. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  6. Emergency treatment of exertional heatstroke and comparison of whole body cooling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrini, A

    1990-02-01

    This manuscript compares the whole body cooling techniques in the emergency treatment of heatstroke. Historically, the use of cold water immersion with skin massage has been quite successful in rapidly lowering body temperature and in avoiding severe complications or death. Recent studies have suggested alternative therapies, including the use of a warm air spray, the use of helicopter downdraft, and pharmacological agents. While evidence exists to support these methods, they have not been shown to reduce fatalities as effectively as ice water immersion. Although several cooling methods may have clinical use, all techniques rely on the prompt recognition of symptoms and immediate action in the field.

  7. Anxiety sensitivity predicts increased perceived exertion during a 1-mile walk test among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Brown, Richard A; Price, Lawrence H; Desaulniers, Julie; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-12-01

    Smoking increases risk of early morbidity and mortality, and risk is compounded by physical inactivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive factor that may amplify the subjective experience of exertion (effort) during exercise, subsequently resulting in lower engagement in physical activity. We examined the effect of anxiety sensitivity on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological arousal (heart rate) during a bout of exercise among low-active treatment-seeking smokers. Adult daily smokers (n = 157; M age  = 44.9, SD = 11.13; 69.4% female) completed the Rockport 1.0 mile submaximal treadmill walk test. RPE and heart rate were assessed during the walk test. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the interactive effect of anxiety sensitivity × time on RPE and on heart rate at five time points during the walk test. There were significant linear and cubic time × anxiety sensitivity effects for RPE. High anxiety sensitivity was associated with greater initial increases in RPE during the walk test, with stabilized ratings towards the last 5 min, whereas low anxiety sensitivity was associated with lower initial increase in RPE which stabilized more quickly. The linear time × anxiety sensitivity effect for heart rate was not significant. Anxiety sensitivity is associated with increasing RPE during moderate-intensity exercise. Persistently rising RPE observed for smokers with high anxiety sensitivity may contribute to the negative experience of exercise, resulting in early termination of bouts of prolonged activity and/or decreased likelihood of future engagement in physical activity.

  8. Perspectives on Exertional Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Exertional (exercise-induced) rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition that has been the subject of research, intense discussion, and media attention. The causes of rhabdomyolysis are numerous and can include direct muscle injury, unaccustomed exercise, ischemia, extreme temperatures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrinologic conditions, genetic disorders, autoimmune disorders, infections, drugs, toxins, and venoms. The objective of this article is to review the literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis, identify precipitating factors, and examine the role of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate. PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were searched using the terms rhabdomyolysis, muscle damage, creatine, creatine supplementation, creatine monohydrate, and phosphocreatine. Additionally, the references of papers identified through this search were examined for relevant studies. A meta-analysis was not performed. Although the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis is low, instances still occur where exercise is improperly prescribed or used as punishment, or incomplete medical history is taken, and exertional rhabdomyolysis occurs. Creatine monohydrate does not appear to be a precipitating factor for exertional rhabdomyolysis. Healthcare professionals should be able to recognize the basic signs of exertional rhabdomyolysis so prompt treatment can be administered. For the risk of rhabdomyolysis to remain low, exercise testing and prescription must be properly conducted based on professional standards.

  9. Physical characteristics cannot be used to predict cooling time using cold-water immersion as a treatment for exertional hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Martin P; Notley, Sean R; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-03-12

    We examined if physical characteristics could be used to predict cooling time during cold water immersion (CWI, 2°C) following exertional hyperthermia (rectal temperature ≥39.5°C) in a physically heterogeneous group of men and women (n=62). Lean body mass was the only significant predictor of cooling time following CWI (R2=0.137; P<0.001); however that prediction did not provide the precision (mean residual square error: 3.18±2.28 min) required to act as a safe alternative to rectal temperature measurements.

  10. N-octanoyl dopamine treatment exerts renoprotective properties in acute kidney injury but not in renal allograft recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotz, Sarah; Pallavi, Prama; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Zimmer, Fabian; Zoellner, Frank G.; Binzen, Uta; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Walter, Jakob; Harmsen, Martin C.; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Hafner, Mathias; Yard, Benito A.; Hoeger, Simone

    N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) treatment improves renal function when applied to brain dead donors and in the setting of warm ischaemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Because it also activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels, we first assessed if NOD conveys its

  11. A Molecular Neurobiological Approach to Understanding the Aetiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease) with Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K

    2018-02-06

    Currently, a psychologically based model is widely held to be the basis for the aetiology and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). However, an alternative, molecular neurobiological approach is possible and in this paper evidence demonstrating a biological aetiology for CFS/ME/SEID is adduced from a study of the history of the disease and a consideration of the role of the following in this disease: nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the blood-brain barrier and intestinal permeability, cytokines and infections, metabolism, structural and chemical brain changes, neurophysiological changes and calcium ion mobilisation. Evidence is also detailed for biologically based potential therapeutic options, including: nutritional supplementation, for example in order to downregulate the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite cycle to prevent its perpetuation; antiviral therapy; and monoclonal antibody treatment. It is concluded that there is strong evidence of a molecular neurobiological aetiology, and so it is suggested that biologically based therapeutic interventions should constitute a focus for future research into CFS/ME/SEID.

  12. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr1]apelin-13 exerts anti-remodelling and anti-apoptotic effects in rats' hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Yaser; Imani, Alireza; Fanaei, Hamed; Khamse, Safoura; Parvizi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihi, Mahdieh

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the main cause of mortality in the world. After myocardial infarction (MI) cardiomyocytes apoptosis and ventricular remodelling have occurred. Apelin is a peptide that has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic and anti-remodelling effects of [Pyr¹]apelin-13 in the rat model of post-MI. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham, (2) MI, and (3) MI treated with [Pyr¹] apelin-13 (MI+Apel). MI animals were subjected to 30-min ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and 14 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after LAD ligation, [Pyr¹]apelin-13 (10 nmol/kg/day, i.p.) was administered for five consecutive days. Hypertrophic parameters, left ventricular (LV) remodelling, and gene expression of Apel, apelin receptor (Apelr), Bax, caspase-3 (Casp-3), and Bcl-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction and cardiomyocytes apoptosis by TUNEL immunostaining were assessed on day 14 post-MI. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr¹]apelin-13 improved myocardial hypertrophic and LV remodelling parameters and led to a significant increase in the expression of Apel, Apelr, and Bcl-2, and a decrease in the expression of Bax and Casp-3. Furthermore, treatment with [Pyr¹]apelin-13 decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. [Pyr¹]apelin-13 has anti-hypertrophic, anti-remodelling, and anti-apoptotic effects via overexpression of Apel, Apelr, and Bcl-2 and reduces gene expression of Bax and Casp-3 in the infarcted myocardium, which can in turn lead to repair myocardium.

  13. Exertional dyspnoea in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Bernhardt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in the obese person, as in any cardiopulmonary exercise test, is to determine the patient's exercise tolerance, and to help identify and/or distinguish between the various physiological factors that could contribute to exercise intolerance. Unexplained dyspnoea on exertion is a common reason for CPET, but it is an extremely complex symptom to explain. Sometimes obesity is the simple answer by elimination of other possibilities. Thus, distinguishing among multiple clinical causes for exertional dyspnoea depends on the ability to eliminate possibilities while recognising response patterns that are unique to the obese patient. This includes the otherwise healthy obese patient, as well as the obese patient with potentially multiple cardiopulmonary limitations. Despite obvious limitations in lung function, metabolic disease and/or cardiovascular dysfunction, obesity may be the most likely reason for exertional dyspnoea. In this article, we will review the more common cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in the otherwise healthy obese adult with special emphasis on dyspnoea on exertion.

  14. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-11-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24-48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered.

  15. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24?48 hours after attending a spi...

  16. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  17. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine exerts a neuroprotective effect in the sciatic nerve following loose ligation: a functional and microanatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tomassoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathies are chronic painful syndromes characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia and altered nerve functionality. Nerve tissue degeneration represents the microanatomical correlate of peripheral neuropathies. Aimed to improve the therapeutic possibilities, this study investigated the hypersensitivity and the neuromorphological alterations related to the loose ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. Effects elicited by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR in comparison to gabapentin were assessed. Axonal injury, reduction of myelin deposition and accumulation of inflammatory cells were detected in damaged nerve. A decrease of phosphorylated 200-kDa neurofilament (NFP immunoreactivity and a redistribution in small clusters of myelin basic like-protein (MBP were observed in ipsilateral nerves. Treatment with ALCAR (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally - i.p. and gabapentin (70 mg/kg i.p. administered bis in die for 14 days induced a significant pain relieving effect. ALCAR, but not gabapentin, significantly countered neuromorphological changes and increased axonal NFP immunoreactivity. These findings indicate that both ALCAR and gabapentin significantly decreased the hypersensitivity related to neuropathic lesions. The observation of the positive ALCAR effect on axonal and myelin sheath alterations in damaged nerve supports its use as neurorestorative agent against neuropathies through mechanism(s consistent to those focused in this study.

  18. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin-12 gene transfer combined with cytosine deaminase followed by 5-fluorocytosine treatment exerts potent antitumor activity in Renca tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Won-Kyung; Yoo, Jinsang; Yun, Hwan-Jung; Kim, Samyong; Im, Dong-Soo

    2005-01-01

    Therapeutic gene transfer affords a clinically feasible and safe approach to cancer treatment but a more effective modality is needed to improve clinical outcomes. Combined transfer of therapeutic genes with different modes of actions may be a means to this end. Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a heterodimeric immunoregulatory cytokine composed of covalently linked p35 and p40 subunits, has antitumor activity in animal models. The enzyme/prodrug strategy using cytosine deaminase (CD) and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been used for cancer gene therapy. We have evaluated the antitumor effect of combining IL-12 with CD gene transfer in mice bearing renal cell carcinoma (Renca) tumors. Adenoviral vectors were constructed encoding one or both subunits of murine IL-12 (Ad.p35, Ad.p40 and Ad.IL-12) or cytosine deaminase (Ad.CD). The functionality of the IL-12 or CD gene products expressed from these vectors was validated by splenic interferon (IFN)-γ production or viability assays in cultured cells. Ad.p35 plus Ad.p40, or Ad.IL-12, with or without Ad.CD, were administered (single-dose) intratumorally to Renca tumor-bearing mice. The animals injected with Ad.CD also received 5-FC intraperitoneally. The antitumor effects were then evaluated by measuring tumor regression, mean animal survival time, splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity and IFN-γ production. The inhibition of tumor growth in mice treated with Ad.p35 plus Ad.p40 and Ad.CD, followed by injection of 5-FC, was significantly greater than that in mice treated with Ad.CD/5-FC, a mixture of Ad.p35 plus Ad.p40, or Ad.GFP (control). The combined gene transfer increased splenic NK cell activity and IFN-γ production by splenocytes. Ad.CD/5-FC treatment significantly increased the antitumor effect of Ad.IL-12 in terms of tumor growth inhibition and mean animal survival time. The results suggest that adenovirus-mediated IL-12 gene transfer combined with Ad.CD followed by 5-FC treatment may be useful for treating cancers

  19. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  20. Physical Exertion and Immediate Classroom Mental Performance Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    This study was designed (1) to investigate the relationship between physical exertion and mental performance in elementary school children and (2) to determine if male or female mental performances are more affected by physical exertion. A total of 95 second graders participated in six treatments of induced physical exertion during their regularly…

  1. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    PM collections from both urban and industrial sites caused 50% oxidative degradation of DNA in vitro at concentrations as low ... chemical analysis in order that progress can be made in ... One popular hypothesis is that PM exerts toxic effects.

  2. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective effects in ... Lung water content and cell count were estimated by standard protocols. ... It reversed LPS-induced oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increase in total antioxidant ...

  3. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  4. Sevoflurane improves gaseous exchange and exerts protective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mice, and exerted protective effects against acute LPS-induced lung injury. ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers .... field microscope [20]. ... by Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis.

  5. Exertional heat illness: emerging concepts and advances in prehospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Roth, Ronald N; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2015-06-01

    Exertional heat illness is a classification of disease with clinical presentations that are not always diagnosed easily. Exertional heat stroke is a significant cause of death in competitive sports, and the increasing popularity of marathons races and ultra-endurance competitions will make treating many heat illnesses more common for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Although evidence is available primarily from case series and healthy volunteer studies, the consensus for treating exertional heat illness, coupled with altered mental status, is whole body rapid cooling. Cold or ice water immersion remains the most effective treatment to achieve this goal. External thermometry is unreliable in the context of heat stress and direct internal temperature measurement by rectal or esophageal probes must be used when diagnosing heat illness and during cooling. With rapid recognition and implementation of effective cooling, most patients suffering from exertional heat stroke will recover quickly and can be discharged home with instructions to rest and to avoid heat stress and exercise for a minimum of 48 hours; although, further research pertaining to return to activity is warranted.

  6. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however, it is un......In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however......, it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  7. [Poor tolerance of exertion during sports and bronchial hyperreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiron-Josse, M; Boutet, S; Ginet, J

    1992-11-01

    135 sportsmen and women, 55 girls, 80 boys, aged from 7 to 30 years, from various sports, who complained of bad tolerance of exertion were examined with an exercise test and isocapnic spontaneous hyperventilation. 61, about 45%, during a hyperventilation test had a fall of V.E.M.S. greater than or equal to 20%, showing bronchial hyperreactivity. After three tests, this fall index was greater than or equal to 50%. 68% of the positive responses were seen in boys and 2/3 of the subjects with a positive response were atopics. No other argument could be maintained from the questioning or clinical history to predict the positive or negative character of the hyperventilation (age, sporting level, symptoms, previous asthma or asthmatic, allergy). H.S.V.I. of the chests of a sporting population that complains of exertion intolerance, therefore allows verification of an H.R.B. assessment of its severity and to follow evolution after treatment.

  8. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...

  9. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; DeMartini, Julie K; Bergeron, Michael F; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M; Ferrara, Michael S; Miller, Kevin C; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N; Yeargin, Susan W

    2015-09-01

    To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses.

  10. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Roberts, Michael D; Romero, Matthew A; Osburn, Shelby C; Mobley, Christopher B; Anderson, Richard G; Goodlett, Michael D; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery. Twenty (N = 20) resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years) were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE), and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1) and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2). Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2. Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01). Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; Pmuscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  11. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody T Haun

    Full Text Available We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery.Twenty (N = 20 resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4 and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7 with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE, and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1 and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2. Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2.Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01. Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly greater (P<0.025 than those observed with EPC at the same time point (-18.6±8.5%. 4-hydroxynonenal values were significantly lower at POST2 relative to PRE with EPC (-16.2±5.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly lower (P<0.025 than those observed with sham at the same time point (+11.8±5.9%.EPC mitigated a reduction in flexibility and PPT that occurred with sham. Moreover, EPC reduced select skeletal muscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  12. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  13. The definition of exertion-related cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, M; Thompson, P D

    2011-02-01

    Vigorous physical activity increases the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but there is no standard definition as to what constitutes an exertion-related cardiac event, specifically the time interval between physical exertion and cardiac event. A systematic review of studies related to exertion-related cardiac events was performed and the time interval between exertion and the event or the symptoms leading to the event was looked for in all the articles selected for inclusion. A total of 12 of 26 articles "suggested" or "defined" exertion-related events as those events whose symptoms started during or within 1 h of exertion. Others used definitions of 0.5 h, 2 h, "during exertion", "during or immediately post exertion" and "during or within several hours after exertion". It is suggested, therefore, that the definition of an exertion-related cardiac event be established as a cardiac event in which symptoms started during or within 1 h of physical exertion.

  14. Characteristics of patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel E; Raikin, Steven; Garras, David N; Vitanzo, Peter; Labrador, Hallie; Espandar, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that causes reversible ischemia and lower extremity pain during exercise. To date there are few large studies examining the characteristics of patients with CECS. This study aimed to present these characteristics by examining the largest published series of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disorder. An IRB-approved, retrospective review was undertaken of patients with a suspected diagnosis of CECS undergoing pre- and postexercise compartment pressure testing between 2000 and 2012. Patients were evaluated for gender, age, duration of symptoms, pain level, specific compartments involved, compartment pressure measurements, and participation and type of athletics. Two-hundred twenty-six patients (393 legs) underwent compartment pressure testing. A diagnosis of CECS was made in 153 (67.7%) patients and 250 (63.6%) legs with elevated compartment measurements; average age of the patients was 24 years (range, 13-69 years). Female patients accounted for 92 (60.1%) of those with elevated pressures. Anterior and lateral compartment pressures were elevated most frequently, with 200 (42.5%) and 167 (35.5%) compartments, respectively. One hundred forty-one (92.2%) patients reported participation in sports, with running being the most common individual sport and soccer being the most common team sport. Duration of pain prior to diagnosis averaged 28 months. Although there is ample literature pertaining to the diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithm of the condition, few papers have described the type of patient most likely to develop CECS. This is the largest study to date to evaluate the type of patient likely to present with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Level III, retrospective review.

  15. Exertional heat stroke management strategies in United States high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    The 5-year period of 2005-2009 saw more exertional heat stroke-related deaths in organized sports than any other 5-year period in the past 35 years. The risk of exertional heat stroke appears highest in football, particularly during the preseason. To estimate the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and assess the utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies during the 2011 preseason in United States high school football programs. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A self-administered online questionnaire addressing the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies (eg, removing athlete's football equipment, calling Emergency Medical Services [EMS]) was completed in May to June 2012 by 1142 (18.0%) athletic trainers providing care to high school football athletes during the 2011 preseason. Among all respondents, 20.3% reported treating at least 1 exertional heat stroke event. An average of 0.50 ± 1.37 preseason exertional heat stroke events were treated per program. Athletic trainers responding to exertional heat stroke reported using an average of 6.6 ± 1.8 management strategies. The most common management strategies were low-level therapeutic interventions such as removing the athlete's football equipment (98.2%) and clothing (77.8%) and moving the athlete to a shaded area (91.6%). Few athletic trainers reported active management strategies such as calling EMS (29.3%) or using a rectal thermometer to check core body temperature (0.9%). Athletic trainers in states with mandated preseason heat acclimatization guidelines reported a higher utilization of management strategies such as cooling the athlete through air conditioning (90.1% vs 65.0%, respectively; P football programs. The standard of care is (and should be) to treat proactively; therefore, treatment is not a perfect proxy for incidence. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need for improved education and awareness of

  16. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: What Is It and Why Should We Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David Q.; Carlson, Kelli A.; Marzano, Amy; Garrahy, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis gained increased attention recently when 13 football players from the University of Iowa developed this condition after an especially demanding practice session and were hospitalized. Exertional rhabdomyolysis may lead to severe kidney stress, kidney failure, and even sudden death. Anyone who does physical exercise at a…

  17. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activities. If someone can do light work, we determine that he or she can also do sedentary work, unless... Physical exertion requirements. To determine the physical exertion requirements of work in the national... making disability determinations under this subpart, we use the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work...

  18. 20 CFR 416.967 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activities. If someone can do light work, we determine that he or she can also do sedentary work, unless... Physical exertion requirements. To determine the physical exertion requirments of work in the national... making disability determinations under this subpart, we use the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work...

  19. EXERTIONAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS OF THE BILATERAL ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a person (63 year-old man, who has been using statins for 18 years, with rhabdomyolysis of the bilateral adductor muscles associated with strenuous and prolonged eccentric exercises (hiking in a hot environment. Clinical examination showed predominantly on the right side muscle swelling and palpational pain of the bilateral adductor muscle groups and bilateral tibial edema. His serum creatine kinase (CK level was 12218 IU/L. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images showed a high signal intensity in the bilateral adductor muscles of the hip. The patient did not develop complications and returned to his previous performance level in 30 days following adequate hydration and resting of the affected muscles. Strenuous eccentric exercise should be avoided during the course of statin use and clinicians should be aware of present observations when considering the significance of acute CK elevations in patients on statin treatment

  20. Exertional headache and coronary ischemia despite normal electrocardiographic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, F Michael; Huerter, Karina

    2006-01-01

    Exertional headaches may under certain conditions reflect coronary ischemia. We report the case of a patient seen in a neurology referral practice whose exertional headaches, even in the face of two normal electrocardiographic stress tests and in the absence of underlying chest pain were the sole symptoms of coronary ischemia as detected by Tc-99m Sestamibi testing SPECT stress testing. Stent placement resulted in complete resolution of headaches. Exertional headache in the absence of chest pain may reflect underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) even when conventional electrocardiographic stress testing does not indicate ischemia.

  1. Systemic exertion intolerance disease/chronic fatigue syndrome is common in sleep centre patients with hypersomnolence: A retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, Caroline; Saini, Prabhjyot; Bliwise, Donald L; Olvera, Victoria; Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn M

    2018-04-06

    Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population. One-hundred and eighty-seven hypersomnolent patients completed questionnaires regarding sleepiness and fatigue; questionnaires and clinical records were used to assess for systemic exertion intolerance disease. Sleep studies, hypocretin and cataplexy were additionally used to assign diagnoses of hypersomnolence disorders or sleep apnea. Included diagnoses were idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 63), narcolepsy type 2 (n = 25), persistent sleepiness after obstructive sleep apnea treatment (n = 25), short habitual sleep duration (n = 41), and sleepiness with normal sleep study (n = 33). Twenty-one percent met systemic exertion intolerance disease criteria, and the frequency of systemic exertion intolerance disease was not different across sleep diagnoses (p = .37). Patients with systemic exertion intolerance disease were no different from those without this diagnosis by gender, age, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, depressive symptoms, or sleep study parameters. The whole cohort reported substantial fatigue on questionnaires, but the systemic exertion intolerance disease group exhibited more profound fatigue and was less likely to respond to traditional wake-promoting agents (88.6% versus 67.7%, p = .01). Systemic exertion intolerance disease appears to be a common co-morbidity in patients with hypersomnolence, which is not specific to hypersomnolence subtype but may portend a poorer prognosis for treatment response. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalco, R.S.; Snoeck, M.; Quinlivan, R.; Treves, S.; Laforet, P.; Jungbluth, H.; Voermans, N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild

  3. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Mothes

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a the effects of exercise and b the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  4. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  5. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne E. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.

  6. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:27900193

  7. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: physiological response or manifestation of an underlying myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Renata S; Snoeck, Marc; Quinlivan, Ros; Treves, Susan; Laforét, Pascal; Jungbluth, Heinz; Voermans, Nicol C

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is characterised by muscle breakdown associated with strenuous exercise or normal exercise under extreme circumstances. Key features are severe muscle pain and sudden transient elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels with or without associated myoglobinuria. Mild cases may remain unnoticed or undiagnosed. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is well described among athletes and military personnel, but may occur in anybody exposed to unaccustomed exercise. In contrast, exertional rhabdomyolysis may be the first manifestation of a genetic muscle disease that lowers the exercise threshold for developing muscle breakdown. Repeated episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis should raise the suspicion of such an underlying disorder, in particular in individuals in whom the severity of the rhabdomyolysis episodes exceeds the expected response to the exercise performed. The present review aims to provide a practical guideline for the acute management and postepisode counselling of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with a particular emphasis on when to suspect an underlying genetic disorder. The pathophysiology and its clinical features are reviewed, emphasising four main stepwise approaches: (1) the clinical significance of an acute episode, (2) risks of renal impairment, (3) clinical indicators of an underlying genetic disorders and (4) when and how to recommence sport activity following an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis. Genetic backgrounds that appear to be associated with both enhanced athletic performance and increased rhabdomyolysis risk are briefly reviewed.

  8. Factors associated with high physical exertion during manual lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for back pain and long-term sickness absence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which factors are associated with physical exertion during manual lifting. METHODS: From 14 workplaces across Denmark, 200 blue-collar workers reported perceived...... physical exertion (Borg-CR10) during manual lifting from floor to table height of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kg at the beginning and end of the working day. The workers also responded to a questionnaire and went through testing of isometric back muscle strength. Associations were modelled using logistic regression...... during manual lifting in blue-collar workers. These factors should be considered when planning work with manual lifting for individual workers....

  9. Influence of permittivity on gradient force exerted on Mie spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Kaikai; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    In optical trapping, whether a particle could be stably trapped into the focus region greatly depends on the strength of the gradient force. Individual theoretical study on gradient force exerted on a Mie particle is rare because the mathematical separation of the gradient force and the scattering force in the Mie regime is difficult. Based on the recent forces separation work by Du et al. [Sci. Rep.7, 18042 (2017)SRCEC32045-232210.1038/s41598-017-17874-1], we investigate the influence of permittivity (an important macroscopic physical quantity) on the gradient force exerted on a Mie particle by cooperating numerical calculation using fast Fourier transform and analytical analysis using multipole expansion. It is revealed that gradient forces exerted on small spheres are mainly determined by the electric dipole moment except for certain permittivity with which the real part of polarizability of the electric dipole approaches zero, and gradient forces exerted on larger spheres are complex because of the superposition of the multipole moments. The classification of permittivity corresponding to different varying tendencies of gradient forces exerted on small spheres or larger Mie particles are illustrated. Absorption of particles favors the trapping of small spheres by gradient force, while it is bad for the trapping of larger particles. Moreover, the absolute values of the maximal gradient forces exerted on larger Mie particles decline greatly versus the varied imaginary part of permittivity. This work provides elaborate investigation on the different varying tendencies of gradient forces versus permittivity, which favors more accurate and free optical trapping.

  10. Colapso pelo calor esforço induzido: reconhecimento para salvar vidas e tratamento imediato em instalações atléticas Choque térmico relacionado con el ejercício: reconocimiento y tratamiento locales para salvar vidas Exertional heat stroke: life-saving recognition and onsite treatment in athletic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    , los atletas deberán estar preparados para percibir las alteraciones súbitas y poder así señalizar el inicio de un CT.The prognosis for exertional heat stroke depends upon the product of length of time the core temperature is elevated and the degree of elevation. The athlete with EHS who is discovered promptly and efficiently cooled will most likely survive the episode with little if any residual. In contrast, the athlete who has delayed presentation for treatment, especially if the area under to cooling curve is > 60 degree-minutes (centigrade, will have a complicated and often fatal course. Conductive cooling methods with ice or cool water immersion or rotating ice water cooled towels provide rapid and consistent whole body temperature reduction that is both organ and life saving. Recognition depends on a high index of suspicion on the part of athletes, coaches, and onsite medical personnel. In high risk conditions, athletes should "buddy up" to watch for subtle changes that can signal the onset of EHS.

  11. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  12. Mechanochemistry Induced Using Force Exerted by a Functionalized Microscope Tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Yongfeng; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density...

  13. Juglans regia Hexane Extract Exerts Antitumor Effect, Apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Juglans regia Hexane Extract Exerts Antitumor Effect,. Apoptosis Induction and Cell Circle Arrest in Prostate. Cancer Cells In vitro. Wei Li1, De-Yuan Li2*, ... composition of walnut is juglone (5-hydroxy-1, 4- naphthoquinone), the .... extract was confirmed by studying apoptotic body formation using ...

  14. Forces exerted by jumping children: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Bakker, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study of the loads exerted vertically by children when jumping. The subjects of the study were 17 children, aged from two to twelve years. Measurements were made using video recordings and a force-plate. The influence of the stiffness of the base and of jumping with

  15. Mind the gap : probing exertion experience with experiential design landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Bogers, S.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our study on applying Experiential Design Landscapes as the basis of design process to support the design of exertion games. We approach this question by setting up an 8-day interaction design module with 7 groups of students. The methods of our module were developed based

  16. 20 CFR 220.132 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 220.132 Section 220.132 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... of walking and standing is often necessary in carrying out job duties. Jobs are sedentary if walking...

  17. Pressure exerted by a vesicle on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarek, A L; Prellberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have considered the pressure exerted on a wall by a model polymer. We extend this consideration to vesicles attached to a wall, and hence include osmotic pressure. We do this by considering a two-dimensional directed model, namely that of area-weighted Dyck paths. Not surprisingly, the pressure exerted by the vesicle on the wall depends on the osmotic pressure inside, especially its sign. Here, we discuss the scaling of this pressure in the different regimes, paying particular attention to the crossover between positive and negative osmotic pressure. In our directed model, there exists an underlying Airy function scaling form, from which we extract the dependence of the bulk pressure on small osmotic pressures. (paper)

  18. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain. PMID:25761874

  19. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurements of the Exerted Pressure by Pelvic Circumferential Compression Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, Simon P; van Riel, Marcel P.J.M; Goossens, Richard H.M; van Lieshout, Esther M.M; Patka, Peter; Schipper, Inger B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Data on the efficacy and safety of non-invasive Pelvic Circumferential Compression Devices (PCCDs) is limited. Tissue damage may occur if a continuous pressure on the skin exceeding 9.3 kPa is sustained for more than two or three hours. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pressure build-up at the interface, by measuring the PCCD-induced pressure when applying pulling forces to three different PCCDs (Pelvic Binder® , SAM-Sling ® and T-POD® ) in a simplified model. Methods: The resulting exerted pressures were measured at four ‘anatomical’ locations (right, left, posterior and anterior) in a model using a pressure measurement system consisting of pressure cuffs. Results: The exerted pressure varied substantially between the locations as well as between the PCCDs. Maximum pressures ranged from 18.9-23.3 kPa and from 19.2-27.5 kPa at the right location and left location, respectively. Pressures at the posterior location stayed below 18 kPa. At the anterior location pressures varied markedly between the different PCCDs. Conclusion: The circumferential compression by the different PCCDs showed high pressures measured at the four locations using a simplified model. Difference in design and functional characteristics of the PCCDs resulted in different pressure build-up at the four locations. When following the manufacturer’s instructions, the exerted pressure of all three PCCDs tested exceeded the tissue damaging level (9.3 kPa). In case of prolonged use in a clinical situation this might put patients at risk for developing tissue damage. PMID:20361001

  1. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  2. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  3. The pressure exerted by a confined ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Hai; Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the pressure exerted by a confined ideal gas on the container boundary and we introduce a surface force in gases. First, the general expression for the local surface pressure tensor is obtained. We find, by examples, that the pressure vanishes at the edges of a box, peaks at the middle of the surface and its magnitude for different statistics satisfies p Fermi > p classical > p Bose on every boundary point. Then, the relation between the surface pressure tensor and generalized forces is studied. Based on the relation, we find that a confined ideal gas can exert forces whose effect is to reduce the total surface area of the boundary of an incompressible object. The force provides mechanisms for several mechanical effects. (1) The force contributes to the adhesion of two thin films in contact with each other. We derive an expression for the adhesion force between two square sheets, estimate its magnitude, and also give a method for distinguishing it from other adhesion forces. (2) The force can lead to the recoiling of a DNA-like column. We study the recoiling process using a simple model and find a deviation from the result given in the thermodynamic limit, which is in accordance with experiments. (3) An open container immersed in a gas can be compressed by this force like the Casimir effect. We discuss the effect for various geometries. (paper)

  4. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  5. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A.Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1 vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1.At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01 and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01 than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02.Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  6. Traction Stresses Exerted by Adherent Cells: From Angiogenesis to Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Cells exert traction stresses against their substrate that mediate their ability to sense the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. These same forces mediate cell adhesion, migration and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during tissue formation. In this talk, I will present our data on the traction stresses generated by endothelial cells and metastatic breast cancer cells focused on understanding the processes of angiogenesis and metastasis, respectively. In the context of capillary formation, our data indicate that the mechanics of the substrate play a critical role in establishing endothelial cell-cell contacts. On more compliant substrates, endothelial cell shape and traction stresses polarize and promote the formation of stable cell-cell contacts. On stiffer substrates, traction stresses are less polarized and cell connectivity is disrupted. These data indicate that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment may drive cell connectivity and the formation of stable cell-cell contacts through the reorientation of traction stresses. In our studies of metastatic cell migration, we have found that traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential. We investigated three lines of varying metastatic potential (MCF10A, MCF7 and MDAMB231). MDAMB231, which are the most invasive, exert the most significant forces as measured by Traction Force Microscopy. These data present the possibility that cellular traction stress generation aids in the ability of metastatic cells to migrate through the matrix-dense tumor microenvironment. Such measurements are integral to link the mechanical and chemical microenvironment with the resulting response of the cell in health and disease.

  7. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  8. Exertional dyspnoea in COPD: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond. Since dyspnoea is provoked or aggravated by physical activity, its concurrent measurement during standardised laboratory exercise testing is clearly important. Combining measurement of perceptual and physiological responses during exercise can provide valuable insights into symptom severity and its pathophysiological underpinnings. This review summarises the abnormal physiological responses to exercise in COPD, as these form the basis for modern constructs of the neurobiology of exertional dyspnoea. The main objectives are: 1 to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in uncovering the physiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD; 2 to examine the escalating negative sensory consequences of progressive respiratory impairment with disease advancement; and 3 to build a physiological rationale for individualised treatment optimisation based on CPET.

  9. Sulforaphane exerts neuroprotective effects via suppression of the inflammatory response in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Li-Li; Xing, Guo-Ping; Yu, Yin; Liang, Hui; Yu, Tian-Xia; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Lai, Tian-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory damage plays an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a promising target for treatment. Sulforaphane exerts protective effects in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by alleviating brain edema. However, the possible mechanisms of sulforaphane after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on inflammatory reaction and the potent...

  10. Association between work engagement and perceived exertion among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complaints and musculoskeletal discomforts are common manifestations of individuals affected by work-related disorders (WRMD, and the influence of individual and/or psychosocial risk factors may play a significant role in WRMD development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and to compare work engagement (WE and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and to assess the association between indexes of WE and RPE among healthcare workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen female subjects (36 ± 11 years, 1.58 ± 0.06 m and 59 ± 9 kg participated, all officially employed on a nonprofit agency. The Nordic Questionnaire was used to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints and the Borg Scale used to evaluate the RPE. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale quantified WE (vigor, dedication and absorption domains. Participants were divided into two groups, according to their sectors: healthcare clinics and institution for the elderly. The independent student t test was used to verify differences between groups and the chi-square test to verify associations between variables. RESULTS: All subjects reported musculoskeletal complaints, mainly in the low back (58%. RPE did not differ between groups, while in the vigor, it was found a significant statistically difference (p = 0.035. An association between RPE and vigor and RPE and dedication was establish (p = 0.02 and p = 0.036, respectively. CONCLUSION: The association between WE and RPE suggests that workers with lower indexes of vigor and dedication may perceive greater physical demand, which can be imposed by work demands.

  11. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after an Extreme Conditioning Competition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramires Alsamir Tibana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days after competition, creatine kinase (CK was 77,590 U/L accompanied by myalgia and abnormal liver function tests, while renal function was normal and this resulted in a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. A follow-up examination revealed that her serum level of CK was still elevated to 3034 U/L on day 10 and 1257 U/L on day 25 following the ECP competition. The subject reported myalgia even up to 25 days after the ECP competition. Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be observed in ECP athletes following competition and highlights a dangerous condition, which may be increasing in recent years due to the massive expansion of ECP popularity and a growing number of competitions. Future research should investigate the causes of rhabdomyolysis that occur as a result of ECP, especially training methods and/or tasks developed specifically for these competitions.

  12. Metallic nanomaterials formed by exerting large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, M; Richert, J.; Zasadzinski, J.; Hawrylkiewicz, S.

    2002-01-01

    The investigations included pure Al and Cu single crystals, AlMg5 alloy and AlCuZr alloy have been presented. The materials were deformed by the cyclic extrusion compression method (CEC) within the range of true strains φ = 0.4-59.8 (1 to 67 deformation cycles by the CEC method). In all examined materials a strong tendency to form banded was observed. Within the range of very large plastic strains there was observed intensive rebuilding of the banded microstructure into subgrains, at first of rhombic shape, and next into equiaxial subgrains. A characteristic feature of the newly formed subgrains, not encountered in the range of conventional deformations, was the occurrence of large misorientation angles between the newly formed subgrains. The proportion of large misorientation angles in the microstructure varied, and it increased with increasing deformation. Reduction of the recovery process in AlMg5 and AlCuZr alloys preserved the growth of the newly formed nanograins, favoring the retaining of the nanomeric dimensions. This results show that there is the effective possibility of production of metallic nanomaterials by exerting of very large nonconventional plastic strains. (author)

  13. Synthetic oligorotaxanes exert high forces when folding under mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluysmans, Damien; Hubert, Sandrine; Bruns, Carson J.; Zhu, Zhixue; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Duwez, Anne-Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Folding is a ubiquitous process that nature uses to control the conformations of its molecular machines, allowing them to perform chemical and mechanical tasks. Over the years, chemists have synthesized foldamers that adopt well-defined and stable folded architectures, mimicking the control expressed by natural systems1,2. Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, are prototypical molecular machines that enable the controlled movement and positioning of their component parts3-5. Recently, combining the exquisite complexity of these two classes of molecules, donor-acceptor oligorotaxane foldamers have been synthesized, in which interactions between the mechanically interlocked component parts dictate the single-molecule assembly into a folded secondary structure6-8. Here we report on the mechanochemical properties of these molecules. We use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically unfold oligorotaxanes, made of oligomeric dumbbells incorporating 1,5-dioxynaphthalene units encircled by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. Real-time capture of fluctuations between unfolded and folded states reveals that the molecules exert forces of up to 50 pN against a mechanical load of up to 150 pN, and displays transition times of less than 10 μs. While the folding is at least as fast as that observed in proteins, it is remarkably more robust, thanks to the mechanically interlocked structure. Our results show that synthetic oligorotaxanes have the potential to exceed the performance of natural folding proteins.

  14. Petiveria alliacea exerts mnemonic and learning effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mallone Lopes; Luz, Diandra Araújo; Paixão, Thiago Portal da; Silva, João Paulo Bastos; Belém-Filho, Ivaldo Jesus Almeida; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina Baetas; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; de Andrade, Marciene Ataíde; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz

    2015-07-01

    Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Amazon region and other tropical areas such as Central America and the Caribbean. Popularly known as mucuracaá, P. alliacea is used in the folk medicine for a broad variety of therapeutic purpose and also in religious ceremonies by slaves as a sedative, which highlights its properties on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The present study evaluated the effects of the P. alliacea leaves hydroalcoholic extract (PaLHE) on the cognition, including learning and memory. Three-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=8-10/group) were administered with 900mg/kg of PaLHE. The behavioral assays included Step-down Inhibitory avoidance (IA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Consistent with our previous reports, P. alliacea improved long-term memory. It also exerted previously unreported effects on short-term and spatial memory improvement, and increased learning in the tasks. The P. alliacea extract elicited mnemonic effects and improved the learning process in both IA and MWM tests. Our results highlight the importance of further studies in order to identify the active substances of the PaLHE and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms that underlies the reported effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  16. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PND) 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7–14 days after the last injection when (nor)fluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (nor)fluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling) immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential fluoxetine

  17. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  18. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-08-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  19. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-08-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  20. Exertion Testing in Youth with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury/Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematteo, Carol; Volterman, Kimberly A; Breithaupt, Peter G; Claridge, Everett A; Adamich, John; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    The decision regarding return to activity (RTA) after mild traumatic brain injuries/concussion is one of the most difficult and controversial areas in concussion management, particularly for youth. This study investigated how youth with postconcussion syndrome (PCS) are affected by exertion and whether standardized exertion testing using the McMaster All-Out Progressive Continuous Cycling Test can contribute to clinical decision making for safe RTA. Fifty-four youth (8.5-18.3 yr) with a previously confirmed concussion participated in the study. Each participant performed exertion testing on a cycle ergometer and completed a Postconcussion Symptom scale at the following time points: before exertion (baseline), 5 and 30 min, and 24 h after exertion. A modified Postconcussion Symptom scale was administered at 2-min intervals during exertion. Participants had a mean ± SD symptom duration of 6.3 ± 6.9 months after the most recent concussive injury, with a median of 4.1 months (range, 0.7-35 months). Sixty-three percent of participants had symptoms during exertion testing. Symptom profile (number and severity) significantly affected perception of exertion at 50% peak mechanical power. During acute assessment of symptoms (30-min after exertion), headache (P = 0.39), nausea (P = 0.63), and dizziness (P = 0.35) did not change. However, both the number and severity of symptoms significantly improved over 24 h, with 56.8% of youth showing improvements. The time from the most recent injury had a significant effect on the symptom score at baseline, 30 min after exertion, and 24 h after exertion. Exertion testing has an important role in the evaluation of symptoms and readiness to RTA, particularly in youth who are slow to recover. Overall, controlled exertion seemed to lesson symptoms for most youth.

  1. Distemper virus encephalitis exerts detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rüden, E-L; Avemary, J; Zellinger, C; Algermissen, D; Bock, P; Beineke, A; Baumgärtner, W; Stein, V M; Tipold, A; Potschka, H

    2012-08-01

    Despite knowledge about the impact of brain inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis, data on the influence of virus encephalitis on dentate granule cell neurogenesis are so far limited. Canine distemper is considered an interesting model of virus encephalitis, which can be associated with a chronic progressing disease course and can cause symptomatic seizures. To determine the impact of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection on hippocampal neurogenesis, we compared post-mortem tissue from dogs with infection with and without seizures, from epileptic dogs with non-viral aetiology and from dogs without central nervous system diseases. The majority of animals with infection and with epilepsy of non-viral aetiology exhibited neuronal progenitor numbers below the age average in controls. Virus infection with and without seizures significantly decreased the mean number of neuronal progenitor cells by 43% and 76% as compared to age-matched controls. Ki-67 labelling demonstrated that hippocampal cell proliferation was neither affected by infection nor by epilepsy of non-viral aetiology. Analysis of CDV infection in cells expressing caspase-3, doublecortin or Ki-67 indicated that infection of neuronal progenitor cells is extremely rare and suggests that infection might damage non-differentiated progenitor cells, hamper neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. A high inter-individual variance in the number of lectin-reactive microglial cells was evident in dogs with distemper infection. Statistical analyses did not reveal a correlation between the number of lectin-reactive microglia cells and neuronal progenitor cells. Our data demonstrate that virus encephalitis with and without seizures can exert detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which might contribute to long-term consequences of the disease. The lack of a significant impact of distemper virus on Ki-67-labelled cells indicates that the infection affected neuronal differentiation and

  2. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition exerts renoprotective effects in rats with established heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco De Arruda Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV activity is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in humans and experimental heart failure (HF models, suggesting that DPPIV may play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Renal dysfunction is one of the key features of HF, but it remains to be determined whether DPPIV inhibitors are capable of improving cardiorenal function after the onset of HF. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that DPPIV inhibition by vildagliptin improves renal water and salt handling and exerts anti-proteinuric effects in rats with established HF. To this end, male Wistar rats were subjected to left ventricle (LV radiofrequency ablation or sham operation. Six weeks after surgery, radiofrequency-ablated rats who developed HF were randomly divided into two groups and treated for four weeks with vildagliptin (120 mg/kg/day or vehicle by oral gavage. Echocardiography was performed before (pretreatment and at the end of treatment (post-treatment to evaluate cardiac function. The fractional area change increased (34±5 vs. 45±3%, p<0.05, and the isovolumic relaxation time decreased (33±2 vs. 27±1 ms; p<0.05 in HF rats treated with vildagliptin (post-treatment vs. pretreatment. On the other hand, cardiac dysfunction deteriorated further in vehicle-treated HF rats. Renal function was impaired in vehicle-treated HF rats as evidenced by fluid retention, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR and high levels of urinary protein excretion. Vildagliptin treatment restored urinary flow, GFR, urinary sodium and urinary protein excretion to sham levels. Restoration of renal function in HF rats by DPPIV inhibition was associated with increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 serum concentration, reduced DPPIV activity and increased activity of protein kinase A in the renal cortex. Furthermore, the anti-proteinuric effect of vildagliptin treatment in rats with established HF was associated with

  5. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

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    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect.

  6. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted synergistic effects on rat spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Wu, Dan; Xie, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Rui; Xu, Li-Xian; Mei, Xiao-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1β up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1β contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.

  7. Combination of Tramadol with Minocycline Exerted Synergistic Effects on a Rat Model of Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Mei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a refractory clinical problem. Certain drugs, such as tramadol, proved useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. Moreover, studies indicated that suppression or modulation of glial activation could prevent or reverse neuropathic pain, for example with the microglia inhibitor minocycline. However, few present clinical therapeutics focused on both neuronal and glial participation when treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that combination of tramadol with minocycline as neuronal and glial activation inhibitor may exert some synergistic effects on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Intrathecal tramadol or minocycline relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. SNL-induced spinal dorsal horn Fos or OX42 expression was downregulated by intrathecal tramadol or minocycline. Combination of tramadol with minocycline exerted powerful and synergistic effects on SNL-induced neuropathic pain also in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the drug combination enhanced the suppression effects on SNL-induced spinal dorsal horn Fos and OX42 expression, compared to either drug administered alone. These results indicated that combination of tramadol with minocycline could exert synergistic effects on peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain; thus, a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain by breaking the interaction between neurons and glia bilaterally was also proposed.

  8. Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlan; Hua, Cong; Pan, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Xijia; Wu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia. Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is naturally occurring in various plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae and exerts protective effects in a mice model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing infarct volume and decreasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which carvacrol protect the brain have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on inflammatory reaction and inflammatory mediators in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The results of the present study showed that carvacrol inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2. It also increased SOD activity and decreased MDA level in ischemic cortical tissues. In addition, carvacrol treatment suppressed the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the protein expression of nuclear NF-kB p65. In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  9. Impaired Player-Coach Perceptions of Exertion and Recovery During Match Congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Steven H.; Brink, Michel S.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2017-01-01

    During intensified phases of competition, attunement of exertion and recovery is crucial to maintain performance. Although a mismatch between coach' and players' perceptions of training load is demonstrated, it is unknown if these discrepancies also exist for match exertion and recovery. PURPOSE:

  10. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.......Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  11. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  12. Silybin-mediated inhibition of Notch signaling exerts antitumor activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a global health burden that is associated with limited treatment options and poor patient prognoses. Silybin (SIL, an antioxidant derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum, has been reported to exert hepatoprotective and antitumorigenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. While SIL has been shown to have potent antitumor activity against various types of cancer, including HCC, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of SIL remain largely unknown. The Notch signaling pathway plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis and immune development. In the present study, we assessed the antitumor activity of SIL in human HCC HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo and explored the roles of the Notch pathway and of the apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of SIL. SIL treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of HCC cell viability. Additionally, SIL exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reductions in tumor cell adhesion, migration, intracellular glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capability (T-AOC but also by increases in the apoptotic index, caspase3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, SIL treatment decreased the expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD, RBP-Jκ, and Hes1 proteins, upregulated the apoptosis pathway-related protein Bax, and downregulated Bcl2, survivin, and cyclin D1. Notch1 siRNA (in vitro or DAPT (a known Notch1 inhibitor, in vivo further enhanced the antitumor activity of SIL, and recombinant Jagged1 protein (a known Notch ligand in vitro attenuated the antitumor activity of SIL. Taken together, these data indicate that SIL is a potent inhibitor of HCC cell growth that targets the Notch signaling pathway and suggest that the inhibition of Notch signaling may be a novel therapeutic intervention for HCC.

