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Sample records for bone-eating worms osedax

  1. A remarkable diversity of bone-eating worms (Osedax; Siboglinidae; Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shannon B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-eating Osedax worms have proved to be surprisingly diverse and widespread. Including the initial description of this genus in 2004, five species that live at depths between 25 and 3,000 m in the eastern and western Pacific and in the north Atlantic have been named to date. Here, we provide molecular and morphological evidence for 12 additional evolutionary lineages from Monterey Bay, California. To assess their phylogenetic relationships and possible status as new undescribed species, we examined DNA sequences from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rRNA and three nuclear genes (H3, 18S and 28S rRNA. Results Phylogenetic analyses identified 17 distinct evolutionary lineages. Levels of sequence divergence among the undescribed lineages were similar to those found among the named species. The 17 lineages clustered into five well-supported clades that also differed for a number of key morphological traits. Attempts to determine the evolutionary age of Osedax depended on prior assumptions about nucleotide substitution rates. According to one scenario involving a molecular clock calibrated for shallow marine invertebrates, Osedax split from its siboglinid relatives about 45 million years ago when archeocete cetaceans first appeared and then diversified during the late Oligocene and early Miocene when toothed and baleen whales appeared. Alternatively, the use of a slower clock calibrated for deep-sea annelids suggested that Osedax split from its siboglinid relatives during the Cretaceous and began to diversify during the Early Paleocene, at least 20 million years before the origin of large marine mammals. Conclusion To help resolve uncertainties about the evolutionary age of Osedax, we suggest that the fossilized bones from Cretaceous marine reptiles and late Oligocene cetaceans be examined for possible trace fossils left by Osedax roots. Regardless of the outcome, the present molecular evidence for strong phylogenetic concordance

  2. Bone-eating Osedax worms (Annelida: Siboglinidae) regulate biodiversity of deep-sea whale-fall communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Ferreira, Giulia D.; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    Although it is well recognized the capital role of "bone-eating" Osedax worms in the degradation of vertebrate skeletons in the deep sea, very little is known about their effects on bone faunal assemblages. Here we aim to shed light on the bone colonization process and determine 1) whether Osedax degradation induces different bone epi/infaunal assemblages and 2) how biodiversity is affected by Osedax colonization. We describe and compare the epi/infaunal assemblage structures of caudal vertebrae colonized and not colonized by Osedax of an abyssal juvenile whale carcass serendipitously found at 4204 m depth in the SW Atlantic Ocean by HOV Shinkai 6500. Our results show that whale skeletons are very heterogeneous habitats that harbor specific and very rich assemblages and that contrasting epi/infaunal community patterns are found depending on the presence of Osedax. Vertebrae not colonized by Osedax were both well preserved and in a highly sulfophilic stage with chemosynthetic bacterial mats and numerous epifaunal organisms that fed on them. On the contrary, vertebrae colonized by Osedax were heavily degraded and did not exhibit evidence of a sulfophilic stage, harboring a distinct epifaunal assemblage. In general, bone infaunal assemblages were dominated by nematodes, especially in vertebrae without Osedax (ca. 77%) where organisms were only found in bone outer layers, showing a colonization pattern similar to that described for bacteria. Infauna in Osedax-colonized bones were present throughout the inner-matrices and were on average three times more abundant (ca. 1800 ind. 100 cm-3) and twice as rich in number of species (16 species). Here, bones had a relatively higher proportion of the polychaete Capitella iatapiuna (ca. 39%) in comparison with nematodes (ca. 52%). Besides, a higher number of rare species were present in bones with Osedax. We suggest that Osedax degradation increases water diffusion through matrices probably modifying reduced-compound fluxes and

  3. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Taboada

    Full Text Available Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic. We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea' recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from

  4. Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Goedert, James L; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-05-11

    Osedax is a recently discovered group of siboglinid annelids that consume bones on the seafloor and whose evolutionary origins have been linked with Cretaceous marine reptiles or to the post-Cretaceous rise of whales. Here we present whale bones from early Oligocene bathyal sediments exposed in Washington State, which show traces similar to those made by Osedax today. The geologic age of these trace fossils ( approximately 30 million years) coincides with the first major radiation of whales, consistent with the hypothesis of an evolutionary link between Osedax and its main food source, although older fossils should certainly be studied. Osedax has been destroying bones for most of the evolutionary history of whales and the possible significance of this "Osedax effect" in relation to the quality and quantity of their fossils is only now recognized.