  13. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome

  15. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Exertional Dyspnoea in Chronic Respiratory Diseases: From Physiology to Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Vermeulen, François; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-02-01

    Dyspnoea is a complex, highly personalized and multidimensional sensory experience, and its underlying cause and mechanisms are still being investigated. Exertional dyspnoea is one of the most frequently encountered symptoms of patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, and is a common reason for seeking medical help. As the symptom usually progresses with the underlying disease, it can lead to an avoidance of physical activity, peripheral muscle deconditioning and decreased quality of life. Dyspnoea is closely associated with quality of life, exercise (in)tolerance and prognosis in various conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension, and is therefore an important therapeutic target. Effective management and treatment of dyspnoea is an important challenge for caregivers, and therapeutic options that attempt to reverse its underlying cause have been only partially successful This "review" will attempt to shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying dyspnoea during exercise and to translate/apply them to a broad clinical spectrum of cardio-respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  18. EXERT Yourself and Help in the Search for an Alzheimer's Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself and Help in the Search for an Alzheimer’s Cure Can exercise slow or prevent cognitive decline in older people who are at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease? The EXERT Study: Building Memories Through Exercise ...

  19. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  20. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical......: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per...... exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity...

  1. Benign vascular sexual headache and exertional headache: interrelationships and long term prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbert, P L; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G; Gubbay, S S

    1991-01-01

    There is a definite relationship between the vascular type of benign sexual headache and benign exertional headache. Forty five patients with benign vascular sexual headache were reviewed. Twenty seven (60%) experienced benign vascular sexual headache alone and eighteen (40%) had experienced both benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache on at least one occasion. The mean age was 34.3 years with a male:female ratio of 5.4:1. Thirty patients with a history of benign vascul...

  2. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Among active component service members in 2016, there were 525 incident diagnoses of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion and/or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). The crude incidence rate in 2016 was 40.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 46.2% between 2013 and 2016, with the greatest percentage change occurring between 2014 and 2015. In 2016, relative to their respective counterparts, the highest incidence rates of exertional rhabdomyolysis affected service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; and black, non-Hispanic. During the surveillance period, annual incidence rates were highest among service members of the Marine Corps, intermediate among those in the Army, and lowest among those in the Air Force and Navy. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or the Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain or swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (possibly due to myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  3. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Baker, Lucinda; Salem, George J

    2016-06-01

    Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS) running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS) running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Key pointsIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate fatigue to their soleus.In response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate a reduction in ankle energy absorptionIn response to exertion, novice barefoot runners demonstrate an increase in loading rate.

  4. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  5. Adiponectin and plant-derived mammalian adiponectin homolog exert a protective effect in murine colitis

    KAUST Repository

    Arsenescu, Violeta

    2011-04-11

    Background: Hypoadiponectinemia has been associated with states of chronic inflammation in humans. Mesenteric fat hypertrophy and low adiponectin have been described in patients with Crohn\\'s disease. We investigated whether adiponectin and the plant-derived homolog, osmotin, are beneficial in a murine model of colitis. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were injected (i.v.) with an adenoviral construct encoding the full-length murine adiponectin gene (AN+DSS) or a reporter-LacZ (Ctr and V+DSS groups) prior to DSS colitis protocol. In another experiment, mice with DSS colitis received either osmotin (Osm+DSS) or saline (DSS) via osmotic pumps. Disease progression and severity were evaluated using body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon lengths, and histology. In vitro experiments were carried out in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Results: Mice overexpressing adiponectin had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β), adipokines (angiotensin, osteopontin), and cellular stress and apoptosis markers. These mice had higher levels of IL-10, alternative macrophage marker, arginase 1, and leukoprotease inhibitor. The plant adiponectin homolog osmotin similarly improved colitis outcome and induced robust IL-10 secretion. LPS induced a state of adiponectin resistance in dendritic cells that was reversed by treatment with PPARγ agonist and retinoic acid. Conclusion: Adiponectin exerted protective effects during murine DSS colitis. It had a broad activity that encompassed cytokines, chemotactic factors as well as processes that assure cell viability during stressful conditions. Reducing adiponectin resistance or using plant-derived adiponectin homologs may become therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Exertional heat illness incidence and on-site medical team preparedness in warm weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M; Belval, Luke N; Davis, Robert J; Huggins, Robert A; Jardine, John F; Katch, Rachel K; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2018-03-29

    To investigate the influence of estimated wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the International Institute of Race Medicine (IIRM) activity modification guidelines on the incidence of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and heat exhaustion (HEx) and the ability of an on-site medical team to treat those afflicted. Medical records of EHS and HEx patients over a 17-year period from the New Balance Falmouth Road Race were examined. Climatologic data from nearby weather stations were obtained to calculate WBGT with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (WBGT A ) and Liljegren (WBGT L ) models. Incidence rate (IR) of EHS, HEx, and combined total of EHS and HEx (COM) were calculated, and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IR and WBGT A or WBGT L . One-way ANOVA was performed to compare differences in EHS, HEx, and COM incidence to four alert levels in the IIRM guidelines. Incidence of EHS, HEx, and COM was 2.12, 0.98, and 3.10 cases per 1000 finishers. WBGT A explained 48, 4, and 46% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR; WBGT L explained 63, 13, and 69% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR. Main effect of WBGT A and WBGT L on the alert levels were observed in EHS and COM IR (p < 0.05). The cumulative number of EHS patients treated did not exceed the number of cold water immersion tubs available to treat them. EHS IR increased as WBGT and IIRM alert level increased, indicating the need for appropriate risk mitigation strategies and on-site medical treatment.

  7. Physical Activity and Exertional Desaturation Are Associated with Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruch Vainshelboim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic lung disease that manifests in hypoxemia, inactivity, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to assess the prognostic role of physical activity (PA and exertional desaturation (ED with mortality in IPF. At baseline, 34 IPF patients (68 (50–81 years were interviewed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and SpO2 was assessed pre to post 6-min walking test (∆SpO2. Patients were prospectively followed up for 40 months. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis determined cut-off points associated with mortality, and Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR were conducted. Thresholds for increased mortality risk in IPF patients were determined as IPAQ ≤ 417 metabolic equivalent task (METS-min/week, p = 0.004 (HR; 9.7, CI 95% (1.3–71.9, p = 0.027, and ∆SpO2 ≥ 10%, p = 0.002, (HR; 23.3, CI 95% (1.5–365, p = 0.025. This study demonstrated a significant association of PA and ED with mortality in IPF patients. The findings emphasize the clinical importance of PA and ED assessments to aid in IPF risk stratification, prognosis prediction, and in providing early appropriate treatments, such as pulmonary rehabilitation, PA consultation, oxygen supplementation, and lung transplantation referral. These results underscore that even low levels of PA corresponding to 100–105 min/week were associated with a reduced mortality risk and better survival in IPF.

  8. Minocycline fails to exert antiepileptogenic effects in a rat status epilepticus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russmann, Vera; Goc, Joanna; Boes, Katharina; Ongerth, Tanja; Salvamoser, Josephine D; Siegl, Claudia; Potschka, Heidrun

    2016-01-15

    The tetracycline antibiotic minocycline can exert strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. There is cumulating evidence that epileptogenic brain insults trigger neuroinflammation and anti-inflammatory concepts can modulate the process of epileptogenesis. Based on the mechanisms of action discussed for minocycline, the compound is of interest for intervention studies as it can prevent the polarization of microglia into a pro-inflammatory state. Here, we assessed the efficacy of sub-chronic minocycline administration initiated immediately following an electrically-induced status epilepticus in rats. The treatment did not affect the development of spontaneous seizures. However, minocycline attenuated behavioral long-term consequences of status epilepticus with a reduction in hyperactivity and hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, the compound limited the spatial learning deficits observed in the post-status epilepticus model. The typical status epilepticus-induced neuronal cell loss was evident in the hippocampus and the piriform cortex. Minocycline exposure selectively protected neurons in the piriform cortex and the hilus, but not in the hippocampal pyramidal layer. In conclusion, the data argue against an antiepileptogenic effect of minocycline in adult rats. However, the findings suggest a disease-modifying impact of the tetracycline affecting the development of behavioral co-morbidities, as well as long-term consequences on spatial learning. In addition, minocycline administration resulted in a selective neuroprotective effect. Although strong anti-inflammatory effects have been proposed for minocycline, we could not verify these effects in our experimental model. Considering the multitude of mechanisms claimed to contribute to minocycline's effects, it is of interest to further explore the exact mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exertional heat illness incidence and on-site medical team preparedness in warm weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M.; Belval, Luke N.; Davis, Robert J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Jardine, John F.; Katch, Rachel K.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the influence of estimated wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the International Institute of Race Medicine (IIRM) activity modification guidelines on the incidence of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and heat exhaustion (HEx) and the ability of an on-site medical team to treat those afflicted. Medical records of EHS and HEx patients over a 17-year period from the New Balance Falmouth Road Race were examined. Climatologic data from nearby weather stations were obtained to calculate WBGT with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (WBGTA) and Liljegren (WBGTL) models. Incidence rate (IR) of EHS, HEx, and combined total of EHS and HEx (COM) were calculated, and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IR and WBGTA or WBGTL. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare differences in EHS, HEx, and COM incidence to four alert levels in the IIRM guidelines. Incidence of EHS, HEx, and COM was 2.12, 0.98, and 3.10 cases per 1000 finishers. WBGTA explained 48, 4, and 46% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR; WBGTL explained 63, 13, and 69% of the variance in EHS, HEx, and COM IR. Main effect of WBGTA and WBGTL on the alert levels were observed in EHS and COM IR (p < 0.05). The cumulative number of EHS patients treated did not exceed the number of cold water immersion tubs available to treat them. EHS IR increased as WBGT and IIRM alert level increased, indicating the need for appropriate risk mitigation strategies and on-site medical treatment.

  10. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  11. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Complex Working Conditions on Nurses Who Exert Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Niclas; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 37-43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Exertional Tolerance Assessments After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Bailes, Anna; Constand, Sara; Sroka, Mary Claire; Nissen, Katharine; Kurowski, Brad; Hugentobler, Jason

    2018-05-01

    To review the literature to identify and summarize strategies for evaluating responses to physical exertion after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) for clinical and research purposes. PubMed and EBSCOhost through December 31, 2016. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on the following criteria: (1) inclusion of participants with mTBI/concussion, (2) use of a measurement of physiological or psychosomatic response to exertion, (3) a repeatable description of the exertion protocol was provided, (4) a sample of at least 10 participants with a mean age between 8 and 65 years, and (5) the article was in English. The search process yielded 2685 articles, of which 14 studies met the eligibility requirements. A quality assessment using a checklist was conducted for each study by 2 independent study team members and verified by a third team member. Data were extracted by one team member and verified by a second team member. A qualitative synthesis of the studies revealed that most protocols used a treadmill or cycle ergometer as the exercise modality. Protocol methods varied across studies including differences in initial intensity determination, progression parameters, and exertion duration. Common outcome measures were self-reported symptoms, heart rate, and blood pressure. The strongest evidence indicates that exertional assessments can provide important insight about mTBI recovery and should be administered using symptoms as a guide. Additional studies are needed to verify optimal modes and protocols for post-mTBI exertional assessments. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of fitness and self-confidence on time perception during exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Human physical and psychological features influence perceptions of the environment during activity. If during exercise an individual over-estimates time, they may interpret this as spending longer than necessary under a potentially aversive state of exertion. This may in turn decrease one’s sense of exercise success and tendency to persevere with exercise. We tested if experimentally manipulating sense of exercise self-efficacy would affect time perception during standardised physical exertion. Method: Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE of 18 -73 year olds (N=51 was measured before and after an exercise challenge of moderate intensity. Height, weight and body fat composition were measured before participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups. After a 4-minute treadmill fitness test, participants were presented with either bogus feedback about their performance (positive or negative or no feedback (control. Before and during exercise, participants estimated a prescribed 2-minute time interval. Ratings of perceived exertion were also measured periodically. Results: Feedback on performance had no significant effect on time perception, even when controlling for individual exertion level. Reported ESE was also unaffected by whether someone received positive, negative or no feedback. Age was again found to be significantly correlated with VO2max, r(51 = .62, p < .001, but in contrast to prior findings, estimates of general fitness such as VO2max, BMI and waist circumference were unrelated to changes in time perception due to exertion. Conclusions: These findings failed to support prior findings and anecdotal evidence suggesting that exertion might alter one’s perception of time. We also failed to find any support for effects on ESE when participants were given explicit performance feedback. Finally, participants’ physical characteristics appear to be unrelated to time perception whilst exercising at moderate intensity.

  16. Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football: What the Team Physician Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G

    Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.

  17. [Exercise laryngoscopy: a new method for the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna; Iljukov, Sergei; Niskanen, Minna-Liisa; Vilkman, Erkki; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2011-01-01

    Exertional dyspnea originating from the laryngeal level can be established with certainty only if the paradoxical vocal cord adduction is observed during dyspnea. We have developed a novel diagnostic method, exercise laryngoscopy, which involves observation of the larynx with a flexible endoscope applied via the nose during a bicycle ergometry test. It has been our aim to improve the differential diagnosis of dyspnea on exertion and thus also reduce unnecessary antiasthmatic medication. Exercise laryngoscopy allows examination in the out-patient clinics because the method is well tolerated.

  18. PRGF exerts more potent proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on a cell culture inflammatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; de la Fuente, M; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2016-10-01

    Ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) is part of a systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects ocular surface tissues manifesting as a dry eye syndrome. Current treatments provide unsatisfactory results. Blood-derived products, like plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) emerge as a potential therapy for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tissue regeneration and anti-inflammatory capability of PRGF, an autologous platelet enriched plasma eye-drop, compared to autologous serum (AS) obtained from oGVHD patients on ocular surface cells cultured in a pro-inflammatory environment. PRGF and AS were obtained from four GVHD patients. Cell proliferation and inflammation markers, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were measured in corneal and conjunctival fibroblastic cells cultured under pro-inflammatory conditions and after treatment with PRGF or AS eye drops. Moreover, cell proliferation increased after treatment with PRGF and AS, though this enhancement in the case of keratocytes was significantly higher with PRGF. PRGF eye drops showed a significant reduction of both inflammatory markers with respect to the initial inflammatory situation and to the AS treatment. Our results concluded that PRGF exerts more potent regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on ocular surface fibroblasts treated with pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNFα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  20. Frontoethmoidal Schwannoma with Exertional Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Go; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Frontoethmoidal schwannomas are rare. No case manifesting exertional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has ever been reported to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of frontoethmoidal schwannoma extending through the olfactory groove with exertional CSF rhinorrhea as the initial symptom. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our clinic for frequent nasal discharge on exertion. A postcontrast computed tomographic scan demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced tumor from the anterior cranial fossa to the anterior ethmoid sinus. A gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance image revealed a well-defined heterogeneously enhanced tumor situated in the midline anterior cranial fossa and anterior ethmoid sinus. After the resection, the defect of the right anterior skull base was reconstructed with a fascia graft and adipose tissue taken from the abdomen, as well as a pedicle periosteum flap. A histologic examination revealed the tumor as schwannoma. Her rhinorrhea completely resolved. She regained her sense of smell and taste 1 month after the operation. According to previous reports, olfactory groove, and paraolfactory groove/periolfactory groove schwannomas can be divided into 4 types: subfrontal, nasoethmoidal, frontoethmoidal, and ethmofrontal. Among them, a frontoethmoidal schwannoma can manifest exertional CSF rhinorrhea as an initial symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac (R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  2. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac(R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  3. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby

  4. Differences between novice and experienced caregivers in muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Rie; Saito, Yayoi

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caregiver knowledge and experience on muscle activity and perceived exertion while repositioning bedridden patients. Subjects were 40- to 65-year-old female caregivers divided into novice and experienced groups. Subjects from both groups performed home-care repositioning techniques on bedridden patients while muscle activity was recorded via electromyogram. Recordings were made from four muscles on the subjects' dominant side: the latissimus dorsi, the biceps brachii, the erector spinae, and the rectus femoris. The subjective burden involved in repositioning was also assessed using the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and visual analog scales (VAS). Rectus femoris percentage of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) values were significantly lower than latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, and biceps brachii values in the novice group. %MVC values from the latissimus dorsi and biceps brachii were significantly higher among the novice group compared to the experienced group. RPE ratings from the novice group were significantly higher than those of the experienced group, and there was a non-significant trend for higher VAS values for the low back, arms, and legs in the novice group compared to the experienced group. Novice caregivers tended to change the patient's position by pulling with the upper limbs without using the lower limbs. In contrast, experienced caregivers exerted less energy by communicating with the patient and utilizing the patient's own movements. They used large, distributed muscle groups that effectively harnessed body mechanics and prevented excess exertion.

  5. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    OpenAIRE

    Romano Michele; Carabalona Roberta; Petrilli Silvia; Sibilla Paolo; Negrini Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from ...

  6. The Effect of Multimodal Feedback on Perceived Exertion on a VR Exercise Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Andersen, Morten G.; Clemmesen, Mathias M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine if multimodal feedback, from auditory and haptic stimuli, can affect a user’s perceived exertion in a virtual reality setting. A simple virtual environment was created in the style of a desert to minimize the amount of visual distractions; a head mounted display was ...

  7. Exertion of forces by children performing a free-style jump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.; Visser, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This research project focuses on the force characteristics and force/time relationships of loads exerted by jumping children. The current study is an experimental research into children jumping on both hard and soft substrates. The hard substrate is obtained by using a force plate. For the soft

  8. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a 21-Year-Old Healthy Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Miramonti, Amelia A; Cramer, Joel T

    2017-05-01

    McKay, BD, Yeo, NM, Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, and Cramer, JT. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 21-year-old healthy woman: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1403-1410, 2017-The optimal resistance training program to elicit muscle hypertrophy has been recently debated and researched. Although 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70-80% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) are widely recommended, recent studies have shown that low-load (∼30% 1RM) high-repetition (3 sets of 30-40 repetitions) resistance training can elicit similar muscular hypertrophy. Incidentally, this type of resistance training has gained popularity. In the process of testing this hypothesis in a research study in our laboratory, a subject was diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis after completing a resistance training session that involved 3 sets to failure at 30% 1RM. Reviewed were the events leading up to and throughout the diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a healthy recreationally-trained 21-year-old woman who was enrolled in a study that compared the acute effects of high-load low-repetition vs. low-load high-repetition resistance training. The subject completed a total of 143 repetitions of the bilateral dumbbell biceps curl exercise. Three days after exercise, she reported excessive muscle soreness and swelling and sought medical attention. She was briefly hospitalized and then discharged with instructions to take acetaminophen for soreness, drink plenty of water, rest, and monitor her creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. Changes in the subject's CK concentrations, ultrasound-determined muscle thickness, and echo intensity monitored over a 14-day period are reported. This case illustrates the potential risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis after a low-load high-repetition resistance training session in healthy, young, recreationally-trained women. The fact that exertional rhabdomyolysis is a possible outcome may warrant caution when prescribing this type of resistance

  9. Comparison of the force exerted by hippocampal and DRG growth cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ladan; Ercolini, Erika; Ban, Jelena; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical properties such as force generation are fundamental for neuronal motility, development and regeneration. We used optical tweezers to compare the force exerted by growth cones (GCs) of neurons from the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), such as Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons, and from the Central Nervous System (CNS) such as hippocampal neurons. Developing GCs from dissociated DRG and hippocampal neurons were obtained from P1-P2 and P10-P12 rats. Comparing their morphology, we observed that the area of GCs of hippocampal neurons was 8-10 µm(2) and did not vary between P1-P2 and P10-P12 rats, but GCs of DRG neurons were larger and their area increased from P1-P2 to P10-P12 by 2-4 times. The force exerted by DRG filopodia was in the order of 1-2 pN and never exceeded 5 pN, while hippocampal filopodia exerted a larger force, often in the order of 5 pN. Hippocampal and DRG lamellipodia exerted lateral forces up to 20 pN, but lamellipodia of DRG neurons could exert a vertical force larger than that of hippocampal neurons. Force-velocity relationships (Fv) in both types of neurons had the same qualitative behaviour, consistent with a common autocatalytic model of force generation. These results indicate that molecular mechanisms of force generation of GC from CNS and PNS neurons are similar but the amplitude of generated force is influenced by their cytoskeletal properties.

  10. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  11. Epigenetic memory of oxidative stress: does nephrilin exert its protective effects via Rac1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascarenhas DD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Desmond D Mascarenhas,1,2 David N Herndon,3 Istvan Arany4 1Mayflower Organization for Research & Education, Sunnyvale, CA, 2Transporin, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, 3Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, and Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX, 4Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Aim: Nephrilin peptide, a designed inhibitor of Rictor complex (mTORC2, exerts pleiotropic protective effects in metabolic, xenobiotic and traumatic stress models. Stress can generate enduring epigenetic changes in gene function. In this work we examine the possibility that nephrilin treatment protects against acute and enduring global changes in oxidative metabolism, with a focus on the Rictor-complex-mediated activation of Rac1, a subunit of NADPH oxidase (Nox via PKCs, Prex1 and p66shc. Methods: Given the wide range of animal models in which nephrilin peptide has previously demonstrated effectiveness in vivo, we chose three different experimental systems for this investigation: dermal fibroblasts, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs, and kidney tissue and urine from an animal model of burn trauma in which nephrilin was previously shown to prevent loss of kidney function. Results: (1 Nephrilin protects dermal fibroblasts from loss of viability and collagen synthesis after ultraviolet A (UV-A or H2O2 insult. (2 Nephrilin reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS formation by H2O2–treated (PTECs with or without nicotine pretreatment. Using RNA arrays and pathway analysis we demonstrate that nicotine and H2O2-treated PTECs specifically induced Rac1 gene networks in these cells. (3 Using kidney tissue and urine from the burn trauma model we demonstrate significant elevations of [a] 8-aminoprostane in urine; [b] kidney tissue histone modification and DNA methylation; and [c] post-transcriptional phosphorylation events consistent with Rac1 activation in

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph B J; Lajczak, Natalia K; Kelly, Orlaith B; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Giddam, Ashwini K; Ní Gabhann, Joan; Franco, Placido; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Jefferies, Caroline A; Keely, Simon; Roda, Aldo; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Ward JB, Lajczak NK, Kelly OB, O'Dwyer AM, Giddam AK, Ní Gabhann J, Franco P, Tambuwala MM, Jefferies CA, Keely S, Roda A, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 312: G550-G558, 2017. First published March 30, 2017; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00256.2016.-Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a group of common and debilitating chronic intestinal disorders for which currently available therapies are often unsatisfactory. The naturally occurring secondary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has well-established anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions and may therefore be effective in treating IBD. We aimed to investigate regulation of colonic inflammatory responses by UDCA and to determine the potential impact of bacterial metabolism on its therapeutic actions. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of UDCA, a nonmetabolizable analog, 6α-methyl-UDCA (6-MUDCA), and its primary colonic metabolite lithocholic acid (LCA) was assessed in the murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mucosal injury. The effects of bile acids on cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-1β, and IFN-γ) release from cultured colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue in vivo were investigated. Luminal bile acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. UDCA attenuated release of proinflammatory cytokines from colonic epithelial cells in vitro and was protective against the development of colonic inflammation in vivo. In contrast, although 6-MUDCA mimicked the effects of UDCA on epithelial cytokine release in vitro, it was ineffective in preventing inflammation in the DSS model. In UDCA-treated mice, LCA became the most common colonic bile acid. Finally, LCA treatment more potently inhibited epithelial cytokine release and protected against DSS-induced mucosal inflammation than did UDCA. These studies identify a new role for the primary metabolite of UDCA, LCA, in preventing colonic

  13. Lactate and pH evaluation in exhausted humans with prolonged TASER X26 exposure or continued exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Dawes, Donald M; Cole, Jon B; Hottinger, Julie C; Overton, Kenneth G; Miner, James R

    2009-09-10

    Safety concerns about TASER Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW) use and media reports of deaths after exposure have been expressed. CEWs are sometimes used on exhausted subjects to end resistance. The alternative is often a continued struggle. It is unclear if CEW use is metabolically different than allowing a continued struggle. We sought to determine if CEW exposure on exhausted humans caused worsening acidosis when compared with continued exertion. This was a prospective study of human volunteers recruited during a CEW training course. Volunteers were from several different occupations and represented a wide range of ages and body mass index characteristics. Medical histories, baseline pH and lactate values were obtained. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: 2 control groups consisting of Exertion only and CEW Exposure only, and the 2 experimental groups that were Exertion plus CEW Exposure and Exertion plus additional Exertion. Blood sampling occurred after Exertion and after any CEW exposure. This was repeated every 2-min until 20 min after protocol completion. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the four groups. The experimental groups and the control groups were compared individually at each time point using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Lactate and pH association was assessed using multiple linear regression. Forty subjects were enrolled. There were no median pH or lactate differences between CEW Exposure groups at baseline, or between Exertion protocol groups immediately after completion. The CEW Exposure only group had higher pH and lower lactate values at all time points after exposure than the Exertion only group. After completing the Exertion protocol, there was no difference in the pH or lactate values between the continued Exertion group and the CEW Exposure group at any time points. Subjects who had CEW Exposure only had higher pH and lower lactate values than subjects who completed the Exertion protocol only. CEW exposure does not appear

  14. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a Collegiate American Football Player After Preventive Cold-Water Immersion: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Wasik, Mitchell; Alvey, Thurman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate American football player after preventive cold-water immersion. Background: A healthy man (19 years old) participated in full-contact football practice followed by conditioning (2.5 hours). After practice, he entered a coach-mandated post-practice cold-water immersion and had no signs of heat illness before developing leg cramps, for which he presented to the athletic training staff. After 10 minutes of repeated stretching, massage, and replacement of electrolyte-filled fluids, he was transported to the emergency room. Laboratory tests indicated a creatine kinase (CK) level of 2545 IU/L (normal range, 45–260 IU/L), CK-myoglobin fraction of 8.5 ng/mL (normal rhabdomyolysis. Treatment: The patient was treated with rest and rehydration. One week after the incident, he began biking and swimming. Eighteen days later, the patient continued to demonstrate elevated CK levels (527 IU/L) but described no other symptoms and was allowed to return to football practice as tolerated. Two months after the incident, his CK level remained high (1900 IU/L). Uniqueness: The athlete demonstrated no signs of heat illness upon entering the cold-water immersion but experienced severe leg cramping after immersion, resulting in a diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Previously described cases have not linked cold-water immersion with the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis. Conclusions: In this football player, CK levels appeared to be a poor indicator of rhabdomyolysis. Our patient demonstrated no other signs of the illness weeks after the incident, yet his elevated CK levels persisted. Cold-water immersion immediately after exercise should be monitored by the athletic training staff and may not be appropriate to prevent muscle damage, given the lack of supporting evidence. PMID:22488291

  15. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  16. Epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis susceptibility in standardbred horses reveals associated risk factors and underlying enhanced performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa M Isgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome is recognised in many athletic horse breeds and in recent years specific forms of the syndrome have been identified. However, although Standardbred horses are used worldwide for racing, there is a paucity of information about the epidemiological and performance-related aspects of the syndrome in this breed. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine the incidence, risk factors and performance effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred trotters and to compare the epidemiology and genetics of the syndrome with that in other breeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based case-control study (with analysis of online race records was conducted following identification of horses that were determined susceptible to exertional rhabdomyolysis (based on serum biochemistry from a total of 683 horses in 22 yards. Thirty six exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses were subsequently genotyped for the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1 mutation responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy. A total of 44 susceptible horses was reported, resulting in an annual incidence of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.2% per 100 horses. Female horses were at significantly greater risk than males (odds ratio 7.1; 95% CI 2.1-23.4; p = 0.001 and nervous horses were at a greater risk than horses with calm or average temperaments (odds ratio 7.9; 95% CI 2.3-27.0; p = 0.001. Rhabdomyolysis-susceptible cases performed better from standstill starts (p = 0.04 than controls and had a higher percentage of wins (p = 0.006. All exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses tested were negative for the R309H GYS1 mutation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred horses has a similar incidence and risk factors to the syndrome in Thoroughbred horses. If the disorder has a genetic basis in Standardbreds, improved performance in susceptible animals may be

  17. [Relationship between efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines and aquaporin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Qiu-hong; Kuang, Hai-xue

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the discovery and studies on aquaporin have made us have a more in-depth understanding about the physiological and pathological processes of water metabolism. Over years, however, there has been no quantitative study on the target sites of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines at the molecular level. In that case, aquaporin was found to been a new target molecule to explain the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines. By studying aquaporin, researchers can understand the implicit meaning of the diuretic effect of traditional Chinese medicines and conduct quantitative studies on the diuretic effect. So far, many scholars have conducted a series of studies in the traditional Chinese medicine field by using the findings on aquaporin and made certain advances. This article provides a summary about the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines through target molecule aquaporin.

  18. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted

  19. Incidental Finding of Inferior Vena Cava Atresia Presenting with Deep Venous Thrombosis following Physical Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Koppisetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava atresia (IVCA is a rare but well described vascular anomaly. It is a rare risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT, found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity (LE DVT in patients <30 years of age. Affected population is in the early thirties, predominantly male, often with a history of major physical exertion and presents with extensive or bilateral DVTs. Patients with IVC anomalies usually develop compensatory circulation through the collateral veins with enlarged azygous/hemizygous veins. Despite the compensatory circulation, the venous drainage of the lower limbs is often insufficient leading to venous stasis and thrombosis. We describe a case of extensive and bilateral deep venous thrombosis following physical exertion in a thirty-six-year-old male patient with incidental finding of IVCA on imaging.

  20. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Salivary Gland Derived BDNF Overexpression in Mice Exerts an Anxiolytic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is abundant in the hippocampus and plays critical roles in memory and synapse formation, as well as exerting antidepressant-like effects in psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that BDNF is expressed in salivary glands and affects blood BDNF content. However, the function of salivary BDNF remains unclear. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic mice overexpressing BDNF in the salivary glands. Hence, we used the Lama construct (hemaggl...

  2. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order...

  3. Effect of Stimulant Medication Use by Children with ADHD on Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Horn, Mary P.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)--heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 [plus or minus] 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 [plus or minus] 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD…

  4. A 68-Year-Old Man With Dyspnea on Exertion and Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Koenig, Seth; Khanijo, Sameer

    2018-06-01

    A 68-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia well controlled on ibrutinib, hypertension, obesity, and a remote history of smoking (10 pack-years) presented with increasing dyspnea on exertion and cough. He had previously finished two courses of oral antibiotics for his symptoms without significant improvement. On presentation, he had no fevers or sputum production. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact Exerted by Nutritional Risk Screening on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Wang; Hongfei Cai; Yang Li; Caiwen Chen; Youbin Cui

    2018-01-01

    Objective. Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods. 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional su...

  6. Suspected myofibrillar myopathy in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Shivers, J; Barnes, N E; Finno, C J

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is common in Arabian horses, there are no dedicated studies describing histopathological characteristics of muscle from Arabian horses with ER. To prospectively identify distinctive histopathological features of muscle from Arabian endurance horses with a history of ER (pro-ER) and to retrospectively determine their prevalence in archived samples from Arabian horses with exertional myopathies (retro-ER). Prospective and retrospective histopathological description. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies obtained from Arabian controls (n = 14), pro-ER (n = 13) as well as archived retro-ER (n = 25) muscle samples previously classified with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy (15/25), recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (7/25) and no pathology (3/25) were scored for histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of cytoskeletal proteins. Glutaraldehyde-fixed samples (2 pro-ER, one control) were processed for electron microscopy. Pro-ER and retro-ER groups were compared with controls using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Centrally located myonuclei in mature myofibres were found in significantly more (Prhabdomyolysis, ectopic accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins and Z-disc degeneration bear a strong resemblance to a myofibrillar myopathy. While many of these horses were previously diagnosed with type 2 polysaccharide storage myopathy, pools of glycogen forming within disrupted myofibrils appeared to give the false appearance of a glycogen storage disorder. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rogerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion. In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007. Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001 but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  8. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Hashish, Sachithra D. Samarawickrame, Lucinda Baker, George J. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact.

  9. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLohse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007 compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevenson & Biddle, 1998. In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion.

  10. Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Groenewold, Matthew R; Lu, Ming-Lun

    2018-01-12

    Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3). To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) regarding currently employed adults in the United States. By industry, the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work was among those in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group (70.9%); by occupation, the highest prevalence was among those in the construction and extraction occupation group (76.9%). Large differences among industry and occupation groups were found with regard to these ergonomic hazards, suggesting a need for targeted interventions designed to reduce workplace exposure.

  11. How emotion context modulates unconscious goal activation during motor force exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-02-01

    Priming participants with emotional or action-related concepts influences goal formation and motor force output during effort exertion tasks, even without awareness of priming information. However, little is known about neural processes underpinning how emotional cues interact with action (or inaction) goals to motivate (or demotivate) motor behaviour. In a novel functional neuroimaging paradigm, visible emotional images followed by subliminal action or inaction word primes were presented before participants performed a maximal force exertion. In neutral emotional contexts, maximum force was lower following inaction than action primes. However, arousing emotional images had interactive motivational effects on the motor system: Unpleasant images prior to inaction primes increased force output (enhanced effort exertion) relative to control primes, and engaged a motivation-related network involving ventral striatum, extended amygdala, as well as right inferior frontal cortex. Conversely, pleasant images presented before action (versus control) primes decreased force and activated regions of the default-mode network, including inferior parietal lobule and medial prefrontal cortex. These findings show that emotional context can determine how unconscious goal representations influence motivational processes and are transformed into actual motor output, without direct rewarding contingencies. Furthermore, they provide insight into altered motor behaviour in psychopathological disorders with dysfunctional motivational processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of acclimatization on blood clotting parameters in exertional heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Zoran; Vukasinović-Vesić, Milica; Dincić, Dragan; Surbatović, Maja; Radaković, Sonja S

    2013-07-01

    Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. Considering the coagulation abnormalities are of major importance in development of severe heat stroke, we wanted to examine changes in hemostatic parameters in soldiers during exertional heat stress test as well as the effects of a 10-day passive or active acclimatization in a climatic chamber. A total of 40 male soldiers with high aerobic capacity performed exertional heat stress test (EHST) either in cool [20 degrees C, 16 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], or hot (40 degrees C, 29 degrees C, (WBGT) environment, unacclimatized (U) or after 10 days of passive (P) or active (A) acclimatization. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty) and heart rates (HR). Platelet count (PC), antithrombin III (AT), and prothrombin time (PT) were assessed in blood samples collected before and immediately after the EHST. EHST in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR), with a significant increase in prothrombin time in the groups U and A. Platelet counts were significantly higher after the EHST compared to the basic levels in all the investigated groups, regardless environmental conditions and acclimatization state. Antithrombin levels were not affected by EHST whatsoever. In the trained soldiers, physiological heat stress caused mild changes in some serum parameters of blood clotting such as prothrombin time, while others such as antithrombin levels were not affected. Platelet counts were increased after EHST in all groups. A 10-day passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber showed no effect on parameters investigated.

  13. Andrographolide Exerts Pro-Osteogenic Effect by Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Vitro

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    Tongmeng Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorders that tortures about millions of people worldwide. Recent studies showed that Andrographolide (AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. However, its potential in treatment of osteoporosis has not been fully explored. Methods: In this study, the effect of AP on osteoblasts metabolism was investigated via the detection of cell proliferation, cell viability, ALP activity, the expression of osteogenic specific genes including runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, bone sialoprotein (BSP, osteocalcin (OCN, Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2 and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP for 3, 5 and 7 days respectively. Further exploration of the association of AP with WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was performed by examination of the expression of WNT related genes and proteins. Results: Results showed that AP of 4.46 and 8.92 µM, especially 8.92 µM was beneficial to osteogenic differentiation by upregulating ALP activity and expression of osteogenic related genes (PConclusion: This study indicates that AP exerts its pro-osteogenic potential via activation of the WNT/β-catenin in osteoblasts and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.

  14. Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism.

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    Rajan, Ravi Kumar; M, Siva Selva Kumar; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Soy is the main source of phytoestrogens, which has long been used as traditional food. One major subtype of phytoestrogens includes isoflavones and they are scientifically validated for their beneficial actions on many hormone-dependent conditions. The present study examines the effect of soy isoflavones on letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. PCOS was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with of 1 mg/kg letrozole, p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Soy isoflavones (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after PCOS induction. Physical parameters (body weight, oestrous cycle determination, ovary and uterus weight) metabolic parameters (oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol), steroidal hormone profile (testosterone and 17β-oestradiol), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD), oxidative stress and histopathology of ovary were studied. Soy isoflavones (100 mg/kg) treatment significantly altered the letrozole-induced PCOS symptoms as observed by decreased body weight gain (p PCOS rats resulted in well-developed antral follicles and normal granulosa cell layer in rat ovary. Treatment with soy isoflavones exerts beneficial effects in PCOS rats (with decreased aromatase activity) which might be due to their ability to decrease testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood. Analysis of physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that soy isoflavones may be beneficial in PCOS.

  15. Sulforaphane exerts neuroprotective effects via suppression of the inflammatory response in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.

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    Ma, Li-Li; Xing, Guo-Ping; Yu, Yin; Liang, Hui; Yu, Tian-Xia; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Lai, Tian-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory damage plays an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a promising target for treatment. Sulforaphane exerts protective effects in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by alleviating brain edema. However, the possible mechanisms of sulforaphane after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of sulforaphane on inflammatory reaction and the potential molecular mechanisms in cerebral ischemia rats. We found that sulforaphane significantly attenuated the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption; decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β; reduced the nitric oxide (NO) levels and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity; inhibited the expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, sulforaphane inhibits the expression of p-NF-κB p65 after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Taken together, our results suggest that sulforaphane suppresses the inflammatory response via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, and sulforaphane may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  16. Team Size and Stretching-Exercise Effects on Simulated Chest Compression Performance and Exertion

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    Jessica C. Schoen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigators conducted a prospective experimental study to evaluate the effect of team size and recovery exercises on individual providers’ compression quality and exertion. Investigators hypothesized that 1 larger teams would perform higher quality compressions with less exertion per provider when compared to smaller teams; and 2 brief stretching and breathing exercises during rest periods would sustain compressor performance and mitigate fatigue. Methods: In Phase I, a volunteer cohort of pre-clinical medical students performed four minutes of continuous compressions on a Resusci-Anne manikin to gauge the spectrum of compressor performance in the subject population. Compression rate, depth, and chest recoil were measured. In Phase II, the highest-performing Phase I subjects were placed into 2-, 3-, and/or 4-compressor teams; 2-compressor teams were assigned either to control group (no recovery exercises or intervention group (recovery exercises during rest. All Phase II teams participated in 20-minute simulations with compressor rotation every two minutes. Investigators recorded compression quality and real-time heart rate data, and calculated caloric expenditure from contact heart rate monitor measurements using validated physiologic formulas. Results: Phase I subjects delivered compressions that were 24.9% (IQR1–3: [0.5%–74.1%] correct with a median rate of 112.0 (IQR1–3: [103.5–124.9] compressions per minute and depth of 47.2 (IQR1–3: [35.7–55.2] mm. In their first rotations, all Phase II subjects delivered compressions of similar quality and correctness (p=0.09. Bivariate analyses of 2-, 3-, and 4-compressor teams’ subject compression characteristics by subsequent rotation did not identify significant differences within or across teams. On multivariate analyses, only subjects in 2-compressor teams exhibited significantly lower compression rates (control subjects; p<0.01, diminished chest release (intervention

  17. Combination of gefitinib and DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine exerts synergistic anti-cancer activity in colon cancer cells.

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    Yun-feng Lou

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the treatment of human colon cancer, the chemotherapy efficacy against colon cancer is still unsatisfactory. In the present study, effects of concomitant inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and DNA methyltransferase were examined in human colon cancer cells. We demonstrated that decitabine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor synergized with gefitinib (an EGFR inhibitor to reduce cell viability and colony formation in SW1116 and LOVO cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to NCM460 cells, a normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line. The combination was also more effective at inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/S6 kinase pathway. In addition, the combination of decitabine with gefitinib markedly inhibited colon cancer cell migration. Furthermore, gefitinib synergistically enhanced decitabine-induced cytotoxicity was primarily due to apoptosis as shown by Annexin V labeling that was attenuated by z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor. Concomitantly, cell apoptosis resulting from the co-treatment of gefitinib and decitabine was accompanied by induction of BAX, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, along with reduction of Bcl-2 compared to treatment with either drug alone. Interestingly, combined treatment with these two drugs increased the expression of XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1 which play an important role in cell apoptosis. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA depletion of XAF1 significantly attenuated colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by the combination of the two drugs. Our findings suggested that gefitinib in combination with decitabine exerted enhanced cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells were involved in mitochondrial-mediated pathway and induction of XAF1 expression. In conclusion, based on the observations from our study, we suggested that the combined administration of these two drugs might be considered as a novel therapeutic regimen for treating colon

  18. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch

    2016-03-01

    Among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in 2015, there were 456 incident episodes of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 17% between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, the highest incidence rates occurred in service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; black, non-Hispanic; members of the Marine Corps and Army; recruit trainees; and in combat-specific occupations. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain and swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (e.g., myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather.

  19. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

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    Bishayee, Anupam, E-mail: abishayee@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA 90755 (United States); Mandal, Animesh [Cancer Therapeutics and Chemoprevention Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dietary administration of an ethanolic extract of aerial parts of T. portulacastrum (TPE) exhibits a striking chemopreventive effect in an experimentally induced classical animal model of breast cancer. • The mammary tumor-inhibitory effect of TPE could be achieved, at least in part, though intervention of key hallmark capabilities of tumor cells, such as abnormal cell proliferation and evasion of apoptosis. • TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during this early-stage mammary carcinoma. • These results coupled with a safety profile of T. portulacastrum may encourage further studies to understand the full potential of this dietary plant for chemoprevention of breast cancer. - Abstract: Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight

  20. Examining Effects of Physical Exertion on the Dynamic Visual Acuity Test in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jessie N; Murphy, Anna M; Honaker, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion. Current concussion position statements include measures of postural control to examine changes to the balance system postconcussion. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is a commonly used low-cost postural control measure for concussion assessment. Although this is a widely used measure for documenting balance function on both immediate (sideline) and recovery monitoring, the BESS has been shown to be affected by physical exertion. Therefore, the BESS may not be the most efficient means of examining functional changes to the balance system immediately after head injury. Dynamic Visual Acuity Test (DVAT) has been found to effectively evaluate and monitor changes to the gaze stability system postinjury. Thus, DVAT may be an additional measure in the concussion assessment battery, as well as an alternative for more immediate sideline assessment to help make objective return-to-play decisions. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of physical exertion on a clinical vestibular assessment, the DVAT, in collegiate athletes, as a first step in defining the role of this measure in the concussion assessment battery. Cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. Twenty-eight healthy collegiate athletes (20 males, 8 females; age = 20.25 ± 1.46 yr, range = 18-25 yr) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were

  1. Neural basis of exertional fatigue in the heat: A review of magnetic resonance imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X R; Low, I C C; Stephenson, M C; Soong, T W; Lee, J K W

    2018-03-01

    The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies-brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI, and arterial spin labeling. The review aims to provide a summary on the neural basis of exertional fatigue and proposes future directions for brain MRI studies. A systematic literature search was performed where a total of thirty-seven brain MRI studies associated with exercise, fatigue, or related physiological factors were reviewed. The findings suggest that with moderate dehydration, there is a decrease in total brain volume accompanied with expansion of ventricular volume. With exercise fatigue, there is increased activation of sensorimotor and cognitive brain areas, increased thalamo-insular activation and decreased interhemispheric connectivity in motor cortex. Under passive hyperthermia, there are regional changes in cerebral perfusion, a reduction in local connectivity in functional brain networks and an impairment to executive function. Current literature suggests that the brain structure and function are influenced by exercise, fatigue, and related physiological perturbations. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge and it is hoped that through understanding of MRI advantages and limitations, future studies will shed light on the central origin of exertional fatigue in the heat. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Acute kidney injury mediated by oxidative stress in Egyptian horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ashker, Maged R

    2011-06-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiologic process of acute renal failure associated with exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Egyptian horses. ER was tentatively diagnosed in 31 Baladi horses based on case history, physical examination findings and confirmed by elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin concentrations. According to severity of the condition, the diseased horses were categorized into two main groups; the first group included 18 horses with minimal clinical signs and plasma CK 100 000 IU/L). It was found that plasma creatol (CTL) was positively correlated (p Baladi horses with severe rhabdomyolysis.

  3. The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton.

  4. Plumbagin exerts an immunosuppressive effect on human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells

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    Bae, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Yura [Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Daejeon 34824 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soon Ae [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Daejeon 34824 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyeon, E-mail: yeon@eulji.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Daejeon 34824 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-22

    Of the hematological disorders typified by poor prognoses and survival rates, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is one of the most commonly diagnosed. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents, the treatment options for this cancer remain limited. In this manuscript, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of plumbagin, mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling; the human T-ALL MOLT-4 cell line was used as our experimental system. Plumbagin is a natural, plant derived compound, which exerts an anti-proliferative activity against many types of human cancer. Our experiments confirm that plumbagin induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells, with no significant cytotoxicity seen for normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Plumbagin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65, and the transcription of NF-κB target genes. Our results now show that plumbagin is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and suppressor of T-ALL cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Plumbagin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in T-ALL MOLT-4 cells. • Plumbagin activates phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) JNK and p38. • Plumbagin inhibits LPS-mediated NF-κB signaling cascade. • Plumbagin inhibits LPS-mediated transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Forsythoside A exerts antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia mice via inhibiting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiling; Su, Hongchang; Wan, Hongye; Qin, Qingxia; Wu, Xuan; Kong, Xiangying; Lin, Na

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, playing major roles in thermoregulation. Forsythoside A (FT-A) is the most abundant phenylethanoid glycosides in Fructus Forsythiae, which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. However, how FT-A affects pyrexia and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we found that FT-A exerted apparent antipyretic effect through decreasing the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in a dose-dependent fashion on the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Interestingly, FT-A significantly downregulated TRPV1 expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Moreover, FT-A inhibited IL-8 and PGE2 secretions, and calcium influx in the HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells after stimulated with capsaicin, the specific TRPV1 agonist. Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that FT-A treatment rapidly inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in both yeast induced pyrexia mice and HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells. These results suggest that FT-A may serve as a potential antipyretic agent and the therapeutic action of Fructus Forsythiae on pyretic related disease is, in part, due to the FT-A activities. PMID:28123347

  6. Essential Oil of Pinus koraiensis Exerts Antiobesic and Hypolipidemic Activity via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Gamma Signaling

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    Hyun-Suk Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, including PPARγ and CEBPα in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, EOPK attenuated the expression levels of FABP and GPDH as target genes of PPARγ during adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 enhanced the decreased expression of FABP and PPARγ and fat accumulation induced by EOPK. To confirm the in vitro activity of EOPK, animal study was performed by administering normal diet, HFD, and/or EOPK at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Consistently, EOPK significantly suppressed body weight gain, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and AI value and increased HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EOPK treatment abrogated the expression of PPARγ in the liver tissue sections of EOPK-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that EOPK has the antiobesic and hypolipidemic potential via inhibition of PPARγ-related signaling.

  7. Essential Oil of Pinus koraiensis Exerts Antiobesic and Hypolipidemic Activity via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Gamma Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Sohn, Eun Jung; Yun, Miyong; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, including PPAR γ and CEBP α in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, EOPK attenuated the expression levels of FABP and GPDH as target genes of PPAR γ during adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPAR γ inhibitor GW9662 enhanced the decreased expression of FABP and PPAR γ and fat accumulation induced by EOPK. To confirm the in vitro activity of EOPK, animal study was performed by administering normal diet, HFD, and/or EOPK at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Consistently, EOPK significantly suppressed body weight gain, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and AI value and increased HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EOPK treatment abrogated the expression of PPAR γ in the liver tissue sections of EOPK-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that EOPK has the antiobesic and hypolipidemic potential via inhibition of PPAR γ -related signaling.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Exerts Anti-Atherogenic Effects by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Induced by Disturbed Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jihwa; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Seok Cheol; An, Shung Hyun; Kwon, Kihwan

    2015-10-01

    Disturbed blood flow with low-oscillatory shear stress (OSS) is a predominant atherogenic factor leading to dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs). Recently, it was found that disturbed flow can directly induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ECs, thereby playing a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid, has long been used to treat chronic cholestatic liver disease and is known to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the cellular level. However, its role in atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-atherogenic activity of UDCA via inhibition of disturbed flow-induced ER stress in atherosclerosis. UDCA effectively reduced ER stress, resulting in a reduction in expression of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) and CEBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in ECs. UDCA also inhibits the disturbed flow-induced inflammatory responses such as increases in adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion to ECs, and apoptosis of ECs. In a mouse model of disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis, UDCA inhibits atheromatous plaque formation through the alleviation of ER stress and a decrease in adhesion molecules. Taken together, our results revealed that UDCA exerts anti-atherogenic activity in disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting ER stress and the inflammatory response. This study suggests that UDCA may be a therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

  9. Enavatuzumab, a Humanized Anti-TWEAK Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Exerts Antitumor Activity through Attracting and Activating Innate Immune Effector Cells

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    Shiming Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enavatuzumab is a humanized IgG1 anti-TWEAK receptor monoclonal antibody that was evaluated in a phase I clinical study for the treatment of solid malignancies. The current study was to determine whether and how myeloid effector cells were involved in postulated mechanisms for its potent antitumor activity in xenograft models. The initial evidence for a role of effector cells was obtained in a subset of tumor xenograft mouse models whose response to enavatuzumab relied on the binding of Fc of the antibody to Fcγ receptor. The involvement of effector cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which revealed strong infiltration of CD45+ effector cells into tumor xenografts in responding models, but minimal infiltration in nonresponders. Consistent with the xenograft studies, human effector cells preferentially migrated toward in vivo-responsive tumor cells treated by enavatuzumab in vitro, with the majority of migratory cells being monocytes. Conditioned media from enavatuzumab-treated tumor cells contained elevated levels of chemokines, which might be responsible for enavatuzumab-triggered effector cell migration. These preclinical studies demonstrate that enavatuzumab can exert its potent antitumor activity by actively recruiting and activating myeloid effectors to kill tumor cells. Enavatuzumab-induced chemokines warrant further evaluation in clinical studies as potential biomarkers for such activity.

  10. Regulatory T Cell Induced by Poria cocos Bark Exert Therapeutic Effects in Murine Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy

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    Min-Jung Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis (AD and food allergy (FA has increased dramatically in pediatric populations, but there is no effective drug available for their management. Therefore, trials are required for the development of safe therapeutic agents such as herbal medicines. We determined whether orally administered Poria cocos bark (PCB extract could exert immunosuppressive effects on allergic and inflammatory symptoms of AD and FA. For both AD, which was induced using house dust mite extract, and FA, which was induced by exposure to ovalbumin, model mice were orally treated with PCB extract for 62 days and 18 days, respectively. We also investigated the inductive effect of PCB extract on the generation and maintenance of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs. The symptoms of AD and FA were ameliorated by the administration of PCB extract. Furthermore, PCB extract inhibited the Th2-related cytokines and increased the population of Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs in both AD and FA models. In ex vivo experiments, PCB extract promoted the functional differentiation of Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs, which is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Thus, PCB extract has potential as an oral immune suppressor for the treatment of AD and FA through the generation of Tregs.

  11. Pomegranate exerts chemoprevention of experimentally induced mammary tumorigenesis by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Mandal, Animesh; Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bhatia, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women in the United States and discovery and development of safe chemopreventive drugs is urgently needed. The fruit pomegranate (Punica granatum) is gaining importance because of its various health benefits. This study was initiated to investigate chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) rat mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were orally administered with PE (0.2-5.0 g/kg), starting 2 wk before and 16 wk following DMBA treatment. PE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden, and reversed histopathological changes. PE dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in mammary tumors. Immunohistochemical studies showed that PE increased intratumor Bax, decreased Bcl2 and manifested a proapoptotic shift in Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In addition, our gene expression study showed PE-mediated upregulation of Bad, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and cytochrome c in mammary tumors. Thus, PE exerts chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis mediated through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl2 in concert with caspase cascades. Pomegranate bioactive phytoconstituents could be developed as a chemopreventive drug to reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sufen; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Cheng, Jian-Xin; Yang, Burton B; Peng, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.

  13. Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669 once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment.

  14. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease: Three Distinct Clinical Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank N.M. Twisk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME. However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of ME and not fulfil the case criteria for CFS, while the diagnosis of CFS is largely insufficient to be qualified as a ME patient. ME is a neuromuscular disease with distinctive muscular symptoms, including prolonged muscle weakness after exertion, and neurological signs implicating cerebral dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and sensory symptoms. The only mandatory symptom of CFS is chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue must be accompanied by at least four out of eight nonspecific symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, a sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multijoint pain, a new type of headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and postexertional “malaise” lasting more than 24 h. So, regardless whether the name ME is appropriate or not, ME is not synonymous to CFS. That is not a matter of opinion, but a matter of definition. Due to the definitions of ME and CFS, “ME/CFS” does not exist and cannot be replaced by a new clinical entity (SEID: Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease, as recently suggested.

  15. Dual effects exerted in vitro by micromolar concentrations of deoxynivalenol on undifferentiated caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Gina; Mocanu, Mihaela Andreea; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-02-16

    Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37-1.50 μM), relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  16. Dual Effects Exerted in Vitro by Micromolar Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol on Undifferentiated Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Manda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37–1.50 μM, relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  17. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  18. Post-match Perceived Exertion, Feeling and Wellness in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessi, Mohamed Saifeddin; Moalla, Wassim

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess post-match perceived exertion, feeling and wellness according to the match outcome (winning, drawing or losing) in professional soccer players. Twelve outfield players were followed during 52 official matches where the outcomes (win, draw or lose) were noted. Following each match players completed both a 10-point scale rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and an 11-point scale rating of perceived feeling. Rating of perceived sleep quality, stress, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected separately on a 7-point scale the day following each match. Player RPE was higher by a very largely magnitude following a loss compared to a draw or a win and higher by a small magnitude after a draw compared to a win. Players felt more pleasure after a win compared to a draw or loss and more displeasure after a loss compared to draw. The players reported a largely and moderately better-perceived sleep quality, less stress and fatigue following a win compared to draw or a loss, and a moderately bad-perceived sleep quality, higher stress and fatigue following a draw compared to a loss. In contrast, only a trivial-small change was observed in perceived muscle soreness between all outcomes. Matches outcomes moderately to largely affect RPE, perceived feeling, sleep quality, stress and fatigue whereas perceived muscle soreness remains high regardless of the match outcome. However, winning a match decreases the strain and improves both pleasure and wellness in professional soccer players.

  19. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-06-30

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  20. Seed predators exert selection on the subindividual variation of seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, M; Guitián, J; Guitián, P; Larrinaga, A R

    2014-07-01

    Subindividual variation among repeated organs in plants constitutes an overlooked level of variation in phenotypic selection studies, despite being a major component of phenotypic variation. Animals that interact with plants could be selective agents on subindividual variation. This study examines selective pressures exerted during post-dispersal seed predation and germination on the subindividual variation of seed size in hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). With a seed offering experiment and a germination test, we estimated phenotypic selection differentials for average and subindividual variation of seed size due to seed predation and germination. Seed size affects germination, growth rate and the probability of an individual seed of escaping predation. Longer seeds showed higher germination rates, but this did not result in significant selection on phenotypes of the maternal trees. On the other hand, seed predators avoided wider seeds, and by doing so exerted phenotypic selection on adult average and subindividual variation of seed size. The detected selection on subindividual variation suggests that the levels of phenotypic variation within individual plants may be, at least partly, the adaptive consequence of animal-mediated selection. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Influence of Exogenous β-Hydroxybutyrate on Walking Economy and Rating of Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shaun; Kjerulf Greer, Beau

    2018-06-28

    This study investigates the effect of a supplementary ketone, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), on walking economy and ratings of perceived exertion in apparently healthy individuals. In a repeated-measures, crossover design, ten non-aerobically trained participants (three males; seven females) performed two stages of a duration-modified Bruce treadmill protocol. Participants blindly consumed either 1 ounce of an exogenous BHB solution (KETO) or a noncaloric placebo (CON) 30 minutes prior to exercise testing. Blood ketone and glucose concentrations were measured prior to supplementation (baseline), immediately before exercise, and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), energy expenditure (EE), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the last two minutes of each stage. Blood BHB concentrations were significantly elevated at the pre-exercise and postexercise time points as compared to the CON condition (p .05) were found for VO 2 , RER, EE, or RPE. The intervention of this study did not produce evidence of an ergogenic benefit from BHB supplementation in a healthy subject pool.

  2. Magnetic tweezers optimized to exert high forces over extended distances from the magnet in multicellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, L.; Pasakarnis, L.; Brunner, D.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic tweezers are mainly divided into two classes depending on the ability of applying torque or forces to the magnetic probe. We focused on the second category and designed a device composed by a single electromagnet equipped with a core having a special asymmetric profile to exert forces as large as 230 pN-2.8 μm Dynabeads at distances in excess of 100 μm from the magnetic tip. Compared to existing solutions our magnetic tweezers overcome important limitations, opening new experimental paths for the study of a wide range of materials in a variety of biophysical research settings. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different magnet core characteristics, which led us to design the current core profile. To demonstrate the usefulness of our magnetic tweezers, we determined the microrheological properties inside embryos of Drosophila melanogaster during the syncytial stage. Measurements in different locations along the dorsal-ventral axis of the embryos showed little variation, with a slight increase in cytoplasm viscosity at the periphery of the embryos. The mean cytoplasm viscosity we obtain by active force exertion inside the embryos is comparable to that determined passively using high-speed video microrheology.

  3. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Ji, Yoon Cheol; Shin, Eun-Seok; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Sung Joon; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-08-01

    Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using a novel method. Based on a physiological observation that longer coronary arteries have more daughter branches feeding a larger mass of cardiac muscle, the method measures the vessel lengths from coronary angiogram or CT images (vessel length-based method) and predicts the coronary flow resistances. The underlying equations are derived from the physiological relation among flow rate, resistance, and vessel length. To validate the present estimation method, we calculate the coronary flow division over coronary major arteries for 50 patients using the vessel length-based method as well as the muscle volume-based one. These results are compared with the direct measurements in a clinical study. Further proving the usefulness of the present method, we compute the coronary FFR from the images of optical coherence tomography.

  4. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is needed to enable a real and efficient classification of perceived individual efforts. In this paper, we propose a heart rate-based personalized method to assess perceived exertion; our method uses fuzzy logic as an option to manage imprecision and uncertainty in involved variables. We applied some experiments to cleaning staff and obtained results that highlight the importance of a custom method to classify perceived exertion of people doing physical work.

  5. Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts farnesoid X receptor-antagonistic effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michaela; Thorell, Anders; Claudel, Thierry; Jha, Pooja; Koefeler, Harald; Lackner, Carolin; Hoesel, Bastian; Fauler, Guenter; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Einarsson, Curt; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Trauner, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are major regulators of hepatic BA and lipid metabolism but their mechanisms of action in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still poorly understood. Here we aimed to explore the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in modulating the cross-talk between liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) regarding BA and cholesterol metabolism and fatty acid/lipid partitioning in morbidly obese NAFLD patients. In this randomized controlled pharmacodynamic study, we analyzed serum, liver and vWAT samples from 40 well-matched morbidly obese patients receiving UDCA (20 mg/kg/day) or no treatment three weeks prior to bariatric surgery. Short term UDCA administration stimulated BA synthesis by reducing circulating fibroblast growth factor 19 and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation, resulting in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase induction mirrored by elevated C4 and 7α-hydroxycholesterol. Enhanced BA formation depleted hepatic and LDL-cholesterol with subsequent activation of the key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Blunted FXR anti-lipogenic effects induced lipogenic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the liver, thereby increasing hepatic triglyceride content. In addition, induced SCD activity in vWAT shifted vWAT lipid metabolism towards generation of less toxic and more lipogenic monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid. These data demonstrate that by exerting FXR-antagonistic effects, UDCA treatment in NAFLD patients strongly impacts on cholesterol and BA synthesis and induces neutral lipid accumulation in both liver and vWAT. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TMG-123, a novel glucokinase activator, exerts durable effects on hyperglycemia without increasing triglyceride in diabetic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yoshinori; Tsushima, Yu; Tamura, Azusa; Hasebe, Makiko; Kanou, Masanobu; Kato, Hirotsugu; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi

    2017-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) plays a critical role for maintaining glucose homeostasis with regulating glucose uptake in liver and insulin secretion in pancreas. GK activators have been reported to decrease blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, clinical development of GK activators has failed due to the loss of glucose-lowering effects and increased plasma triglyceride levels after chronic treatment. Here, we generated a novel GK activator, TMG-123, examined its in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characteristics, and evaluated its risks of aforementioned clinical issues. TMG-123 selectively activated GK enzyme activity without increasing Vmax. TMG-123 improved glucose tolerance without increasing plasma insulin levels in both insulin-deficient (Goto-Kakizaki rats) and insulin-resistant (db/db mice) models. The beneficial effect on glucose tolerance was greater than results observed with clinically available antidiabetic drugs such as metformin and glibenclamide in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. TMG-123 also improved glucose tolerance in combination with metformin. After 4 weeks of administration, TMG-123 reduced the Hemoglobin A1c levels without affecting liver and plasma triglyceride levels in Goto-Kakizaki rats and Diet-Induced Obesity mice. Moreover, TMG-123 sustained its effect on Hemoglobin A1c levels even after 24 weeks of administration without affecting triglycerides. Taken together, these data indicate that TMG-123 exerts glucose-lowering effects in both insulin-deficient and -resistant diabetes, and sustains reduced Hemoglobin A1c levels without affecting hepatic and plasma triglycerides even after chronic treatment. Therefore, TMG-123 is expected to be an antidiabetic drug that overcomes the concerns previously reported with other GK activators.

  7. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Personalized Method to Classify Perceived Exertion in Workplaces Using a Wearable Heart Rate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Pancardo, Pablo; Hernández-Nolasco, J. A.; Acosta-Escalante, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Knowing the perceived exertion of workers during their physical activities facilitates the decision-making of supervisors regarding the worker allocation in the appropriate job, actions to prevent accidents, and reassignment of tasks, among others. However, although wearable heart rate sensors represent an effective way to capture perceived exertion, ergonomic methods are generic and they do not consider the diffuse nature of the ranges that classify the efforts. Personalized monitoring is ne...

  8. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Jin, Shao-Bo [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Han, Liwei [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Lendahl, Urban [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhao, Jian, E-mail: Jian.Zhao@ki.se [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Nistér, Monica [Department of Oncology–Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, CCK R8:05, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  9. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong; Jin, Shao-Bo; Han, Liwei; Lendahl, Urban; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  10. EEG signatures of arm isometric exertions in preparation, planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Lakany, Heba; Conway, Bernard A

    2014-04-15

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity patterns in humans during motor behaviour provide insight into normal motor control processes and for diagnostic and rehabilitation applications. While the patterns preceding brisk voluntary movements, and especially movement execution, are well described, there are few EEG studies that address the cortical activation patterns seen in isometric exertions and their planning. In this paper, we report on time and time-frequency EEG signatures in experiments in normal subjects (n=8), using multichannel EEG during motor preparation, planning and execution of directional centre-out arm isometric exertions performed at the wrist in the horizontal plane, in response to instruction-delay visual cues. Our observations suggest that isometric force exertions are accompanied by transient and sustained event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related (de-)synchronisations (ERD/ERS), comparable to those of a movement task. Furthermore, the ERPs and ERD/ERS are also observed during preparation and planning of the isometric task. Comparison of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian ERPs indicates the contribution of superficial sources in supplementary and pre-motor (FC(z)), parietal (CP(z)) and primary motor cortical areas (C₁ and FC₁) to ERPs (primarily negative peaks in frontal and positive peaks in parietal areas), but contribution of deep sources to sustained time-domain potentials (negativity in planning and positivity in execution). Transient and sustained ERD patterns in μ and β frequency bands of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian EEG indicate the contribution of both superficial and deep sources to ERD/ERS. As no physical displacement happens during the task, we can infer that the underlying mechanisms of motor-related ERPs and ERD/ERS patterns do not only depend on change in limb coordinate or muscle-length-dependent ascending sensory information and are primary generated by motor preparation, direction

  11. Exertional myopathy in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) captured by leghold snare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattet, Marc; Stenhouse, Gordon; Bollinger, Trent

    2008-10-01

    We diagnosed exertional myopathy (EM) in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) that died approximately 10 days after capture by leghold snare in west-central Alberta, Canada, in June 2003. The diagnosis was based on history, post-capture movement data, gross necropsy, histopathology, and serum enzyme levels. We were unable to determine whether EM was the primary cause of death because autolysis precluded accurate evaluation of all tissues. Nevertheless, comparison of serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase concentrations and survival between the affected bear and other grizzly bears captured by leghold snare in the same research project suggests EM also occurred in other bears, but that it is not generally a cause of mortality. We propose, however, occurrence of nonfatal EM in grizzly bears after capture by leghold snare has potential implications for use of this capture method, including negative effects on wildlife welfare and research data.

  12. Influence of plane bed on the force exerted on a cylinder oscillating in still water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeeni, S.T.O. [Tehran Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Narayanan, R. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2005-12-01

    The wall pressure field on a cylinder oscillating over a plane bed in still water is reported in this paper. Two gaps between the cylinder and the bed were considered. Pressures on the periphery of the cylinder were measured by a transducer and were found to be essentially repeatable from one cycle to the next. The forces determined from the pressure profiles compare well with those measured directly by a force transducer except significantly at Keulegan-Carpenter number of 15.0. The importance of the plane bed when it is stationary or moving with the cylinder is examined. The significance of the roughness of the bed with respect to the oscillatory forces exerted on the cylinder is also assessed. (Author)

  13. Fgf8-related secondary organizers exert different polarizing planar instructions along the mouse anterior neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Partanen, Juha; Martinez, Salvador; Echevarria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens) detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical location of the secondary organizers: the isthmic organizer (IsO) and the anterior neural ridge (anr) but not on zona limitans intrathalamica (zli). Our results suggest that Sprouty2, a negative modulator of RAS/ERK pathway, is important for regulating Fgf8 morphogenetic signal activity by controlling Fgf8-induced signaling pathways and positional information during early brain development.

  14. Endogenous IFN-β signaling exerts anti-inflammatory actions in experimentally induced focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inácio, Ana R; Liu, Yawei; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    of infiltrating leukocytes in the brain 2 days after stroke. Concomitantly, in the blood of IFN-βKO mice, we found a higher percentage of total B cells but a similar percentage of mature and activated B cells, collectively indicating a higher proliferation rate. The additional differential regulation......BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-β exerts anti-inflammatory effects, coupled to remarkable neurological improvements in multiple sclerosis, a neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system. Analogously, it has been hypothesized that IFN-β, by limiting inflammation, decreases neuronal death...... strength tests, and cerebral infarct volumes were given by lack of neuronal nuclei immunoreactivity. RESULTS: Here, we report alterations in local and systemic inflammation in IFN-β knockout (IFN-βKO) mice over 8 days after induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Notably, IFN-βKO mice showed a higher number...

  15. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  16. Locked-in syndrome caused by the pressure exerted by the sound gun

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    Ayse Belin Ozer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male patient who wounded himself with a gun in the cranial region had a Glasgow coma scale of 3E. At posttraumatic day 7, locked-in syndrome was considered upon detection of vertical eye movements, meaningful winks, and quadriplegia. Apart from the classical view, computed tomography (CT and postmortem examination of the brain showed an infarct area in the cerebellum. However, vertebrobasilar artery system was normal. In this case report, we would like to present that unlike cases with ischemia, specific CT findings may not be evident in posttraumatic cases and ischemia may occur in the cerebellum as a result of the pressure exerted by a sound gun.

  17. Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector arbitrary-order Bessel beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiping; Li, Renxian

    2016-01-01

    An analytical description of optical force on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is investigated. Linearly, radially, azimuthally, and circularly polarized Bessel beams are considered. The radial, azimuthal, and axial forces by a vector Bessel beam are numerically simulated. The effect of polarization, order of beams, and half-cone angle to the optical force are mainly discussed. For Bessel beams of larger half-cone angle, the non-paraxiality of beams plays an important role in optical forces. Numerical calculations show that optical forces, especially azimuthal forces, are very sensitive to the polarization of beams. - Highlights: • Optical force exerted on a Rayleigh particle by a vector Bessel beam is analytically derived. • Radial, azimuthal, and axial forces are numerically analyzed. • The effect of polarization, order of beam, and non-paraxiality is analyzed.

  18. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  19. Effect of Bench Press Load Knowledge on Repetitions, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Attentional Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christina M; Cox, Zachary; Dundore, Tyler; Thomas, Tayler; Kim, Johnathon; Pillivant, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Beaudoin, CM, Cox, Z, Dundore, T, Thomas, T, Kim, J, and Pillivant, D. Effect of bench press load knowledge on repetitions, rating of perceived exertion, and attentional focus. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 514-519, 2018-Few studies have examined the role of the teleoanticipation during resistance training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bench press (BP) load knowledge on repetitions completed, ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), and attentional focus (% associative). Thirty-six recreationally active resistance-trained men (n = 25) and women (n = 11) participated in this study (age = 20.97 ± 1.87 years; ht = 174.12 ± 9.41 cm; and mass = 80.14 ± 14.03 kg). All subjects completed 3 testing sessions: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) BP determination; (b) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue known load (KL); and (c) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue unknown load (UL). Known load and UL sessions were randomized and counterbalanced and both completed at 70% 1RM. An estimated weight ratio was computed using the subject's estimate of the UL weight relative to the KL weight. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant testing order difference for the estimated weight ratio. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed no significant differences in the number of repetitions (p = 0.63), RPE (p = 0.18), or attentional focus (% associative) (p = 0.93) between the KL and UL conditions. Pearson correlations found a moderate positive association between KL repetitions completed and % associative focus when the UL was completed before the KL. Load knowledge did not influence the number of repetitions, RPE, or attentional focus while completing the BP. Further research examining the use of pacing strategies, RPE, and attentional focus during KL and UL conditions are warranted.

  20. Human occipital cortices differentially exert saccadic suppression: intracranial recording in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Mitsugu; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Brown, Erik C.; Kojima, Katsuaki; Asano, Eishi

    2013-01-01

    By repeating saccades unconsciously, humans explore the surrounding world every day. Saccades inevitably move external visual images across the retina at high velocity; nonetheless, healthy humans don’t perceive transient blurring of the visual scene during saccades. This perceptual stability is referred to as saccadic suppression. Functional suppression is believed to take place transiently in the visual systems, but it remains unknown how commonly or differentially the human occipital lobe activities are suppressed at the large-scale cortical network level. We determined the spatial-temporal dynamics of intracranially-recorded gamma activity at 80–150 Hz around spontaneous saccades under no-task conditions during wakefulness and those in darkness during REM sleep. Regardless of wakefulness or REM sleep, a small degree of attenuation of gamma activity was noted in the occipital regions during saccades, most extensively in the polar and least in the medial portions. Longer saccades were associated with more intense gamma-attenuation. Gamma-attenuation was subsequently followed by gamma-augmentation most extensively involving the medial and least involving the polar occipital region. Such gamma-augmentation was more intense during wakefulness and temporally locked to the offset of saccades. The polarities of initial peaks of perisaccadic event-related potentials (ERPs) were frequently positive in the medial and negative in the polar occipital regions. The present study, for the first time, provided the electrophysiological evidence that human occipital cortices differentially exert peri-saccadic modulation. Transiently suppressed sensitivity of the primary visual cortex in the polar region may be an important neural basis for saccadic suppression. Presence of occipital gamma-attenuation even during REM sleep suggests that saccadic suppression might be exerted even without external visual inputs. The primary visual cortex in the medial region, compared to the

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

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    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  2. Stimulated echo diffusion tensor imaging and SPAIR T2 -weighted imaging in chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Eric E; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Fieremans, Els; Babb, James S; Mechlin, Michael; Liu, Kecheng; Kwon, Jane; McGorty, KellyAnne; Hodnett, Philip A; Bencardino, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) as compared to T2 -weighted (T2w) imaging. Using an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant protocol, spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR) T2w imaging and stimulated echo DTI were applied to eight healthy volunteers and 14 suspected CECS patients before and after exertion. Longitudinal and transverse diffusion eigenvalues, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in seven calf muscle compartments, which in patients were classified by their response on T2w: normal (20% change). Mixed model analysis of variance compared subject groups and compartments in terms of response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) of DTI parameters. All diffusivities significantly increased (P DTI shows promise as an ancillary imaging method in the diagnosis and understanding of the pathophysiology in CECS. Future studies may explore its utility in predicting response to treatment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Combined Vildagliptin and Metformin Exert Better Cardioprotection than Monotherapy against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Obese-Insulin Resistant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chinda, Kroekkiat; Palee, Siripong; Chattipakorn, Siriporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese-insulin resistance caused by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Metformin and vildagliptin have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. However, the effect of these drugs on the hearts under obese-insulin resistance with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unclear. We hypothesized that combined vildagliptin and metformin provide better protective effects against I/R injury than monotherapy in obese-insulin resistant rats. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either HFD or normal diet. Rats in each diet group were divided into 4 subgroups to receive vildagliptin, metformin, combined vildagliptin and metformin, or saline for 21 days. Ischemia due to left anterior descending artery ligation was allowed for 30-min, followed by 120-min reperfusion. Metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), LV function, infarct size, mitochondrial function, calcium transient, Bax and Bcl-2, and Connexin 43 (Cx43) were determined. Rats developed insulin resistance after 12 weeks of HFD consumption. Vildagliptin, metformin, and combined drugs improved metabolic parameters, HRV, and LV function. During I/R, all treatments improved LV function, reduced infarct size and Bax, increased Bcl-2, and improved mitochondrial function in HFD rats. However, only combined drugs delayed the time to the first VT/VF onset, reduced arrhythmia score and mortality rate, and increased p-Cx43 in HFD rats. Conclusion Although both vildagliptin and metformin improved insulin resistance and attenuate myocardial injury caused by I/R, combined drugs provided better outcomes than single therapy by reducing arrhythmia score and mortality rate. PMID:25036861

  4. Combined vildagliptin and metformin exert better cardioprotection than monotherapy against ischemia-reperfusion injury in obese-insulin resistant rats.

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    Nattayaporn Apaijai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obese-insulin resistance caused by long-term high-fat diet (HFD consumption is associated with left ventricular (LV dysfunction and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Metformin and vildagliptin have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. However, the effect of these drugs on the hearts under obese-insulin resistance with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is unclear. We hypothesized that combined vildagliptin and metformin provide better protective effects against I/R injury than monotherapy in obese-insulin resistant rats. METHODOLOGY: Male Wistar rats were fed either HFD or normal diet. Rats in each diet group were divided into 4 subgroups to receive vildagliptin, metformin, combined vildagliptin and metformin, or saline for 21 days. Ischemia due to left anterior descending artery ligation was allowed for 30-min, followed by 120-min reperfusion. Metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV, LV function, infarct size, mitochondrial function, calcium transient, Bax and Bcl-2, and Connexin 43 (Cx43 were determined. Rats developed insulin resistance after 12 weeks of HFD consumption. Vildagliptin, metformin, and combined drugs improved metabolic parameters, HRV, and LV function. During I/R, all treatments improved LV function, reduced infarct size and Bax, increased Bcl-2, and improved mitochondrial function in HFD rats. However, only combined drugs delayed the time to the first VT/VF onset, reduced arrhythmia score and mortality rate, and increased p-Cx43 in HFD rats. CONCLUSION: Although both vildagliptin and metformin improved insulin resistance and attenuate myocardial injury caused by I/R, combined drugs provided better outcomes than single therapy by reducing arrhythmia score and mortality rate.

  5. Can Temperate-Water Immersion Effectively Reduce Rectal Temperature in Exertional Heat Stroke? A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truxton, Tyler T; Miller, Kevin C

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a medical emergency which, if left untreated, can result in death. The standard of care for EHS patients includes confirmation of hyperthermia via rectal temperature (T rec ) and then immediate cold-water immersion (CWI). While CWI is the fastest way to reduce T rec , it may be difficult to lower and maintain water bath temperature in the recommended ranges (1.7°C-15°C [35°F-59°F]) because of limited access to ice and/or the bath being exposed to high ambient temperatures for long periods of time. Determining if T rec cooling rates are acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) when significantly hyperthermic humans are immersed in temperate water (ie, ≥20°C [68°F]) has applications for how EHS patients are treated in the field. Are T rec cooling rates acceptable (≥0.08°C/min) when significantly hyperthermic humans are immersed in temperate water? T rec cooling rates of hyperthermic humans immersed in temperate water (≥20°C [68°F]) ranged from 0.06°C/min to 0.19°C/min. The average T rec cooling rate for all examined studies was 0.11±0.06°C/min. Clinical Bottom Line: Temperature water immersion (TWI) provides acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) T rec cooling rates for hyperthermic humans post-exercise. However, CWI cooling rates are higher and should be used if feasible (eg, access to ice, shaded treatment areas). Strength of Recommendation: The majority of evidence (eg, Level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggests TWI provides acceptable, though not ideal, T rec cooling. If possible, CWI should be used instead of TWI in EHS scenarios.

  6. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  7. Prevalence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in endurance horses in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberger, M S; McKenzie, E C; Payton, M E; Rigas, J D; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a reported syndrome in competing endurance horses; however, the prevalence and cause of ER in this population have not been defined. To determine the prevalence of ER in a sample of endurance racing horses and investigate factors, including relevant genetic defects, contributing to the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in this group. Prospective clinical study. Riders of 101 horses participating in one of four 50-mile (80.5 km) distance races completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding the medical history, management and performance of their horse. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was measured before and 4 h after completion of exercise. Hair samples were analysed by PCR for the R309H mutation in the glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) and the C7360G mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene causing malignant hyperthermia (MH). Samples were obtained from 68 Arabians, 20 half-Arabians and 13 horses of other breeds. Serum CK was above the resting reference interval (145-633 u/l) in 38 horses after racing (median 883 u/l, range 658-3739) but was compatible with values previously reported in apparently healthy endurance horses. Pathological ER was suspected to occur in 4 horses with serum CK activities exceeding 10,000 u/l 4 h after racing (median 84,825 u/l; range 10,846-381,790) including 3 Arabians and one half-Arabian horse. GYS1 and RYR1 mutations were not present in hair samples from any horses. Exertional rhabdomyolysis occurred at a prevalence of 4.0% in a sample of horses participating in 50 mile distance events and all affected horses were Arabian or half-Arabian. The cause of ER in the endurance horse population remains unknown; however, ER in competing Arabian endurance horses is unlikely to be due to type 1 PSSM or MH. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Cadaveric Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Daniel R; Sellon, Jacob L; Smith, Jay; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common cause of exertional leg pain. It is commonly treated with a surgical fasciotomy, which has a surgical complication rate of up to 16% and takes approximately 6-12 weeks to return to preprocedure activity levels. Therefore, the development of a less invasive, effective outpatient intervention to treat CECS is desirable. To describe and validate an ultrasound-guided (USG) fasciotomy technique for the anterior and lateral compartments of the lower limb in an unembalmed cadaveric model. Prospective, cadaveric laboratory investigation. Academic institution procedural skills laboratory. Ten unembalmed cadaveric knee-ankle-foot specimens from 1 female (2 specimens) and 7 male donors aged 62-91 years (mean 78.6 years) with body mass indices of 18.9-35.3 kg/m 2 (mean 27.1 kg/m 2 ). Two experienced operators each performed USG anterior and lateral compartment fasciotomies on 5 unembalmed cadaveric legs. A third physician subsequently dissected the legs to assess the continuity of the fasciotomies and to identify any neurovascular damage related to the procedures. Fasciotomy length (in centimeters) and classification by completeness (achieved target length or did not achieve target length) and continuity (continuous or discontinuous) based on predetermined criteria. Muscles, retinaculae, and neurovascular structures were assessed for damage. No neurovascular injuries occurred in any of the 20 USG fasciotomies. The average fasciotomy length was 22.5 cm. All 20 of the fasciotomies achieved the target length. A continuous cephalocaudal fasciotomy was accomplished in 13 of 20 fasciotomies. When a fasciotomy was not continuous, the average length and number of intact fascial bands was 1.52 cm and 2.3, respectively. USG fasciotomy of the anterior and lateral leg compartments can be safely performed in a cadaveric model and can achieve a fasciotomy length comparable to surgical fasciotomy. Most procedures successfully

  9. Circulating Angiogenic Growth Factors in Diabetes Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Exertional Leg Pain in Ghana

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    Kwame Yeboah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a common complication of diabetes, associated with impairment in angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is regulated by angiogenic growth factors such as angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1, Ang-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. We studied the association between angiogenic growth factors versus PAD and exertional leg symptoms in diabetes patients in Ghana. Method. In this cross-sectional study, ankle-brachial index was measured with oscillometrically and exertional leg symptoms were screened with Edinburgh claudication questionnaire in 140 diabetes patients and 110 nondiabetes individuals. Circulating levels of Ang-1, Ang-2, and VEGF were measured with immunosorbent assay. Results. The prevalence of PAD and exertional leg pain was 16.8% and 24.8%, respectively. Compared to non-PAD participants, PAD patients had higher VEGF levels [85.8 (37.5–154.5 versus 57.7 (16.6–161.1 p=0.032] and lower Ang-1 levels [31.3 (24.8–42.6 versus 40.9 (28.2–62.1, p=0.017]. In multivariable logistic regression, patients with exertional leg pain had increased the odds of plasma Ang-2 levels [OR (95% CI: 2.08 (1.08–6.41, p=0.036]. Conclusion. Diabetes patients with PAD and exertional leg pain have imbalance in angiogenic growth factors, indicating impaired angiogenesis. In patients with exertional leg pains, Ang-2 may be an important biomarker.

  10. Investigation of a cuboidal permanent magnet’s force exerted on a robotic capsule

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    Yang W

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wan’an Yang,1 Chengbing Tang,2 Fengqing Qin1 1School of Computer and Information Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, 2CNPC Chuanqing Geophysical Prospecting Company Research Center Computer Department, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To control and drive a robotic capsule accurately from outside a patient’s body, we present a schema in which the capsule enclosing the imaging device, circuits, batteries, etc is looped by a permanent magnet ring that acts as an actuator. A cuboidal permanent magnet situated outside the patient's body attracts or pushes the magnet ring from different directions to make the capsule move or rotate. A mathematic model of attractive or repulsive force that the cuboidal magnet exerts on the magnet ring is presented for accurate calculation of force. The experiments showed that the measuring force was in agreement with the theoretical one, and the relations between the dimensions of the cuboidal magnet and force are useful to produce a cuboidal magnet with optimal shape to get appropriate force. Keywords: control and drive, robotic capsule, permanent magnet ring, optimal dimension, force model

  11. Exertional dyspnoea in interstitial lung diseases: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

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    Matteo Bonini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis, decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature. The respiratory derangement observed in ILD patients at rest is even more evident during exercise. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for exertional dyspnoea and reduced exercise tolerance include altered respiratory mechanics, impaired gas exchange, cardiovascular abnormalities and peripheral muscle dysfunction. This review describes the respiratory physiology of ILD, both at rest and during exercise, and aims to provide comprehensive and updated evidence on the clinical utility of the cardiopulmonary exercise test in the assessment and management of these pathological entities. In addition, the role of exercise training and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes in the ILD population is addressed.

  12. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  13. Gasdermin D Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects by Promoting Neutrophil Death

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    Hiroto Kambara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gasdermin D (GSDMD is considered a proinflammatory factor that mediates pyroptosis in macrophages to protect hosts from intracellular bacteria. Here, we reveal that GSDMD deficiency paradoxically augmented host responses to extracellular Escherichia coli, mainly by delaying neutrophil death, which established GSDMD as a negative regulator of innate immunity. In contrast to its activation in macrophages, in which activated inflammatory caspases cleave GSDMD to produce an N-terminal fragment (GSDMD-cNT to trigger pyroptosis, GSDMD cleavage and activation in neutrophils was caspase independent. It was mediated by a neutrophil-specific serine protease, neutrophil elastase (ELANE, released from cytoplasmic granules into the cytosol in aging neutrophils. ELANE-mediated GSDMD cleavage was upstream of the caspase cleavage site and produced a fully active ELANE-derived NT fragment (GSDMD-eNT that induced lytic cell death as efficiently as GSDMD-cNT. Thus, GSDMD is pleiotropic, exerting both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects that make it a potential target for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapies. : Kambara et al. find that GSDMD deficiency augments host responses to extracellular Escherichia coli, mainly by delaying neutrophil death, establishing GSDMD as a negative regulator of innate immunity. GSDMD cleavage and activation in neutrophils is mediated by ELANE, released from cytoplasmic granules into the cytosol in aging neutrophils. Keywords: GSDMD, neutrophil death, neutrophil elastase, innate immunity, host defense

  14. Rating of Perceived Exertion and Physiological Responses in Water-Based Exercise

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    Santana Pinto Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to relate the overall rating of perceived exertion (RPE-overall with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular variables during stationary running with the elbow flexion/extension performed with water-floating equipment. The sample consisted of eleven women that performed the water-based exercise at submaximal cadences. The heart rate, oxygen uptake, ventilation, and electromyographic signal (EMG from biceps brachii (%EMG BB, triceps brachii (%EMG TB, biceps femoris (%EMG BF and rectus femoris (%EMG RF muscles were measured during the exercise, and the overall RPE was measured immediately following its completion. The Pearson product-moment linear correlation was used to investigate associations between the variables analyzed in the present study. Significant relationships were observed between the RPE-overall and all the cardiorespiratory variables, with the r values ranging from 0.60 to 0.70 (p<0.05. In addition, the RPE-overall showed a significant (p<0.05 relationship with %EMG BB (r=0.55 and %EMG BF (r=0.50. These results suggest an association between the RPE-overall with all cardiorespiratory and two neuromuscular variables during the execution of a water-based aerobic exercise using water-floating equipment.

  15. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg’s RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE. PMID:27990220

  16. Modified Polymeric Nanoparticles Exert In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Against Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Babu, Jegdish P; Osorio, Raquel; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano, Manuel

    2018-06-14

    Polymeric nanoparticles were modified to exert antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria. Nanoparticles were loaded with calcium, zinc and doxycycline. Ions and doxycycline release were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and high performance liquid chromatography. Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lactobacillus lactis , Streptoccocus mutans , gordonii and sobrinus were grown and the number of bacteria was determined by optical density. Nanoparticles were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/mL and incubated with 1.0 mL of each bacterial suspension for 3, 12, and 24 h. The bacterial viability was assessed by determining their ability to cleave the tetrazolium salt to a formazan dye. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe’s F ( p Nanoparticles (60% to 99% reduction) followed by Ca-Nanoparticles or Zn-Nanoparticles (30% to 70% reduction) and finally the non-doped nanoparticles (7% to 35% reduction). P. gingivalis , S. mutans and L. lactis were the most susceptible bacteria, being S. gordonii and S. sobrinus the most resistant to the tested nanoparticles.

  17. Hydrocortisone infusion exerts dose- and sex-dependent effects on attention to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C; Wood, Suzanne E; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-03-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to negative words. Healthy volunteers received placebo and either low-dose (0.15mg/kg) or high-dose (0.45mg/kg) hydrocortisone intravenously during two separate visits in a double-blind, randomized design. Seventy-five minutes post-infusion, the subjects performed tests of attention (Rapid Visual Information Processing [RVIP]), spatial working memory (Spatial Span) and emotional processing (Affective Go/No-go task [AGNG]). On the attention task, performance was impaired under both hydrocortisone doses relative to placebo, though the effect on error rate was not significant after controlling for age; Spatial Span performance was unaffected by hydrocortisone administration. On the AGNG task, relative to the placebo condition the low-dose hydrocortisone infusion decreased response time to emotional words while high-dose hydrocortisone increased response time. In the females specifically, both high and low dose hydrocortisone administration attenuated the normal attentional bias toward positively valenced words. These data suggest that, in healthy women, the modulation of attention by the emotional salience of stimuli is influenced by glucocorticoid hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Mulu, B; Raisee, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR

  19. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, K.; Mulu, B.; Raisee, M.; Cervantes, M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR.

  20. Nitrosonifedipine ameliorates the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy by exerting antioxidative effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Ishizawa

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the major cause of end-stage renal failure. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Nitrosonifedipine (NO-NIF is a weak calcium channel blocker that is converted from nifedipine under light exposure. Recently, we reported that NO-NIF has potential as a novel antioxidant with radical scavenging abilities and has the capacity to treat vascular dysfunction by exerting an endothelial protective effect. In the present study, we extended these findings by evaluating the efficacy of NO-NIF against DN and by clarifying the mechanisms of its antioxidative effect. In a model of type 2 DN (established in KKAy mice, NO-NIF administration reduced albuminuria and proteinuria as well as glomerular expansion without affecting glucose metabolism or systolic blood pressure. NO-NIF also suppressed renal and systemic oxidative stress and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a marker of endothelial cell injury, in the glomeruli of the KKAy mice. Similarly, NO-NIF reduced albuminuria, oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice. Moreover, NO-NIF suppressed urinary angiotensinogen (AGT excretion and intrarenal AGT protein expression in proximal tubular cells in the KKAy mice. On the other hand, hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide production was not attenuated by NO-NIF in cultured endothelial cells. These findings suggest that NO-NIF prevents the progression of type 2 DN associated with endothelial dysfunction through selective antioxidative effects.

  1. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine exert anti-inflammatory effects on inflammation-reactive astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Linda; Jörneberg, Per; Björklund, Ulrika; Westerlund, Anna; Biber, Björn; Hansson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bupivacaine is a widely used, local anesthetic agent that blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels when used for neuro-axial blockades. Much lower concentrations of bupivacaine than in normal clinical use, bupivacaine exerts an influence on the Ca2+ signaling and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in inflammation-reactive astrocytes when used at ultralow concentrations, bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-hydroxytryptamine- (5-HT) and glutamate-receptor systems. With respect to the μ-opioid- and 5-HT-receptor systems, bupivacaine restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. With respect to the glutamate-receptor system, bupivacaine, in combination with an ultralow concentration of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and μ-opioid receptor agonists, restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine attenuated the inflammation-induced upregulation of IL-1β secretion. The results indicate that bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-HT- and glutamate-receptor systems by affecting Ca2+ signaling and IL-1β release in inflammation-reactive astrocytes. These results suggest that bupivacaine may be used at ultralow concentrations as an anti-inflammatory drug, either alone or in combination with opioid agonists and ultralow concentrations of an opioid antagonist. PMID:24083665

  2. Status report on the conceivable outside pressure exerted on nuclear power stations by gaseous explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, W.

    1977-01-01

    The following incidents to be taken into account in the whole process beginning with gas release and ending with a possible stress exerted on the power plant building are discussed in detail: Conditions leading to the release of large amounts of gas; formation of an explorable gas mixture cloud; ignition and course of explosion; pressure wave propagation in the surrounding air; construction dynamics and damaging effects. Experimental results obtainable so far and analyses of large explosions are discussed with a view to their consequences. Special emphasis is placed on the question as to whether extremely unfavourable conditions may lead to a detonation of the cloud instead of a deflagration. Considering the physical laws of cloud formation and the special initiation conditions governing free gas-air-mixtures as a result of gas dynamics and reaction kinetics it can be concluded that a detonation seems to be very unlikely. It is examined what kind of studies are still to be canied out in order to clarity the question of a possible detonation. On the other hand, it is not yet possible to give a decisive answer to the question of whether and to what extent nuclear power plants are endangered by gas cloud deflagration. Due to the complex wave field resulting from diffraction and reflexion of the incoming pressure wave by the buildings of the nuclear power station, a variety of stress functions are possible that may, under certain circumstances, lead to a selective excitation of single vibration modes of the structure. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation of influence on environment exerted by nuclear and non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1981-10-01

    Mankind must consume some form of energy, therefore, it is meaningless to discuss the danger or safety of atomic energy only, and the discussion should be made in comparison with the safety when other energy resources are used. The upper limit of the use of fossil fuel is not determined by its amount of deposits, but the danger of changing the climate by the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide is a serious problem. This book is originated from the text for the one-day seminar on the comparison of the influence on environment exerted by atomic energy and other energy resources, held by the Atomic Energy Information Center on August 29, 1980, of which the contents were made more circumstantial by adding many new data and discussions. Almost all influences produced by the use of energy are treated in it. It is the result of discussions with many experts in the world. The logics of introducing atomic energy, radioactivity, ordinary chemical contamination, chemical carcinogen, large accidents, acid rain, the change of climate due to carbon dioxide and other causes, the effect of greenhouse effect on human society, and the actual state of greenhouse effect and the countermeasures are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  4. Effect of temperature change exerted on plastic deformation of SUS 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Yasushi; Ikegami, Kozo

    1985-01-01

    Under the condition of mechanical load, on which the thermal stress due to temperature change is superposed, the deformation behavior of structural materials is affected by not only loading history but also temperature history. Also at the time of working materials, the case that the relation between plastic deformation and temperature change becomes a problem is not few, such as cold working after hot rolling. In this study, the effect of temperature change exerted on the plastic deformation of SUS 304 stainless steel was examined, as this material has been frequently used as a high temperature structural material. That is, the plastic deformation behavior at a certain temperature after prestrain was applied at a different temperature was experimentally determined under various temperature and load conditions. Moreover, the quantitative evaluation of the results obtained was attempted by using the concept of an equal plastic strain curved surface. The test pieces and the experimental method, the behavior in uniaxial loading and the behavior in combined loading are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Revised model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves on a rigid cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shen; Chaohui, Wang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a model for the radiation force exerted by standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs) on a rigid cylinder in inviscid fluids is extended to account for the dependence on the Rayleigh angle. The conventional model for the radiation force used in the SSAW-based applications is developed in plane standing waves, which fails to predict the movement of the cylinder in the SSAW. Our revised model reveals that, in the direction normal to the piezoelectric substrate on which the SSAW is generated, acoustic radiation force can be large enough to drive the cylinder even in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, the force in this direction can not only push the cylinder away, but also pull it back toward the substrate. In the direction parallel to the substrate, the equilibrium positions for particles can be actively tuned by changing Rayleigh angle. As an example considered in the paper, with the reduction of Rayleigh angle the equilibrium positions for steel cylinders in water change from pressure nodes to pressure antinodes. The model can thus be used in the design of SSAWs for particle manipulations.