  5. Bone-eating Osedax worms lived on Mesozoic marine reptile deadfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, Silvia; Higgs, Nicholas D

    2015-04-01

    We report fossil traces of Osedax, a genus of siboglinid annelids that consume the skeletons of sunken vertebrates on the ocean floor, from early-Late Cretaceous (approx. 100 Myr) plesiosaur and sea turtle bones. Although plesiosaurs went extinct at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction (66 Myr), chelonioids survived the event and diversified, and thus provided sustenance for Osedax in the 20 Myr gap preceding the radiation of cetaceans, their main modern food source. This finding shows that marine reptile carcasses, before whales, played a key role in the evolution and dispersal of Osedax and confirms that its generalist ability of colonizing different vertebrate substrates, like fishes and marine birds, besides whale bones, is an ancestral trait. A Cretaceous age for unequivocal Osedax trace fossils also dates back to the Mesozoic the origin of the entire siboglinid family, which includes chemosynthetic tubeworms living at hydrothermal vents and seeps, contrary to phylogenetic estimations of a Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic origin (approx. 50-100 Myr). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  7. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are 'whale-fall specialists.'

  8. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    OpenAIRE

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We ...

  9. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  10. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salathé Rahel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m. Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host

  11. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795

  12. Acquisition of dwarf male "harems" by recently settled females of Osedax roseus n. sp. (Siboglinidae; Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouse, G W; Worsaae, K; Johnson, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    After the deployment of several whale carcasses in Monterey Bay, California, a time-series analysis revealed the presence of a new species of Osedax, a genus of bone-eating siboglinid annelids. That species is described here as Osedax roseus n. sp. It is the fifth species described since the erec......After the deployment of several whale carcasses in Monterey Bay, California, a time-series analysis revealed the presence of a new species of Osedax, a genus of bone-eating siboglinid annelids. That species is described here as Osedax roseus n. sp. It is the fifth species described since...... in Osedax. Of the previously described species in this genus, Osedax roseus n. sp. is most similar to O. rubiplumus, but it has several anatomical differences, as well as much smaller females, dwarf males, and eggs. Osedax roseus n. sp. is markedly divergent (minimally 16.6%) for mitochondrial cytochrome...

  13. The simplicity of males: Dwarf males of four species of Osedax (Siboglinidae; Annelida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-01-01

    . Here, we present the first investigation of the entire muscle and nervous system in dwarf males of Osedax frankpressi, O. roseus, O. rubiplumus, and O. spiral analyzed by multistaining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sperm shape and spermiogenesis, the sperm duct and internal and external...

  14. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  15. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  16. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  17. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  18. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  19. NEDAC: A WORM COUNTERMEASURE MECHANISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    of network worm propagation has been conducted to test the capabilities of the developed ... sharing of information amongst people, businesses, governments ... has been reported in previously published security research work. However .... To develop and use a worm in experiment, some important metric are required ...

  20. Dental worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  1. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  3. De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation: Effect on haemoglobin of primary school children in Aboh-Mbaise. ... Aim: To compare the effect of de-worming alone and de-worming plus iron supplementation on the haemoglobin (Hb) of primary school children. ... Journal of College of Medicine Vol.

  4. MODELING THE DOUBLE WORM-FACE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLOŞ Codruţa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The worm-face gear family, invented 60 years ago, contains in its structure several variants which have the following defining elements: tapered worm, reverse tapered worm and cylindrical worm. This type of gear can be realized with a single wheel and also in engagement with the second embodiment of the front worm wheels. This paper presents the matrix - vectorial mathematical model of the double worm-face gear with cylindrical worm and a graphical modeling which is based on the specific geometrical characteristics accomplished by means of the Autodesk Inventor 3D modeling program. The applicability of the study, considering the solutions which it suggests, aims to create opportunities for the use of modern rapid prototyping and analysis of stress FEM technique.

  5. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  6. Parasitic worms: how many really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Fattorini, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Accumulation curves are useful tools to estimate species diversity. Here we argue that they can also be used in the study of global parasite species richness. Although this basic idea is not completely new, our approach differs from the previous ones as it treats each host species as an independent sample. We show that randomly resampling host-parasite records from the existing databases makes it possible to empirically model the relationship between the number of investigated host species, and the corresponding number of parasite species retrieved from those hosts. This method was tested on 21 inclusive lists of parasitic worms occurring on vertebrate hosts. All of the obtained models conform well to a power law curve. These curves were then used to estimate global parasite species richness. Results obtained with the new method suggest that current predictions are likely to severely overestimate parasite diversity. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekovee, Maziar [BT Research, Polaris 134, Adastral Park, Martlesham, Suffolk IP5 3RE (United Kingdom); Centre for Computational Science, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  8. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  9. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  10. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  11. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  12. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  13. Community assembly of the worm gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    It has become increasingly clear that human health is strongly influenced by the bacteria that live within the gut, known collectively as the gut microbiome. This complex community varies tremendously between individuals, but understanding the sources that lead to this heterogeneity is challenging. To address this challenge, we are using a bottom-up approach to develop a predictive understanding of how the microbiome assembles and functions within a simple and experimentally tractable gut, the gut of the worm C. elegans. We have found that stochastic community assembly in the C. elegansintestine is sufficient to produce strong inter-worm heterogeneity in community composition. When worms are fed with two neutrally-competing fluorescently labeled bacterial strains, we observe stochastically-driven bimodality in community composition, where approximately half of the worms are dominated by each bacterial strain. A simple model incorporating stochastic colonization suggests that heterogeneity between worms is driven by the low rate at which bacteria successfully establish new intestinal colonies. We can increase this rate experimentally by feeding worms at high bacterial density; in these conditions the bimodality disappears. We have also characterized all pairwise interspecies competitions among a set of eleven bacterial species, illuminating the rules governing interspecies community assembly. These results demonstrate the potential importance of stochastic processes in bacterial community formation and suggest a role for C. elegans as a model system for ecology of host-associated communities.