  6. Melittin exerts an antitumor effect on non‑small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Chen, Zhe

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for a significant percentage of all cancer‑associated mortalities in men and women, with non‑small cell lung cancer being the most frequently occurring type of lung cancer. Melittin is the principal active component of apitoxin (bee venom) that has been reported to exert anti‑chronic inflammatory and anti‑cancer effects. In the present study, the antitumor effect of melittin was evaluated using in vivo and in vitro analyses. The results demonstrated that melittin significantly inhibited the epidermal growth factor‑induced invasion and migration of non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Subcutaneous injection of melittin at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed non‑small cell lung cancer tumor growth by 27 and 61%, respectively. In addition, melittin significantly inhibited the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Furthermore, melittin decreased the protein expression of VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor 1‑α. Therefore, the antitumor activity of melittin may be associated with the anti‑angiogenic actions of inhibiting the VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor signaling pathways.

  7. Repulsive guidance molecule a blockade exerts the immunoregulatory function in DCs stimulated with ABP and LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-08-02

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is an axonal guidance molecule that has recently found to exert function in immune system. This study evaluated the function of RGMa in modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) function stimulated with Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a RGMa-neutralizing antibody. Compared with the Control-IgG/ABP and Control-IgG/LPS groups, DCs in the Anti-RGMa/ABP and Anti-RGMa/LPS groups 1) showed small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles; 2) had decreased MHC II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression; 3) displayed the decreased IL-12p70, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 secretion; 4) had a high percentage of FITC-dextran uptake; and 5) displayed a reduced ability to drive T cell proliferation and reinforced T cell polarization toward a Th2 cytokine pattern. We conclude that DCs treated with RGMa-neutralizing antibodies present with tolerogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics, which provides new insights into further understanding of the function of RGMa.

  8. Effect that radiation exerts to insulation breakdown of heat resistant polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Baba, Makoto; Noto, Fumitoshi; Ruike, Mitsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial satellites are always exposed to cosmic rays which contain the radiations which do not reach the ground, therefore, the radiation resistance of the polymer insulators for cables and others used in such environment becomes a problem. Also the polymer insulator materials used for nuclear facilities require excellent radiation resistance. It is important to examine the effect that radiation exerts to electric insulation characteristics from the viewpoint of material development. In this paper, the insulation breakdown characteristics of heat resistant polymer films and the mini-cables made for trial of heat resistant polymer materials in the case without irradiation and in the case of gamma ray irradiation, and the results of the structural analysis are reported. The specimens tested, the experimental method and the results are described. The insulation breakdown strength of PFA and FEP films lowered from 0.15-0.2 MGy, but that of PEEK film did not change up to 5 MGy. It was found that fluorine group resins were apt to deteriorate by oxidation as dose increased. (K.I.)

  9. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aldo Coelho; Dos Santos Ferreira, Sandro; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Follador, Lucio; DA Silva, Sergio Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg's RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE.

  10. The fruit extract of Berberis crataegina DC: exerts potent antioxidant activity and protects DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sipahi, Hande; Celep, Engin; Üstündağ, Aylin; Cemiloğlu Ülker, Özge; Duydu, Yalçın; Aydın, Ahmet; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-04-17

    Dried fruits of Berberis crataegina (Berberidaceae) have been frequently consumed as food garniture in Turkish cuisine, while its fruit paste has been used to increase stamina and in particular to prevent from cardiovascular dysfunctions in Northeastern Black Sea region of Turkey. This study investigated this folkloric information in order to explain the claimed healing effects as well as to evaluate possible risks. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic fruit extract were evaluated through several in vitro assays. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of B. crataegina fruit extract were also assessed in both cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The extract showed protective effects against ferric-induced oxidative stress and had a relatively good antioxidant activity. It also ameliorated the H2O2 mediated DNA damage in lymphocytes, suggesting the protective effect against oxidative DNA damage. The methanolic extract of B. crataegina fruits may be a potential antioxidant nutrient and also may exert a protective role against lipid peroxidation as well as oxidative DNA damage.

  11. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  12. The prozone effect exerted by the complement-binding anti-Lea on anti-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Parekh, Kamlesh H

    2017-01-01

    Prozone phenomenon is seen with very high-titer antibodies in an immune serum. The prozone effect on anti-D by a low-titer anti-Le a was investigated associated with neonatal jaundice. Standard methods were used in investigations. The child was born at full-term developed mild jaundice. With weak direct antiglobulin test+, her indirect serum bilirubin was progressed to 27.5 mg/dL in 48 h. Anti-D and anti-Le a were detected in the mother. Both these antibodies were detected in the child's serum though the eluate from red blood cells (RBCs) contained only anti-D. Mother's anti-D was masked by anti-Le a if the RBCs possessed both the antigens together. Anti-D was revealed only with D-positive RBCs lacking Le a or if the serum was modified by mixing with Le a+ saliva or was heated at 56°C or fortified with citrate solution. An anti-D showed prozone effect exerted by the complement-fixing anti-Le a in the test.

  13. Quantifying the Attractive Force Exerted on the Pinned Calcium Spiral Waves by Using the Adventive Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Kang; Tang Jun; Luo Jin-Ming; Ma Jun

    2013-01-01

    The cytosolic calcium system is inhomogenous because of the discrete and random distribution of ion channels on the ER membrane. It is well known that the spiral tip can be pinned by the heterogenous area, and the field can detach the spiral from the heterogeneity. We use the adventive field to counteract the attractive force exerting on the calcium spiral wave by the heterogeneity, then the strength of the adventive field is used to quantify the attractive force indirectly. Two factors determining the attractive force are studied. It is found that: (1) the attractive force sharply increases with size of the heterogeneity for small-size heterogeneity, whereas the force increases to a saturated value for large-size heterogeneity; (2) for large-size heterogeneity, the force almost remains constant unless the level of the heterogeneity vanishes, the force decreases to zero linearly and sharply, and for small-size heterogeneity, the force decreases successively with the level of the heterogeneity. Furthermore, it is found that the forces exist only when the spiral tip is very close to the heterogenous area. Our study may shed some light on the control or suppression of the calcium spiral wave

  14. The Force Exerted by the Membrane Potential During Protein Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Ghosal, Sandip; Matouschek, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The electrostatic force exerted on a targeting sequence by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane is calculated and found to vary from 1.4 pN to 2.2 pN (per unit elementary charge) as the radius of the inner membrane pore (assumed aqueous) is varied from 12 to 6.5 Angstroms, its measured range. Since the pore is not very much wider than the distance between water molecules, the full shielding effect of water may not be present; the extreme case of a nonaqueous pore gives a force of 3.1 pN per unit charge, which represents an upper limit. When applied to mitochondrial import experiments on the protein harness, these results imply that a force of 11 plus or minus 4 pN is sufficient to catalyze the unfolding of harness during import. Comparison of these results with unfolding forces measured using atomic force microscopy suggests that the two are not inconsistent.

  15. Exertional muscle injury: evaluation of concentric versus eccentric actions with serial MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellock, F G; Fukunaga, T; Mink, J H; Edgerton, V R

    1991-06-01

    Eccentric muscular actions involve the forced lengthening or stretching of muscles and tend to produce exertional injuries. This study used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to serially evaluate muscles in five healthy, untrained subjects who performed exhaustive biceps exercise by doing isolated eccentric and concentric actions with a dumbbell. Symptoms were assessed, and T2-weighted images of the arms were obtained before exercise and 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 40, 50, 60, and 80 days after exercise. Statistically significant increases in T2 relaxation times indicative of muscle injury occurred on each day of MR imaging evaluation in muscles performing eccentric actions, peaking on day 3 in two subjects; day 5, two subjects; and day 10, one subject. The pattern and extent of the abnormalities on MR images were variable. Pain, soreness, and joint stiffness were present on days 1, 3, and 5 in muscles that performed eccentric actions. MR imaging showed subclinical abnormalities that lasted as long as 75 days after the disappearance of symptoms (two subjects). Muscles that performed concentric actions had no changes in T2 relaxation times and were asymptomatic throughout the study.

  16. Victorianizing Guangxu: Arresting Flows, Minting Coins, and Exerting Authority in Early Twentieth-Century Kham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Relyea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late Qing and early Republican eras, eastern Tibet (Kham was a borderland on the cusp of political and economic change. Straddling Sichuan Province and central Tibet, it was coveted by both Chengdu and Lhasa. Informed by an absolutist conception of territorial sovereignty, Sichuan officials sought to exert exclusive authority in Kham by severing its inhabitants from regional and local influence. The resulting efforts to arrest the flow of rupees from British India and the flow of cultural identity entwined with Buddhism from Lhasa were grounded in two misperceptions: that Khampa opposition to Chinese rule was external, fostered solely by local monasteries as conduits of Lhasa’s spiritual authority, and that Sichuan could arrest such influence, the absence of which would legitimize both exclusive authority in Kham and regional assertions of sovereignty. The intersection of these misperceptions with the significance of Buddhism in Khampa identity determined the success of Sichuan’s policies and the focus of this article, the minting and circulation of the first and only Qing coin emblazoned with an image of the emperor. It was a flawed axiom of state and nation builders throughout the world that severing local cultural or spiritual influence was possible—or even necessary—to effect a borderland’s incorporation.

  17. Electroacupuncture Exerts Neuroprotection through Caveolin-1 Mediated Molecular Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Qin; Li, Yan; Chen, Zi-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Zheng, Xia-Wei; Yang, Wen-Ting; Chen, Shuang; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke. Here, we aim to demonstrate that electroacupuncture on Baihui (GV20) exerts neuroprotection for acute ICH possibly via the caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. The model of ICH was established by using collagenase VII. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group, Sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to the time points of 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH. The methods were used including examination of neurological deficit scores according to Longa's scale, measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability through Evans Blue content, in situ immunofluorescent detection of caveolin-1 in brains, western blot analysis of caveolin-1 in brains, and in situ zymography for measuring matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity in brains. Compared with Sham electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture group has resulted in a significant improvement in neurological deficit scores and in a reduction in Evans Blue content, expression of caveolin-1, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH ( P electroacupuncture on GV20 can improve neurological deficit scores and reduce blood-brain barrier permeability after ICH, and the mechanism possibly targets caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway.

  18. Impact Exerted by Nutritional Risk Screening on Clinical Outcome of Patients with Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Cai, Hongfei; Li, Yang; Chen, Caiwen; Cui, Youbin

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative nutritional status of patients is closely associated with their recovery after the surgery. This study aims to ascertain the impact exerted by the nutritional risk screening on clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer. 160 patients with esophageal cancer aged over 60, having got therapy at the First Hospital of Jilin University from Jun 2016 to Feb 2017 were evaluated by adopting the NRS2002. 80 cases of patients got active therapy of nutritional support, and the other patients not supported nutritionally were selected as the control group. The comparison was drawn between two groups in serum albumin, serum immunoglobulin, postoperative complications, hospitalization, and hospitalization expenses. For all the patients, in 3 and 7 days after the surgery, the serum albumin in the nutritionally supported group outstripped that in group without nutritional support ( P nutritional risk. For the patients in the risk of nutrition, the IgA in the nutritionally supported group outstripped that of group without nutritional support ( P group without nutritional support in 1 and 3 days before the surgery ( P nutrition, the average hospitalization of nutritionally supported group was shorter ( P group without nutritional support. And for the patients in no risk, the hospitalization expenses of supported group surmounted those of group without nutritional support ( P 0.05). For the patients in the risk of nutrition, preoperative nutritional support can facilitate the nutritional status and immunization-relative result after surgery, which shall also decrease the average hospitalization and hospitalization cost.

  19. Perceived exertion during muscle fatigue as reflected in movement-related cortical potentials: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Sun, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ri-Hui

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism on perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. A total of 15 individuals in the fatigue group and 13 individuals in the nonfatigue group were recruited into this study, performing 200 intermittent handgrip contractions with 30% maximal voluntary contraction. The force, surface electromyography (sEMG), movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), and rating perception of effort (RPE) were combined to evaluate the perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. The maximal handgrip force significantly decreased (Pfatigue. The RPE scores reported by the individuals and the motor potential amplitude of MRCPs in the fatigue group significantly increased (Pfatigue but could also reflect the peripheral local muscle fatigue.

  20. Mutations in the catalytic core or the C-terminus of murine leukemia virus (MLV) integrase disrupt virion infectivity and exert diverse effects on reverse transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Nosek, Dagmara; Ertl, Reinhard; Guenzburg, Walter H.; Salmons, Brian; Klein, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the structures and functions of the retroviral integrase (IN), a key enzyme in the viral replication cycle, is essential for developing antiretroviral treatments and facilitating the development of safer gene therapy vehicles. Thus, four MLV IN-mutants were constructed in the context of a retroviral vector system, harbouring either a substitution in the catalytic centre, deletions in the C-terminus, or combinations of both modifications. IN-mutants were tested for their performance in different stages of the viral replication cycle: RNA-packaging; RT-activity; transient and stable infection efficiency; dynamics of reverse transcription and nuclear entry. All mutant vectors packaged viral RNA with wild-type efficiencies and displayed only slight reductions in RT-activity. Deletion of either the IN C-terminus alone, or in addition to part of the catalytic domain exerted contrasting effects on intracellular viral DNA levels, implying that IN influences reverse transcription in more than one direction

  1. Artesunate Exerts a Direct Effect on Endothelial Cell Activation and NF-κB Translocation in a Mechanism Independent of Plasmodium Killing

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    Mariana C. Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivates are an important class of antimalarial drug and are described to possess immunomodulatory activities. Few studies have addressed the effect of artesunate in the murine malaria model or its effect on host immune response during malaria infection. Herein, we study the effect of artesunate treatment and describe an auxiliary mechanism of artesunate in modulating the inflammatory response during experimental malaria infection in mice. Treatment with artesunate did not reduce significantly the parasitemia within 12 h, however, reduced BBB breakdown and TNF-α mRNA expression in the brain tissue of artesunate-treated mice. Conversely, mefloquine treatment was not able to alter clinical features. Notably, artesunate pretreatment failed to modulate the expression of LFA-1 in splenocytes stimulated with parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs in vitro; however, it abrogated the expression of ICAM-1 in pRBC-stimulated endothelial cells. Accordingly, a cytoadherence in vitro assay demonstrated that pRBCs did not adhere to artesunate-treated vascular endothelial cells. In addition, NF-κB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells stimulated with pRBCs was impaired by artesunate treatment. Our results suggest that artesunate is able to exert a protective effect against the P. berghei-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation and the subsequent expression of ICAM-1.

  2. Factors That Influence the Rating of Perceived Exertion After Endurance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Tuch, Carolin; Frei, Klaus Michael; Wyss, Thomas

    2018-03-15

    Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is an often used measure to assess athletes' training load. However, little is known which factors could optimize the quality of data collection thereof. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of (i) the survey methods and (ii) the time points when sRPE was assessed on the correlation between subjective (sRPE) and objective (heart rate training impulse; TRIMP) assessment of training load. In the first part, 45 well-trained subjects (30 men, 15 women) performed 20 running sessions with a heart rate monitor and reported sRPE 30 minutes after training cessation. For the reporting the subjects were grouped into three survey method groups (paper-pencil, online questionnaire, and mobile device). In the second part of the study, another 40 athletes (28 men, 12 women) performed 4x5 running sessions with the four time points to report the sRPE randomly assigned (directly after training cessation, 30 minutes post-exercise, in the evening of the same day, the next morning directly after waking up). The assessment of sRPE is influenced by time point, survey method, TRIMP, sex, and training type. It is recommended to assess sRPE values via a mobile device or online tool, as the survey method "paper" displayed lower correlations between sRPE and TRIMP. Subjective training load measures are highly individual. When compared at the same relative intensity, lower sRPE values were reported by women, for the training types representing slow runs, and for time points with greater duration between training cessation and sRPE assessment. The assessment method for sRPE should be kept constant for each athlete and comparisons between athletes or sexes are not recommended.

  3. Resveratrol Exerts Dosage and Duration Dependent Effect on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Lindsay; Gomez, Jessica; Marquez, Maribel; Alencastro, Frances; Atashpanjeh, Negar; Quang, Tara; Bach, Thuy; Zhao, Yuanxiang

    2012-01-01

    Studies in the past have illuminated the potential benefit of resveratrol as an anticancer (pro-apoptosis) and life-extending (pro-survival) compound. However, these two different effects were observed at different concentration ranges. Studies of resveratrol in a wide range of concentrations on the same cell type are lacking, which is necessary to comprehend its diverse and sometimes contradictory cellular effects. In this study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on cell self-renewal and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a type of adult stem cells that reside in a number of tissues, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM after both short- and long-term exposure. Our results reveal that at 0.1 µM, resveratrol promotes cell self-renewal by inhibiting cellular senescence, whereas at 5 µM or above, resveratrol inhibits cell self-renewal by increasing senescence rate, cell doubling time and S-phase cell cycle arrest. At 1 µM, its effect on cell self-renewal is minimal but after long-term exposure it exerts an inhibitory effect, accompanied with increased senescence rate. At all concentrations, resveratrol promotes osteogenic differentiation in a dosage dependent manner, which is offset by its inhibitory effect on cell self-renewal at high concentrations. On the contrary, resveratrol suppresses adipogenic differentiation during short-term exposure but promotes this process after long-term exposure. Our study implicates that resveratrol is the most beneficial to stem cell development at 0.1 µM and caution should be taken in applying resveratrol as an anticancer therapeutic agent or nutraceutical supplement due to its dosage dependent effect on hMSCs. PMID:22615926

  4. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis: a retrospective cohort study and updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, Natalia; Sapa, Alexander; Dowling, James J; Riazi, Sheila

    2017-07-01

    Two potentially fatal syndromes, malignant hyperthermia (MH), an adverse reaction to general anesthesia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) share some clinical features, including hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and elevated serum creatine kinase. Some patients with ER have experienced an MH event and/or have been diagnosed as MH susceptible (MHS). In order to assess the relationship between ER and MH further, we conducted a retrospective cohort study summarizing clinical and genetic information on Canadian patients with ER who were diagnosed as MHS. In addition, a systematic literature review was performed to compile further evidence on MH susceptibility and RYR1 and CACNA1S variants associated with rhabdomyolysis. Demographic, clinical, and genetic information was collected on Canadian MHS patients who presented with rhabdomyolysis. In addition, we performed a systematic review of the literature published during 1995-2016 on genetic screening of the RYR1 and CACNA1S genes in patients with ER. Retrospective data on Canadian MHS patients with ER showed that ten out of 17 patients carried RYR1 or CACNA1S variants that were either known MH-causative mutations or potentially pathogenic variants. The systematic review revealed 39 different rare RYR1 variants, including 13 MH-causative/associated mutations and five rare potentially deleterious CACNA1S variants in 78% of patients with ER. Findings from the Canadian patient cohort and the systematic review all signal a potential association between MH susceptibility and ER. The presence of MH-causative mutations and putative deleterious RYR1 variants in ER patients without a history of adverse anesthetic reactions suggests their possible increased risk for MH.

  5. The effect of ramadan fasting on physical performances, mood state and perceived exertion in young footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on the profile of mood state and perceived exertion in young soccer players and aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests. Twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests on three different occasions: one-week before Ramadan (BR), the second week (SWR) and the fourth week (ER) of Ramadan. The total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) during the Yo-Yo test were recorded. During the RSA test, peak power (PP) during each sprint, the percentage of decrement of PP (PD) and total work (Wtotal) were calculated. During the Wingate test, peak (P(peak)) and mean (P(mean)) powers and fatigue index (FI) were recorded. TD and MAV (P=0.01) during the Yo-Yo test and PP (P=0.01, P=0.004, P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.03 for sprints 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) and Wtotal (P=0.02) during the RSA test were significantly higher during BR than ER. Furthermore, muscle fatigue during the RSA test increased significantly from BR to ER (P=0.01). P(peak) and P(mean) during the Wingate test decreased significantly from BR to SWR and ER (PRamadan in comparison with BR. The present study suggests that both aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, the RSA and the Wingate tests were affected by Ramadan fasting in young soccer players.

  6. Implementing exertional heat illness prevention strategies in US high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6500 high school football athletes are treated annually for exertional heat illness (EHI). In 2009, the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)-led Inter-Association Task Force (NATA-IATF) released preseason heat acclimatization guidelines to help athletes become accustomed to environmental factors contributing to EHI. This study examines compliance with NATA-IATF guidelines and related EHI prevention strategies. The study used a cross-sectional survey completed by 1142 certified athletic trainers (AT), which captured compliance with 17 NATA-IATF guidelines and EHI prevention strategies in high school football during the 2011 preseason. On average, AT reported football programs complying with 10.4 NATA-IATF guidelines (SD = 3.2); 29 AT (2.5%) reported compliance with all 17. Guidelines with the lowest compliance were as follows: "Single-practice days consisted of practice no more than three hours in length" (39.7%); and "During days 3-5 of acclimatization, only helmets and shoulder pads should be worn" (39.0%). An average of 7.6 EHI prevention strategies (SD = 2.5) were used. Common EHI prevention strategies were as follows: having ice bags/cooler available (98.5%) and having a policy with written instructions for initiating emergency medical service response (87.8%). Programs in states with mandated guidelines had higher levels of compliance with guidelines and greater prevalence of EHI prevention strategies. A low proportion of surveyed high school football programs fully complied with all 17 NATA-IATF guidelines. However, many EHI prevention strategies were voluntarily implemented. State-level mandated EHI prevention guidelines may increase compliance with recognized best practices recommendations. Ongoing longitudinal monitoring of compliance is also recommended.

  7. The influence of physical exertion on basic hematological parameters values and heart rate in trotters

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    Slijepčević Dajana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of very important prerequisites for achieving good results in races, in addition to genetic predisposition, quality training and good health, are optimal values for number of erythrocytes, concentration of haemoglobin and hematocrit, of which depends efficient oxygen supply of muscles during great efforts. The stated values, along with data on heart rate, are useful indicators of the degree of horse fitness and readiness for horse race. The influence of physical exertion on the values of basic hematological parameters as well as on heart rate, was investigated on 6 trotters, in training at the Belgrade racetrack (one head of Italian trotter, male, 3 years old; 3 heads of American trotter, male, 3,4 and 6 years old and two heads of Serbian trotter, female, 4 and 5 years old. The blood samples for hematological tests were taken by punction of jugular vein in resting phase - immediately before the commencement of work, after light trot warming for 3000 m and fast trot for 1000 m, with 30 minutes rest between the two runnings. The heart rate was monitored continuously by radio telemetry cardiometer, from the moment they were taken from their boxes and harnessing to the completion of work. The obtained results confirm the relationship between the rise of heart rate and hematocrit values: maximal hematocrit values were determined after the first running (0.49±0.05, in regard to 0.42±0.03 in resting phase, but 30 minutes after the second running there was a slight drop of hematocrit values (0.46±0.04. The blood samples in both cases were taken after fast trot during which there were recorded maximal pulse values, so in the moment of sampling the pulse lowered close to the values in resting - after the first running from 192.23±19.66, and after the second from 180.33±17.22 to 40.67±5.76.

  8. Manual materials handling: the cause of over-exertion injury and illness in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, D B

    1979-01-01

    It is reported from various sources that overexertion due to lifting, pushing, pulling, and carrying objects accounts for about 27 percent of all compensable industrial injury and illness in the United States. Resulting strain/sprain injuries account for over 50 percent of workmen's compensation clams in many industries. Almont two-thirds of these involve back pain, with reported compensation and medical payments totaling well over one billion dollars annually in the U.S. An estimated 300,000 plus workers will be affected each year, 5 to 10 percent of whom will have a permanent disability and often will be unemployable. This paper attempts to describe four basic approaches used to study this occupational health problem. In so doing, a concerted effort is made to identifiy the gaps in knowledge which need to be more fully researched. The approaches utilized to understand and control the hazards of manual materials handling are: 1) epidemiological studies of job and worker attributes to identify those that individually and in combination cause musculoskeletal incidents, 2) psychophysical studies to ascertain the volitional tolerance of workers to the stress mitigated by manual materials-handling activities, 3) biomechanical studies of the musculoskeletal system during common exertions required in manual materials-handling activities, and 4) physiological studies of the strain imposed on the cardiovascular system during repeated load-handling activities. The state of knowledge from each of these approaches is summarized briefly, and a case is made that much research is still needed to substantiate the necessary controls to lessen the economic burden and human suffering associated with manual materials-handling acts in industry.

  9. The effects of superset configuration on kinetic, kinematic, and perceived exertion in the barbell bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon Js; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Jones, Ben L

    2017-08-04

    Training that is efficient and effective is of great importance to an athlete. One method of improving efficiency is by incorporating supersets into resistance training routines. However, the structuring of supersets is still unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of agonist-antagonist (A-A), alternate peripheral (A-P), and similar biomechanical (SB) superset configurations on rate of perceived exertion (RPE), kinetic and kinematic changes during the bench press. 10 subjects performed resistance training protocols in a randomized-crossover design, with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within and between protocols. Changes in RPE were very likely and almost certainly greater in the A-P and SB protocols when compared with the A-A, while all superset protocols had very likely to almost certain reductions in mean velocity and power from baseline. Reductions in mean velocity and power were almost certainly greater in the SB protocol, with differences between the A-A and A-P protocols being unclear. Decreases in peak force were likely and almost certain in the A-A and SB protocols respectively, with changes in A-P being unclear. Differences between these protocols showed likely greater decreases in SB peak forces when compared to A-A, with all other superset comparisons being unclear. This study demonstrates the importance of exercise selection when incorporating supersets into a training routine. It is suggested that the practitioner uses A-A supersets when aiming to improve training efficiency and minimize reductions in kinetic and kinematic output of the agonist musculature while completing the barbell bench press.

  10. Fatal Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football Players: The Need for Regional Heat-Safety Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew J; Hosokawa, Yuri; Casa, Douglas J

    2018-01-01

      Weather-based activity modification in athletics is an important way to minimize heat illnesses. However, many commonly used heat-safety guidelines include a uniform set of heat-stress thresholds that do not account for geographic differences in acclimatization.   To determine if heat-related fatalities among American football players occurred on days with unusually stressful weather conditions based on the local climate and to assess the need for regional heat-safety guidelines.   Cross-sectional study.   Data from incidents of fatal exertional heat stroke (EHS) in American football players were obtained from the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research and the Korey Stringer Institute.   Sixty-one American football players at all levels of competition with fatal EHSs from 1980 to 2014.   We used the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and a z-score WBGT standardized to local climate conditions from 1991 to 2010 to assess the absolute and relative magnitudes of heat stress, respectively.   We observed a poleward decrease in exposure WBGTs during fatal EHSs. In milder climates, 80% of cases occurred at above-average WBGTs, and 50% occurred at WBGTs greater than 1 standard deviation from the long-term mean; however, in hotter climates, half of the cases occurred at near average or below average WBGTs.   The combination of lower exposure WBGTs and frequent extreme climatic values in milder climates during fatal EHSs indicates the need for regional activity-modification guidelines with lower, climatically appropriate weather-based thresholds. Established activity-modification guidelines, such as those from the American College of Sports Medicine, work well in the hotter climates, such as the southern United States, where hot and humid weather conditions are common.

  11. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract promotes expression of heat shock protein and exerts antistress effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takahiro; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Sato, Atsuya

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) has been developed as a functional material produced from asparagus stem. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ETAS on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and alleviation of stress. HeLa cells were treated with ETAS, and HSP70 mRNA and protein levels were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. ETAS showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA at more than 0.125 mg/mL and the protein at more than 1.0 mg/mL. The antistress effect was evaluated in a murine sleep-deprivation model. A sleep-deprivation stress load resulted in elevation of blood corticosterone and lipid peroxide concentrations, while supplementation with ETAS at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was associated with significantly reduced levels of both stress markers, which were in the normal range. The HSP70 protein expression level in mice subjected to sleep-deprivation stress and supplemented with ETAS was significantly enhanced in stomach, liver, and kidney, compared to ETAS-untreated mice. A preliminary and small-sized human study was conducted among healthy volunteers consuming up to 150 mg/d of ETAS daily for 7 d. The mRNA expression of HSP70 in peripheral leukocytes was significantly elevated at intakes of 100 or 150 mg/d, compared to their baseline levels. Since HSP70 is known to be a stress-related protein and its induction leads to cytoprotection, the present results suggest that ETAS might exert antistress effects under stressful conditions, resulting from enhancement of HSP70 expression. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. The Secondary School Football Coach's Relationship With the Athletic Trainer and Perspectives on Exertional Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Huggins, Robert A.; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). Objective: To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Web-based management system. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Results: Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. Conclusions: These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care. PMID:24933433

  13. The secondary school football coach's relationship with the athletic trainer and perspectives on exertional heat stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J; Huggins, Robert A; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Qualitative study. Web-based management system. Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care.

  14. Ethanol-Extracted Brazilian Propolis Exerts Protective Effects on Tumorigenesis in Wistar Hannover Rats.

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    Anna Kakehashi

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted over a course of 104 weeks to estimate the carcinogenicity of ethanol-extracted Brazilian green propolis (EEP. Groups of 50 male and 50 female Wistar Hannover rats, 6-week-old at commencement were exposed to EEP at doses of 0, 0.5 or 2.5% in the diet. Survival rates of 0.5% and 2.5% EEP-treated male and female rats, respectively, were significantly higher than those of respective control groups. Overall histopathological evaluation of neoplasms in rat tissues after 2 years showed no significant increase of tumors or preneoplastic lesions in any organ of animals administered EEP. Significantly lower incidences of pituitary tumors in 0.5% EEP male and 2.5% EEP female groups, malignant lymphoma/leukemia in both 2.5% EEP-treated males and females and total thyroid tumors in 0.5% EEP male group were found. Administration of EEP caused significant decreases of lymphoid hyperplasia of the thymus and lymph nodes in 2.5% EEP-treated rats, tubular cell hyperplasia of kidneys in all EEP groups, and cortical hyperplasia of adrenals in EEP-treated females. In the blood, significant reduction of neutrophils in all EEP-treated males and band neutrophils in 2.5% EEP-treated females was found indicating lower levels of inflammation. Total cholesterol and triglicerides levels were significantly lower in the blood of 2.5% EEP-treated female rats. In conclusion, under the conditions of the 2-year feeding experiment, EEP was not carcinogenic, did not induce significant histopathological changes in any organ, and further exerted anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects resulting in increase of survival of Wistar Hannover rats.

  15. Effect of wearing clothes on oxygen uptake and ratings of perceived exertion while swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Kurokawa, T; Ebisu, Y; Kikkawa, K; Shiokawa, M; Yamasaki, M

    2000-07-01

    For a comparative study between swimming in swimwear (control-sw) and swimming in clothes (clothes-sw), oxygen uptake (VO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The subjects were six male members of a university swimming team. Three swimming strokes--the breaststroke, the front crawl stroke and the elementary backstroke--were applied. With regards to clothes-sw, swimmers wore T-shirts, sportswear (shirt and pants) over swimwear and running shoes. In both cases of control-sw and clothes-sw, the VO2 was increased exponentially with increased swimming speed. The VO2 of the subjects during the clothed tests did not exceed 1.4 times of that in the case of control-sw at swimming speeds below 0.3 m/s. As swimming speeds increased, VO2 difference in both cases increased. Consequently, VO2 in the clothed tests was equal to 1.5-1.6 times and 1.5-1.8 times of that in the swimwear tests at speeds of 0.5 and 0.7 m/s, respectively. At speeds below 0.6 m/s in clothes-sw, the breaststroke showed lower VO2 than the front crawl stroke, and the elementary backstroke showed higher VO2 than the other two swimming strokes. RPE increased linearly with %peak VO2. In addition, any RPE differences among the three swimming strokes were not shown in the control-sw tests. At an exercise intensity above 60 %peak VO2, clothed swimmers showed slightly higher RPE in the front crawl stroke compared to that in the two other swimming strokes.

  16. Electroacupuncture Exerts Neuroprotection through Caveolin-1 Mediated Molecular Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats

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    Hui-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is one of the most devastating types of stroke. Here, we aim to demonstrate that electroacupuncture on Baihui (GV20 exerts neuroprotection for acute ICH possibly via the caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. The model of ICH was established by using collagenase VII. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group, Sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to the time points of 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH. The methods were used including examination of neurological deficit scores according to Longa’s scale, measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability through Evans Blue content, in situ immunofluorescent detection of caveolin-1 in brains, western blot analysis of caveolin-1 in brains, and in situ zymography for measuring matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity in brains. Compared with Sham electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture group has resulted in a significant improvement in neurological deficit scores and in a reduction in Evans Blue content, expression of caveolin-1, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results suggested that electroacupuncture on GV20 can improve neurological deficit scores and reduce blood-brain barrier permeability after ICH, and the mechanism possibly targets caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway.

  17. Vegetation exerts a greater control on litter decomposition than climate warming in peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nicholas J; Briones, J I; Thomson, Bruce C; Griffiths, Robert I; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Bardget, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Historically, slow decomposition rates have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of carbon in northern peatlands. Both climate warming and vegetation change can alter rates of decomposition, and hence affect rates of atmospheric CO2 exchange, with consequences for climate change feedbacks. Although warming and vegetation change are happening concurrently, little is known about their relative and interactive effects on decomposition processes. To test the effects of warming and vegetation change on decomposition rates, we placed litter of three dominant species (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum vaginatum, Hypnum jutlandicum) into a peatland field experiment that combined warming.with plant functional group removals, and measured mass loss over two years. To identify potential mechanisms behind effects, we also measured nutrient cycling and soil biota. We found that plant functional group removals exerted a stronger control over short-term litter decomposition than did approximately 1 degrees C warming, and that the plant removal effect depended on litter species identity. Specifically, rates of litter decomposition were faster when shrubs were removed from the plant community, and these effects were strongest for graminoid and bryophyte litter. Plant functional group removals also had strong effects on soil biota and nutrient cycling associated with decomposition, whereby shrub removal had cascading effects on soil fungal community composition, increased enchytraeid abundance, and increased rates of N mineralization. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to litter quality, changes in vegetation composition play a significant role in regulating short-term litter decomposition and belowground communities in peatland, and that these impacts can be greater than moderate warming effects. Our findings, albeit from a relatively short-term study, highlight the need to consider both vegetation change and its impacts below ground alongside climatic effects when

  18. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

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    Miaw-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE and polysaccharide (Gt-PS extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL- 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5~50 µg/mL significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma.

  19. Concordance between VDU-users' ratings of comfort and perceived exertion with experts' observations of workplace layout and working postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegård, A; Karlberg, C; Wigaeus Tornqvist, E; Toomingas, A; Hagberg, M

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concordance (agreement) between VDU-users' ratings of comfort and ergonomists' observations of workplace layout, and the concordance between VDU-users' ratings of perceived exertion and ergonomists' observations of working postures during VDU-work. The study population consisted of 853 symptom free subjects. Data on perceived comfort in different dimensions and data regarding perceived exertion in different body locations were collected by means of a questionnaire. Data concerning workplace layout and working postures were collected with an observation protocol, by an ergonomist. Concordance between ratings of comfort and observations of workplace layout was reasonably good for the chair and the keyboard (0.60, 0.58) and good regarding the screen and the input device (0.72, 0.61). Concordance between ratings of perceived exertion and observations of working postures indicated good agreement (0.63-0.77) for all measured body locations (neck, shoulder, wrist and trunk). In conclusion ratings of comfort and perceived exertion could be used as cost-efficient and user-friendly methods for practitioners to identify high exposure to poor workplace layout and poor working postures.

  20. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.

  1. Gender differences in exerted forces and physiological load during pushing and pulling of wheeled cages by postal workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Kluver, B.D.R.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Hoozemans, M. J M

    The aim was to determine gender differences regarding exerted forces and physiological load during push/pull tasks simulating the daily working practice of postal workers. Eight female and four male workers handled four-wheeled cages under eight conditions corresponding to the cage weight (130, 250,

  2. Basolateral amygdalar D2 receptor activation is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chian-Fang G; Yu, Lung; Wang, Ching-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The presence of companions renders decreases in cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) magnitude. Limbic systems are widely believed to underlie the modulation of accumbal dopamine release and cocaine conditioning. Thus, this study aimed to assess whether intact basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), dorsal hippocampus (DH), and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Three cage mates, serving as companions, were arranged to house with the experimental mice in the cocaine conditioning compartment throughout the cocaine conditioning sessions. Approximately 1week before the conditioning procedure, intracranial ibotenic acid infusions were done in an attempt to cause excitotoxic lesions targeting bilateral BLA, DH and DLS. Albeit their BLA, DH, and DLS lesions, the lesioned mice exhibited comparable cocaine-induced CPP magnitudes compared to the intact and sham lesion controls. Bilateral BLA, but not DH or DLS, lesions abolished the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Intact mice receiving intra-BLA infusion of raclopride, a selective D2 antagonist, 30min prior to the cocaine conditioning did not exhibit the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Intra-BLA infusion of Sch23390, a selective D1 antagonist, did not affect the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the CPP. These results, taken together, prompt us to conclude that the intactness of BLA is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Importantly, activation of D2 receptor in the BLA is required for such suppressive effect on the CPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comfort and exertion while using filtering facepiece respirators with exhalation valve and an active venting system among male military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Melvin; Wee, Liang En; Zhao, Xiahong; Cook, Alex R; Chia, Sin Eng; Lee, Vernon J

    2017-07-06

    This study aimed to determine if disposable filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), with exhalation valve (EV) and a novel active venting system (AVS), provided greater perceived comfort and exertion when compared to standard N95 FFRs without these features among male military personnel performing prolonged essential outdoor duties. We used a randomised open-label controlled crossover study design to compare three FFR options: (a) standard FFR; (b) FFR with EV; and (c) FFR with EV+AVS. Male military personnel aged between 18 and 20 years completed a questionnaire at the beginning (baseline), after two hours of standardised non-strenuous outdoor duty and after 12 hours of duty divided into two-hour work-rest cycles. Participants rated the degree of discomfort, exertion and symptoms using a five-point Likert scale. The association between outcomes and the types of FFR was assessed using a multivariate ordered probit mixed-effects model. For a majority of the symptoms, study participants rated FFR with EV and FFR with EV+AVS with significantly better scores than standard FFR. Both FFR with EV and FFR with EV+AVS had significantly less discomfort (FFR with EV+AVS: 91.1%; FFR with EV: 57.6%) and exertion (FFR with EV+AVS: 83.5%; FFR with EV: 34.4%) than standard FFR. FFR with EV+AVS also had significantly better scores for exertion (53.4%) and comfort (39.4%) when compared to FFR with EV. Usage of FFR with EV+AVS resulted in significantly reduced symptoms, discomfort and exertion when compared to FFR with EV and standard FFR.

  4. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  5. Human multipotent adult progenitor cells are nonimmunogenic and exert potent immunomodulatory effects on alloreactive T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Pinxteren, Jef; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Luyckx, Ariane; van't Hof, Wouter; Deans, Robert; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Waer, Mark; Billiau, An D; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are bone marrow-derived nonhematopoietic stem cells with a broad differentiation potential and extensive expansion capacity. A comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human MAPCs (hMAPCs) has shown that hMAPCs have clearly distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics from hMSCs. In particular, hMAPCs express lower levels of MHC class I than hMSCs and cannot only differentiate into typical mesenchymal cell types but can also differentiate in vitro and in vivo into functional endothelial cells. The use of hMSCs as cellular immunomodulatory stem cell products gained much interest since their immunomodulatory capacities in vitro became evident over the last decade. Currently, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs is already used in clinical trials to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as well as for the treatment of acute myocardial infarct, ischemic stroke, and Crohn's disease. Therefore, we studied the immune phenotype, immunogenicity, and immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs in vitro. We demonstrated that hMAPCs are nonimmunogenic for T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, hMAPCs exert strong immunosuppressive effects on T-cell alloreactivity and on T-cell proliferation induced by mitogens and recall antigens. This immunomodulatory effect was not MHC restricted, which makes off-the-shelf use promising. The immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs is partially mediated via soluble factors and dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity. At last, we isolated hMAPCs, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs, named MultiStem, and hMSCs from one single donor and observed that both the immunogenicity and the immunosuppressive capacities of all three stem cell products are comparable in vitro. In conclusion, hMAPCs have potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and can serve as a valuable cell source for the clinical use of immunomodulatory cellular

  6. DPP4 deficiency exerts protective effect against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in isolated cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun Ku

    Full Text Available Apart from the antihyperglycemic effects, DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 molecules are involved in the preservation of cardiac functions. We have demonstrated that DPP4-deficient rats possess resistance to endotoxemia and ischemia/reperfusion stress. However, whether the decrease of DPP4 activity simply augmented the GLP-1 signaling or that such decrease resulted in a change of cellular function remain unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the responses of H(2O(2-induced oxidative stress in adult wild-type and DPP4-deficient rats isolated cardiomyocytes. The coadministration of GLP-1 or DPP4 inhibitor was also performed to define the mechanisms. Cell viability, ROS concentration, catalase activity, glucose uptake, prosurvival, proapoptotic signaling, and contractile function were examined after cells exposed to H(2O(2. DPP4-deficient cardiomyocytes were found to be resistant to H(2O(2-induced cell death via activating AKT signaling, enhancing glucose uptake, preserving catalase activity, diminishing ROS level and proapoptotic signaling. GLP-1 concentration-dependently improved cell viability in wild-type cardiomyocyte against ROS stress, and the ceiling response concentration (200 nM was chosen for studies. GLP-1 was shown to decrease H(2O(2-induced cell death by its receptor-dependent AKT pathway in wild-type cardiomyocytes, but failed to cause further activation of AKT in DPP4-deficient cardiomyocytes. Acute treatment of DPP4 inhibitor only augmented the protective effect of low dose GLP-1, but failed to alter fuel utilization or ameliorate cell viability in wild-type cardiomyocytes after H(2O(2 exposure. The improvement of cell viability after H(2O(2 exposure was correlated with the alleviation of cellular contractile dysfunction in both DPP4-deficient and GLP-1 treated wild-type cardiomyocytes. These findings demonstrated that GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathway is important and exert protective effect in wild-type cardiomyocyte. Long term loss of

  7. Conservative therapy versus intra-gastric balloon in treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haidy N. Ashem

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... treatment with other therapeutic means, Exercise is an activity requiring physical exertion ..... ity (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia), and reduction of mortality [35]. .... factors with endurance training. Metabolism 2002 ...

  8. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert anti-schistosome activity and inhibit parasite acetylcholinesterases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K Sundaraneedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people and there are concerns whether the current chemotherapeutic control strategy (periodic mass drug administration with praziquantel (PZQ-the only licenced anti-schistosome compound is sustainable, necessitating the development of new drugs.We investigated the anti-schistosome efficacy of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against all intra-mammalian stages of S. mansoni. Two compounds, Rubb12-tri and Rubb7-tnl, which were among the most potent in their ability to kill schistosomula and adult worms and inhibit egg hatching in vitro, were assessed for their efficacy in a mouse model of schistosomiasis using 5 consecutive daily i.v. doses of 2 mg/kg (Rubb12-tri and 10 mg/kg (Rubb7-tnl. Mice treated with Rubb12-tri showed an average 42% reduction (P = 0.009, over two independent trials, in adult worm burden. Liver egg burdens were not significantly decreased in either drug-treated group but ova from both of these groups showed significant decreases in hatching ability (Rubb12-tri-68%, Rubb7-tnl-56% and were significantly morphologically altered (Rubb12-tri-62% abnormal, Rubb7-tnl-35% abnormal. We hypothesize that the drugs exerted their activity, at least partially, through inhibition of both neuronal and tegumental acetylcholinesterases (AChEs, as worms treated in vitro showed significant decreases in activity of these enzymes. Further, treated parasites exhibited a significantly decreased ability to uptake glucose, significantly depleted glycogen stores and withered tubercules (a site of glycogen storage, implying drug-mediated interference in this nutrient acquisition pathway.Our data provide compelling evidence that ruthenium complexes are effective against all intra-mammalian stages of schistosomes, including schistosomula (refractory to PZQ and eggs (agents of disease transmissibility. Further, the results of this study suggest that schistosome AChE is a target of

  9. Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction: Comparison between cardiopulmonary exercise test and methacholine challenging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction is a condition in which the physical activity causes constriction of airways in patients with airway hyper- responsiveness. In this study, we tried to study and evaluate any relationship between the findings of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the response to methacholine challenge test (MCT in patients with dyspnea after activity. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with complaints of dyspnea following activity referred to "Lung Clinic" of Baqiyatallah Hospital but not suffering from asthma were entered into the study. The subjects were excluded from the study if: Suffering from any other pulmonary diseases, smoking more than 1 cigarette a week in the last year, having a history of smoking more than 10 packets of cigarettes/year, having respiratory infection in the past 4 weeks, having abnormal chest X-ray or electrocardiogram, and cannot discontinue the use of medicines interfering with bronchial provocation. Baseline spirometry was performed for all the patients, and the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and FEV/FVC were recorded. The MCT and then the CPET were performed on all patients. Results: The mean VO 2 (volume oxygen in patients with positive methacholine test (20.45 mL/kg/min was significantly lower than patients with negative MCT (28.69 mL/kg/min (P = 0.000. Respiratory rates per minute (RR and minute ventilation in the group with positive MCT (38.85 and 1.636 L were significantly lower than the group with negative methacholine test (46.78 and 2.114 L (P < 0.05. Also, the O 2 pulse rate in the group with negative methacholine test (116.27 mL/beat was significantly higher than the group with positive methacholine test (84.26 mL/beat (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Pulmonary response to exercise in patients with positive methacholine test is insufficient. The dead space ventilation in these patients has increased. Also, dynamic

  10. Epidemiology of Exertional Heat Illnesses in Youth, High School, and College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Susan W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Casa, Douglas J; Djoko, Aristarque; Hayden, Ross; Parsons, John T; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Data on exertional heat illness (EHI) in youth football are limited and have not been compared across competition levels. This study describes the epidemiology of EHI events in youth, high school (HS), and college football in the 2012-2014 seasons. One hundred and eighteen youth teams (players age 5-14 yr), 96 HS programs (~14-18 yr), and 34 college programs (~18-23 yr) participated. During games and practices, athletic trainers recorded EHI events and athlete exposures (AE), defined as one athlete participating in one game/practice. We calculated the number of reported EHI by time in season, game/practice, and need for emergency transportation. EHI rates, risk, included rate ratios (IRR), and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in 2015. EHI rates for youth, HS, and college football were 1.82, 0.57, and 1.67/10,000 AE, respectively. Rates were highest during the preseason (youth: 2.76; HS: 1.47; college: 3.66/10,000 AE). Game rates were higher than practice rates in youth (4.04 vs 1.22/10,000 AE; IRR = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.75-6.26) and college (4.42 vs 1.38/10,000 AE; IRR = 3.21; 95% CI, 2.00-5.16); the practice rate was higher than the game rate in HS (0.63 vs 0.27/10,000 AE; IRR = 2.33; 95% CI, 1.01-5.38). The EHI risk was higher in college (0.9%) than in youth (0.6%; RR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.37) and HS (0.5%; RR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.43-2.81). Common EHI events included heat cramps (youth: 15.8%; HS: 28.6%; college: 45.6%), heat exhaustion (youth: 42.1%; HS: 32.9%; college: 20.0%), and dehydration (youth: 31.6%; HS: 28.6%; college: 28.9%). EHI risk was low. Higher preseason football EHI rates across levels emphasize developing and continually modifying preseason heat acclimatization policies. Lower EHI rates in HS games and youth practices may be attributable to night events, suggesting the importance of modifying/canceling events based on environmental conditions.

  11. Exertional Heat Illnesses and Environmental Conditions During High School Football Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Brady L; Eberman, Lindsey E; Smith, Michael Seth

    2015-10-01

    Guidelines for preventing exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) during extreme heat stress should be specific to regional environments, age, and sport and should be based on evidence of reducing the risk. Each year in the United States, over 1 million high school football players practice in the August heat; however, no published data describe the incidence of EHIs in these athletes. To describe the environmental conditions and incidence of EHIs during high school football practices over a 3-month period. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 3-month period (August-October), athletic trainers at 12 high schools in North Central Florida recorded the practice time and length, environmental conditions (wet-bulb globe temperature), and incidences of EHIs in varsity football athletes. Athletes suffered 57 total EHIs during 29,759 athlete-exposures (AEs) for the 3-month data collection period (rate = 1.92/1000 AEs). August accounted for the majority of all EHIs, with 82.5% (47/57) and the highest rate (4.35/1000 AEs). Of total heat illnesses, heat cramps accounted for 70.2% (40/57), heat exhaustion 22.8% (13/57), and heat syncope 7.0% (4/57). The odds ratio indicated that athletes in August practices that lasted longer than the recommended 3 hours were 9.84 times more likely to suffer a heat illness than those in practices lasting ≤3 hours. The highest rate of EHIs was during August. Practices in August that exceeded the recommended 3 hours were associated with a greater risk of heat illnesses. The overall rate of EHIs was lower for the high school football athletes observed in the study compared with that reported for collegiate football athletes in the region. The low rates of EHIs recorded suggest that the prevention guidelines employed by sports medicine teams are appropriate for the region and population. Team physicians and athletic trainers should employ evidence-based, region- and population-specific EHI prevention guidelines. Sports medicine teams, coaches, and

  12. Forefoot running improves pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebal, Angela R; Gregory, Robert; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J Parry

    2012-05-01

    Anterior compartment pressures of the leg as well as kinematic and kinetic measures are significantly influenced by running technique. It is unknown whether adopting a forefoot strike technique will decrease the pain and disability associated with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) in hindfoot strike runners. For people who have CECS, adopting a forefoot strike running technique will lead to decreased pain and disability associated with this condition. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Ten patients with CECS indicated for surgical release were prospectively enrolled. Resting and postrunning compartment pressures, kinematic and kinetic measurements, and self-report questionnaires were taken for all patients at baseline and after 6 weeks of a forefoot strike running intervention. Run distance and reported pain levels were recorded. A 15-point global rating of change (GROC) scale was used to measure perceived change after the intervention. After 6 weeks of forefoot run training, mean postrun anterior compartment pressures significantly decreased from 78.4 ± 32.0 mm Hg to 38.4 ± 11.5 mm Hg. Vertical ground-reaction force and impulse values were significantly reduced. Running distance significantly increased from 1.4 ± 0.6 km before intervention to 4.8 ± 0.5 km 6 weeks after intervention, while reported pain while running significantly decreased. The Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) significantly increased from 49.9 ± 21.4 to 90.4 ± 10.3, and the Lower Leg Outcome Survey (LLOS) significantly increased from 67.3 ± 13.7 to 91.5 ± 8.5. The GROC scores at 6 weeks after intervention were between 5 and 7 for all patients. One year after the intervention, the SANE and LLOS scores were greater than reported during the 6-week follow-up. Two-mile run times were also significantly faster than preintervention values. No patient required surgery. In 10 consecutive patients with CECS, a 6-week forefoot strike running intervention led to decreased

  13. Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divaret, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the

  14. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  15. Catestatin exerts direct protective effects on rat cardiomyocytes undergoing ischemia/reperfusion by stimulating PI3K-Akt-GSK3β pathway and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bassino

    Full Text Available Catestatin (Cst is a 21-amino acid peptide deriving from Chromogranin A. Cst exerts an overall protective effect against an excessive sympathetic stimulation of cardiovascular system, being able to antagonize catecholamine secretion and to reduce their positive inotropic effect, by stimulating the release of nitric oxide (NO from endothelial cells. Moreover, Cst reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, improving post-ischemic cardiac function and cardiomyocyte survival. To define the cardioprotective signaling pathways activated by Cst (5 nM we used isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes undergoing simulated I/R. We evaluated cell viability rate with propidium iodide labeling and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP with the fluorescent probe JC-1. The involvement of Akt, GSK3β, eNOS and phospholamban (PLN cascade was studied by immunofluorescence. The role of PI3K-Akt/NO/cGMP pathway was also investigated by using the pharmacological blockers wortmannin (Wm, L-NMMA and ODQ. Our experiments revealed that Cst increased cell viability rate by 65% and reduced cell contracture in I/R cardiomyocytes. Wm, L-NMMA and ODQ limited the protective effect of Cst. The protective outcome of Cst was related to its ability to maintain MMP and to increase AktSer473, GSK3βSer9, PLNThr17 and eNOSSer1179 phosphorylation, while treatment with Wm abolished these effects. Thus, the present results show that Cst is able to exert a direct action on cardiomyocytes and give new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in its protective effect, highlighting the PI3K/NO/cGMP pathway as the trigger and the MMP preservation as the end point of its action.

  16. Fibromyalgia is Associated With Altered Skeletal Muscle Characteristics Which May Contribute to Post-Exertional Fatigue in Post-Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Symons, T. Brock; Long, Douglas E.; Lee, Jonah D.; Shang, Yu; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Yu, Guoqiang; Crofford, Leslie J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify muscle physiological properties that may contribute to post-exertional fatigue and malaise in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods Healthy postmenopausal women with (n=11) and without (n=11) fibromyalgia, age 51–70 years, participated in this study. Physical characteristics along with self-reported questionnaires were evaluated. Strength loss and tissue oxygenation in response to a fatiguing exercise protocol were used to quantify fatigability and the local muscle hemodynamic profile. Muscle biopsies were obtained to assess between-group differences in baseline muscle properties using histochemical, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses. Results No significant difference in muscle fatigue in response to exercise was apparent between healthy controls and subjects with FM. However, self-reported fatigue and pain were correlated to prolonged loss of strength following 12-min of recovery in subjects with FM. Although there was no difference in percent SDH positive (type I) and SDH negative (type II) fibers or in mean fiber cross-sectional area between groups, subjects with FM showed greater size variability and altered fiber size distribution. Only in healthy controls, fatigue-resistance was strongly correlated with the size of SDH positive fibers and hemoglobin oxygenation. By contrast, subjects with FM with the highest percentage of SDH positive fibers recovered strength most effectively, which was correlated to capillary density. However, overall, capillary density was lower in subjects with FM. Conclusion Peripheral mechanisms i.e. altered muscle fiber size distribution and decreased capillary density may contribute to post-exertional fatigue in subjects with FM. Understanding these defects in fibromyalgic muscle may provide valuable insight for treatment. PMID:23124535

  17. Tipepidine, a non-narcotic antitussive, exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Ogata, Yukino; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats, which is known as a treatment-resistant depression model, and we studied the pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of tipepidine. Male Wistar rats (5-7 weeks old) were used in this study. Tipepidine (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was blocked by a catecholamine-depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (300 mg/kg, s.c.), but not by a serotonin-depleting agent, p-chlorophenylalanine. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was also blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 mg/kg, s.c.) and an adrenaline α2 receptor antagonist, yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.). In microdialysis technique, tipepidine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular dopamine level of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats, and that the effect of tipepidine is mediated by the stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors and adrenaline α2 receptors. The results also suggest that an increase in the extracellular dopamine level in the NAc may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine in ACTH-treated rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Phenobarbital but not diazepam reduces AMPA/Kainate receptor mediated currents and exerts opposite actions on initial seizures in the neonatal rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eNardou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam (DZP and phenobarbital (PB are extensively used as first and second line drugs to treat acute seizures in neonates and their actions are thought to be mediated by increasing the actions of GABAergic signals. Yet, their efficacy is variable with occasional failure or even aggravation of recurrent seizures questioning whether other mechanisms are not involved in their actions. We have now compared the effects of DZP and PB on ictal-like events (ILEs in an in vitro model of mirror focus (MF. Using the three-compartment chamber with the two immature hippocampi and their commissural fibers placed in 3 different compartments, kainate was applied to one hippocampus and PB or DZP to the contralateral one, either after one ILE or after many recurrent ILEs that produce an epileptogenic MF. We report that in contrast to PB, DZP aggravated propagating ILEs from the start and did not prevent the formation of MF. PB reduced and DZP increased the network driven Giant Depolarising Potentials suggesting that PB may exert additional actions that are not mediated by GABA signalling. In keeping with this, PB but not DZP reduced field potentials recorded in the presence of GABA and NMDA receptor antagonists. These effects are mediated by a direct action on AMPA/Kainate receptors since PB: i reduced AMPA/Kainate receptor mediated currents induced by focal applications of glutamate ; ii reduced the amplitude and the frequency of AMPA but not NMDA receptor mediated miniature EPSCs; iii augmented the number of AMPA receptor mediated EPSCs failures evoked by minimal stimulation. These effects persisted in MF. Therefore, PB exerts its anticonvulsive actions partly by reducing AMPA/Kainate receptors mediated EPSCs in addition to the pro-GABA effects. We suggest that PB may have advantage over DZP in the treatment of initial neonatal seizures since the additional reduction of glutamate receptors mediated signals may reduce the severity of neonatal seizures.

  19. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, Karin; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Stoecklein, Veit; Rozen, Eric; Blyth, Brian; Huang, Jason H; Dayawansa, Samantha; Kanz, Karl; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC) is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury. To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion. Longitudinal cohort study. From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels. Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester) underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich) sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002). Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively). A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC. Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  20. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  1. The Effects of Direction of Exertion, Path, and Load Placement in Nursing Cart Pushing and Pulling Tasks: An Electromyographical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Huei Chu; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung Hui; Chen, Su Huang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of direction of exertion (DOE) (pushing, pulling), path (walking in a straight line, turning left, walking uphill), and load placement (LP) (the 18 blocks were indicated by X, Y and Z axis; there were 3 levels on the X axis, 2 levels on the Y axis, and 3 levels on the Z axis) on muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion in nursing cart pushing and pulling tasks. Ten participants who were female students and not experienced nurses were recruited to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 108 experimental trials in the study, consisting of 2 directions of exertion (push and pull), 3 paths, and 18 load placements (indicated by X, Y and Z axes). A 23kg load was placed into one load placement. The dependent variables were electromyographic (EMG) data of four muscles collected bilaterally as follows: Left (L) and right (R) trapezius (TR), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum (ED), and erector spinae (ES) and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Split-split-plot ANOVA was conducted to analyze significant differences between DOE, path, and LP in the EMG and RPE data. Pulling cart tasks produced a significantly higher activation of the muscles (RTR:54.4%, LTR:50.3%, LFDS:57.0%, LED:63.4%, RES:40.7%, LES:36.7%) than pushing cart tasks (RTR:42.4%, LTR:35.1%, LFDS:32.3%, LED:55.1%, RES:33.3%, LES:32.1%). A significantly greater perceived exertion was found in pulling cart tasks than pushing cart tasks. Significantly higher activation of all muscles and perceived exertion were observed for walking uphill than walking in a straight line and turning left. Significantly lower muscle activity of all muscles and subject ratings were observed for the central position on the X axis, the bottom position on the Y axis, and the posterior position on the Z axis. These findings suggest that nursing staff should adopt forward pushing when moving a nursing cart, instead of backward

  2. A 4-Phenoxyphenol Derivative Exerts Inhibitory Effects on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through Regulating Autophagy and Apoptosis Accompanied by Downregulating α-Tubulin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsan Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a leading cancer worldwide. Advanced HCCs are usually resistant to anticancer drugs, causing unsatisfactory chemotherapy outcomes. In this study, we showed that a 4-phenoxyphenol derivative, 4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxyphenoxy]phenol (4-HPPP, exerts an inhibitory activity against two HCC cell lines, Huh7 and Ha22T. We further investigated the anti-HCC activities of 4-HPPP, including anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our results showed that higher dosage of 4-HPPP downregulates the expression of α-tubulin and causes nuclear enlargement in both the Huh-7 and Ha22T cell lines. Interestingly, the colony formation results showed a discrepancy in the inhibitory effect of 4-HPPP on HCC and rat liver epithelial Clone 9 cells, suggesting the selective cytotoxicity of 4-HPPP toward HCC cells. Furthermore, the cell proliferation and apoptosis assay results illustrated the differences between the two HCC cell lines. The results of cellular proliferation assays, including trypan blue exclusion and colony formation, revealed that 4-HPPP inhibits the growth of Huh7 cells, but exerts less cytotoxicity in Ha22T cells. Furthermore, the annexin V assay performed for detecting the apoptosis showed similar results. Western blotting results showed 4-HPPP caused the increase of pro-apoptotic factors including cleaved caspase-3, Bid and Bax in HCC cells, especially in Huh-7. Furthermore, an increase of autophagy-associated protein microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B-II and the decrease of Beclin-1 and p62/SQSTM1 were observed following 4-HPPP treatment. Additionally, the level of γH2A histone family, member X (γH2AX, an endogenous DNA damage biomarker, was dramatically increased in Huh7 cells after 4-HPPP treatment, suggesting the involvement of DNA damage pathway in 4-HPPP-induced apoptosis. On the contrary, the western blotting results showed that treatment up-regulates pro-survival proteins, including the

  3. The Effects of Initial Self-Control Exertion and Subsequent Glucose Consumption on Search Accuracy by Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Holly C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have suggested that canine self-control is sensitive to fatigue and that an initial act of behavioral inhibition (sit-stay 10 min relative to a control condition (cage 10 min can deplete self-control, increase risk-taking, and reduce subsequent persistence on a puzzle task. Glucose, but not a calorie-free placebo drink has been shown to replenish this depletion. The current study sought to complement and extend these findings by examining whether initial exertion of self-control would also affect canine working memory as measured by search accuracy on a subsequently administered invisible displacement rotation task. The results evidenced that initial self-control exertion (relative to the control condition resulted in poorer search accuracy. The consumption of glucose did not have a replenishing effect. If anything, glucose was associated with poorer search accuracy.

  4. Validation of the Omni Scale of Perceived Exertion in a sample of Spanish-speaking youth from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Robertson, Robert J; Goss, Fredric L; Olvera, Norma

    2008-08-01

    Whether the translation of verbal descriptors from English to Spanish affects the validity of the Children's OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion is not known, so the validity of a Spanish version of the OMNI was examined with 32 boys and 36 girls (9 to 12 years old) for whom Spanish was the primary language. Oxygen consumption, ventilation, respiratory rate, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion for the overall body (RPE-O) were measured during an incremental treadmill test. All response values displayed significant linear increases across test stages. The linear regression analyses indicated RPE-O values were distributed as positive linear functions of oxygen consumption, ventilation, respiratory rate, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, and percent of maximal oxygen consumption. All regression models were statistically significant. The Spanish OMNI Scale is valid for estimating exercise effort during walking and running amongst Hispanic youth whose primary language is Spanish.

  5. Effects of rest interval length on Smith machine bench press performance and perceived exertion in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Vieira, Denis C L; Tajra, Vitor; Bottaro, Martim; de Salles, Belmiro F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-12-01

    This study compared two different rest intervals (RI) between sets of resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (M age = 24.3, SD = 3.5 yr.; M weigh t= 80.0 kg, SD = 15.3; M height = 1.75 m, SD = 0.04) performed five sets of Smith machine bench presses at 60% of one repetition maximum, either with 1.5 min. or 3 min. RI between sets. Their repetition performance, total training volume, velocity, fatigue, rating of perceived exertion, and muscular power were measured. All of these measures indicated that performance was significantly better and fatigue was significantly lower in the 3 min. RI as compared with the 1.5 min. RI, except the rating of perceived exertion which did not show a significant difference. A longer RI between sets promotes superior performance for the bench press.

  6. Arginine, N-carbamylglutamate, and glutamine exert protective effects against oxidative stress in rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-09-01

    .05. Collectively, this study suggested that dietary supplementation with 1% GLN, 0.1% NCG, and 1% ARG was effective in enhancing the antioxidant status and maintaining the morphological structure of rat jejunum under oxidative stress; of these supplements, 1% GLN exerted the greatest effects on mitigating oxidative stress.

  7. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  8. Coulombian Model for 3D Analytical Calculation of the Torque Exerted on Cuboidal Permanent Magnets with Arbitrarly Oriented Polarizations

    OpenAIRE

    Allag , Hicham; Yonnet , Jean-Paul; Latreche , Mohamed E. H.; Bouchekara , Houssem

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The paper proposes improved analytical expressions of the torque on cuboidal permanent magnets. Expressions are valid for any relative magnet position and for any polarization direction. The analytical calculation is made by replacing polarizations by distributions of magnetic charges on the magnet poles (Coulombian approach). The torque exerted on the second magnet is calculated by Lorentz force formulas for any arbitrary position. The three components of the torque a...

  9. Perceived exertion is as effective as the perceptual strain index in predicting physiological strain when wearing personal protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, David N; Costello, Joseph T; Bach, Aaron J; Stewart, Ian B

    2017-02-01

    The perceptual strain index (PeSI) has been shown to overcome the limitations associated with the assessment of the physiological strain index (PSI), primarily the need to obtain a core body temperature measurement. The PeSI uses the subjective scales of thermal sensation and perceived exertion (RPE) to provide surrogate measures of core temperature and heart rate, respectively. Unfortunately, thermal sensation has shown large variability in providing an estimation of core body temperature. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine if thermal comfort improved the ability of the PeSI to predict the PSI during exertional-heat stress. Eighteen healthy males (age: 23.5years; body mass: 79.4kg; maximal aerobic capacity: 57.2ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) wore four different chemical/biological protective garments while walking on treadmill at a low (temperatures 21, 30 or 37°C. Trials were terminated when heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum, when core body temperature reached 39°C, at 120min or due to volitional fatigue. Core body temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, thermal comfort and RPE were recorded at 15min intervals and at termination. Multiple statistical methods were used to determine the most accurate perceptual predictor. Significant moderate relationships were observed between the PeSI (r=0.74; pestimate physiological strain during exertional-heat stress under these work conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  11. Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Cancer Effects through the Downregulation of Survivin and HIF-1α and Inhibition of VEGFR2 and TRKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-In Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4; however, the precise mode of action by which fascaplysin suppresses tumor growth is not clear. Here, we found that fascaplysin has stronger anti-cancer effects than other CDK4 inhibitors, including PD0332991 and LY2835219, on lung cancer cells that are wild-type or null for retinoblastoma (RB, indicating that unknown target molecules might be involved in the inhibition of tumor growth by fascaplysin. Fascaplysin treatment significantly decreased tumor angiogenesis and increased cleaved-caspase-3 in xenografted tumor tissues. In addition, survivin and HIF-1α were downregulated in vitro and in vivo by suppressing 4EBP1-p70S6K1 axis-mediated de novo protein synthesis. Kinase screening assays and drug-protein docking simulation studies demonstrated that fascaplysin strongly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and tropomyosin-related kinase A (TRKA via DFG-out non-competitive inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that fascaplysin inhibits TRKA and VEGFR2 and downregulates survivin and HIF-1α, resulting in suppression of tumor growth. Fascaplysin, therefore, represents a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple types of solid cancer.

  12. Exerting power or striking back: a gendered comparison of motivations for domestic violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernsmith, Poco

    2005-04-01

    This study compares the motivations for using violence and the context in which violence occurs among male and female domestic violence perpetrators. One hundred twenty-five participants in batterer intervention counseling in Los Angeles County, California, were surveyed. The sample was approximately half male and half female. Males and females were found to differ in their motivations for using violence in relationships. Females reported using violence in response to prior abuse, citing revenge and retaliation as a primary motivation. Because treatment approaches are commonly derived from the power and control model, which indicates that violence is used to gain power and control, batterer intervention counseling may not be appropriate for women, who appear more motivated by the desire to maintain personal liberties in a relationship where they have been victimized. Treatment must walk the fine line between addressing victimization issues and holding women accountable for decisions to use violence.

  13. Quality of life and clinical features of chronic exertion headache in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusar T.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study quality of life and clinical features of chronic headache in men and women. Materials and Methods. The comprehensive survey was conducted. 162 people (75 men and 87 women aged 35-54 years, average age 45,6±2,6 years with tension headache (TH, corresponding to the criteria of tension-type headache under international classification of headaches (2003 were examined. The results of studies of quality of life among the patients with chronic tension headache allowed to estimate the impact of disease on various components of QOL in men and women. Conclusions. Monitoring of physical, psychological and social functioning of patients to obtain differential and integral quantitative indicators enabled a doctor to correct treatment at various stages and to develop a set of practical recommendations for treatment of patients with poor quality of life.

  14. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and ...

  15. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  16. Musashi-2 Silencing Exerts Potent Activity against Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Enhances Chemosensitivity to Daunorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Han

    Full Text Available RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (Msi2 is known to play a critical role in leukemogenesis and contributes to poor clinical prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. However, the effect of Msi2 silencing on treatment for AML still remains poorly understood. In this study, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference targeting Msi2 to investigate the resulting changes in cellular processes and the underlying mechanisms in AML cell lines as well as primary AML cells isolated from AML patients. We found that Msi2 was highly expressed in AML cells, and its depletion inhibited Ki-67 expression and resulted in decreased in vitro and in vivo proliferation. Msi2 silencing induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, with decreased Cyclin D1 and increased p21 expression. Msi2 silencing induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. Suppression of Akt, Erk1/2 and p38 phosphorylation also contributed to apoptosis mediated by Msi2 silencing. Finally, Msi2 silencing in AML cells also enhanced their chemosensitivity to daunorubicin. Conclusively, our data suggest that Msi2 is a promising target for gene therapy to optimize conventional chemotherapeutics in AML treatment.

  17. Excruciating Low Back Pain After Strenuous Exertion: Beware of Lumbar Paraspinal Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbrabant, Peter; Moke, Lieven; Meersseman, Wouter; Vanderschueren, Geert; Knockaert, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Low back pain is extremely common and usually a minor self-limiting condition. Rarely, however, it is a harbinger of serious medical illness. Paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, but its timely recognition is important to allow adequate treatment. A 16-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe low back pain, necessitating intravenous opioids. Laboratory results showed severe rhabdomyolysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed diffuse edema and swelling in the paraspinal muscles. Aggressive fluid therapy was started but despite narcotic analgesia the pain persisted and creatine kinase (CK) levels increased. Compartment pressures of the erector spinae were found to be increased. The decision was made to proceed with bilateral paraspinal fasciotomies. Postoperatively, the patient noted immediate pain relief with rapid decrease of CK level. The patient is pain free and resumed running and swimming 3 months after admission in the ED. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, its recognition is of paramount importance to allow adequate surgical treatment, preventing muscle necrosis. Although back pain most often has a benign course, a careful history and physical examination in patients presenting with low back pain allows determination of "red flags." Mandatory further diagnostic tests can identify underlying serious illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactocepin secreted by Lactobacillus exerts anti-inflammatory effects by selectively degrading proinflammatory chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schillde, Marie-Anne; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Weiher, Monika; Alpert, Carl-Alfred; Hahne, Hannes; Bäuerl, Christine; van Huynegem, Karolien; Steidler, Lothar; Hrncir, Tomas; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk

    2012-04-19

    The intestinal microbiota has been linked to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and oral treatment with specific bacteria can ameliorate IBD. One bacterial mixture, VSL#3, containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus, was clinically shown to reduce inflammation in IBD patients and normalize intestinal levels of IP-10, a lymphocyte-recruiting chemokine, in a murine colitis model. We identified Lactobacillus paracasei prtP-encoded lactocepin as a protease that selectively degrades secreted, cell-associated, and tissue-distributed IP-10, resulting in significantly reduced lymphocyte recruitment after intraperitoneal injection in an ileitis model. A human Lactobacillus casei isolate was also found to encode lactocepin and degrade IP-10. L. casei feeding studies in a murine colitis model (T cell transferred Rag2(-/-) mice) revealed that a prtP-disruption mutant was significantly less potent in reducing IP-10 levels, T cell infiltration and inflammation in cecal tissue compared to the isogenic wild-type strain. Thus, lactocepin-based therapies may be effective treatments for chemokine-mediated diseases like IBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspirin exerts high anti-cancer activity in PIK3CA-mutant colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mancang; Nishihara, Reiko; Chen, Yang; Li, Wanwan; Shi, Yan; Masugi, Yohei; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Kosumi, Keisuke; Liu, Li; da Silva, Annacarolina; Nowak, Jonathan A; Twombly, Tyler; Du, Chunxia; Koh, Hideo; Li, Wenbin; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Wolpin, Brian M; Giannakis, Marios; Aguirre, Andrew J; Bass, Adam J; Drew, David A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-10-20

    Evidence suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) may improve patient survival in PIK3CA -mutant colorectal carcinoma, but not in PIK3CA -wild-type carcinoma. However, whether aspirin directly influences the viability of PIK3CA -mutant colon cancer cells is poorly understood. We conducted in vitro experiments to test our hypothesis that the anti-proliferative activity of aspirin might be stronger for PIK3CA -mutant colon cancer cells than for PIK3CA -wild-type colon cancer cells. We measured the anti-proliferative effect of aspirin at physiologic concentrations in seven PIK3CA -mutant and six PIK3CA -wild-type human colon cancer cell lines. After exposure to aspirin, the apoptotic index and cell cycle phase of colon cancer cells were assessed. In addition, the effect of aspirin was examined in parental SW48 cells and SW48 cell clones with individual knock-in PIK3CA mutations of either c.3140A>G (p.H1047R) or c.1633G>A (p.E545K). Aspirin induced greater dose-dependent loss of cell viability in PIK3CA -mutant cells than in PIK3CA -wild-type cells after treatment for 48 and 72 hours. Aspirin treatment also led to higher proportions of apoptotic cells and G0/G1 phase arrest in PIK3CA -mutant cells than in PIK3CA -wild-type cells. Aspirin treatment of isogenic SW48 cells carrying a PIK3CA mutation, either c.3140A>G (p.H1047R) or c.1633G>A (p. E545K), resulted in a more significant loss of cell viability compared to wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that aspirin causes cell cycle arrest, induces apoptosis, and leads to loss of cell viability more profoundly in PIK3CA -mutated colon cancer cells than in PIK3CA -wild-type colon cancer cells. These findings support the use of aspirin to treat patients with PIK3CA -mutant colon cancer.

  20. Capturing the post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue following physical and cognitive challenge in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Andrew; Sandler, Carolina X; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Cvejic, Erin; Lloyd, Andrew R; Barry, Benjamin K

    2015-12-01

    To design and validate an instrument to capture the characteristic post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Firstly, patients with CFS (N=19) participated in five focus group discussions to jointly explore the nature of fatigue and dynamic changes after activity, and inform development of a self-report instrument - the Fatigue and Energy Scale (FES). The psychometric properties of the FES were then examined in two case-control challenge studies: a physically-demanding challenge (moderate-intensity aerobic exercise; N=10 patients), and a cognitively-demanding challenge (simulated driving; N=11 patients). Finally, ecological validity was evaluated by recording in association with tasks of daily living (N=9). Common descriptors for fatigue included 'exhaustion', 'tiredness', 'drained of energy', 'heaviness in the limbs', and 'foggy in the head'. Based on the qualitative data, fatigue was conceptualised as consisting of 'physical' and 'cognitive' dimensions. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the FES showed good sensitivity to the changing symptoms during a post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue following both physical exercise and driving simulation challenges, as well as tasks of daily living. The 'fatigue' experienced by patients with CFS covers both physical and cognitive components. The FES captured the phenomenon of a post-exertional exacerbation of fatigue commonly reported by patients with CFS. The characteristics of the symptom response to physical and cognitive challenges were similar. Both the FES and the challenge paradigms offer key tools to reliably investigate biological correlates of the dynamic changes in fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of working position on trunk posture and exertion for routine nursing tasks: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sonja; Seddouki, Rachida; Dulon, Madeleine; Kersten, Jan Felix; Larsson, Tore J; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-04-01

    To examine the influence of the two following factors on the proportion of time that nurses spend in a forward-bending trunk posture: (i) the bed height during basic care activities at the bedside and (ii) the work method during basic care activities in the bathroom. A further aim was to examine the connection between the proportion of time spent in a forward-bending posture and the perceived exertion. Twelve nurses in a geriatric nursing home each performed a standardized care routine at the bedside and in the bathroom. The CUELA (German abbreviation for 'computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal loads') measuring system was used to record all trunk inclinations. Each participant conducted three tests with the bed at different heights (knee height, thigh height, and hip height) and in the bathroom, three tests were performed with different work methods (standing, kneeling, and sitting). After each test, participants rated their perceived exertion on the 15-point Borg scale (6 = no exertion at all and 20 = exhaustion). If the bed was raised from knee to thigh level, the proportion of time spent in an upright position increased by 8.2% points. However, the effect was not significant (P = 0.193). Only when the bed was raised to hip height, there was a significant increase of 19.8% points (reference: thigh level; P = 0.003) and 28.0% points (reference: knee height; P nursing personnel work in an upright position, the less strenuous they perceive the work to be. Raising the bed to hip height and using a stool in the bathroom significantly increase the proportion of time that nursing personnel work in an upright position. Nursing staff can spend a considerably greater proportion of their time in an ergonomic posture if stools and height-adjustable beds are provided in healthcare institutions.

  2. Overexpression of GDNF in the uninjured DRG exerts analgesic effects on neuropathic pain following segmental spinal nerve ligation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Kumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hanawa, Hideki; Shimada, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2011-11-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a survival-promoting factor for a subset of nociceptive small-diameter neurons, has been shown to exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain. However, its detailed mechanisms of action are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the site-specific analgesic effects of GDNF in the neuropathic pain state using lentiviral vector-mediated GDNF overexpression in mice with left fifth lumbar (L5) spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as a neuropathic pain model. A lentiviral vector expressing both GDNF and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was constructed and injected into the left dorsal spinal cord, uninjured fourth lumbar (L4) dorsal root ganglion (DRG), injured L5 DRG, or plantar skin of mice. In SNL mice, injection of the GDNF-EGFP-expressing lentivirus into the dorsal spinal cord or uninjured L4 DRG partially but significantly reduced the mechanical allodynia in association with an increase in GDNF protein expression in each virus injection site, whereas injection into the injured L5 DRG or plantar skin had no effects. These results suggest that GDNF exerts its analgesic effects in the neuropathic pain state by acting on the central terminals of uninjured DRG neurons and/or on the spinal cells targeted by the uninjured DRG neurons. This article shows that GDNF exerts its analgesic effects on neuropathic pain by acting on the central terminals of uninjured DRG neurons and/or on the spinal cells targeted by these neurons. Therefore, research focusing on these GDNF-dependent neurons in the uninjured DRG would provide a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Interhandle Distance During Pushing and Pulling of a Four-Caster Cart for Upper Limb Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Takanokura, Masato; Sugama, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between interhandle distances and upper limb exertion during simply pushing and pulling of a cart with four swivel wheels, defined by a roll box pallet (RBP) in a Japanese industrial standard. Six healthy young male participants were asked to push and pull an RBP at a distance of 5.2 m under six conditions corresponding to different interhandle distances (40 cm, 60 cm, and 80 cm) and weights (130 kg and 250 kg). The upper limb exertion was studied by shoulder abduction and flexion, and elbow flexion, as well as surface electromyogram (EMG) in shoulder extensor, and elbow flexor and extensor. Participants were required to provide subjective evaluations on operability after each trial. Subjective operability indicated that a narrower interhandle distance had a better operability for pushing. Interhandle distance was also related to upper limb exertion especially for pushing. A narrow interhandle distance caused smaller shoulder adduction but larger elbow flexion. The normalized EMG data revealed that muscular activity became smaller with a narrow interhandle distance in shoulder extensor. During the pulling task, elbow flexion was smaller at a narrow interhandle distance, although subjective operability and normalized EMG were not significantly varied. A wider interhandle distance, such as 80 cm, was not suitable in the forwardbackward movement of the RBP. Therefore, this study concluded that an interhandle distance of 40 cm would be suitable for pushing and pulling an RBP to protect the workers' hands against the risk of injury by installing inner handles.

  4. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gentiana lutea exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by preventing endothelial inflammation and smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, R; Chandel, S; Upadhyay, S; Bendre, R; Ganugula, R; Potunuru, U R; Giri, H; Sahu, G; Kumar, P Uday; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Joksic, G; Bera, A K; Dixit, Madhulika

    2016-04-01

    Studies suggest that Gentiana lutea (GL), and its component isovitexin, may exhibit anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study we sought to investigate the protective mechanism of GL aqueous root extract and isovitexin on endothelial inflammation, smooth muscle cell migation, and on the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results show that both GL extract and isovitexin, block leukocyte adhesion and generation of reactive oxygen species in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), following TNF-alpha and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) challenges respectively. Both the extract and isovitexin blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. PDGF-BB induced migration of RASMCs and phospholipase C-γ activation, were also abrogated by GL extract and isovitexin. Fura-2 based ratiometric measurements demonstrated that, both the extact, and isovitexin, inhibit PDGF-BB mediated intracellular calcium rise in RASMCs. Supplementation of regular diet with 2% GL root powder for STZ rats, reduced total cholesterol in blood. Oil Red O staining demonstrated decreased lipid accumulation in aortic wall of diabetic animals upon treatment with GL. Medial thickness and deposition of collagen in the aortic segment of diabetic rats were also reduced upon supplementation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in aortic segments of diabetic rats following GL treatment. Thus, our results support that GL root extract/powder and isovitexin exhibit anti-atherosclerotic activities. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  6. PRGF exerts a cytoprotective role in zoledronic acid-treated oral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mar; Troya, María; Orive, Gorka

    2016-04-01

    Bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a common problem in patients undergoing long-term administration of highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs). This pathology occurs via bone and soft tissue mechanism. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is the most potent intravenous N-BP used to prevent bone loss in patients with bone dysfunction. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the role of different ZA concentrations on the cells from human oral cavity, as well as the potential of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) to overcome the negative effects of this BP. Primary human gingival fibroblasts and primary human alveolar osteoblasts were used. Cell proliferation was evaluated by means of a fluorescence-based method. A colorimetric assay to detect DNA fragmentation undergoing apoptosis was used to determine cell death, and the expression of both NF-κB and pNF-κB were quantified by Western blot analysis. ZA had a cytotoxic effect on both human gingival fibroblasts and human alveolar osteoblasts. This BP inhibits cell proliferation, stimulates apoptosis, and induces inflammation. However, the addition of PRGF suppresses all these negative effects of the ZA. PRGF shows a cytoprotective role against the negative effects of ZA on primary oral cells. At present, there is no definitive treatment for bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), being mainly palliatives. Our results revealed that PRGF has a cytoprotective role in cells exposed to zoledronic acid, thus providing a reliable adjunctive therapy for the treatment of BRONJ pathology.

  7. Placental extract ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH by exerting protective effects on endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Yamauchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a severe form of fatty liver disease that is defined by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with human placental extract (HPE reportedly ameliorates the hepatic injury. We evaluated the effect of HPE treatment in a mouse model of NASH. In the methione- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-induced liver injury model, fibrosis started from regions adjacent to the sinusoids. We administered the MCD diet with high-salt loading (8% NaCl in the drinking water to mice deficient in the vasoprotective molecule RAMP2 for 5 weeks, with or without HPE. In both the HPE and control groups, fibrosis was seen in regions adjacent to the sinusoids, but the fibrosis was less pronounced in the HPE-treated mice. Levels of TNF-α and MMP9 expression were also significantly reduced in HPE-treated mice, and oxidative stress was suppressed in the perivascular region. In addition, HPE dose-dependently increased survival of cultured endothelial cells exposed to 100 μM H2O2, and it upregulated expression of eNOS and the anti-apoptotic factors bcl-2 and bcl-xL. From these observations, we conclude that HPE ameliorates NASH-associated pathologies by suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. These beneficially effects of HPE are in part attributable to its protective effects on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. HPE could thus be an attractive therapeutic candidate with which to suppress progression from simple fatty liver to NASH.

  8. A Functional Return-to-Play Progression After Exertional Heat Stroke in a High School Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Tanner, Patrick; Irani, Sarah; Mularoni, P Patrick

    2018-03-01

      To present a functional return-to-play (RTP) progression after exertional heat stroke (EHS) in a 17-year-old high school football defensive end (height = 185 cm, mass = 145.5 kg).   The patient had no pertinent medical history but moved to a warm climate several days before the EHS occurred. After completing an off-season conditioning test (14- × 110-yd [12.6- × 99.0-m] sprints) on a warm afternoon (temperature = approximately 34°C [93°F], relative humidity = 53%), the patient collapsed. An athletic trainer (AT) was called to the field, where he found the patient conscious but exhibiting central nervous system dysfunction. Emergency medical services were summoned and immediately transported the patient to the hospital.   Exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, exertional sickling, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac arrhythmia.   The patient was immediately transported to a hospital, where his oral temperature was 39.6°C (103.3°F). He was transferred to a children's hospital and treated for rhabdomyolysis, transaminitis, and renal failure. He was hospitalized for 11 days. After a physician's clearance once the laboratory results normalized, an RTP progression was completed. The protocol began with light activity and progressed over 3 weeks to full football practice. During activity, an AT monitored the patient's gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, fluid consumption, and sweat losses.   Documentation of RTP guidelines for young athletes is lacking. We used a protocol intended for the football setting to ensure the athlete was heat tolerant, had adequate physical fitness, and could safely RTP. Despite his EHS, he recovered fully, with no lasting effects, and successfully returned to compete in the final 5 games of the season.   Using a gradual RTP progression and close monitoring, a high school defensive end successfully returned to football practice and games after EHS. This case demonstrates the feasibility of

  9. Effect of interval training intensity on fat oxidation, blood lactate and the rate of perceived exertion in obese men

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; King, Neil A; Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of 4-week moderate- and high-intensity interval training (MIIT and HIIT) on fat oxidation and the responses of blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods Ten overweight/obese men (age?=?29 ?3.7?years, BMI?=?30.7 ?3.4?kg/m2) participated in a cross-over study of 4-week MIIT and HIIT training. The MIIT training sessions consisted of 5-min cycling stages at mechanical workloads 20% above and 20% below 45%VO2...

  10. Locomotor activity, enjoyment and perceived exertion from 7v7 football for patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Trine Kjeldgaard Tang; Madsen, Mads; Frederiksen, Jakob

    ’s disease. Methods: 14 men from a football team for patients with Parkinson’s disease carried out a 1-h training session , during which heart rate (HR), accelerations, effort and distances (total, high intensity and sprints) was measured with ZXY radio wave based technology. The participants were 63±6 years...... on a 40x40 m artificial turf football pitch with 1.5x3 m goals. After each activity perceived exertion for lower limbs and total body individually was rated on a visual analogue scale (0-10). After the whole session the participants filled out a PACES questionnaire to rate enjoyment of the session. Height...

  11. Fatty Acids Dietary Supplements Exert Anti-Inflammatory Action and Limit Ganglion Cell Degeneration in the Retina of the EAE Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locri, Filippo; Amato, Rosario; Marsili, Stefania; Rusciano, Dario; Bagnoli, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve (ON) and is an initial symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Optic neuritis is characterized by ON degeneration and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss that contributes to permanent visual disability and lacks a reliable treatment. Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS, a well-established model also for optic neuritis. In this model, C57BL6 mice, intraperitoneally injected with a fragment of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), were found to develop inflammation, Müller cell gliosis, and infiltration of macrophages with increased production of oncomodulin (OCM), a calcium binding protein that acts as an atypical trophic factor for neurons enabling RGC axon regeneration. Immunolabeling of retinal whole mounts with a Brn3a antibody demonstrated drastic RGC loss. Dietary supplementation with Neuro-FAG (nFAG®), a balanced mixture of fatty acids (FAs), counteracted inflammatory and gliotic processes in the retina. In contrast, infiltration of macrophages and their production of OCM remained at elevated levels thus eventually preserving OCM trophic activity. In addition, the diet supplement with nFAG exerted a neuroprotective effect preventing MOG-induced RGC death. In conclusion, these data suggest that the balanced mixture of FAs may represent a useful form of diet supplementation to limit inflammatory events and death of RGCs associated to optic neuritis. This would occur without affecting macrophage infiltration and the release of OCM thus favoring the maintenance of OCM neuroprotective role. PMID:29517994

  12. Ginkgolide B Exerts Cardioprotective Properties against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species, Akt and Calcium Signaling Pathways In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junqing; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Deqiang; Zheng, Jianpu; Liu, Zongjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ginkgolide B (GB) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Rat cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 was pretreated with GB and subsequently subjected to doxorubicin treatment. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay and Hoechst staining, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), Akt phosphorylation and intracellular calcium were equally determined in order to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. To verify the in vivo therapeutic effect of GB, we established a mouse model of cardiotoxicity and determined left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular mass (LVM). The in vitro experimental results indicated that pretreatment with GB significantly decreases the viability and apoptosis of H9c2 cells by decreasing ROS and intracellular calcium levels and activating Akt phosphorylation. In the in vivo study, we recorded an improved LVEF and a decreased LVM in the group of cardiotoxic rats treated with GB. Altogether, our findings anticipate that GB exerts a cardioprotective effect through possible regulation of the ROS, Akt and calcium pathways. The findings suggest that combination of GB with DOX in chemotherapy could help avoid the cardiotoxic side effects of GB.

  13. Fatty Acids Dietary Supplements Exert Anti-Inflammatory Action and Limit Ganglion Cell Degeneration in the Retina of the EAE Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Dal Monte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve (ON and is an initial symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS. Optic neuritis is characterized by ON degeneration and retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss that contributes to permanent visual disability and lacks a reliable treatment. Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse model of MS, a well-established model also for optic neuritis. In this model, C57BL6 mice, intraperitoneally injected with a fragment of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, were found to develop inflammation, Müller cell gliosis, and infiltration of macrophages with increased production of oncomodulin (OCM, a calcium binding protein that acts as an atypical trophic factor for neurons enabling RGC axon regeneration. Immunolabeling of retinal whole mounts with a Brn3a antibody demonstrated drastic RGC loss. Dietary supplementation with Neuro-FAG (nFAG®, a balanced mixture of fatty acids (FAs, counteracted inflammatory and gliotic processes in the retina. In contrast, infiltration of macrophages and their production of OCM remained at elevated levels thus eventually preserving OCM trophic activity. In addition, the diet supplement with nFAG exerted a neuroprotective effect preventing MOG-induced RGC death. In conclusion, these data suggest that the balanced mixture of FAs may represent a useful form of diet supplementation to limit inflammatory events and death of RGCs associated to optic neuritis. This would occur without affecting macrophage infiltration and the release of OCM thus favoring the maintenance of OCM neuroprotective role.

  14. Bim and Mcl-1 exert key roles in regulating JAK2V617F cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, Joëlle; Qian, Zhiyan; Andraos, Rita; Guthy, Daniel A; Radimerski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and is found in the vast majority of patients suffering from polycythemia vera and in roughly every second patient suffering from essential thrombocythemia or from primary myelofibrosis. The V617F mutation is thought to provide hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors with a survival and proliferation advantage. It has previously been shown that activated JAK2 promotes cell survival by upregulating the anti-apoptotic STAT5 target gene Bcl-xL. In this study, we have investigated the role of additional apoptotic players, the pro-apoptotic protein Bim as well as the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2/STAT5 signaling in JAK2 V617F mutant SET-2 and MB-02 cells was used to study effects on signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis by Western blot analysis, WST-1 proliferation assays and flow cytometry. Cells were transfected with siRNA oligos to deplete candidate pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to assess the impact of JAK2 inhibition on complexes of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Treatment of JAK2 V617F mutant cell lines with a JAK2 inhibitor was found to trigger Bim activation. Furthermore, Bim depletion by RNAi suppressed JAK2 inhibitor-induced cell death. Bim activation following JAK2 inhibition led to enhanced sequestration of Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL. Importantly, Mcl-1 depletion by RNAi was sufficient to compromise JAK2 V617F mutant cell viability and sensitized the cells to JAK2 inhibition. We conclude that Bim and Mcl-1 have key opposing roles in regulating JAK2 V617F cell survival and propose that inactivation of aberrant JAK2 signaling leads to changes in Bim complexes that trigger cell death. Thus, further preclinical evaluation of combinations of JAK2 inhibitors with Bcl-2 family antagonists that also tackle Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL, is warranted to assess the therapeutic potential

  15. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (phunger were not different between conditions, with no interaction effects

  16. Polymethoxyflavones from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae) Exert Antinociceptive and Neuropharmacological Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajib, Md Shafiullah; Rashid, Ridwan B; Ming, Long C; Islam, Shanta; Sarker, Md Moklesur R; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Datta, Bidyut K; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2018-01-01

    Polymethoxylavones (PMFs) are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone ( 1 ), 3,3',4',5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin) ( 2 ), 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone ( 3 ), and 3,3',4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone ( 4 ), isolated and identified from N. plumbaginifolia . Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic-acid induced writhing, hot plate, tail immersion, formalin and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests, whereas neuropharmacological effects were evaluated in the hole cross, open field and elevated plus maze test. Oral treatment of compounds 1 , 3 , and 4 (12.5-25 mg/kg b.w.) exhibited dose-dependent and significant ( p Plumbaginifolia could be considered as suitable candidates for the development of analgesic and anxiolytic agents.

  17. Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study aims at addressing the paradigm of whole body fatigue and local muscle fatigue detection for squat lifting. For this purpose, a comparison was made between perceived exertion with the heart rate and normalized mean power frequency (NMPF of eight major muscles. The sample consisted of 25 healthy males (age: 30 ± 2.2 years. Borg’s CR-10 scale was used for perceived exertion for two segments of the body (lower and upper and the whole body. The lower extremity of the body was observed to be dominant compared to the upper and whole body in perceived response. First mode of principal component analysis (PCA was obtained through the covariance matrix for the eight muscles for 25 subjects for NMPF of eight muscles. The diagonal entries in the covariance matrix were observed for each muscle. The muscle with the highest absolute magnitude was observed across all the 25 subjects. The medial deltoid and the rectus femoris muscles were observed to have the highest frequency for each PCA across 25 subjects. The rectus femoris, having the highest counts in all subjects, validated that the lower extremity dominates the sense of whole body fatigue during squat lifting. The findings revealed that it is significant to take into account the relation between perceived and measured effort that can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational tasks.

  18. Analysis of radiation pressure force exerted on a biological cell induced by high-order Bessel beams using Debye series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi

    2013-01-01

    Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back

  19. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate american football player after preventive cold-water immersion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Wasik, Mitchell; Alvey, Thurman

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate American football player after preventive coldwater immersion. A healthy man (19 years old) participated in full-contact football practice followed by conditioning (2.5 hours). After practice, he entered a coach-mandated postpractice cold-water immersion and had no signs of heat illness before developing leg cramps, for which he presented to the athletic training staff. After 10 minutes of repeated stretching, massage, and replacement of electrolyte-filled fluids, he was transported to the emergency room. Laboratory tests indicated a creatine kinase (CK) level of 2545 IU/L (normal range, 45-260 IU/L), CK-myoglobin fraction of 8.5 ng/mL (normal football practice as tolerated. Two months after the incident, his CK level remained high (1900 IU/L). The athlete demonstrated no signs of heat illness upon entering the cold-water immersion but experienced severe leg cramping after immersion, resulting in a diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Previously described cases have not linked cold-water immersion with the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis. In this football player, CK levels appeared to be a poor indicator of rhabdomyolysis. Our patient demonstrated no other signs of the illness weeks after the incident, yet his elevated CK levels persisted. Cold-water immersion immediately after exercise should be monitored by the athletic training staff and may not be appropriate to prevent muscle damage, given the lack of supporting evidence.

  20. Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Kim, Jung-Yong

    2018-04-18

    This research study aims at addressing the paradigm of whole body fatigue and local muscle fatigue detection for squat lifting. For this purpose, a comparison was made between perceived exertion with the heart rate and normalized mean power frequency (NMPF) of eight major muscles. The sample consisted of 25 healthy males (age: 30 ± 2.2 years). Borg’s CR-10 scale was used for perceived exertion for two segments of the body (lower and upper) and the whole body. The lower extremity of the body was observed to be dominant compared to the upper and whole body in perceived response. First mode of principal component analysis (PCA) was obtained through the covariance matrix for the eight muscles for 25 subjects for NMPF of eight muscles. The diagonal entries in the covariance matrix were observed for each muscle. The muscle with the highest absolute magnitude was observed across all the 25 subjects. The medial deltoid and the rectus femoris muscles were observed to have the highest frequency for each PCA across 25 subjects. The rectus femoris, having the highest counts in all subjects, validated that the lower extremity dominates the sense of whole body fatigue during squat lifting. The findings revealed that it is significant to take into account the relation between perceived and measured effort that can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational tasks.

  1. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Secreted Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Exerts a Stimulatory Effect on Skeletal Myoblast Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Alessia; Anderloni, Giulia; Pierucci, Federica; Matteini, Francesca; Chellini, Flaminia; Zecchi Orlandini, Sandra; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to significantly contribute to skeletal muscle healing through the secretion of paracrine factors that support proliferation and enhance participation of the endogenous muscle stem cells in the process of repair/regeneration. However, MSC-derived trophic molecules have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate paracrine signaling effects of MSCs on skeletal myoblasts. It was found, using a biochemical and morphological approach that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a natural bioactive lipid exerting a broad range of muscle cell responses, is secreted by MSCs and represents an important factor by which these cells exert their stimulatory effects on C2C12 myoblast and satellite cell proliferation. Indeed, exposure to conditioned medium obtained from MSCs cultured in the presence of the selective sphingosine kinase inhibitor (iSK), blocked increased cell proliferation caused by the conditioned medium from untreated MSCs, and the addition of exogenous S1P in the conditioned medium from MSCs pre-treated with iSK further increased myoblast proliferation. Finally, we also demonstrated that the myoblast response to MSC-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involves the release of S1P from C2C12 cells. Our data may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:25264785

  2. The chalcone compound isosalipurposide (ISPP) exerts a cytoprotective effect against oxidative injury via Nrf2 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jae Yun [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Mokpo National University, Muan, Jeonnam 535-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Da Eon [College of Pharmacy, Mokpo National University, Muan, Jeonnam 535-729 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Joon Seok [Graduate School of Clinical Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Suk [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ki, Sung Hwan, E-mail: shki@chosun.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The chalcone compound isosalipurposide (ISPP) has been successfully isolated from the native Korean plant species Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Korean winter hazel). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ISPP remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether ISPP has the capacity to activate NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling and induce its target gene expression, and to determined the protective role of ISPP against oxidative injury of hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 is augmented by ISPP treatment. Consistently, ISPP increased ARE reporter gene activity and the protein levels of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and hemeoxygenase (HO-1), resulting in increased intracellular glutathione levels. Cells pretreated with ISPP were rescued from tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione depletion and consequently, apoptotic cell death. Moreover, ISPP ameliorated the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by rotenone which is an inhibitor of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The specific role of Nrf2 activation by ISPP was demonstrated using an ARE-deletion mutant plasmid and Nrf2-knockout cells. Finally, we observed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but not protein kinase C (PKC)-δ or other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), are involved in the activation of Nrf2 by ISPP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ISPP has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage mediated through Nrf2 activation and induction of its target gene expression in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of ISPP on Nrf2 activation. • ISPP increased Nrf2 activity and its target gene expression. • ISPP inhibited the mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. • Nrf2 activation by ISPP is dependent on ERK1/2 and AMPK phosphorylation. • ISPP may be a promising

  3. Palm kernel cake extract exerts hepatoprotective activity in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Goh, Yong Meng; Shakeri, Majid; Oskoueian, Armin

    2014-10-02

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most abundant by-product of oil palm industry is believed to contain bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective potential. These compounds may serve as hepatoprotective agents which could help the poultry industry to alleviate adverse effects of heat stress on liver function in chickens. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of PKC extract in heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocytes. The nature of the active metabolites and elucidation of the possible mechanism involved were also investigated. The PKC extract possessed free radical scavenging activity with values significantly (p < 0.05) lower than silymarin as the reference antioxidant. Heat-induced oxidative stress in chicken hepatocyte impaired the total protein, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity significantly (p < 0.05). Treatment of heat-induced hepatocytes with PKC extract (125 μg/ml) and silymarin as positive control increased these values significantly (p < 0.05). The real time PCR and western blot analyses revealed the significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of oxidative stress biomarkers including TNF-like, IFN-γ and IL-1β genes; NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and Hsp70 proteins expression upon heat stress in chicken hepatocytes. The PKC extract and silymarin were able to alleviate the expression of all of these biomarkers in heat-induced chicken hepatocytes. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of PKC extract showed the presence of fatty acids, phenolic compounds, sugar derivatives and other organic compounds such as furfural which could be responsible for the observed hepatoprotective activity. Palm kernel cake extract could be a potential agent to protect hepatocytes function under heat induced oxidative stress.

  4. Isoflurane exerts neuroprotective actions at or near the time of severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Kimberly D; Alexander, Henry; Vagni, Vincent; Holubkov, Richard; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Jenkins, Larry; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2006-03-03

    Isoflurane improves outcome vs. fentanyl anesthesia, in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed the temporal profile of isoflurane neuroprotection and tested whether isoflurane confers benefit at the time of TBI. Adult, male rats were randomized to isoflurane (1%) or fentanyl (10 mcg/kg iv bolus then 50 mcg/kg/h) for 30 min pre-TBI. Anesthesia was discontinued, rats recovered to tail pinch, and TBI was delivered by controlled cortical impact. Immediately post-TBI, rats were randomized to 1 h of isoflurane, fentanyl, or no additional anesthesia, creating 6 anesthetic groups (isoflurane:isoflurane, isoflurane:fentanyl, isoflurane:none, fentanyl:isoflurane, fentanyl:fentanyl, fentanyl:none). Beam balance, beam walking, and Morris water maze (MWM) performances were assessed over post-trauma d1-20. Contusion volume and hippocampal survival were assessed on d21. Rats receiving isoflurane pre- and post-TBI exhibited better beam walking and MWM performances than rats treated with fentanyl pre- and any treatment post-TBI. All rats pretreated with isoflurane had better CA3 neuronal survival than rats receiving fentanyl pre- and post-TBI. In rats pretreated with fentanyl, post-traumatic isoflurane failed to affect function but improved CA3 neuronal survival vs. rats given fentanyl pre- and post-TBI. Post-traumatic isoflurane did not alter histopathological outcomes in rats pretreated with isoflurane. Rats receiving fentanyl pre- and post-TBI had the worst CA1 neuronal survival of all groups. Our data support isoflurane neuroprotection, even when used at the lowest feasible level before TBI (i.e., when discontinued with recovery to tail pinch immediately before injury). Investigators using isoflurane must consider its beneficial effects in the design and interpretation of experimental TBI research.

  5. Polymyxin B in Combination with Enrofloxacin Exerts Synergistic Killing against Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Yu, Heidi H; Zhao, Jinxin; Han, Mei-Ling; Zhu, Yan; Akter, Jesmin; Wickremasinghe, Hasini; Walpola, Hasini; Wirth, Veronika; Rao, Gauri G; Forrest, Alan; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Polymyxins are increasingly used as a last-resort class of antibiotics against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria. However, resistance to polymyxins can emerge with monotherapy. As nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting factor for polymyxin monotherapy, dose escalation to suppress the emergence of polymyxin resistance is not a viable option. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to preserve this last-line class of antibiotics. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial synergy of polymyxin B combined with enrofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Static time-kill studies were conducted over 24 h with polymyxin B (1 to 4 mg/liter) and enrofloxacin (1 to 4 mg/liter) alone or in combination. Additionally, in vitro one-compartment model (IVM) and hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) experiments were performed against P. aeruginosa 12196. Polymyxin B and enrofloxacin in monotherapy were ineffective against all of the P. aeruginosa isolates examined, whereas polymyxin B-enrofloxacin in combination was synergistic against P. aeruginosa , with ≥2 to 4 log 10 kill at 24 h in the static time-kill studies. In both IVM and HFIM, the combination was synergistic, and the bacterial counting values were below the limit of quantification on day 5 in the HFIM. A population analysis profile indicated that the combination inhibited the emergence of polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa 12196. The mechanism-based modeling suggests that the synergistic killing is a result of the combination of mechanistic and subpopulation synergy. Overall, this is the first preclinical study to demonstrate that the polymyxin-enrofloxacin combination is of considerable utility for the treatment of XDR P. aeruginosa infections and warrants future clinical evaluations. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  7. Caffeoylxanthiazonoside exerts cardioprotective effects during chronic heart failure via inhibition of inflammatory responses in cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Fei; Cao, Huili; Liu, Guifang; Zhang, Yuean; Yan, Ping; Li, Bao

    2017-11-01

    Caffeoylxanthiazonoside (CYT) is an active constituent isolated from the fruit of the Xanthium strumarium L plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of oral administration of CYT on chronic heart failure (CHF) and its underlying mechanisms. A rat model of CHF was first established, and cardiac function indices, including the heart/body weight index, left heart/body weight index, fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO) and heart rate (HR), were subsequently determined by cardiac ultrasound. Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK), and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in heart tissues and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were determined using ELISA. In addition, the protein expression levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway members were determined by western blotting in CMECs. The results demonstrated that oral administration of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg CYT significantly reduced cardiac hypertrophy and reversed FS, EF, CO and HR when compared with CHF model rats. In addition, CYT administration significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in heart tissues, as well as serum LDH and CK levels. Furthermore, exposure of CMECs to 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml CYT significantly decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. The protein expression levels of cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 and IκB were upregulated, while nuclear NF-κB p65 was downregulated following treatment of CMECs with 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml CYT when compared with untreated CHF model controls. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that CYT demonstrates cardioprotective effects in CHF model rats by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama K. Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system cytotoxicity is linked to neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate whether monosodium glutamate (MSG neurotoxicity can be reversed by natural products, such as ginger or propolis, in male rats. Four different groups of Wistar rats were utilized in the study. Group A served as a normal control, whereas group B was orally administered with MSG (100 mg/kg body weight, via oral gavage. Two additional groups, C and D, were given MSG as group B along with oral dose (500 mg/kg body weight of either ginger or propolis (600 mg/kg body weight once a day for two months. At the end, the rats were sacrificed, and the brain tissue was excised and levels of neurotransmitters, ß-amyloid, and DNA oxidative marker 8-OHdG were estimated in the brain homogenates. Further, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections were used for histopathological evaluation. The results showed that MSG increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, neurotransmitters, and 8-OHdG as well as registered an accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides compared to normal control rats. Moreover, significant depletions of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as histopathological alterations in the brain tissue of MSG-treated rats were noticed in comparison with the normal control. In contrast, treatment with ginger greatly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MSG through suppression of 8-OHdG and β-amyloid accumulation as well as alteration of neurotransmitter levels. Further improvements were also noticed based on histological alterations and reduction of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue. A modest inhibition of the neurodegenerative markers was observed by propolis. The study clearly indicates a neuroprotective effect of ginger and propolis against MSG-induced neurodegenerative disorders and these beneficial effects could be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in these natural products.

  9. The chalcone compound isosalipurposide (ISPP) exerts a cytoprotective effect against oxidative injury via Nrf2 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jae Yun; Cho, Seung Sik; Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Kyu Min; Jang, Chang Ho; Park, Da Eon; Bang, Joon Seok; Jung, Young Suk; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The chalcone compound isosalipurposide (ISPP) has been successfully isolated from the native Korean plant species Corylopsis coreana Uyeki (Korean winter hazel). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ISPP remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether ISPP has the capacity to activate NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling and induce its target gene expression, and to determined the protective role of ISPP against oxidative injury of hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 is augmented by ISPP treatment. Consistently, ISPP increased ARE reporter gene activity and the protein levels of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and hemeoxygenase (HO-1), resulting in increased intracellular glutathione levels. Cells pretreated with ISPP were rescued from tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione depletion and consequently, apoptotic cell death. Moreover, ISPP ameliorated the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by rotenone which is an inhibitor of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The specific role of Nrf2 activation by ISPP was demonstrated using an ARE-deletion mutant plasmid and Nrf2-knockout cells. Finally, we observed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but not protein kinase C (PKC)-δ or other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), are involved in the activation of Nrf2 by ISPP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ISPP has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage mediated through Nrf2 activation and induction of its target gene expression in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of ISPP on Nrf2 activation. • ISPP increased Nrf2 activity and its target gene expression. • ISPP inhibited the mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. • Nrf2 activation by ISPP is dependent on ERK1/2 and AMPK phosphorylation. • ISPP may be a promising

  10. RAM, an RGDS analog, exerts potent anti-melanoma effects in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Aguzzi

    Full Text Available Peptides containing the RGD sequence are under continuous investigation given their ability to control cell adhesion and apoptosis. Since small peptides are quickly metabolized and degraded in vivo, developing analogs resistant to serum-induced degradation is a challenging task. RGD analogs developed so far are known as molecules mostly inhibiting cell adhesion; this feature may reduce cell proliferation and tumor development but may not induce regression of tumors or metastases already formed. In the current study, carried out in melanoma in vitro and in vivo models, we show that RAM, an RGD-non-peptide Analog-Molecule, strongly inhibits cells adhesion onto plastic, vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin and von Willebrand Factor while it does not inhibit cell adhesion onto collagen IV, similarly to the RGDS template peptide. It also strongly inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, migration and DNA-synthesis, increases melanoma cells apoptosis and reduces survivin expression. All such effects were observed in collagen IV seeded cells, therefore are most likely independent from the anti adhesive properties. Further, RAM is more stable than the template RGDS; in fact it maintains its anti-proliferation and anti-adhesion effects after long serum exposure while RGDS almost completely loses its effects upon serum exposure. In a mouse metastatic melanoma in vivo model, increasing doses of RAM significantly reduce up to about 80% lung metastases development, while comparable doses of RGDS are less potent. In conclusion these data show that RAM is a potent inhibitor of melanoma growth in vitro, strongly reduces melanoma metastases development in vivo and represents a novel candidate for further in vivo investigations in the cancer treatment field.

  11. Histone deacetylases exert class specific roles in conditioning the brain and heart against acute ischemic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Erik Aune

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury comprises a significant portion of morbidity and mortality from heart and brain diseases worldwide. This enduring clinical problem has inspired myriad reports in the scientific literature of experimental interventions seeking to elucidate the pathology of IR injury. Elective cardiac surgery presents perhaps the most viable scenario for protecting the heart and brain from IR injury, due to the opportunity to condition the organs prior to insult. The physiological parameters for the preconditioning of vital organs prior to insult through mechanical and pharmacologic maneuvers have been heavily examined. These investigations have revealed new insights into how preconditioning alters cellular responses to IR injury. However, the promise of preconditioning remains unfulfilled at the clinical level, and research seeking to implicate cell signals essential to this protection continues. Recent discoveries in molecular biology have revealed that gene expression can be controlled through posttranslational modifications, without altering the chemical structure of the genetic code. In this scenario, gene expression is repressed by enzymes that cause chromatin compaction through catalytic removal of acetyl moieties from lysine residues on histones. These enzymes, called histone deacetylases (HDACs, can be inhibited pharmacologically, leading to the de-repression of protective genes. The discovery that HDACs can also alter the function of non-histone proteins through posttranslational deacetylation has expanded the potential impact of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of human disease. HDAC inhibitors have been applied in a very small number of experimental models of IR. However, the scientific literature contains an increasing number of reports demonstrating that HDACs converge on preconditioning signals in the cell. This review will describe the influence of HDACs on major preconditioning signaling pathways in the heart and

  12. High Hydrostatic Pressure Extract of Ginger Exerts Antistress Effects in Immobilization-Stressed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sohee; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Kang, Bori; Kim, Seog-Young; Park, Seonyoung; Son, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Jo, Young-Hee; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Yangha

    2017-09-01

    Stress contributes to physiological changes such as weight loss and hormonal imbalances. The aim of the present study was to investigate antistress effects of high hydrostatic pressure extract of ginger (HPG) in immobilization-stressed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups as follows: control (C), immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) (S), and immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) plus oral administration of HPG (150 mg/kg body weight/day) (S+G). Immobilization stress reduced the body weight gain and thymus weight by 50.2% and 31.3%, respectively, compared to the control group. The levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and corticosterone were significantly higher in the stress group, compared to the control group. Moreover, immobilization stress elevated the mRNA levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh), and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), which are related to catecholamine and corticosterone synthesis in the adrenal gland. HPG administration also increased the body weight gain and thymus weight by 12.7% and 16.6%, respectively, compared to the stress group. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Th, Dbh, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and P450scc were elevated by the HPG treatment when compared to the stress group. These results suggest that HPG would have antistress effects partially via the reversal of stress-induced physiological changes and suppression of mRNA expression of genes related to corticosterone and catecholamine synthetic enzymes.

  13. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-10-30

    A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 microM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  14. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salido Ginés M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Results Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 μM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. Conclusion ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

  15. α-Iso-cubebene exerts neuroprotective effects in amyloid beta stimulated microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Park, Se Jin; Park, Nan Jeong; Joo, Woo Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon; Choi, Young-Whan

    2013-10-25

    Schisandra chinensis is commonly used for food and as a traditional remedy for the treatment of neuronal disorders. However, it is unclear which component of S. chinensis is responsible for its neuropharmacological effects. To answer this question, we isolated α-iso-cubebene, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin, from S. chinensis and determined if it has any anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective properties against amyloid β-induced neuroinflammation in microglia. Microglia that are stimulated by amyloid β increased their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). We found this was all inhibited by α-iso-cubebene. Consistent with these results, α-iso-cubebene inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and MMP-9 in amyloid β-stimulated microglia. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that α-iso-cubebene inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, the phosphorylation and transactivity of NF-κB, and the phosphorylation of MAPK in amyloid β-stimulated microglia. These results suggest that α-iso-cubebene impairs the amyloid β-induced neuroinflammatory response of microglia by inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Importantly, α-iso-cubebene can provide critical neuroprotection for primary cortical neurons against amyloid β-stimulated microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that α-iso-cubebene can provide neuroprotection against, and influence neuroinflammation triggered by, amyloid β activation of microglia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EGF-Induced VEGF Exerts a PI3K-Dependent Positive Feedback on ERK and AKT through VEGFR2 in Hematological In Vitro Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Saryeddine

    Full Text Available EGFR and VEGFR pathways play major roles in solid tumor growth and progression, however, little is known about these pathways in haematological tumors. This study investigated the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR2 signaling in two hematological in vitro models: THP1, a human monocytic leukemia, and Raji, a Burkitt's lymphoma, cell lines. Results showed that both cell lines express EGFR and VEGFR2 and responded to EGF stimulation by activating EGFR, triggering VEGF production and phosphorylating ERK, AKT, and p38 very early, with a peak of expression at 10-20min. Blocking EGFR using Tyrphostin resulted in inhibiting EGFR induced activation of ERK, AKT, and p38. In addition, EGF stimulation caused a significant and immediate increase, within 1min, in pVEGFR2 in both cell lines, which peaked at ~5-10 min after treatment. Selective inhibition of VEGFR2 by DMH4, anti-VEGFR2 antibody or siRNA diminished EGF-induced pAKT and pERK, indicating a positive feedback exerted by EGFR-induced VEGF. Similarly, the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suppressed AKT and ERK phosphorylation showing that VEGF feedback is PI3K-dependent. On the other hand, phosphorylation of p38, initiated by EGFR and independent of VEGF feedback, was diminished using PLC inhibitor U73122. Moreover, measurement of intracellular [Ca2+] and ROS following VEGFR2 inhibition and EGF treatment proved that VEGFR2 is not implicated in EGF-induced Ca2+ release whereas it boosts EGF-induced ROS production. Furthermore, a significant decrease in pAKT, pERK and p-p38 was shown following the addition of the ROS inhibitor NAC. These results contribute to the understanding of the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR in haematological malignancies and their possible combined blockade in therapy.

  17. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants SkQ1 and MitoTEMPO Failed to Exert a Long-Term Beneficial Effect in Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Rademann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species have been deemed an important contributor in sepsis pathogenesis. We investigated whether two mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (mtAOX; SkQ1 and MitoTEMPO improved long-term outcome, lessened inflammation, and improved organ homeostasis in polymicrobial murine sepsis. 3-month-old female CD-1 mice (n=90 underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP and received SkQ1 (5 nmol/kg, MitoTEMPO (50 nmol/kg, or vehicle 5 times post-CLP. Separately, 52 SkQ1-treated CLP mice were sacrificed at 24 h and 48 h for additional endpoints. Neither MitoTEMPO nor SkQ1 exerted any protracted survival benefit. Conversely, SkQ1 exacerbated 28-day mortality by 29%. CLP induced release of 10 circulating cytokines, increased urea, ALT, and LDH, and decreased glucose but irrespectively of treatment. Similar occurred for CLP-induced lymphopenia/neutrophilia and the NO blood release. At 48 h post-CLP, dying mice had approximately 100-fold more CFUs in the spleen than survivors, but this was not SkQ1 related. At 48 h, macrophage and granulocyte counts increased in the peritoneal lavage but irrespectively of SkQ1. Similarly, hepatic mitophagy was not altered by SkQ1 at 24 h. The absence of survival benefit of mtAOX may be due to the extended treatment and/or a relatively moderate-risk-of-death CLP cohort. Long-term effect of mtAOX in abdominal sepsis appears different to sepsis/inflammation models arising from other body compartments.

  18. 17β-estradiol exerts anticancer effects in anoikis-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by targeting IL-6/STAT3 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seulki, E-mail: sl10f@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minjong, E-mail: minjonglee2@naver.com [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, 156 Baengnyeong-ro, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bin, E-mail: kkimjp@hanmail.net [Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Ave NE, Austin, MN, 55912 (United States); Jo, Ara, E-mail: loveara0315@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Ju, E-mail: creatioex@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Su Jong, E-mail: ydoctor2@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: pindra@empal.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung-Hwan, E-mail: yoonjh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jun, E-mail: yoonjun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-13

    17β-Estradiol (E2) has been proven to exert protective effects against HCC; however, its mechanism on HCC proliferation and suppression of invasion remains to be further explored. Because HCC up-regulates serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), molecular agents that attenuate IL-6/STAT3 signaling can potentially suppress HCC development. In this study, we examined involvement of E2 in anoikis resistance that induces invasion capacities and chemo-resistance. Huh-BAT and HepG2 cells grown under anchorage-independent condition were selected. The anoikis-resistant (AR) cells showed stronger chemo-resistance against sorafenib, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin compared to adherent HCC cells. AR HCC cells exhibited decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the N-cadherin and vimentin compared to adherent HCC cells. We then demonstrated that E2 suppressed cell proliferation in AR HCC cells. IL-6 treatment enhanced invasive characteristics, and E2 reversed it. Regarding mechanism of E2, it decreased in the phosphorylation of STAT3 that overexpressed on AR HCC cells. The inhibitory effect of E2 on cell growth was accompanied with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and caspase-3/9/PARP activation through c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings suggested that E2 inhibited the proliferation of AR HCC cells through down-regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Thus, E2 can be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of metastatic or chemo-resistant HCC. -- Highlights: •Anoikis-resistant HCC cells characterized chemo-resistant and metastatic potentials. •17β-Estradiol down-regulated IL-6/STAT3 signaling in anoikis-resistant HCC cells. •17β-Estradiol suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis though JNK phosphorylation.

  19. Polymethoxyflavones from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae Exert Antinociceptive and Neuropharmacological Effects in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Shajib

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymethoxylavones (PMFs are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3′,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyflavone (1, 3,3′,4′,5′,5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin (2, 6,7,4′,5′-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3′-trimethoxyflavone (3, and 3,3′,4′,5,5′,8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (4, isolated and identified from N. plumbaginifolia. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic-acid induced writhing, hot plate, tail immersion, formalin and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests, whereas neuropharmacological effects were evaluated in the hole cross, open field and elevated plus maze test. Oral treatment of compounds 1, 3, and 4 (12.5–25 mg/kg b.w. exhibited dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.01 antinociceptive activity in the acetic-acid, formalin, carrageenan, and thermal (hot plate-induced pain models. The association of ATP-sensitive K+ channel and opioid systems in their antinociceptive effect was obvious from the antagonist effect of glibenclamide and naloxone, respectively. These findings suggested central and peripheral antinociceptive activities of the compounds. Compound 1, 3, and 4 (12.5 mg/kg b.w. demonstrated significant (p < 0.05 anxiolytic-like activity in the elevated plus-maze test, while the involvement of GABAA receptor in the action of compound 3 and 4 was evident from the reversal effects of flumazenil. In addition, compounds 1 and 4 (12.5–25 mg/kg b.w exhibited anxiolytic activity without altering the locomotor responses. The present study suggested that the polymethoxyflavones (1–4 from N. Plumbaginifolia could be considered as suitable candidates for the development

  20. A novel adipocytokine, chemerin exerts anti-inflammatory roles in human vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamawaki, Hideyuki, E-mail: yamawaki@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Kameshima, Satoshi; Usui, Tatsuya; Okada, Muneyoshi; Hara, Yukio [Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemerin is a novel adipocytokine with almost unknown function in vasculature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemerin activates Akt/eNOS/NO pathways in endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemerin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemerin inhibits TNF-induced VCAM-1 via suppressing NF-{kappa}B and p38 signal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemerin is anti-inflammatory through producing NO in vascular endothelium. -- Abstract: Chemerin is a recently identified adipocytokine which plays a role on inflammation and adipocytes metabolism. However, its function in vasculature is largely unknown. We examined the effects of chemerin on vascular endothelial inflammatory states. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with chemerin (300 ng/ml, 20 min) induced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) (Ser1177). Consistently, chemerin increased intracellular cyclic GMP content. Pretreatment with chemerin (1-300 ng/ml, 24 h) significantly inhibited phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B p65 (Ser536) and p38 as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} (5 ng/ml, 20 min-6 h). Inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B or p38 significantly inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression. Chemerin also inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in rat isolated aorta. Moreover, chemerin significantly inhibited monocytes adhesion to TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. The inhibitory effect of chemerin on TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 was reversed by a NOS inhibitor. Conversely, an NO donor, sodium nitroprusside significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1. The present results for the first time demonstrate that chemerin plays anti-inflammatory roles by preventing TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression and monocytes adhesion in vascular

  1. Pathogenetic treatment for knee osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stanislavovna Svetlova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the impact of long-term treatment with theraflex (a 3-year follow-up or alflutop (a 5-year follow-up in patients with knee osteoarthosis. Both drugs have been shown to exert a positive effect on the symptoms of the disease. It has been concluded that theraflex affects more actively the pathogenic mechanisms in the progression of gonarthrosis.

  2. Pathogenetic treatment for knee osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stanislavovna Svetlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the impact of long-term treatment with theraflex (a 3-year follow-up or alflutop (a 5-year follow-up in patients with knee osteoarthosis. Both drugs have been shown to exert a positive effect on the symptoms of the disease. It has been concluded that theraflex affects more actively the pathogenic mechanisms in the progression of gonarthrosis.

  3. Nontraumatic Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Leading to Acute Kidney Injury in a Sickle Trait Positive Individual on Renal Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana C. Janga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old African American male with a history of congenital cerebral palsy, sickle cell trait, and intellectual disability presented with abdominal pain that started four hours prior to the hospital visit. The patient denied fever, chills, diarrhea, or any localized trauma. The patient was at a party at his community center last evening and danced for 2 hours, physically exerting himself more than usual. Labs revealed blood urea nitrogen (BUN level of 41 mg/dL and creatinine (Cr of 2.8 mg/dL which later increased to 4.2 mg/dL while still in the emergency room. Urinalysis revealed hematuria with RBC > 50 on high power field. Imaging of the abdomen revealed no acute findings for abdominal pain. With fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa > 3%, findings suggested nonoliguric acute tubular necrosis. Over the next couple of days, symptoms of dyspepsia resolved; however, BUN/Cr continued to rise to a maximum of 122/14 mg/dL. With these findings, along with stable electrolytes, urine output matching the intake, and prior use of proton pump inhibitors, medical decision was altered for the possibility of acute interstitial nephritis. Steroids were subsequently started and biopsy was taken. Biopsy revealed heavy deposits of myoglobin. Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK levels drawn ten days later after the admission were found to be elevated at 334 U/dl, presuming the levels would have been much higher during admission. This favored a diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis. We here describe a case of nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis in a sickle cell trait (SCT individual that was missed due to findings of microscopic hematuria masking underlying myoglobinuria and fractional excretion of sodium > 3%. As opposed to other causes of ATN, rhabdomyolysis often causes FeNa < 1%. The elevated fractional excretion of sodium in this patient was possibly due to the underlying inability of SCT positive individuals

  4. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction in elderly hypertensive women: haemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Roberta R; Karabulut, Murat; Poton, Roberto; Polito, Marcos D

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare haemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate responses during resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) compared with traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in hypertensive older women. Eighteen hypertensive women (age = 67·0 ± 1·7 years.) undertook three random sessions: (i) three sets; 10 repetitions; 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM) with BFR; (ii) three sets; 10 repetitions; 65% of 1RM; without BFR; and (iii) no-exercise with BFR. The exercise sessions were performed on knee extension equipment. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were significantly higher (P<0·05) in all sets of exercise sessions than the control. No statistically significant differences were detected between exercise sessions. However, SBP, DBP and systemic vascular resistance were higher (P<0·05) and SV and CO were lower (P<0·05) during the rest intervals in the session with BFR. The perceived exertion was significantly higher (P<0·01) in the 1st (4·8 ± 0·4 versus 3·1 ± 0·3), 2nd (7·3 ± 0·4 versus 5·7 ± 0·4) and 3rd sets (8·6 ± 0·5 versus 7·5 ± 0·4) of the traditional high-intensity resistance exercise compared with the exercise with BFR. Blood lactate was higher (P<0·05) in the traditional high-intensity resistance exercise (6·2 ± 0·7 mmol) than in the exercise with BFR (4·5 ± 0·4 mmol). In comparison with high-intensity resistance exercise, low-intensity resistance exercise with BFR can elicit: (i) same haemodynamic values during exercise; (ii) lower rating of perceived exertion; (iii) lower blood lactate; (iv) higher haemodynamic demand during the rest intervals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Changes in the selection differential exerted on a marine snail during the ontogeny of a predatory shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakes, D; Boulding, E G

    2010-08-01

    Empirical estimates of selection gradients caused by predators are common, yet no one has quantified how these estimates vary with predator ontogeny. We used logistic regression to investigate how selection on gastropod shell thickness changed with predator size. Only small and medium purple shore crabs (Hemigrapsus nudus) exerted a linear selection gradient for increased shell-thickness within a single population of the intertidal snail (Littorina subrotundata). The shape of the fitness function for shell thickness was confirmed to be linear for small and medium crabs but was humped for large male crabs, suggesting no directional selection. A second experiment using two prey species to amplify shell thickness differences established that the selection differential on adult snails decreased linearly as crab size increased. We observed differences in size distribution and sex ratios among three natural shore crab populations that may cause spatial and temporal variation in predator-mediated selection on local snail populations.

  6. Metrological approach to the force exerted by the axle of a road vehicle in motion carrying liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruolo, Luciano Bruno; Pinto, Fernando Augusto de Noronha Castro

    2016-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are used for identifying the dynamic force exerted on the ground by axles of a vehicle. These systems are important for monitoring the gross vehicle weight and the vehicle axle load. Overweighted trucks on the roads increase pavement damage and traffic accidents. Knowing the accuracy of WIM systems is necessary. In the case of liquid transport the ‘sloshing effect’ affects this accuracy. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic measurement of the axle forces in vehicles carrying liquid during WIM up to 6 km h −1 . Laboratory experiments using one vehicle with six axles and liquid loads on different levels in weighing instruments are presented. A non-linear computational multi-mass-springs model was developed and laboratory experiments were carried out to show the acceleration influences on axle forces of vehicles with six axles and with and without baffles to vary the ‘sloshing effect’. (paper)

  7. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    concentrations (less than 1 mM), QX-314 potently inhibited capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents with an IC₅₀ of 8.0 ± 0.6 μM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 exerts biphasic effects on TRPV1 channels, inhibiting capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents at lower...... channels. METHODS: The authors conducted an in vitro laboratory study in which they expressed TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and recorded cation currents with the two-electrode voltage clamp method. They used confocal microscopy for Ca²⁺ imaging in TRPV1 transient transfected tsA201...

  8. A novel oral dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (KBP-042) exerts antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Kim V; Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T

    2014-01-01

    -induced obese (DIO) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In vitro, KBP-042 demonstrated superior binding affinity and activation of amylin and calcitonin receptors, and ex vivo, KBP-042 exerted inhibitory action on stimulated insulin and glucagon release from isolated islets. In vivo, KBP-042 induced...... a superior and pronounced reduction in food intake in conjunction with a sustained pair-fed corrected weight loss in DIO rats. Concomitantly, KBP-042 improved glucose homeostasis and reduced hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in conjunction with enhanced insulin sensitivity. In ZDF rats, KBP-042 induced...... antiobesity and antidiabetic efficacy by dual modulation of insulin sensitivity and directly decelerating stress on the pancreatic α- and β-cells. These results could provide the basis for oral KBP-042 as a novel therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes....

  9. Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudault, S; Liévin, V; Bernet-Camard, M F; Servin, A L

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus casei GG exerted in vitro against Salmonella typhimurium C5 in a cellular model, cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, to those exerted in vivo in an animal model, C3H/He/Oujco mice. Our results show that a 1-h contact between the invading strain C5 and either the culture or the supernatant of L. casei GG impeded the invasion by the Salmonella strain in Caco-2 cells, without modifying the viability of the strain. After neutralization at pH 7, no inhibition of the invasion by C5 was observed. The antagonistic activity of L. casei GG was examined in C3H/He/Oujco mice orally infected with C5 as follows: (i) L. casei GG was given daily to conventional animals as a probiotic, and (ii) it was given once to germ-free animals in order to study the effect of the population of L. casei GG established in the different segments of the gut. In vivo experiments show that after a single challenge with C5, this strain survives and persists at a higher level in the feces of the untreated conventional mice than in those of the treated group. In L. casei GG germ-free mice, establishment of L. casei GG in the gut significantly delayed the occurrence of 100% mortality of the animals (15 days after C5 challenge versus 9 days in germ-free mice [P L. casei GG population level in the gut dramatically decreased in these animals.

  10. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  11. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin exert antitumor activities on human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) by activating various signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rulan; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present at high concentrations in milk. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a peptide fragment generated by pepsin proteolysis of bovine lactoferrin (bLf). LfcinB consists of amino acid residues 17-41 proximal to the N-terminus of bLf and a disulfide bond between residues 19 and 36, forming a loop. Both bLf and LfcinB have been demonstrated to have antitumor activities. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in developed countries. We hypothesized that bLf and LfcinB exert antitumor activities on colon cancer cells (HT-29) by triggering various signaling pathways. bLf and LfcinB significantly induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells but not in normal human intestinal epithelial cells, as revealed by the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. The LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay showed that both bLf and LfcinB reduced the viability of HT-29 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that bLf, cyclic LfcinB, and linear LfcinB exerted antitumor activities by differentially activating diverse signaling pathways, including p53, apoptosis, and angiopoietin signaling. Immunoblotting results confirmed that both bLf and LfcinBs increased expression of caspase-8, p53, and p21, critical proteins in tumor suppression. These results provide valuable information regarding bLf and LfcinB for potential clinical applications in colon cancer therapy.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  13. The Effect of Rest Interval Length on Repetition Consistency and Perceived Exertion During Near Maximal Loaded Bench Press Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; de Salles, Belmiro F; Miranda, Humberto

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different rest intervals between sets on repetition consistency and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during consecutive bench press sets with an absolute 3RM (3 repetition maximum) load. Sixteen trained men (23.75 ± 4.21 years; 74.63 ± 5.36 kg; 175 ± 4.64 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.44 ± 0.19 kg/kg of body mass) attended 4 randomly ordered sessions during which 5 consecutive sets of the bench press were performed with an absolute 3RM load and 1, 2, 3, or 5 minutes of rest interval between sets. The results indicated that significantly greater bench press repetitions were completed with 2, 3, and 5 minutes vs. 1-minute rest between sets (p ≤ 0.05); no significant differences were noted between the 2, 3, and 5 minutes rest conditions. For the 1-minute rest condition, performance reductions (relative to the first set) were observed commencing with the second set; whereas for the other conditions (2, 3, and 5 minutes rest), performance reductions were not evident until the third and fourth sets. The RPE values before each of the successive sets were significantly greater, commencing with the second set for the 1-minute vs. the 3 and 5 minutes rest conditions. Significant increases were also evident in RPE immediately after each set between the 1 and 5 minutes rest conditions from the second through fifth sets. These findings indicate that when utilizing an absolute 3RM load for the bench press, practitioners may prescribe a time-efficient minimum of 2 minutes rest between sets without significant impairments in repetition performance. However, lower perceived exertion levels may necessitate prescription of a minimum of 3 minutes rest between sets.

  14. Exertional muscle pain in familial Mediterranean fever patients evaluated by MRI and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, T.; Eshed, I.; Heled, Y.; Livneh, A.; Langevitz, P.; Ben Zvi, I.; Konen, E.; Lidar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of physical activity on the structural, morphological, and metabolic characteristics of the gastrocnemius muscle in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, utilizing quantitative 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in order to elucidate the mechanism of their exertional leg pain. Materials and methods: Eleven FMF patients suffering from exertional leg pain (eight male, three female; mean age 33 years) and six healthy individuals (three male, three female; mean age 39 years) constituted the control group. All of the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-selective 31 P MRS (3 T) of the leg muscles before and after graded exercise on a treadmill. Phosphocreatine (PCr):inorganic phosphate (Pi), PCr:adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratios and the intracellular pH of the leg muscles were measured using 31 P MRS. Results: For both groups, normal muscle mass with no signal alterations was observed on the MRI images after exercise. The normal range of pre- and post- exercise MRS muscle parameters was observed in both groups. However, the intracellular pH post-exercise, was significantly higher (less acidic) in the FMF group compared to the control group [pH (FMF) = 7.03 ± 0.02; pH (control) 7.00 ± 0.02; p < 0.0006]. Conclusions: The finding of a less prominent, post-exercise acidification of the gastrocnemius muscle in this FMF patient group suggests a forme fruste of glycogenosis. This preliminary observation should be further investigated in a future, larger-scale study

  15. Does Pre-Cooling With Whole-Body Immersion Affect Thermal Sensation or Perceived Exertion?: A Critically-Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfert, Timothy M; Miller, Kevin C

    2018-02-21

    Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially deadly heat illness and poses a significant health risk to athletes; EHS survival rates are near 100% if properly recognized and treated. 1 Whole body cold water immersion (CWI) is the most effective method of lowering body core temperature. 2 Precooling (PC) with CWI before exercise may prevent severe hyperthermia and/or EHS by increasing the body's overall heat-storage capacity. 3 However, PC may also alter athletes' perception of how hot they feel or how hard they are exercising. Consequently, they may be unable to accurately perceive their body core temperature or how hard they are working which may predispose them to severe hyperthermia or EHS. Does PC with whole-body CWI affect thermal sensation (TS) or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise in the heat? In four studies, 4-7 RPE during exercise ranged from 12 ± 2 to 20 ± 3 with no clinically meaningful differences between PC and control trials. Thermal sensation scores ranged from 2 ± 1 to 8 ± 0.5 in control trials and from 2 ± 1 to 7.5 ± 0.5 during PC trials. Clinical Bottom Line: Precooling did not cause clinically-meaningful differences in RPE or TS during exercise. It is unlikely PC would predispose athletes to EHS by altering perceptions of exercise intensity or body core temperature. Strength of Recommendation: None of the reviewed studies 4-7 (all level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggest PC with CWI influences RPE or TS in exercising males.

  16. Real time relationship between individual finger force and grip exertion on distal phalanges in linear force following tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Jian; Shu, Ge; Gong, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Individual finger force (FF) in a grip task is a vital concern in rehabilitation engineering and precise control of manipulators because disorders in any of the fingers will affect the stability or accuracy of the grip force (GF). To understand the functions of each finger in a dynamic grip exertion task, a GF following experiment with four individual fingers without thumb was designed. This study obtained four individual FFs from the distal phalanges with a cylindrical handle in dynamic GF following tasks. Ten healthy male subjects with similar hand sizes participated in the four-finger linear GF following tasks at different submaximal voluntary contraction (SMVC) levels. The total GF, individual FF, finger force contribution, and following error were subsequently calculated and analyzed. The statistics indicated the following: 1) the accuracy and stability of GF at low %MVC were significantly higher than those at high SMVC; 2) at low SMVC, the ability of the fingers to increase the GF was better than the ability to reduce it, but it was contrary at high SMVC; 3) when the target wave (TW) was changing, all four fingers strongly participated in the force exertion, but the participation of the little finger decreased significantly when TW remained stable; 4) the index finger and ring finger had a complementary relationship and played a vital role in the adjustment and control of GF. The middle finger and little finger had a minor influence on the force control and adjustment. In conclusion, each of the fingers had different functions in a GF following task. These findings can be used in the assessment of finger injury rehabilitation and for algorithms of precise control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethyl p-coumarate exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against fruit Alternaria alternata via membrane-targeted mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wusun; Yuan, Shuzhi; Sun, Jing; Li, Qianqian; Jiang, Weibo; Cao, Jiankang

    2018-08-02

    The fungus Alternaria alternata can cause food contamination by black spot rot and food safety issues due to the production of mycotoxins. In particular, A. alternata can infect many fresh fruits and vegetables and lead to considerable postharvest decay during storage and processing. The use of plant-derived products in postharvest disease management may be an acceptable alternative to traditional chemical fungicides. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of ethyl p-coumarate (EpCA) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo, and to determine the underlying mechanism. Results indicated that EpCA exhibited pronounced antifungal activity against in vitro mycelial growth of A. alternata, with half-inhibition concentration of 176.8 μg/mL. Spore germination of the pathogen was inhibited by EpCA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo test confirmed that both 100 and 800 μg/mL EpCA significantly reduced disease development of black spot rot in jujube fruit caused by A. alternata. The EpCA treatments increased plasma membrane permeability as great leakage of intercellular electrolytes, soluble proteins and sugars of A. alternata occurred during incubation. The EpCA treatments also caused increase of the influx of propidium iodide, a fluorescence dye binding nucleus DNA, into the affected spores, indicating the disrupted plasma membrane integrity. Observations of ultrastructure further evidenced the damage to plasma membrane and morphology of A. alternata caused by EpCA, which resulted in distortion, sunken and shrivelled of spores and mycelia of the pathogen. In addition, fluorometric assay by confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that the EpCA treatments induced endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the spores of A. alternata, with stronger and more stable accumulation of ROS at higher concentration of EpCA. Therefore, heavy oxidative damage to cellular membranes and organelles might happen as demonstrated

  18. Tea saponin reduces the damage of Ectropis obliqua to tea crops, and exerts reduced effects on the spiders Ebrechtella tricuspidata and Evarcha albaria compared to chemical insecticides

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    Chi Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. However, the tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua, a serious leaf-feeding pest, causes significant damage to tea crops and reduces tea yield and quality. Spiders are the most dominant predatory enemies in the tea plantation ecosystem, which makes them potentially useful biological control agents of E. obliqua. These highlight the need for alternative pest control measures. Our previous studies have shown that tea saponin (TS exerts insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests. Here, we investigate whether TS represents a potentially new alternative insecticide with no harm to spiders. Methods We investigated laboratory bioactivities and the field control properties of TS solution against E. obliqua. (i A leaf-dip bioassay was used to evaluate the toxicity of TS to 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae and effects of TS on the activities of enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, carboxylesterase (CES and peroxidase (POD of 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae in the laboratory. (ii Topical application was used to measure the toxicity of 30% TS (w/v and two chemical insecticides (10% bifenthrin EC and 50% diafenthiuron SC to two species of spider, Ebrechtella tricuspidata and Evarcha albaria. (iii Field trials were used to investigate the controlling efficacy of 30% TS against E. obliqua larvae and to classify the effect of TS to spiders in the tea plantation. Results The toxicity of TS to 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae occurred in a dose-dependent manner and the LC50 was 164.32 mg/mL. Activities of the detoxifying-related enzymes, GST and POD, increased in 3rd-instar E. obliqua larvae, whereas AChE and CES were inhibited with time by treatment with TS. Mortalities of E. tricuspidata and E. albaria after 48 h with 30% TS treatment (16.67% and 20%, respectively were significantly lower than those with 10% bifenthrin EC (80% and 73.33%, respectively and 50

  19. Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, exerts in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity against hepatocellular carcinoma by initiating a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway

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    J. Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of esculetin against hepatocellular carcinoma, and clarified its potential molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was determined by the MTT (tetrazolium colorimetric assay. In vivo antitumor activity of esculetin was evaluated in a hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model. Seventy-five C57BL/6J mice were implanted with Hepa1-6 cells and randomized into five groups (n=15 each given daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (physiological saline, esculetin (200, 400, or 700 mg·kg-1·day-1, or 5-Fu (200 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 15 days. Esculetin significantly decreased tumor growth in mice bearing Hepa1-6 cells. Tumor weight was decreased by 20.33, 40.37, and 55.42% with increasing doses of esculetin. Esculetin significantly inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and with an IC50 value of 2.24 mM. It blocked the cell cycle at S phase and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells with significant elevation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, but did not affect caspase-8 activity. Moreover, esculetin treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro and in vivo accompanied by increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Thus, esculetin exerted in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity in hepatocellular carcinoma, and its mechanisms involved initiation of a mitochondrial-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  20. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exert antitumor effects on established colorectal cancer in mice by inducing apoptotic death of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mutsumi; Nakai, Seiji; Deguchi, Akihiro; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Uchida, Naohito; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2007-08-01

    Although a number of studies have shown that vitamin K possesses antitumor activities on various neoplastic cell lines, there are few reports demonstrating in vivo antitumor effects of vitamin K, and the antitumor effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be examined. Therefore, antitumor effects of vitamin K on CRC were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 suppressed the proliferation of colon 26 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while vitamin K1 did not. On flow cytometry, induction of apoptosis by vitamins K2, K3 and K5 was suggested by population in sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Hoechst 33342 staining and a two-color flow cytometric assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide confirmed that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 induced apoptotic death of colon 26 cells. Enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in colon 26 cells was significantly up-regulated by vitamins K2, K3 and K5. The pan-caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, substantially prevented vitamin K-mediated apoptosis. In vivo study using syngeneic mice with subcutaneously established colon 26 tumors demonstrated that intravenous administration of vitamins K2, K3 and K5 significantly suppressed the tumor growth. The number of apoptotic tumor cells was significantly larger in the vitamin K-treated groups than in the control group. These results suggest that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exerted effective antitumor effects on CRC in vitro and in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic death of tumor cells, suggesting that these K vitamins may be promising agents for the treatment of patients with CRC.

  1. Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, exerts in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity against hepatocellular carcinoma by initiating a mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Lu, M.L.; Dai, H.L.; Zhang, S.P.; Wang, H.X.; Wei, N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of esculetin against hepatocellular carcinoma, and clarified its potential molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was determined by the MTT (tetrazolium) colorimetric assay. In vivo antitumor activity of esculetin was evaluated in a hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model. Seventy-five C57BL/6J mice were implanted with Hepa1-6 cells and randomized into five groups (n=15 each) given daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (physiological saline), esculetin (200, 400, or 700 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ), or 5-Fu (200 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 15 days. Esculetin significantly decreased tumor growth in mice bearing Hepa1-6 cells. Tumor weight was decreased by 20.33, 40.37, and 55.42% with increasing doses of esculetin. Esculetin significantly inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and with an IC 50 value of 2.24 mM. It blocked the cell cycle at S phase and induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells with significant elevation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, but did not affect caspase-8 activity. Moreover, esculetin treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro and in vivo accompanied by increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Thus, esculetin exerted in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity in hepatocellular carcinoma, and its mechanisms involved initiation of a mitochondrial-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway

  2. Arctigenin exerts anti-colitis efficacy through inhibiting the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells via an mTORC1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Bian, Difei; Luo, Jinque; Tong, Bei; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2015-08-15

    Arctigenin, the main effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit, has previously been proven to dramatically attenuate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, a frequently used animal model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As Th1 and Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IBD, the present study addressed whether and how arctigenin exerted anti-colitis efficacy by interfering with the differentiation and activation of Th1/Th17 cells. In vitro, arctigenin was shown to markedly inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells from naïve T cells, and moderately inhibit the differentiation of Th1 cells, which was accompanied by lowered phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT4, respectively. In contrast, arctigenin was lack of marked effect on the differentiation of either Th2 or regulatory T cells. Furthermore, arctigenin was shown to suppress the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in T cells as demonstrated by down-regulated phosphorylation of the downstream target genes p70S6K and RPS6, and it functioned independent of two well-known upstream kinases PI3K/AKT and ERK. Arctigenin was also able to inhibit the activity of mTORC1 by dissociating raptor from mTOR. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on T cell differentiation disappeared under a status of mTORC1 overactivation via knockdown of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2, a negative regulator of mTORC1) or pretreatment of leucine (an agonist of mTOR). In DSS-induced mice, the inhibition of Th1/Th17 responses and anti-colitis effect of arctigenin were abrogated by leucine treatment. In conclusion, arctigenin ameliorates colitis through down-regulating the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells via mTORC1 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells exerts therapeutic effects on parkinsonian model of rats: Focusing on neuroprotective effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α

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    Tayra Judith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow with secretory functions of various neurotrophic factors. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is also reported as one of chemokines released from MSCs. In this research, the therapeutic effects of MSCs through SDF-1α were explored. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 μg was injected into the right striatum of female SD rats with subsequent administration of GFP-labeled MSCs, fibroblasts, (i.v., 1 × 107 cells, respectively or PBS at 2 hours after 6-OHDA injection. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test for 1 month with consequent euthanasia for immunohistochemical evaluations. Additionally, to explore the underlying mechanisms, neuroprotective effects of SDF-1α were explored using 6-OHDA-exposed PC12 cells by using dopamine (DA assay and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Rats receiving MSC transplantation significantly ameliorated behaviorally both in cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test compared with the control groups. Correspondingly, rats with MSCs displayed significant preservation in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive fibers in the striatum and the number of TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc compared to that of control rats. In the in vitro study, SDF-1α treatment increased DA release and suppressed cell death induced by 6-OHDA administration compared with the control groups. Conclusions Consequently, MSC transplantation might exert neuroprotection on 6-OHDA-exposed dopaminergic neurons at least partly through anti-apoptotic effects of SDF-1α. The results demonstrate the potentials of intravenous MSC administration for clinical applications, although further explorations are required.

  4. [Visits of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis to the Emergency Department at Landspítali, The National University Hospital of Iceland in the years 2008-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Arnljotur Bjorn; Benedikz, Elisabet; Olafsson, Isleifur; Mogensen, Brynjolfur

    2016-03-01

    Overexertion and too much training are among the -multiple etiologies of rhabdomyolysis. Creatine kinase (CK) and myo-globine, released from skeletal muscle cells, are useful for diagnosis and follow-up. Acute kidney injury is a serious complication of myoglobinemia. Literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis in the general population is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis among patients diagnosed at Landspítali The National University Hospital of Iceland in 2008-2012. The study was retrospective and observational. All patients presenting with muscle pain after exertion and elevated creatine kinase >1000 IU/L, during the period from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012, were included. Patients with CK elevations secondary to causes other than exertion were excluded. Variables included: patient number and gender, CK-levels, date of hospital admission, cause of rhabdomyolysis, location of injured muscle groups, length of hospital stay, complications and means of fluid replacement. Population figures of the capital region were gathered from Statistics Iceland and information on sport practice in the capital region from The National Olympic and Sports Association of Iceland. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in 54 patients, 18 females (33,3%) and 36 males (66,7%), or 8,3% of rhabdomyolysis cases from all causes in the study period (648 cases). Incidence in the capital region was 5,0/100.000 inhabitants per year in the study period. Median age was 28 years and median CK-level was 24.132 IU/L. CK-levels were higher among females but the difference between genders was not significant. Muscle groups of the upper and lower extremities were most frequently affected (89%). Thirty patients received intravenous fluids. They had significantly higher CK values than other patients. One patient developed acute kidney injury. Information on sport practice and physical training in the capital region was not available

  5. NBPF1, a tumor suppressor candidate in neuroblastoma, exerts growth inhibitory effects by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, Vanessa; Vandepoele, Karl; Staes, Katrien; Berx, Geert; Bogaert, Pieter; Van Isterdael, Gert; Ginneberge, Daisy; Parthoens, Eef; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Gevaert, Kris; Roy, Frans van

    2015-01-01

    NBPF1 (Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family, member 1) was originally identified in a neuroblastoma patient on the basis of its disruption by a chromosomal translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2). Considering this genetic defect and the frequent genomic alterations of the NBPF1 locus in several cancer types, we hypothesized that NBPF1 is a tumor suppressor. Decreased expression of NBPF1 in neuroblastoma cell lines with loss of 1p36 heterozygosity and the marked decrease of anchorage-independent clonal growth of DLD1 colorectal carcinoma cells with induced NBPF1 expression further suggest that NBPF1 functions as tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Expression of NBPF was analyzed in human skin and human cervix by immunohistochemistry. The effects of NBPF1 on the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. We investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR the expression profile of a panel of genes important in cell cycle regulation. Protein levels of CDKN1A-encoded p21 CIP1/WAF1 were determined by western blotting and the importance of p53 was shown by immunofluorescence and by a loss-of-function approach. LC-MS/MS analysis was used to investigate the proteome of DLD1 colon cancer cells with induced NBPF1 expression. Possible biological interactions between the differentially regulated proteins were investigated with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. We show that NBPF is expressed in the non-proliferative suprabasal layers of squamous stratified epithelia of human skin and cervix. Forced expression of NBPF1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 CIP1/WAF1 in a p53-dependent manner. Additionally, forced expression of NBPF1 in two p53-mutant neuroblastoma cell lines also resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest and CDKN1A upregulation. However, CDKN1A upregulation by NBPF1 was not observed in the DLD1 cells, which demonstrates that NBPF1 exerts cell

  6. Effects of perceived and exerted pain control on neural activity during pain relief in experimental heat hyperalgesia: a fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, C; Leyendecker, S; Petersen, D; Helmchen, C

    2012-04-01

    Perceived control over pain can attenuate pain perception by mechanisms of endogenous pain control and emotional reappraisal irrespective of whether this control is exerted or only perceived. Self-initiated termination of pain elicits different expectations of subsequent pain relief as compared to perceived pain control. It is unknown whether and how this perceived vs. exerted control on pain differs and affects subsequent pain relief. Using fMRI, we studied two factors of pain control on pain relief: the (i) sense of control (perceived control but no execution) and (ii) the execution of control (exerted control). To account for the impact of factual execution of pain control on pain relief we applied bearable short and hardly bearable long contact-heat stimuli which were applied either controllable or not. Using controllability as factor, there was dissociable neural activity during pain relief: following the perceived control condition neural activity was found in the orbitofrontal and mediofrontal cortex and, following the exerted control condition, in the anterolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. We conclude that (i) pain controllability has an impact on pain relief and (ii) the prefrontal cortex shows dissociable neural activity during pain relief following exerted vs. perceived pain control. This might reflect the higher grade of uncertainty during pain relief following perceived pain control mediated by the orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex and processes of working memory and updating expectations during pain relief following exerted control mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  7. Propriedades psicométricas da Dutch Fatigue Scale e Dutch Exertion Fatigue Scale: versão brasileira Propiedades psicométricas de la Dutch Fatigue Scale y Dutch Exertion Fatigue Scale: versión Brasileña Psychometric properties of the Dutch Fatigue Scale and the Dutch Exertion Fatigue Scale: Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fadiga é uma resposta humana em diversas situações agudas e crônicas e também na população geral. Este artigo relata estudo realizado para estimar confiabilidade e validade da Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS e da Dutch Exertion Fatigue Scale (DEFS adaptadas para o Brasil. Trezentos pacientes ambulatoriais com insuficiência cardíaca e 64 voluntários responderam a DUFS e a DEFS vertidas para o português. Análise fatorial sobre o conjunto de itens das duas escalas produziu solução com um fator para cada escala (variância explicada = 53,9% e boas estimativas de confiabilidade pelo alfa de Chronbach (DUFS=0,85 e DEFS=0,92 foram obtidas. Na amostra de pacientes, os escores nas escalas foram positivamente associados com a classe funcional da insuficiência cardíaca (DUFS e DEFS p=0,000, com os escores de depressão (DUFS r s=0,63; p=0,00 e DEFS r s=0,55; p=0,00 e com distúrbio de sono (DUFS e DEFS p=0,000. As versões brasileiras mostraram propriedades semelhantes as das escalas originais.Fatiga es una respuesta humana en muchas situaciones agudas e crónicas e también en la populación general. Este artículo relata estudio realizado para estimar la confiabilidad e validad de la Dutch Fatigue Scale (DUFS y de la Dutch Exertion Fatigue Scale (DEFS adaptadas para o Brasil. Trescientos pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y 64 voluntarios respondieran a la DUFS y DEFS vertidas para lo portugués. El análisis factorial de los ítems ha producido solución con un factor para cada escala (variancia explicada = 53,9% y buenas estimativas de confiabilidad por lo alfa de Chronbach (DUFS=0,85 e DEFS=0,92 fueron obtenidas. En la muestra de pacientes, las puntuaciones en las escalas fueron positivamente asociadas con la clase funcional de la insuficiencia cardiaca (DUFS y DEFS p=0,000, los escores de depresión (DUFS r s=0,63; p=0,00 y DEFS r s=0,55; p=0,00, y con las alteraciones del sueno (DUFS y DEFS p=0,000. Las versiones brasileras mostraran

  8. Hemodynamic Changes After Static and Dynamic Exercises and Treadmill Stress Test; Different Patterns in Patients with Primary Benign Exertional Headache?

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    Mohsen Rostami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15 and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12 were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  9. Bisphenol A Modifies the Regulation Exerted by Testosterone on 5α-Reductase Isozymes in Ventral Prostate of Adult Rats

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    Pilar Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, growth, and function of the prostate gland depend on androgen stimulation. The primary androgen in prostate is 5-dihydrotestosterone (DHT which is synthesized from circulating testosterone (T through the action of 5-reductase (5-R. Although 5-R occurs as five isozymes, only 5-R1 and 5-R2 are physiologically involved in steroidogenesis. The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA alters sexual organs, including the prostate. Our previous findings indicated that BPA decreased the expression of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in rat prostate but also circulating T. Thus, it is unclear whether BPA exerts this effect on 5-R isozymes by reducing circulating T or by any other mechanism. In this study, we examine the effects of short-term exposure to BPA at doses below 25 g/Kg/d and above 300 g/Kg/d of the TDI on mRNA levels of 5-R1 and 5-R2 in prostate of adult castrated rats supplemented with T to achieve constant circulating T levels. mRNA levels were measured by absolute quantitative RT-PCR, T levels by RIA, and DHT levels by ELISA. Our results indicated that in castrated rats treated with T BPA at the two doses studied significantly decreased the mRNA levels of both 5-R isozymes in a dose-dependent manner without modifications in circulating T.

  10. Immunoregulatory Effects of Paeoniflorin Exerts Anti-asthmatic Effects via Modulation of the Th1/Th2 Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Yang, Zhaocong; Yang, Shihai; Du, Juan; Wang, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    Paeoniflorin has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in the animal study. In this study, we investigated immunoregulatory effects of paeoniflorin on anti-asthmatic effects and underlying mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin-induced. A total of 50 mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and paeoniflorin (10 and 20 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured by the forced oscillation technique; histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; Th1/Th2 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Th1/Th2 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM); and GATA3 and T-bet were evaluated by Western blot. Our study demonstrated that, compared with model group, paeoniflorin inhibited ovalbumin (OVA)-induced increases in Raw and eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-4, IgE levels were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared; increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; histological studies demonstrated that paeoniflorin substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue and lung tissue compared with model group. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated that paeoniflorin can regulate Th1/Th2 balance. These findings suggest that paeoniflorin may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma and could be used as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: Case-based pictorial review and approach to management

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    Bishum Rattan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-related limb pain poses a management dilemma to the clinician. The term ‘chronic exertional compartment syndrome’ (CECS (previously known as ‘anterior tibial syndrome’ refers to a condition characterised by exercise-induced pain in one or more muscle groups and is more commonly seen in the lower limbs. Much less has been reported about the upper limbs where the muscular compartments are variably noted to be involved. A high index of clinical suspicion should therefore be maintained to avoid missing the diagnosis. Although commonly noted in athletes, CECS can occur in any age group with any level of exercise activity. In addition, there is no age predilection and the syndrome may be bilateral. The exact prevalence is not known as many athletes modify their training methods, thus delaying or avoiding medical assistance and imaging. The pathophysiology of compartment syndrome is complex. In this review of the syndrome, we describe the cycle of intracellular events leading to CECS and the eventual destruction of muscle. There is considerable overlap with the many possible causes of limb pain. Even the most experienced clinicians experience some difficulty in making this diagnosis of CECS, but with increasing awareness of this entity and availability of good-quality magnetic resonance imaging to confirm the suspicion, upper limb CECS is being more commonly diagnosed and patients more timeously managed.

  12. EFFECTS OF AGING ON PERCEIVED EXERTION AND PAIN DURING ARM CRANKING IN WOMEN 70 TO 80 YEARS OLD

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    Alain Groslambert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on perceived exertion (PE and perceived arm pain (PaP at the end of a maximal graded arm test in 70- to 80-year -old women. Twelve healthy young (mean age 22.9 ± 3.3 years, and 12 healthy elderly (mean age 74.6 ± 3.7 years women performed a maximal graded test (GXT on an arm crank ergometer until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant difference between both groups concerning PE (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.62 and when heart rate (HR was expressed as a theoretical maximal heart rate (THRmax (p > 0.05; Effect Size = 0.17. Nevertheless, PaP was significantly lower (p < 0.05; Effect Size = 2.95 in the elderly compared to the young group. In conclusion, these results suggest that, at the end of GXT, PE is not influenced, whereas PaP may be altered by aging of the women tested in the present study. Therefore, it appears difficult to use PaP in these elderly women to regulate exercise intensity during a training program

  13. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells hUC-MSCs exert immunosuppressive activities through a PGE2-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Wang, Ding; Du, Wei Ting; Han, Zhi-Bo; Ren, He; Chi, Ying; Yang, Shao Guang; Zhu, Delin; Bayard, Francis; Han, Zhong Chao

    2010-06-01

    Human umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) constitute an attractive alternative to bone-marrow-derived MSCs for potential clinical applications because of easy preparation and lower risk of viral contamination. In this study, both proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and their IFN-gamma production in response to mitogenic or allogeneic stimulus were effectively inhibited by hUC-MSCs. Co-culture experiments in transwell systems indicated that the suppression was largely mediated by soluble factor(s). Blocking experiments identified prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as the major factor, because inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis almost completely mitigated the immunosuppressive effects, whereas neutralization of TGF-beta, IDO, and NO activities had little effects. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta, produced by hPBMCs upon activation notably upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of PGE(2) by hUC-MSCs. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated for the first time the PGE(2)-mediated mechanism by which hUC-MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The viability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 is not essential to exert intestinal anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Vezza, Teresa; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Olivares, Mónica; Comalada, Mònica; Riccardi, Carlo; Utrilla, Ma Pilar; Rodríguez-Cabezas, Ma Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Probiotics have been used as alternative therapies in intestinal inflammatory disorders. Many studies have shown that different bacterial probiotic strains possess immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there is an increasing interest in the use of non-viable bacteria to reduce the risk of microbial translocation and infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the viability of L. fermentum CECT5716 is essential to exert its intestinal anti-inflammatory effect. We compared the preventative effects of viable and non-viable probiotic in the TNBS model of rat colitis. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 cells to evaluate the probiotic effects on IL-8, IL-1β and nitrite production, and p44/42 and p38 MAP kinase protein expressions. In vitro results revealed a decrease in the stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators regardless of the viability of the probiotic. Likewise, both forms of the probiotic administered to colitic rats produced a significant reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α levels and colonic iNOS expression. In conclusion, both live and dead L. fermentum CECT5716 have been demonstrated to attenuate the inflammatory process and diminish the production of some of the inflammatory mediators. In fact, the viability of this probiotic did not affect its immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Pre-learning stress that is temporally removed from acquisition exerts sex-specific effects on long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Warnecke, Ashlee J; Woelke, Sarah A; Burke, Hanna M; Frigo, Rachael M; Pisansky, Julia M; Lyle, Sarah M; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2013-02-01

    We have examined the influence of sex and the perceived emotional nature of learned information on pre-learning stress-induced alterations of long-term memory. Participants submerged their dominant hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3 min. Thirty minutes later, they studied 30 words, rated the words for their levels of emotional valence and arousal and were then given an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via delayed free recall and recognition assessments. The resulting memory data were analyzed after categorizing the studied words (i.e., distributing them to "positive-arousing", "positive-non-arousing", "negative-arousing", etc. categories) according to participants' valence and arousal ratings of the words. The results revealed that participants exhibiting a robust cortisol response to stress exhibited significantly impaired recognition memory for neutral words. More interestingly, however, males displaying a robust cortisol response to stress demonstrated significantly impaired recall, overall, and a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory, while females exhibiting a blunted cortisol response to stress demonstrated a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory. These findings support the notion that a brief stressor that is temporally separated from learning can exert deleterious effects on long-term memory. However, they also suggest that such effects depend on the sex of the organism, the emotional salience of the learned information and the degree to which stress increases corticosteroid levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The coordination of problem solving strategies: when low competence sources exert more influence on task processing than high competence sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiamzade, Alain; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has shown that low competence sources, compared to highly competent sources, can exert influence in aptitudes tasks in as much as they induce people to focus on the task and to solve it more deeply. Two experiments aimed at testing the coordination between self and source's problem solving strategies as a main explanation of such a difference in influence. The influence of a low versus high competence source has been examined in an anagram task that allows for distinguishing between three response strategies, including one that corresponds to the coordination between the source's strategy and participants' own strategy. In Study 1 the strategy suggested by the source was either relevant and useful or irrelevant and useless for solving the task. Results indicated that participants used the coordination strategy in a larger extend when they had been confronted to a low competence rather than a highly competent source but only when the source displayed a strategy that was useful to solve the task. In Study 2 the source's strategy was always relevant and useful, but a decentring procedure was introduced for half of the participants. This procedure induced participants to consider other points of view than their own. Results replicated the difference observed in Study 1 when no decentring was introduced. The difference however disappeared when decentring was induced, because of an increase of the high competence source's influence. These results highlight coordination of strategies as one mechanism underlying influence from low competence sources.

  17. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rate of perceived exertion (RPE is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients’ physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR, and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  18. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exert different cytotoxic effects on cells grown in monolayer cell culture versus as multicellular spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumer, Anja; Gräfe, Christine; Bähring, Franziska [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Bergemann, Christian [Chemicell GmbH, Eresburgstrasse 22–23, 12103 Berlin (Germany); Hochhaus, Andreas [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Clement, Joachim H., E-mail: joachim.clement@med.uni-jena.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human blood–brain barrier-forming endothelial cells (HBMEC) in two-dimensional cell monolayers as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. The precise nanoparticle localisation and the influence of the NP on the cellular viability and the intracellular Akt signalling were studied in detail. Long-term effects of different polymer-coated nanoparticles (neutral fluidMAG-D, anionic fluidMAG-CMX and cationic fluidMAG-PEI) and the corresponding free polymers on cellular viability of HBMEC were investigated by real time cell analysis studies. Nanoparticles exert distinct effects on HBMEC depending on the nanoparticles' surface charge and concentration, duration of incubation and cellular context. The most severe effects were caused by PEI-coated nanoparticles. Concentrations above 25 µg/ml led to increased amounts of dead cells in monolayer culture as well as in multicellular spheroids. On the level of intracellular signalling, context-dependent differences were observed. Monolayer cultures responded on nanoparticle incubation with an increase in Akt phosphorylation whereas spheroids on the whole show a decreased Akt activity. This might be due to the differential penetration and distribution of PEI-coated nanoparticles.

  19. Hsp40 gene therapy exerts therapeutic effects on polyglutamine disease mice via a non-cell autonomous mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Akiko Popiel

    Full Text Available The polyglutamine (polyQ diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD, are neurodegenerative diseases caused by proteins with an expanded polyQ stretch, which misfold and aggregate, and eventually accumulate as inclusion bodies within neurons. Molecules that inhibit polyQ protein misfolding/aggregation, such as Polyglutamine Binding Peptide 1 (QBP1 and molecular chaperones, have been shown to exert therapeutic effects in vivo by crossing of transgenic animals. Towards developing a therapy using these aggregation inhibitors, we here investigated the effect of viral vector-mediated gene therapy using QBP1 and molecular chaperones on polyQ disease model mice. We found that injection of adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5 expressing QBP1 or Hsp40 into the striatum both dramatically suppresses inclusion body formation in the HD mouse R6/2. AAV5-Hsp40 injection also ameliorated the motor impairment and extended the lifespan of R6/2 mice. Unexpectedly, we found even in virus non-infected cells that AAV5-Hsp40 appreciably suppresses inclusion body formation, suggesting a non-cell autonomous therapeutic effect. We further show that Hsp40 inhibits secretion of the polyQ protein from cultured cells, implying that it inhibits the recently suggested cell-cell transmission of the polyQ protein. Our results demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic effect of Hsp40 gene therapy on the neurological phenotypes of polyQ disease mice.

  20. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  1. Acute Effects of Two Different Resistance Circuit Training Protocols on Performance and Perceived Exertion in Semiprofessional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tomás T; Calleja-González, Julio; Alarcón, Francisco; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two different resistance circuit training protocols on basketball players' physical and technical performance and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). In a repeated-measures, crossover experimental design, 9 semiprofessional basketball players performed a Power Circuit Training (PCT; 45% 1RM) and a High-Resistance Circuit Training (HRC; 6RM), on consecutive weeks. Vertical and horizontal jump performance, 3-points shooting accuracy, repeated-sprint ability (RSA), agility, and upper body power output were measured before and after training. The RPE was assessed 20 minutes after resistance training. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed performance decrements in vertical jump height and peak power, horizontal jump distance, 3-points percentage, bench-press power output, RSA total and ideal time, and agility T-Test at total time following HRC, but not PCT (p ≤ 0.05). The RPE was higher in HRC compared with PCT. The results of this study indicated that HRC was perceived as being harder and produced higher fatigue levels, which in turn lowered acute performance. However, low-to-moderate intensity loads did not negatively affect performance. Thus, completing a PCT session may be the most appropriate option before a practice or game as it avoids acute-resistance-training-induced performance decrements. However, if the objective of the basketball session is to develop or perfect technical skills during fatiguing conditions, HRC may be the more suitable option.

  2. Hemodynamic changes after static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test; different patterns in patients with primary benign exertional headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Mazaheri, Reza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH) is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15) and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12) were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  3. Study the velocity and pressure exerted in front of the filter surface in the kitchen hood system by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, Norzelawati; Pairan, M. Rasidi; Isa, Norasikin Mat; Sies, Farid

    2017-04-01

    Commercial kitchen hood ventilation system is a device used to capture and filtered the plumes from cooking activities in the kitchen area. Nowadays, it is very popular in the industrial sector such as restaurant and hotel to provide hygiene food. This study focused at the KSA filter part which installed in the kitchen hood system, the purpose of this study is to identify the critical region which indicated by observing the velocity and pressure of plumes exerted at of KSA filter. It is important to know the critical location of the KSA filter in order to install the nozzle which will helps increase the filtration effectiveness. The ANSYS 16.1 (FLUENT) software as a tool used to simulate the kitchen hood systems which consist of KSA filter. The commercial kitchen hood system model has a dimension 700 mm width, 1600 mm length and 555 mm height. The system has two inlets and one outlet. The velocity of the plumes is set to be 0.235m/s and the velocity of the inlet capture jet is set to be 1.078m/s. The KSA filter is placed 45 degree from the y axis. The result shows the plumes has more tendency flowing pass through at the bottom part of KSA filter.

  4. Optical pulling and pushing forces exerted on silicon nanospheres with strong coherent interaction between electric and magnetic resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfeng; Panmai, Mingcheng; Peng, Yuanyuan; Lan, Sheng

    2017-05-29

    We investigated theoretically and numerically the optical pulling and pushing forces acting on silicon (Si) nanospheres (NSs) with strong coherent interaction between electric and magnetic resonances. We examined the optical pulling and pushing forces exerted on Si NSs by two interfering waves and revealed the underlying physical mechanism from the viewpoint of electric- and magnetic-dipole manipulation. As compared with a polystyrene (PS) NS, it was found that the optical pulling force for a Si NS with the same size is enlarged by nearly two orders of magnitude. In addition to the optical pulling force appearing at the long-wavelength side of the magnetic dipole resonance, very large optical pushing force is observed at the magnetic quadrupole resonance. The correlation between the optical pulling/pushing force and the directional scattering characterized by the ratio of the forward to backward scattering was revealed. More interestingly, it was found that the high-order electric and magnetic resonances in large Si NSs play an important role in producing optical pulling force which can be generated by not only s-polarized wave but also p-polarized one. Our finding indicates that the strong coherent interaction between the electric and magnetic resonances existing in nanoparticles with large refractive indices can be exploited to manipulate the optical force acting on them and the correlation between the optical force and the directional scattering can be used as guidance. The engineering and manipulation of optical forces will find potential applications in the trapping, transport and sorting of nanoparticles.

  5. Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Korall, Alexandra M B; Russell, Colin M; Feldman, Fabio; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mackey, Dawn C

    2018-09-01

    Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to vinyl overlay by 22-49% over a concrete subfloor and by 8-20% over a compliant subfloor. Compliant subflooring increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring by 18-31% when under a vinyl overlay. In contrast, compliant flooring caused no change in initial or sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring when under a carpet overlay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A prospective blinded evaluation of exercise thallium-201 SPET in patients with suspected chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trease, L.; Every, B. van; Rynderman, J.; Baldey, A.; Turlakow, A.; Kelly, Michael J.; Bennell, K.; Brukner, P.

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the quantitative and qualitative results of leg thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in patients with and without raised intracompartmental pressure associated with exercise-related leg pain. The purpose of this study was to clarify the aetiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), and to investigate the diagnostic applications of 201 Tl SPET in CECS. Thirty-four study participants underwent compartment pressure testing (CPT) between March and August 2000. There were 25 positive CPT results (patient group), and nine negative CPT results (control group). All 34 participants underwent scintigraphy. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed for the anterolateral and deep posterior compartments of the lower leg. There was no significant difference in either quantitative or qualitative assessments of perfusion between those compartments with and those without CECS. In contrast, a marked effect of exercise type upon compartment perfusion pattern was noted. Results of this study indicate that there is no compartment perfusion deficit in those patients with raised intracompartmental pressure associated with CECS, and suggest a non-ischaemic basis for the pain associated with CECS. They also suggest no role for exercise perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of this syndrome. (orig.)

  7. Ilexgenin A exerts anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis effects through inhibition of STAT3 and PI3K pathways and exhibits synergistic effects with Sorafenib on hepatoma growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); College of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Lianyungang 222000, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Juan [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); College of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Fan, Jin-hong; Zhang, Ya-qi; Zhao, Jun-xian [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Dai, Xiao-jun [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Chinese Medicine Hospital of Yangzhou City, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qi; Shen, Yan-jun [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); College of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Chang [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Wei-dong, E-mail: zyykjc@sina.com [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); Chinese Medicine Hospital of Yangzhou City, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Yun, E-mail: ysun@yzu.edu.cn [Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China); College of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-01-15

    Recently, we reported that Ilexgenin A exhibits anti-cancer activities and induces cell arrest. Here, we investigated the effect of Ilexgenin A on the inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our current study revealed that Ilexgenin A significantly inhibited the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 levels and downregulated pro-angiogenic factor VEGF production and transcription in HepG2 cells. The underlying mechanism for Ilexgenin A effects appears to be through inhibiting STAT3 and PI3K pathways. Furthermore, we found that not only Ilexgenin A inhibited STAT3 and PI3K pathways in HepG2 cells but also blocked these signaling pathways in HUVECs. Most importantly, by employing two HCC xenografts models - HepG2 and H22, we showed that Ilexgenin A reduced tumor growth and exhibited synergy effect with Sorafenib. ELISA assay, histological analysis and immunohistochemistry examination revealed that the expression of VEGF and MVD was significantly decreased after the treatment with Ilexgenin A and the combination. Moreover, Ilexgenin A could enhance caspase-3/7 activity in vitro and transmission electron microscope indicated that the combination induced evident apoptosis of tumor cells and caused the structural changes of mitochondria in vivo. Although no apparent adverse effects occurred during the treatment period, Sorafenib monotherapy elicited hepatotoxicity for specific expression in the increased level of AST and the ratio of AST/ALT. However, the combination could remedy this adverse effect. In conclusion, the results described in the present study identifies Ilexgenin A as a promising therapeutic candidate that modulates inflammation, angiogenesis, and HCC growth. - Highlights: • Ilexgenin A exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis effects in hepatoma. • Ilexgenin A may exert these effects through inhibition of STAT3 and PI3K pathways. • Ilexgenin A exhibits synergistic effects with Sorafenib on hepatoma growth

  8. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during official competition than training sessions. Session-RPE was affected by participants' competitive level, the intensity of session (high vs. low), the training modalities (tactical-technical vs. technical-development vs. simulated

  9. β-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene from Bacillus velezensis ZJ20 exerts antifungal effect on plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhu, Tianhui; Li, Shujiang

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus velezensis is a known antifungal bacteria. To understand the role of β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase played on B. velezensis about the mechanism which exerts effect on fungi, we isolated and cloned the β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase gene (Bglu1) from B. velezensis ZJ20. The Bglu1 open reading frame was 732 bp that encoded a protein with 243 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 27.3 kDa. The same gene without the signal peptide, termed Bglu2, was also cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21. Among the two variants, only Bglu2 protein was expressed. Purified Bglu2 could be eluted with imidazole solution at concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mM although the highest expression was observed at 150 and 200 mM and the purest was at 500 mM. In addition, activity of the crude enzyme was 1527 U ml(-1) and the highest activity of the purified enzyme was 1706 U ml(-1). The purified β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase had activity on a wide range of pH and temperatures and displayed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 35 °C. More importantly, the mycelial morphology of three pathogenic fungi was destroyed by the purified β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase. In conclusion, β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase from B. velezensis ZJ20 can be highly expressed in E. coli BL21 and the recombinant protein is pathogenic to fungi.

  10. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  11. Do interindividual differences in cardiac output during submaximal exercise explain differences in exercising muscle oxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Jones, Joshua H; Hirai, Daniel M; Zelt, Joel T; Giles, Matthew D; Raleigh, James P; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J; Neder, J Alberto; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Considerable interindividual differences in the Q˙-V˙O2 relationship during exercise have been documented but implications for submaximal exercise tolerance have not been considered. We tested the hypothesis that these interindividual differences were associated with differences in exercising muscle deoxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) across a range of submaximal exercise intensities. A total of 31 (21 ± 3 years) healthy recreationally active males performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 24 h following a resting muscle biopsy. Cardiac output (Q˙ L/min; inert gas rebreathe), oxygen uptake (V˙O2 L/min; breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange), quadriceps saturation (near infrared spectroscopy) and exercise tolerance (6-20; Borg Scale RPE) were measured. The Q˙-V˙O2 relationship from 40 to 160 W was used to partition individuals post hoc into higher (n = 10; 6.3 ± 0.4) versus lower (n = 10; 3.7 ± 0.4, P exercise (all P > 0.4). Lower cardiac responders had greater leg (P = 0.027) and whole body (P = 0.03) RPE only at 185 W, but this represented a higher %peak V˙O2 in lower cardiac responders (87 ± 15% vs. 66 ± 12%, P = 0.005). Substantially lower Q˙-V˙O2 in the lower responder group did not result in altered RPE or exercising muscle deoxygenation. This suggests substantial recruitment of blood flow redistribution in the lower responder group as part of protecting matching of exercising muscle oxygen delivery to demand. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. JS-III-49, a hydroquinone derivative, exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting Akt and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-05-01

    Since previous studies have reported that hydroquinone (HQ) exerted immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity, various HQ derivatives have been synthesized and their biological activities investigated. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory activity of JS-III-49, a novel HQ derivative, in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. JS-III-49 suppressed the production of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1b without cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. JS-III-49 inhibited nuclear translocation of the NF-kB transcription factors p65 and p50 by directly targeting Akt, an upstream kinase of the NF-kB pathway, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. However, JS-III-49 did not directly inhibit the kinase activities of Src and Syk, which are upstream kinases of Akt, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, JS-III-49 suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-Fos, one of the components of AP-1, by specifically targeting p38, an upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the AP-1 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that JS-III-49 plays an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-stimulated macrophages by targeting Akt and p38 in the NF-kB and AP-1 pathways, respectively.

  13. Dietary rose hip exerts antiatherosclerotic effects and increases nitric oxide-mediated dilation in ApoE-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Axling, Ulrika; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl; Holm, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which atheromatous plaques develop inside arteries, leading to reduced or obstructed blood flow that in turn may cause stroke and heart attack. Rose hip is the fruit of plants of the genus Rosa, belonging to the Rosaceae family, and it is rich in antioxidants with high amounts of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Several studies have shown that fruits, seeds and roots of these plants exert antidiabetic, antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects in rodents as well as humans. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which rose hip lowers plasma cholesterol and to evaluate its effects on atherosclerotic plaque formation. ApoE-null mice were fed either an HFD (CTR) or HFD with rose hip supplementation (RH) for 24 weeks. At the end of the study, we found that blood pressure and atherosclerotic plaques, together with oxidized LDL, total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels were markedly reduced in the RH group. Fecal cholesterol content, liver expression of Ldlr and selected reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) genes such as Abca1, Abcg1 and Scarb1 were significantly increased upon RH feeding. In the aorta, the scavenger receptor Cd36 and the proinflammatory Il1β genes were markedly down-regulated compared to the CTR mice. Finally, we found that RH increased nitric oxide-mediated dilation of the caudal artery. Taken together, these results suggest that rose hip is a suitable dietary supplement for preventing atherosclerotic plaques formation by modulating systemic blood pressure and the expression of RCT and inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wild-type and A315T mutant TDP-43 exert differential neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Patricia S.; Boehringer, Ashley; Zwick, Rebecca; Tang, Jonathan E.; Grigsby, Brianna; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2011-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 has been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) both as a causative locus and as a marker of pathology. With several missense mutations being identified within TDP-43, efforts have been directed towards generating animal models of ALS in mouse, zebrafish, Drosophila and worms. Previous loss of function and overexpression studies have shown that alterations in TDP-43 dosage recapitulate hallmark features of ALS pathology, including neuronal loss and locomotor dysfunction. Here we report a direct in vivo comparison between wild-type and A315T mutant TDP-43 overexpression in Drosophila neurons. We found that when expressed at comparable levels, wild-type TDP-43 exerts more severe effects on neuromuscular junction architecture, viability and motor neuron loss compared with the A315T allele. A subset of these differences can be compensated by higher levels of A315T expression, indicating a direct correlation between dosage and neurotoxic phenotypes. Interestingly, larval locomotion is the sole parameter that is more affected by the A315T allele than wild-type TDP-43. RNA interference and genetic interaction experiments indicate that TDP-43 overexpression mimics a loss-of-function phenotype and suggest a dominant-negative effect. Furthermore, we show that neuronal apoptosis does not require the cytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 and that its neurotoxicity is modulated by the proteasome, the HSP70 chaperone and the apoptosis pathway. Taken together, our findings provide novel insights into the phenotypic consequences of the A315T TDP-43 missense mutation and suggest that studies of individual mutations are critical for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21441568

  15. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  16. Evaluation of the UVB-screening capacity and restorative effects exerted by farnesol gel on UVB-caused sunburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan Xuan; Huang, Han Hsiang; Chang, Huoy Rou; Kuo, Shyh Ming

    2018-04-01

    Farnesol, a natural 15-carbon organic compound, has various microbiological and cellular activities. It has been found to exert apoptosis-inducing effects against carcinoma cells as well as antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the current study, a series of formulations composed of various concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with the addition of hyaluronan (HA) and xanthan gum (XG) was designed to evaluate the UVB-screening and H 2 O 2 -eliminating effects of farnesol in normal fibroblasts. Farnesol at 0.005, 0.0075, and 0.01% exhibited significant capacity for H 2 O 2 scavenging; at 0.0025%, it showed insignificant effects. Under 120-min UVB exposure, screening with plural gel composed of 0.0025% farnesol, 0.5% HA, and 0.5% XG containing 1.5% or 2% HPMC retained normal fibroblast viability. After 60-min exposure to UVB, screening with plural gel composed of farnesol, HA, XG, and 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2% HPMC decreased the ratio of the G1 phase and increased ratio of the S phase in comparison with the accumulated cell cycle of the normal fibroblasts without screening. The gel with 2% HPMC displayed the strongest cell cycle-reversal ability. In vivo histopathological results showed that the prepared plural gels with 0.5% or 2% HPMC and farnesol, HA, and XG had greater antiphotoaging and reparative effects against UVB-induced changes and damage in the skin. In conclusion, the current in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the prepared plural composed of 0.0025% farnesol, 0.5% HA, 0.5% XG, and 2% HPMC possessed the greatest UVB-screening capacity and the strongest restorative effects on UVB-induced sunburned skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Isometric Thumb Exertion Induces B Cell and T Cell Lymphocytosis in Trained and Untrained Males: Physical Aptitude Determines Response Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Michael Szlezak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study examined the effect of low-dose thumb exertion on lymphocyte subpopulation trafficking. The potential role of blood lactate in mediating lymphocyte redistribution was also investigated. Methods: 27 male participants (18 weightlifting-trained; 9 untrained were separated into 3 groups of 9 (Weightlifting and Untrained Experimental: WLEXP, UTEXP; Weightlifting Placebo: WLPLA. WLEXP and UTEXP performed 4x60 second isometric thumb intervals separated by 60 second rest intervals in a single-blinded placebo-controlled study.  Participants were assessed over a 60 minute post-intervention recovery period for pain, blood lactate and lymphocyte subpopulation counts. Results: WLPLA did not change for any measured variable (p>0.05. The two experimentalgroups increased significantly (p0.05. No differences in cell count were seen for CD56+/CD16+ lymphocytes across time for any group (p>0.05. UTEXP showed an early significant increase (20 min post-intervention in CD4+CD3+ (20.78%, p0.05. Conversely, WLEXP group showed no early increase followed by a delayed increase in cell count evident at the final time-point; CD4+CD3+ (19.06%, p<0.01, CD8+CD3+ (11.46%, p=0.033 and CD19+ (28.87%, p<0.01. Blood lactate was not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Conclusions: Physical aptitude and not cellular energy demand influences the lymphocyte response to resistance-exercise. Keywords: B-Lymphocytes; Exercise; Lactic Acid; Lymphocytosis; Resistance Training; T-Lymphocytes

  18. RepA and RepB exert plasmid incompatibility repressing the transcription of the repABC operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Oseguera, Angeles; Cevallos, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 has a multipartite genome composed of one chromosome and six large plasmids with low copy numbers, all belonging to the repABC plasmid family. All elements essential for replication and segregation of these plasmids are encoded within the repABC operon. RepA and RepB direct plasmid segregation and are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the operon, and RepC is the initiator protein of the plasmid. Here we show that in addition to RepA (repressor) and RepB (corepressor), full transcriptional repression of the operon located in the symbiotic plasmid (pRetCFN42d) of this strain requires parS, the centromere-like sequence, and the operator sequence. However, the co-expression of RepA and RepB is sufficient to induce the displacement of the parental plasmid. RepA is a Walker-type ATPase that self associates in vivo and in vitro and binds specifically to the operator region in its RepA-ADP form. In contrast, RepA-ATP is capable of binding to non-specific DNA. RepA and RepB form high molecular weight DNA-protein complexes in the presence of ATP and ADP. RepA carrying ATP-pocket motif mutations induce full repression of the repABC operon without the participation of RepB and parS. These mutants specifically bind the operator sequence in their ATP or ADP bound forms. In addition, their expression in trans exerts plasmid incompatibility against the parental plasmid. RepA and RepB expressed in trans induce plasmid incompatibility because of their ability to repress the repABC operon and not only by their capacity to distort the plasmid segregation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert in vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity and show significant inhibition of parasite acetylcholinesterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sundaraneedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 4.5 billion people are at risk of infection with soil transmitted helminths and there are concerns about the development of resistance to the handful of frontline nematocides in endemic populations. We investigated the anti-nematode efficacy of a series of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against L3 and adult stages of Trichuris muris, the rodent homologue of the causative agent of human trichuriasis, T. trichiura. One of the compounds, Rubb12-mono, which was among the most potent in its ability to kill L3 (IC50 = 3.1 ± 0.4 μM and adult (IC50 = 5.2 ± 0.3 μM stage worms was assessed for efficacy in a mouse model of trichuriasis by administering 3 consecutive daily oral doses of the drug 3 weeks post infection with the murine whipworm Trichuris muris. Mice treated with Rubb12-mono showed an average 66% reduction (P = 0.015 in faecal egg count over two independent trials. The drugs partially exerted their activity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterases, as worms treated in vitro and in vivo showed significant decreases in the activity of this class of enzymes. Our data show that ruthenium complexes are effective against T. muris, a model gastro-intestinal nematode and soil-transmitted helminth. Further, knowledge of the target of ruthenium drugs can facilitate modification of current compounds to identify analogues which are even more effective and selective against Trichuris and other helminths of human and veterinary importance. Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Trichuris muris, Ruthenium complex, Anthelmintic

  20. Gender difference in blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol in young adults with comparable routine physical exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Anish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender differences in the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD are a matter of debate. The susceptibility of a woman to NCD should be evaluated taking into consideration the social factors that limit the physical activity among women. It will be interesting to note what will happen if women are allowed to take part in physical exercise to the extent of men. Aims: To find out the gender difference in the pattern of the clinical and biochemical indices related to NCD in young adults with comparable daily physical activity. Settings and Design: This is an institution-based cross-sectional study and the setting was Lekshmibhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: The study participants were students who were regularly involved in more than three hours of physical exercise daily at least for the previous one year. The information on socio-demography, anthropometry, and blood pressure was recorded. Blood samples were taken for laboratory examination. Results: Out of 150 students registered, 126 (84% in the age group of 17 to 25 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were studied. Fifty-five (43.7% of them were women. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and low-density lipoprotein were found significantly lower in women. No significant difference was noted in the case of diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Conclusion: Gender differences exist for NCD risk factors among young adults with comparable physical activity and physical exertion seems to be more protective for females.

  1. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  2. Specific Macronutrients Exert Unique Influences on the Adipose-Liver Axis to Promote Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwaerts, Caroline C; Amin, Amin M; Siao, Kevin; Her, Chris; Fitch, Mark; Beysen, Carine; Turner, Scott M; Goodsell, Amanda; Baron, Jody L; Grenert, James P; Cho, Soo-Jin; Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2017-09-01

    The factors that distinguish metabolically healthy obesity from metabolically unhealthy obesity are not well understood. Diet has been implicated as a determinant of the unhealthy obesity phenotype, but which aspects of the diet induce dysmetabolism are unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether specific macronutrients or macronutrient combinations provoke dysmetabolism in the context of isocaloric, high-energy diets. Mice were fed 4 high-energy diets identical in calorie and nutrient content but different in nutrient composition for 3 weeks to 6 months. The test diets contained 42% carbohydrate (sucrose or starch) and 42% fat (oleate or palmitate). Weight and glucose tolerance were monitored; blood and tissues were collected for histology, gene expression, and immunophenotyping. Mice gained weight on all 4 test diets but differed significantly in other metabolic outcomes. Animals fed the starch-oleate diet developed more severe hepatic steatosis than those on other formulas. Stable isotope incorporation showed that the excess hepatic steatosis in starch-oleate-fed mice derived from exaggerated adipose tissue lipolysis. In these mice, adipose tissue lipolysis coincided with adipocyte necrosis and inflammation. Notably, the liver and adipose tissue abnormalities provoked by starch-oleate feeding were reproduced when mice were fed a mixed-nutrient Western diet with 42% carbohydrate and 42% fat. The macronutrient composition of the diet exerts a significant influence on metabolic outcome, independent of calories and nutrient proportions. Starch-oleate appears to cause hepatic steatosis by inducing progressive adipose tissue injury. Starch-oleate phenocopies the effect of a Western diet; consequently, it may provide clues to the mechanism whereby specific nutrients cause metabolically unhealthy obesity.

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signalling exerts chondrogenesis promoting and protecting effects: implication of calcineurin as a downstream target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Juhász

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is an important neurotrophic factor influencing differentiation of neuronal elements and exerting protecting role during traumatic injuries or inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although increasing evidence is available on its presence and protecting function in various peripheral tissues, little is known about the role of PACAP in formation of skeletal components. To this end, we aimed to map elements of PACAP signalling in developing cartilage under physiological conditions and during oxidative stress. mRNAs of PACAP and its receptors (PAC1,VPAC1, VPAC2 were detectable during differentiation of chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Expression of PAC1 protein showed a peak on days of final commitment of chondrogenic cells. Administration of either the PAC1 receptor agonist PACAP 1-38, or PACAP 6-38 that is generally used as a PAC1 antagonist, augmented cartilage formation, stimulated cell proliferation and enhanced PAC1 and Sox9 protein expression. Both variants of PACAP elevated the protein expression and activity of the Ca-calmodulin dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase calcineurin. Application of PACAPs failed to rescue cartilage formation when the activity of calcineurin was pharmacologically inhibited with cyclosporine A. Moreover, exogenous PACAPs prevented diminishing of cartilage formation and decrease of calcineurin activity during oxidative stress. As an unexpected phenomenon, PACAP 6-38 elicited similar effects to those of PACAP 1-38, although to a different extent. On the basis of the above results, we propose calcineurin as a downstream target of PACAP signalling in differentiating chondrocytes either in normal or pathophysiological conditions. Our observations imply the therapeutical perspective that PACAP can be applied as a natural agent that may have protecting effect during joint inflammation and/or may promote

  4. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  5. An Experimental Study in Generative Music for Exercising to Ease Perceived Exertion by use of Heart Beat Rate as a Control Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Troels Lunde; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    This paper investigates whether generative music, adapted to a user's heart beat rate, can be used to ease the perceived exertion. A generative system was implemented and tested on 13 test participants in a controlled environment on a training bike. The test participants performed a cycling workout...

  6. Is Borg's perceived exertion scale a useful indicator of muscular and cardiovascular load in blue-collar workers with lifting tasks? A cross-sectional workplace study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Persson, R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate associations between perceived exertion and objectively assessed muscular and cardiovascular load during a full working day among workers with manual lifting tasks. Methods A total of 159 men and 41 women from 14 workplaces with manual lifting tasks participated. Participan...

  7. Self-selected music-induced reduction of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise does not interfere with post-exercise improvements in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-05-26

    Acute aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control (IC). This improvement is often associated with increases in perceived exertion during exercise. However, listening to music during aerobic exercise mitigates an exercise-induced increase in perceived exertion. Thus, it is hypothesized that such effects of music may interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of music on post-exercise IC improvements that were induced by moderate-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy young men performed cycle ergometer exercise with music or non-music. The exercise was performed using a moderate-intensity of 60% of VO 2 peak for 30 min. The music condition was performed while listening to self-selected music. The non-music condition involved no music. To evaluate IC, the Stroop task was administered before exercise, immediately after exercise, and during the 30-min post-exercise recovery period. The rate of perceived exertion immediately before moderate-intensity exercise completed was significantly lower in music condition than in non-music condition. The IC significantly improved immediately after exercise and during the post-exercise recovery period compared to before exercise in both music and non-music conditions. The post-exercise IC improvements did not significantly differ between the two conditions. These findings indicate that self-selected music-induced mitigation of the increase in perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise dose not interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. Therefore, we suggest that listening to music may be a beneficial strategy in mitigating the increase in perceived exertion during aerobic exercise without decreasing the positive effects on IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  9. Interference with PSMB4 Expression Exerts an Anti-Tumor Effect by Decreasing the Invasion and Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Cheng

    2018-01-01

    matrix metallopeptidase 9 in vivo. Conclusion: PSMB4 inhibition in combination with TMZ may exert an anti-tumor effect by decreasing cell proliferation and invasion as well as by promoting apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. This research may improve the therapeutic efficacy of glioblastoma treatment.

  10. Imersão em água fria para o manejo da hipertermia severa Cold water immersion to the control of exertional heat illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline de Paula Viveiros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A incapacidade de dissipar o calor gerado pela atividade muscular prejudica o desempenho e aumenta a predisposição a lesões do organismo. A hipertermia severa induzida pelo esforço físico (HTE prejudica a saúde e está associada à morbidade e mortalidade de indivíduos em diferentes atividades ocupacionais e atléticas. Estudos sobre a eficiência de métodos de resfriamento corporal têm recomendado a imersão em água fria para o tratamento da HTE. Sua utilização nos minutos iniciais pós-hipertemia parece a melhor recomendação por reduzir o tempo no qual a temperatura central permanece elevada. A manutenção de infraestrutura necessária para a realização desse procedimento deve ser considerada em atividades físicas e condições ambientais nas quais os indivíduos estão mais suscetíveis ao acometimento da HTE. As taxas de resfriamento observadas através da imersão em água a diferentes temperaturas podem servir de referência para o controle da duração do procedimento. Esta revisão analisa a recomendação da imersão em água fria como procedimento de resfriamento corporal para o manejo da HTE.The incapacity of dissipating heat generated by muscular activity hampers performance and increases predisposition to physical injuries. Exertional heat illness (HTE harms health and is associated with morbidity and mortality of individuals in different occupational and athletic activities. Studies on the efficiency of body cooling methods have recommended cold-water immersion for the treatment of HTE. Its use in the initial minutes of post-hyperthermia seems to be the best recommendation to reduce the time central temperature remains high. Maintenance of the infrastructure needed to perform this procedure should be considered in physical activities and environmental conditions in which the individuals are more prone to HTE. The cooling rates observed through water immersion in different water temperatures may serve as reference

  11. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  12. Glyprolines exert protective and repair-promoting effects in the rat stomach: potential role of the cytokine GRO/CINC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, Z V; Sangadzhieva, A D; Tani, S; Myasoedov, N F; Andreeva, L A; Torshin, V I; Wallace, J L; Tanaka, T

    2016-04-01

    Glyprolines have been reported to exert protective effects in the stomach. In this study, we examined the potential effects of intranasal administration of Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and N-acetyl-Pro-Gly-Pro (AcPGP) on experimental gastric ulcer formation and healing. We also studied gastric release of the cytokine GRO/CINC-1, and its potential role in ulcer development and healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by applying acetic acid to the serosa of the stomach. PGP and AcPGP were then administered at a dose of 3.7 μmol/kg once daily on either days 1 - 3 (ulcer formation) or days 4 - 6 (ulcer healing). Measurement of ulcer area and histological examination of gastric tissue were carried out on days 4 and 7 after application of acetic acid. In vitro studies involved addition of the glyprolines to cultured rat gastric epithelial cells with or without lipopolysaccharide. Reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR and ELISA were used for cytokine analysis. PGP and AcPGP significantly reduced ulcer areas on the 4(th) day and accelerated the healing on the 7(th) day compared with the control. After acetic acid-induced ulceration, the expression of GRO/CINC-1 mRNA in gastric tissue was increased 9-fold versus the sham-operated group. Treatment with PGP or AcPGP both significantly suppressed the expression of GRO/CINC-1 mRNA in gastric tissue. However, the glyprolines did not alter LPS-induced mRNA expression or release of GRO/CINC-1 from cultured rat gastric epithelial cells, even though those cells were harvested from rats subjected to the ulcer-induction procedure. The results of this study show that intranasal administration of PGP and AcPGP significantly increased resistance against acetic acid-induced ulceration and accelerated healing in the rats. These effects may be due, at least in part, to their ability to reduce the acetic acid-induced GRO/CINC-1 expression and production in gastric tissue.

  13. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  14. A Trematode Parasite Derived Growth Factor Binds and Exerts Influences on Host Immune Functions via Host Cytokine Receptor Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad A Sulaiman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The trematode Fasciola hepatica is responsible for chronic zoonotic infection globally. Despite causing a potent T-helper 2 response, it is believed that potent immunomodulation is responsible for rendering this host reactive non-protective host response thereby allowing the parasite to remain long-lived. We have previously identified a growth factor, FhTLM, belonging to the TGF superfamily can have developmental effects on the parasite. Herein we demonstrate that FhTLM can exert influence over host immune functions in a host receptor specific fashion. FhTLM can bind to receptor members of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF superfamily, with a greater affinity for TGF-β RII. Upon ligation FhTLM initiates the Smad2/3 pathway resulting in phenotypic changes in both fibroblasts and macrophages. The formation of fibroblast CFUs is reduced when cells are cultured with FhTLM, as a result of TGF-β RI kinase activity. In parallel the wound closure response of fibroblasts is also delayed in the presence of FhTLM. When stimulated with FhTLM blood monocyte derived macrophages adopt an alternative or regulatory phenotype. They express high levels interleukin (IL-10 and arginase-1 while displaying low levels of IL-12 and nitric oxide. Moreover they also undergo significant upregulation of the inhibitory receptor PD-L1 and the mannose receptor. Use of RNAi demonstrates that this effect is dependent on TGF-β RII and mRNA knock-down leads to a loss of IL-10 and PD-L1. Finally, we demonstrate that FhTLM aids newly excysted juveniles (NEJs in their evasion of antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC by reducing the NO response of macrophages-again dependent on TGF-β RI kinase. FhTLM displays restricted expression to the F. hepatica gut resident NEJ stages. The altered fibroblast responses would suggest a role for dampened tissue repair responses in facilitating parasite migration. Furthermore, the adoption of a regulatory macrophage phenotype would allow

  15. TLR3 Ligand Poly(I:C Exerts Distinct Actions in Synovial Fibroblasts When Delivered by Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis. We have used as model the effects on RA SFs, of EV released from monocyte U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon stimulation with Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of dsRNA. We show that EV released from unstimulated cells and Poly(I:C-stimulated U937 cells [Poly(I:C EV] differ in size but bind similar amounts of Annexin V and express comparable levels of MAC-1, the receptor for dsRNA, on the vesicular membranes. Specifically, Poly(I:C EV contain or associate with Poly(I:C and at least partially protect Poly(I:C from RNAse III degradation. Poly(I:C EV shuttle Poly(I:C to SFs and reproduce the proinflammatory and antiviral gene responses of SFs to direct stimulation with Poly(I:C. Poly(I:C EV, however, halt the death receptor-induced apoptosis in SFs, thereby inverting the proapoptotic nature of Poly(I:C. These prosurvival effects sharply contrast with the high toxicity of cationic liposome-delivered Poly(I:C and may reflect the route of Poly(I:C delivery via EV or the fine-tuning of Poly(I:C actions by molecular cargo in EV. The demonstration that EV may safeguard extracellular dsRNA and allow dsRNA to exert antiapoptotic effects on SFs highlights the potential of EV to amplify the pathogenicity of dsRNA in arthritis beyond inflammation (by concurrently enhancing the

  16. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  17. Opiate addiction - current trends and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Achal Bhatt; Aminder Gill

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are widely used drugs for treatment of pain and related disorders. Opiate addiction is a major public health concern in the United States causing significant increase in healthcare expenditure. They produce euphoria and sense of well-being which makes them addictive to some people. Used in higher doses they can lead to cardiac or respiratory compromise. They also impair cognition leading to impaired decision making. Opioids exert their effects by acting on three different types of re...

  18. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bültmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS:: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized...... into an exercise group training 3 × 20 minutes per week and a control group. Questionnaires and text messages were completed before and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS:: No significant changes were found in musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave...... with the intervention. Questionnaires and text messages provided similar results of pain and work ability. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the intervention improved aerobic capacity, it was not successful in improving musculoskeletal pain and other work-related factors. A detectable improvement presumably requires a more...

  19. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects.

  20. Rupture of a high pressure gas or steam pipe in a tunnel: a preliminary investigation of the jet thrust exerted on a tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1988-04-01

    On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)

  1. Are rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure modified in elderly women undergoing 8 week of strength training of prescribe intensity?

    OpenAIRE

    Benites, Mariana L.; Alves, Ragami C.; Ferreira, Sandro S.; Follador, Lucio; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to verify the rate of perceived exertion and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in elderly women, who did normally perform physical exercises, following eight weeks of strength training in a constant routine. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven sedentary women were subjected to anthropometric assessment. The maximum load (100%) for each used in this study was determined by performing a test to determined the 1RM for each of them according to the protocol of ...

  2. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E.; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S.; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Admi...

  3. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  4. An in vitro quantification of pressures exerted by earlobe pulse oximeter probes following reports of device-related pressure ulcers in ICU patients .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Teresa T

    2012-11-01

    The earlobe often is used to monitor perfusion when pulse oximeter signal quality is impaired in the fingers and toes. Prompted by intermittent occurrences of roughly circular earlobe pressure ulcers among patients in intensive care units, a convenience sample of seven calibrated pulse oximeter probes was used to quantify earlobe pressure exerted by these devices in vitro. All were tested twice with an electronic load cell, a strain gauge with a transducer that transforms the measured force into a readable numerical signal. The probe was clipped to the load cell just as it is clipped to the earlobe in the clinical setting. The probes exerted an average of 0.24 lb (SD 0.6) of force over an area of 0.3 square inches, equal to an average of 20.7 mm Hg (SD 0.6) pressure on tissue. This value exceeds some empirically derived values of capillary perfusion pressure. The occurrence of device-related pressure ulcers, as well pressure ulcers on the ears, has been documented, but little is known about device-related earlobe pressure ulcers or the actual pressure exerted by these devices. Additional in vitro studies are needed to quantify the pressures exerted by these and other probes, and future prevalence and incidence studies should include more detailed pressure ulcer location and device use documentation. Until more is known about the possible role of these devices in the development of pressure ulcers, clinicians should be cognizant of their potential for causing pressure ulcers, particularly in patients whose conditions can compromise skin integrity.

  5. CEBPA exerts a specific and biologically important proapoptotic role in pancreatic β cells through its downstream network targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbagallo, Davide; Condorelli, Angelo Giuseppe; Piro, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor CEBPA has been widely studied for its involvement in hematopoietic cell differentiation and causal role in hematological malignancies. We demonstrate here that it also performs a causal role in cytokine-induced apoptosis of pancreas β cells. Treatment of two mouse pancreatic ...

  6. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, but Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C.; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; Van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M.; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B.; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi; Riemers, Frank; Muller, Margot; Creemers, Laura; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on Canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, F.C.; Miranda-Bedate, A.; Van Heel, F.W.M.; Riemers, F.M.; Müller, M.C.M.E.; Creemers, L.B.; Ito, K.; Benz, K.; Meij, B.P.; Tryfonidou, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  9. Immunomodulatory drugs disrupt the cereblon-CD147-MCT1 axis to exert antitumor activity and teratogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichner, Ruth; Heider, Michael; Fernández-Sáiz, Vanesa; van Bebber, Frauke; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Lemeer, Simone|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474683; Rudelius, Martina; Targosz, Bianca-Sabrina; Jacobs, Laura; Knorn, Anna-Maria; Slawska, Jolanta; Platzbecker, Uwe; Germing, Ulrich; Langer, Christian; Knop, Stefan; Einsele, Herrmann; Peschel, Christian; Haass, Christian; Keller, Ulrich; Schmid, Bettina; Götze, Katharina S; Kuster, Bernhard; Bassermann, Florian

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are key treatment modalities for hematologic malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma (MM) and del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin

  10. Statin treatment in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to progressive disability. Statins [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] are widely prescribed drugs in hypercholesterolemia. They exert immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects and are attractive...... candidates for MS treatment due to reliable safety profiles and favorable costs. Studies of statins in a murine MS model and in open-label trials in MS have shown decreased disease severity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess current evidence to support statin treatment in MS and clinically isolated......)-β treatment in RRMS, one of statin monotherapy in CIS, one of statin monotherapy in optic neuritis (ON)/CIS, and one of statin monotherapy in secondary progressive MS (SPMS)]. Three trials with eligible characteristics had not been published in peer-reviewed journals and were therefore not included. Due...

  11. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jeong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cryptotanshinone (CT was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent.

  12. Self-rating level of perceived exertion for guiding exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme and the influence of heart rate reducing medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lars H.; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether self-rating level of perceived exertion can adequately guide exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: Linear regression analysis using rehabilitation data from two randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Patients undergoing ra......-led and self-regulated model using rating of perceived exertion can help guide exercise intensity in everyday clinical practice among patients with heart disease, irrespective if they are taking heart rate-reducing medication....... radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation or following heart valve surgery and participating in exercise-based rehabilitation were included. The 12-week rehabilitation outpatient programme comprised three weekly training sessions, each consisting of 20min aerobic exercise divided into three steps. Patients...... were asked to base their exercise intensity for each step on a predefined rating of perceived exertion specified in a training diary. Exercise intensity was objectively measured by heart rate during the last 2min for each exercise step. Comparative analysis and linear regression of the rating...

  13. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRUNK INCLINATIONS ON BILATERAL TRUNK MUSCULAR ACTIVITIES, CENTRE OF PRESSURE AND FORCE EXERTIONS IN STATIC PUSHING POSTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Kadek Heri; Lee, Soomin; Sriwarno, Andar Bagus; Shimomura, Yoshihito; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    In order to reconcile contradictory results from previous studies on manual pushing, a study was conducted to examine the effect of trunk inclination on muscular activities, centre of pressure (COP) and force exertion during static pushing. Ten subjects pushed at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees body inclinations in parallel and staggered feet stances. Wall and ground force plates measured pushing force, wall COP, vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and ground COP. Electromyogram data were recorded at 10 trunk muscle sites. Pushing force was found to increase with body inclination. GRF peaked at 15 degrees and reached its lowest level at the 45 degrees inclination. The lowest wall force plate standard deviation of COP displacement was found at the 30 degrees inclination. The lowest low back muscular activity was found at the 15 degrees and 30 degrees inclinations. Based on force exertion, muscular load, and stability, the 30 degrees body inclination was found to be the best posture for static pushing. This study also showed asymmetry in muscular activity and force exertion which has been received less attention in manual pushing studies. These findings will require further study.

  14. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride-induced murine dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon; Yang, Sung Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer's test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  15. Ameliorating Role Exerted by Al-Hijamah in Autoimmune Diseases: Effect on Serum Autoantibodies and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Hussam; Abdel-Aziz, Nada; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Barghash, Ayman; Nasrat, Abdullah; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; El Sayed, Salah Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids. Al-hijamah clears blood passing through the fenestrated skin capillaries. Medical bases of Al-hijamah were reported in the evidence-based Taibah mechanism (Taibah theory). Al-hijamah was reported to be an excellent treatment for rheumatoid arthritis that improved patients’ blood chemistry and induced significant clinical improvement and pharmacological potentiation. Al-hijamah improved the natural immunity and suppressed the pathological immunity through decreasing the serum level of autoantibodies, inflammatory mediators, and serum ferritin (a key player in autoimmunity). Al-hijamah reduced significantly pain severity, number of swollen joints and disease activity with no significant side effects. Main steps of Al-hijamah are skin suction (cupping), scarification (sharatmihjam in Arabic) and second suction (triple S technique) that is better therapeutically than the traditional WCT (double S technique). Whenever an excess noxious substance is to be removed from patients’ blood and interstitial fluids, Al-hijamah is indicated. Shartatmihjam is a curative treatment in prophetic teachings according to the prophetic hadeeth: “Cure is in three: in shartatmihjam, oral honey and cauterization. I do not recommend my nation to cauterize”. Al-hijamah may have better therapeutic benefits than plasmapheresis. Al-hijamah may be

  16. The Impact of Leadership Styles and Knowledge Sharing on Police Officers' Willingness to Exert Extra Effort to Provide Better Security: A Study in the Riot Unit of the Turkish National Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombul, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    The motivation for this study is to understand the factors affecting police officers' willingness to exert extra effort for providing better service through knowledge sharing in different working environments such as riots. Since managers' leadership styles may be important factors affecting subordinates' willingness to exert extra effort, this…

  17. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with adoptive cell immunotherapy exerts better antitumor effects in non-small cell lung cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Shi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK cells are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vivo expanded T lymphocytes which are characterized with a MHC-unrestricted tumor-killing activity and a mixed T-NK phenotype. Adoptive CIK cells transfer, one of the adoptive immunotherapy represents a promising nontoxic anticancer therapy. However, in clinical studies, the therapeutic activity of adoptive CIK cells transfer is not as efficient as anticipated. Possible explanations are that abnormal tumor vasculature and hypoxic tumor microenvironment could impede the infiltration and efficacy of lymphocytes. We hypothesized that antiangiogenesis therapy could improve the antitumor activity of CIK cells by normalizing tumor vasculature and modulating hypoxic tumor microenvironment. METHODS: We combined recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin and CIK cells in the treatment of lung carcinoma murine models. Intravital microscopy, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the tumor vasculature and hypoxic microenvironment as well as the infiltration of immune cells. RESULTS: Our results indicated that rh-endostatin synergized with adoptive CIK cells transfer to inhibit the growth of lung carcinoma. We found that rh-endostatin normalized tumor vasculature and reduced hypoxic area in the tumor microenvironment. Hypoxia significantly inhibited the proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration of CIK cells in vitro and impeded the homing of CIK cells into tumor parenchyma ex vivo. Furthermore, we found that treatment with rh-endostatin significantly increased the homing of CIK cells and decreased the accumulation of suppressive immune cells in the tumor tissue. In addition, combination therapy produced higher level of tumor-infiltration lymphocytes compared with other treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that rh-endostatin improves the therapeutic effect of adoptive CIK cells

  18. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Essential Oil Exerts Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Macrophage Mediated Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, D; Gismondi, A; Basso, A; Canuti, L; Braglia, R; Canini, A; Mariani, F; Cappelli, G

    2016-01-01

    Different studies described the antibacterial properties of Lavandula angustifolia (Mill.) essential oil and its anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, no data exist on its ability to activate human macrophages during the innate response against Staphylococcus aureus. The discovery of promising regulators of macrophage-mediated inflammatory response, without side effects, could be useful for the prevention of, or as therapeutic remedy for, various inflammation-mediated diseases. This study investigated, by transcriptional analysis, how a L. angustifolia essential oil treatment influences the macrophage response to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The results showed that the treatment increases the phagocytic rate and stimulates the containment of intracellular bacterial replication by macrophages. Our data showed that this stimulation is coupled with expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species production (i.e., CYBB and NCF4). Moreover, the essential oil treatment balanced the inflammatory signaling induced by S. aureus by repressing the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors and inducing the heme oxygenase-1 gene transcription. These data showed that the L. angustifolia essential oil can stimulate the human innate macrophage response to a bacterium which is responsible for one of the most important nosocomial infection and might suggest the potential development of this plant extract as an anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory coadjutant drug.

  19. Cholera Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera Treatment Rehydration Therapy Antibiotic Treatment Zinc Treatment Prevention & Control Five ... page for current cholera treatment recommendations. Cholera Treatments Rehydration therapy , meaning prompt restoration of lost fluids and ...

  20. Imatinib mesylate exerts anti-proliferative effects on osteosarcoma cells and inhibits the tumour growth in immunocompetent murine models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérengère Gobin

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour characterized by osteoid production and/or osteolytic lesions of bone. A lack of response to chemotherapeutic treatments shows the importance of exploring new therapeutic methods. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, Novartis Pharma, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was originally developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Several studies revealed that imatinib mesylate inhibits osteoclast differentiation through the M-CSFR pathway and activates osteoblast differentiation through PDGFR pathway, two key cells involved in the vicious cycle controlling the tumour development. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of imatinib mesylate on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and migration ability of five osteosarcoma cell lines (human: MG-63, HOS; rat: OSRGA; mice: MOS-J, POS-1. Imatinib mesylate was also assessed as a curative and preventive treatment in two syngenic osteosarcoma models: MOS-J (mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic osteosarcoma and POS-1 (undifferentiated osteosarcoma. Imatinib mesylate exhibited a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in all cell lines studied. The drug induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in most cell lines, except for POS-1 and HOS cells that were blocked in the S phase. In addition, imatinib mesylate induced cell death and strongly inhibited osteosarcoma cell migration. In the MOS-J osteosarcoma model, oral administration of imatinib mesylate significantly inhibited the tumour development in both preventive and curative approaches. A phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array kit revealed that PDGFRα, among 7 other receptors (PDFGFRβ, Axl, RYK, EGFR, EphA2 and 10, IGF1R, appears as one of the main molecular targets for imatinib mesylate. In the light of the present study and the literature, it would be particularly interesting to revisit therapeutic evaluation of imatinib mesylate in osteosarcoma according to the tyrosine-kinase receptor

  1. Pregnanolone glutamate, a novel use-dependent NMDA receptor inhibitor, exerts antidepressant-like properties in animal models.

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    Karel eVales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies demonstrated a rapid onset of an antidepressant effect of non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists. Nonetheless, its therapeutic potential is rather limited, due to a high coincidence of negative side-effects. Therefore, the challenge seems to be in the development of NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonists displaying antidepressant properties, and at the same time maintaining regular physiological function of the NMDAR. Previous results demonstrated that naturally occurring neurosteroid 3α5β-pregnanolone sulfate shows pronounced inhibitory action by a use-dependent mechanism on the tonically active NMDAR. The aim of the present experiments is to find out whether the treatment with pregnanolone 3αC derivatives affects behavioral response to chronic and acute stress in an animal model of depression. Adult male mice were used throughout the study. Repeated social defeat and forced swimming tests were used as animal models of depression. The effect of the drugs on the locomotor/exploratory activity in the open-field test was also tested together with an effect on anxiety in the elevated plus maze. Results showed that pregnanolone glutamate (PG did not induce hyperlocomotion, whereas both dizocilpine and ketamine significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field. In the elevated plus maze PG displayed anxiolytic-like properties. In forced swimming PG prolonged time to the first floating. Acute treatment of PG disinhibited suppressed locomotor activity in the repeatedly defeated group-housed mice. Aggressive behavior of isolated mice was reduced after the chronic 30-day administration of PG. PG showed antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like properties in the used tests, with minimal side-effects. Since PG combines GABAA receptor potentiation and use-dependent NMDAR inhibition, synthetic derivatives of neuroactive steroids present a promising strategy for the treatment of mood disorders.

  2. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine exerts antitumor effects and reveals BATF2 as a poor prognostic marker for childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Augusto Faria; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Suazo, Veridiana Kiill; Geron, Lenisa; Corrêa, Carolina Alves Pereira; Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; de Vasconcelos, Elton José Rosas; de Oliveira, Ricardo Santos; Neder, Luciano; Yunes, José Andres; Dos Santos Aguiar, Simone; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2017-02-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common solid tumor among pediatric patients and corresponds to 20 % of all pediatric intracranial tumors in this age group. Its treatment currently involves significant side effects. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may contribute to its development and progression. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors have shown promising anticancer effects. The agent Zebularine acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and shows low toxicity and high efficacy, being a promising adjuvant agent for anti-cancer chemotherapy. Several studies have reported its effects on different types of tumors; however, there are no studies reporting its effects on MB. We analyzed its potential anticancer effects in four pediatric MB cell lines. The treatment inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity, increased the apoptosis rate and the number of cells in the S phase (p < 0.05), as well as the expression of p53, p21, and Bax, and decreased cyclin A, Survivin and Bcl-2 proteins. In addition, the combination of zebularine with the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and cisplatin resulted in synergism and antagonism, respectively. Zebularine also modulated the activation of the SHH pathway, reducing SMO and GLI1 levels and one of its targets, PTCH1, without changing SUFU levels. A microarray analysis revealed different pathways modulated by the drug, including the Toll-Like Receptor pathway and high levels of the BATF2 gene. The low expression of this gene was associated with a worse prognosis in MB. Taken together, these data suggest that Zebularine may be a potential drug for further in vivo studies of MB treatment.

  3. [The Nature and Issues of Drug Addiction Treatment under Constraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, Bastien

    This article is exploring different forms of constraint that are exerted in the field of drug addiction treatment. The objective of this article is to establish benchmarks and to stimulate reflection about the ethical and clinical implications of those constraints in the field of drug addiction treatment. This article is presenting a critical review of different forms of constraint that can be exerted in Canada in regard to the treatment of drug addiction. In the first section of the article, a definition of therapeutic intervention is proposed, that includes the dimension of power, which justifies the importance of considering the coercive aspects of treatment. The second section, which represents the core section of the paper, is devoted to the presentation of different levels of constraint that can be distinguished in regard to drug addicts who are under treatment. Three levels of constraint are exposed: judicial constraint, institutional constraint and relational constraint. The coercive aspect of treatment can then be recognized as a combination of all tree levels of constraint. Judicial constraint refers to any form of constraint in which the court or the judge is imposing or recommending treatment. This particular level of constraint can take different forms, such as therapeutic remands, conditions of a probation order, conditions of a conditional sentence of imprisonment, and coercive treatment such as the ones provided through drug courts. Institutional constraint refers to any form of constraint exerted within any institutional setting, such as correctional facilities and programs offered in community. Correctional facilities being limited by their own specific mission, it might have a major impact on the way the objectives of treatment are defined. Those limitations can then be considered as a form of constraint, in which drug users don't have much space to express their personal needs. Finally, relational constraint refers to any form of constraint in

  4. Pharmacokinetic Study of Bioactive Flavonoids in the Traditional Japanese Medicine Keigairengyoto Exerting Antibacterial Effects against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Takashi Matsumoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoid glucuronides can be deconjugated to the active form aglycone by β-glucuronidase-expressing macrophages. Keigairengyoto (KRT is a flavonoid-rich traditional Japanese medicine reported to enhance bacterial clearance through immune modulation. Our aims are to examine the pharmacokinetics of KRT flavonoids and to identify active flavonoids contributing to the adjuvant effects of KRT. KRT was evaluated at pharmacokinetic analysis to quantify absorbed flavonoids, and cutaneous infection assay induced in mice by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus. Preventive or therapeutic KRT administration reduced the number of bacteria in the infection site as well as macroscopic and microscopic lesion scores with efficacies similar to antibiotics. Pharmacokinetic study revealed low plasma levels of flavonoid aglycones after KRT administration; however, plasma concentrations were enhanced markedly by β-glucuronidase treatment, with baicalein the most abundant (Cmax, 1.32 µg/mL. In random screening assays, flavonoids such as bacalein, genistein, and apigenin enhanced bacteria phagocytosis by macrophages. Glucuronide bacalin was converted to aglycone baicalein by incubation with living macrophages, macrophage lysate, or skin homogenate. Taken together, the adjuvant effect of KRT may be due to some blood-absorbed flavonoids which enhance macrophage functions in host defense. Flavonoid-rich KRT may be a beneficial treatment for infectious skin inflammation.

  5. Immunomodulatory drugs disrupt the cereblon-CD147-MCT1 axis to exert antitumor activity and teratogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Ruth; Heider, Michael; Fernández-Sáiz, Vanesa; van Bebber, Frauke; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Lemeer, Simone; Rudelius, Martina; Targosz, Bianca-Sabrina; Jacobs, Laura; Knorn, Anna-Maria; Slawska, Jolanta; Platzbecker, Uwe; Germing, Ulrich; Langer, Christian; Knop, Stefan; Einsele, Herrmann; Peschel, Christian; Haass, Christian; Keller, Ulrich; Schmid, Bettina; Götze, Katharina S; Kuster, Bernhard; Bassermann, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are key treatment modalities for hematologic malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma (MM) and del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex, is the primary target by which IMiDs mediate anticancer and teratogenic effects. Here we identify a ubiquitin-independent physiological chaperone-like function of CRBN that promotes maturation of the basigin (BSG; also known as CD147) and solute carrier family 16 member 1 (SLC16A1; also known as MCT1) proteins. This process allows for the formation and activation of the CD147-MCT1 transmembrane complex, which promotes various biological functions, including angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion and lactate export. We found that IMiDs outcompete CRBN for binding to CD147 and MCT1, leading to destabilization of the CD147-MCT1 complex. Accordingly, IMiD-sensitive MM cells lose CD147 and MCT1 expression after being exposed to IMiDs, whereas IMiD-resistant cells retain their expression. Furthermore, del(5q) MDS cells have elevated CD147 expression, which is attenuated after IMiD treatment. Finally, we show that BSG (CD147) knockdown phenocopies the teratogenic effects of thalidomide exposure in zebrafish. These findings provide a common mechanistic framework to explain both the teratogenic and pleiotropic antitumor effects of IMiDs.

  6. Curcumin exerts neuroprotective effects against homocysteine intracerebroventricular injection-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie, Amin; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Haghparast, Abbas; Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Ataee, Ramin; Moghaddam, Shiva Nasiraei

    2010-08-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress and is involved in their pathophysiology. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damage and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. In this study we investigated the neuroprotective properties of the natural polyphenolic antioxidant compound, curcumin, against homocysteine (Hcy) neurotoxicity. Curcumin (5, 15, or 45 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for a period of 10 days beginning 5 days prior to Hcy (0.2 micromol/microl) intracerebroventricular injection in rats. Biochemical and behavioral studies, including passive avoidance learning and locomotor activity tests, were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection of curcumin or vehicle. Results indicated that Hcy induces lipid peroxidation and increases malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion (SOA) levels in whole rat brain. In addition, Hcy impaired memory retention in the passive avoidance learning test. However, curcumin treatment significantly decreased MDA and SOA levels and improved learning and memory in rats. These results suggest that Hcy may induce lipid peroxidation in rat brain and that polyphenol treatment (curcumin) improves learning and memory deficits by protecting the nervous system against oxidative stress.

  7. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-t2) exerts thyromimetic effects on hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body composition, and energy metabolism in male diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Wenke; Lietzow, Julika; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Hoefig, Carolin S; Wiedmer, Petra; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Effective and safe antiobesity drugs are still needed in face of the obesity pandemic worldwide. Recent interventions in rodents revealed 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) as a metabolically active iodothyronine affecting energy and lipid metabolism without thyromimetic side effects typically associated with T3 administration. Accordingly, 3,5-T2 has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis. In contrast to other observations, our experiments revealed dose-dependent thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 akin to those of T3 in diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. 3,5-T2 treatment exerted a negative feedback regulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, similar to T3. This is demonstrated by decreased expression of genes responsive to thyroid hormones (TH) in pituitary resulting in a suppressed thyroid function with lower T4 and T3 concentrations in serum and liver of 3,5-T2-treated mice. Analyses of hepatic TH target genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed T3-like changes in gene expression and increased type I-deiodinase activity after application of 3,5-T2 (2.5 μg/g body weight). Reduced hepatic triglyceride and serum cholesterol concentrations reflected enhanced lipid metabolism. Desired increased metabolic rate and reduction of different fat depots were, however, compromised by increased food intake preventing significant body weight loss. Moreover, enlarged heart weights indicate potential cardiac side effects of 3,5-T2 beyond hepatic thyromimetic actions. Altogether, the observed thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 in several mouse TH target tissues raise concern about indiscriminate administration of 3,5-T2 as powerful natural hormone for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and pandemic obesity.

  8. Pregnanolone Glutamate, a Novel Use-Dependent NMDA Receptor Inhibitor, Exerts Antidepressant-Like Properties in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Kristina; Nekovarova, Tereza; Pistovcakova, Jana; Sulcova, Alexandra; Stuchlík, Ales; Vales, Karel

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies demonstrated a rapid onset of an antidepressant effect of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. Nonetheless, its therapeutic potential is rather limited, due to a high coincidence of negative side-effects. Therefore, the challenge seems to be in the development of NMDAR antagonists displaying antidepressant properties, and at the same time maintaining regular physiological function of the NMDAR. Previous results demonstrated that naturally occurring neurosteroid 3α5β-pregnanolone sulfate shows pronounced inhibitory action by a use-dependent mechanism on the tonically active NMDAR. The aim of the present experiments is to find out whether the treatment with pregnanolone 3αC derivatives affects behavioral response to chronic and acute stress in an animal model of depression. Adult male mice were used throughout the study. Repeated social defeat and forced swimming tests were used as animal models of depression. The effect of the drugs on the locomotor/exploratory activity in the open-field test was also tested together with an effect on anxiety in the elevated plus maze. Results showed that pregnanolone glutamate (PG) did not induce hyperlocomotion, whereas both dizocilpine and ketamine significantly increased spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field. In the elevated plus maze, PG displayed anxiolytic-like properties. In forced swimming, PG prolonged time to the first floating. Acute treatment of PG disinhibited suppressed locomotor activity in the repeatedly defeated group-housed mice. Aggressive behavior of isolated mice was reduced after the chronic 30-day administration of PG. PG showed antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like properties in the used tests, with minimal side-effects. Since PG combines GABAA receptor potentiation and use-dependent NMDAR inhibition, synthetic derivatives of neuroactive steroids present a promising strategy for the treatment of mood disorders. -3α5

  9. Glucose administration after traumatic brain injury exerts some benefits and no adverse effects on behavioral and histological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijo, Katsunori; Ghavim, Sima; Harris, Neil G; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2015-07-21

    The impact of hyperglycemia after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and even the administration of glucose-containing solutions to head injured patients, remains controversial. In the current study adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on behavioral tasks and then underwent surgery to induce sham injury or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by injections (i.p.) with either a 50% glucose solution (Glc; 2g/kg) or an equivalent volume of either 0.9% or 8% saline (Sal) at 0, 1, 3 and 6h post-injury. The type of saline treatment did not significantly affect any outcome measures, so these data were combined. Rats with CCI had significant deficits in beam-walking traversal time and rating scores (p's beam-walking deficits were not affected by Glc versus Sal treatments. Persistent post-CCI deficits in forelimb contraflexion scores and forelimb tactile placing ability were also not differentially affected by Glc or Sal treatments. However, deficits in latency to retract the right hind limb after limb extension were significantly attenuated in the CCI-Glc group (p < 0.05 versus CCI-Sal). Both CCI groups were significantly impaired in a plus maze test of spatial working memory on days 4, 9 and 14 post-surgery (p < 0.001 versus sham), and there was no effect of Glc versus Sal on this cognitive outcome measure. At 15 days post-surgery the loss of cortical tissue volume (p < 0.001 versus sham) was significantly less in the CCI-Glc group (30.0%; p < 0.05) compared to the CCI-Sal group (35.7%). Counts of surviving hippocampal hilar neurons revealed a significant (~40%) loss ipsilateral to CCI (p < 0.001 versus sham), but neuronal loss in the hippocampus was not different in the CCI-Sal and CCI-Glc groups. Taken together, these results indicate that an early elevation of blood glucose may improve some neurological outcomes and, importantly, the induction of hyperglycemia after isolated TBI did not adversely affect any sensorimotor, cognitive or

  10. Peculiarities of toxic effects exerted by hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid and grounds for working our regulations of its safe production and application

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    Е.К. Vlasenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research object was hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid applied as plants growth regulator which was synthe-sized with an original technology by Bioorganic Chemistry Institute of Belarus National Academy of science. Our research goal was to determine peculiarities of toxic effects exerted by this new plants protector on experimental models in vivo/in vitro and to give grounds for hygienic standards of its contents in various media which were to provide its safe production and application. We conducted our research with the use of toxicological, physiological, hematological, biochemical, immu-nologic, cytogenetic, cytological, and statistical methods. We were the first to perform toxicological assessment of this new plants growth regulator under different regimes, doses and ways of introduction into laboratory animals' bodies and it helped us to detect its toxicometric parameters and peculiarities of its biological effects which became apparent through skin-resorptive and cumulative properties, irritating impacts on mucous tunics, moderate reproductive toxicity without sub-stantial signs of gonadotropic, mutagenic, and allergenic impacts on a body. We detected that toxic impacts exerted by the examined substance on a body was combined with membrane-tropic and cytotoxic effects. We determined criteria and limit-ing parameters of hazardous effects exerted by hexyl ether of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the course of a chronic experiment, and it gave us grounds for fixing allowable daily dose for a man and for working out a number of regulations on the sub-stance contents in environmental objects (working area air, water, and soil, in food raw materials, and in food products (grain, rape, rape and linen oil. The obtained results were used as a basis for fixing 9 hygienic standards and were used for the state registration of this plant growth regulator; it will provide its safe production and application in agriculture.

  11. Influence exerted by risk factors of space and erath weather on frequency of emergency calls from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belyaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High morbidity with cardiovascular pathology increases loads on a public healthcare system and is not only social but also an economic problem. To optimize cardiovascular pathology prevention, it is necessary to thoroughly analyze risk factors which cause its occurrence. Our research goal was to examine a dynamics of acute cerebral circulation disorders depending on meteorological factors and heliofactors allowing for a seasonal component. We performed a retrospective analysis of morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorders in winter, spring, and summer in 2012 on the basis of the archives obtained from an emergency station in Vladikavkaz. We analyzed 509 cases of the disease (294 women and 215 men. On the basis of our analysis results we assessed influence exerted by external factors on frequency of applications to emergency from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders. We analyzed meteorological factors and heliofactors and their derivatives: average daily temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud coverage, weather pathogenicity, Sun radiation flux density at a wave length equal to 10.7, and a number of sunspots. We detected that in winter negative influence was exerted by temperature; there was also a multi-factor dependence between frequency of acute cerebral circulation disorders and such predictors as temperature pathogenicity index and speed of changes in Sun radiation flux density during a day (Rmulti = 0.50; R2 = 0.25. Drastic temperature fluctuations make for increase in morbidity in spring. Morbidity cases frequency in women in this period correlates not only with temperature pathogenicity index but also with pathogenicity index of air pressure changes. Morbidity increase in summer is caused by simultaneous drop both in air pressure and relative humidity (Rmulti = 0.59; R2 = 0.35. Overall, correlation between external factors and morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorder has seasonal

  12. Glucose administration after traumatic brain injury exerts some benefits and no adverse effects on behavioral and histological outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijo, Katsunori; Ghavim, Sima; Harris, Neil G.; Hovda, David A.; Sutton, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of hyperglycemia after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and even the administration of glucose–containing solutions to head injured patients, remains controversial. In the current study adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on behavioral tasks and then underwent surgery to induce sham injury or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by injections (i.p.) with either a 50% glucose solution (Glc; 2 g/kg) or an equivalent volume of either 0.9% or 8% saline (Sal) at 0, 1, 3 and 6 h post-injury. The type of saline treatment did not significantly affect any outcome measures, so these data were combined. Rats with CCI had significant deficits in beam-walking traversal time and rating scores (p’s glucose may improve some neurological outcomes and, importantly, the induction of hyperglycemia after isolated TBI did not adversely affect any sensorimotor, cognitive or histological outcomes. PMID:25911580

  13. Zebularine exerts its antiproliferative activity through S phase delay and cell death in human malignant mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yukitoshi; Satoh, Motohiko; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Kubota, Shunichiro

    2018-04-24

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related aggressive tumor and current therapy remains ineffective. Zebularine as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor has an anti-tumor effect in several human cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether zebularine could induce antiproliferative effect in human malignant mesothelioma cells. Zebularine induced cell growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, zebularine dose-dependently decreased expression of DNMT1 in all malignant mesothelioma cells tested. Cell cycle analysis indicated that zebularine induced S phase delay. Zebularine also induced cell death in malignant mesothelioma cells. In contrast, zebularine did not induce cell growth inhibition and cell death in human normal fibroblast cells. These results suggest that zebularine has a potential for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma by inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell death.

  14. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com; Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  15. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

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    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  16. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G; Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  17. Fundamentals of negative refractive index optical trapping: forces and radiation pressures exerted by focused Gaussian beams using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E

    2010-11-04

    Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), this paper reveals, for the first time in the literature, the principal characteristics of the optical forces and radiation pressure cross-sections exerted on homogeneous, linear, isotropic and spherical hypothetical negative refractive index (NRI) particles under the influence of focused Gaussian beams in the Mie regime. Starting with ray optics considerations, the analysis is then extended through calculating the Mie coefficients and the beam-shape coefficients for incident focused Gaussian beams. Results reveal new and interesting trapping properties which are not observed for commonly positive refractive index particles and, in this way, new potential applications in biomedical optics can be devised.

  18. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  19. Neutron sample cell suitable for the diffraction of aligned biomaterials and capable of exerting up to 370 MPa of hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.J.; Nieh, M.-P.; Harroun, T.A.; Katsaras, J.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a temperature controlled sample cell suitable for the study of biomimetic materials (e.g., lipid bilayers) using neutron diffraction, and capable of exerting hydrostatic pressures of up to 370 MPa. The advantage of this sample cell, compared to previous high-pressure cells of its type, is that it allows for the use of samples aligned on a solid support which, compared to 'powder' or so-called liposomal preparations, requires only small amounts of sample and allows for the clear differentiation between in-plane and out-of-plane structure

  20. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  1. To fully exert the important role of natural gas in building a modern energy security system in China: An understanding of China's National l3th Five-Year Plan for Natural Gas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the introduction of 13th Five-Year Plans in succession for natural gas development programmed by governments at all levels and much more attention paid to haze governance by relevant departments, natural gas, as one of the major energy sources, has ushered in a strategic opportunity era. In view of this, based upon China's National 13th Five-Year Plan for Natural Gas Development formulated by the National Development and Reform Commission, the developing trend of natural gas sector was predicted in the period of 13th Five-Year Plan in terms of supply side, demand side, pricing system, infrastructure construction, etc. and some feasible proposals were made on the whole industrial chain. In terms of the supply side, natural gas will be of availability, accessibility, assurance, affordability, and accountability in the production and supply chains. In terms of the demand side, air pollution treatment will indirectly stimulate gas consumption increase. Gas power generation will become the dominant. Natural gas as a transportation fuel will bring a good new opportunity. Thus it is believed that as the present natural gas development is restricted by both gas pricing system and infrastructure construction, further reform should be strengthened to break the barriers of systems and mechanisms; and that due to many uncertainties in the natural gas market, the decisive role of market in the resource allocation should be fully exerted to ensure the main force of natural gas in building a dependable energy strategic system in present and future China.

  2. Treatment planning with protons for pediatric retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, and pelvic sarcoma: How do protons compare with other conformal techniques?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Catherine T.; Bilton, Stephen D.; Famiglietti, Robin M.; Riley, Beverly A.; Mahajan, Anita; Chang, Eric L.; Maor, Moshe H.; Woo, Shiao Y.; Cox, James D.; Smith, Alfred R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To calculate treatment plans and compare the dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for photon three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), electron therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and standard (nonintensity modulated) proton therapy in three pediatric disease sites. Methods and Materials: The tumor volumes from 8 patients (3 retinoblastomas, 2 medulloblastomas, and 3 pelvic sarcomas) were studied retrospectively to compare DVHs from proton therapy with 3D-CRT, electron therapy, and IMRT. In retinoblastoma, several planning techniques were analyzed: A single electron appositional beam was compared with a single 3D-CRT lateral beam, a 3D-CRT anterior beam paired with a lateral beam, IMRT, and protons. In medulloblastoma, three posterior fossa irradiation techniques were analyzed: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and protons. Craniospinal irradiation (which consisted of composite plans of both the posterior fossa and craniospinal components) was also evaluated, primarily comparing spinal irradiation using 3D-CRT electrons, 3D-CRT photons, and protons. Lastly, in pelvic sarcoma, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and proton plans were assessed. Results: In retinoblastoma, protons resulted in the best target coverage combined with the most orbital bone sparing (10% was the mean orbital bone volume irradiated at ≥5 Gy for protons vs. 25% for 3D-CRT electrons, 69% for IMRT, 41% for a single 3D lateral beam, 51% for a 3D anterolateral beam with a lens block, and 65% for a 3D anterolateral beam without a lens block). A single appositional electron field was the next best technique followed by other planning approaches. In medulloblastoma, for posterior fossa and craniospinal irradiation, protons resulted in the least dose to the cochlea (for only posterior fossa irradiation at ≥20 Gy, 34% was the mean cochlear volume irradiated for protons, 87% for IMRT, 89% for 3D-CRT) and hypothalamus-pituitary axis (for only posterior fossa irradiation at ≥10 Gy

  3. Rapamycin exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-dependent inhibition of Tor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Shertz, Cecelia A; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E

    2012-03-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis.

  4. Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

  5. RNA interference targeting cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase exerts anti-obesity effect in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woo Suk; Park, Kwon Moo; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2012-08-01

    A metabolic abnormality in lipid biosynthesis is frequently associated with obesity and hyperlipidemia. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) is an essential reducing equivalent for numerous enzymes required in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) has been proposed as a key enzyme for supplying cytosolic NADPH. We report here that knockdown of IDPc expression by Ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference (RNAi) inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Attenuate