  14. Aquatic worms eat sludge: Mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact.

  15. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  16. Worm Disease Profile of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati; Destriani; Victoria, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    The result of an elementary study of relations between disease symptoms and signs with the wormy occurrence child at Elementary School in Ilir Barat II Subdistrict of Palembang in concerned in this research amount to 200 people from the population of 4200 people of a child in elementary school. The result indicates that the child roommates infested worm marked with a few symptoms like passion eat to Decrease the puking pain in the home of stomach after eating, diarrhea, defecate with the mucus and bleed the purities at the anus before controlled from some worm type of there no difference having a meaning between child roommates worm infested with the child roommates do not infest worm (P > 0.05). Symptom vomit got more amount by having a meaning a child by infested is Trichuris (RO > 2.669, P < 0/005). The result of infested Tricuris generate the more amount of symptoms lust to eat to Decrease by having a meaning of Compared to the which do not infest Trichuris (RO = 3.772; CI 95% = 1.214 to 11.726; P = 0.016) symptoms lust to eat to Decrease and more amount diarrhea got at Infest oxyuris with the special sign of purities at nighttime anus (RO = 0.557; 85% CI = 0.166 to 2.168). The risk of the happening of unfavorable nutrition According to BB / U and Also TB / U growing niche to more amount (having a meaning) at child roommates worm infested by a child Compared to the which do not infest worm.

  17. END THE OF HORROR WORM: Dracunculus medinensis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dracunculus medinensis is a nematode that causes dracunculiasis. It is also known as the guinea worm disease and is caused by the large female nematode which is the longest nematode infecting humans. The adult female is longer than the male and can grow up to about 1m in length inside the body of the human host.

  18. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  19. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  20. Distributed Software-Attestation Defense against Sensor Worm Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to sensor worm attacks in which the attacker compromises a few nodes and makes these compromised nodes initiate worm spread over the network, targeting the worm infection of the whole nodes in the network. Several defense mechanisms have been proposed to prevent worm propagation in wireless sensor networks. Although these proposed schemes use software diversity technique for worm propagation prevention under the belief that different software versions do not have common vulnerability, they have fundamental drawback in which it is difficult to realize the aforementioned belief in sensor motes. To resolve this problem, we propose on-demand software-attestation based scheme to defend against worm propagation in sensor network. The main idea of our proposed scheme is to perform software attestations against sensor nodes in on-demand manner and detect the infected nodes by worm, resulting in worm propagation block in the network. Through analysis, we show that our proposed scheme defends against worm propagation in efficient and robust manner. Through simulation, we demonstrate that our proposed scheme stops worm propagation at the reasonable overhead while preventing a majority of sensor nodes from being infected by worm.

  1. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.Keywords: Loa loa, red eye, Cameroon

  2. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  3. TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DUDZIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.

  4. Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)

  5. Worm-it: converting organic wastes into sustainable fish feed by using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Laarhoven, B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to overfishing and the use of one-third of wild fish catches for feeding farmed fish and livestock, there is a strong need for alternative sources of suitable proteins and lipids in fish feeds. Small freshwater worms of the species Lumbriculus variegatus can be such a source based on their high

  6. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  7. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J P [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  8. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these

  9. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  10. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  11. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  12. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  13. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  14. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  15. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  16. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  17. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  18. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  19. Mobile agents affect worm spreading in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zi-Gang; Sun, Jin-Tu; Wang, Ying-Hai; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Considering the dynamic nature of portable computing devices with wireless communication capability, an extended model is introduced for worm spreading in the wireless ad hoc network, with a population of mobile agents in a planar distribution, starting from an initial infected seed. The effect of agents' mobility on worm spreading is investigated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The threshold behavior and the dynamics of worm epidemics in the wireless networks are greatly affected by both agents' mobility and spatial and temporal correlations. The medium access control mechanism for the wireless communication promotes the sensitivity of the spreading dynamics to agents' mobility

  20. Life cycle of the oriental compost worm Perionyx excavatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-21

    Mar 21, 1989 ... O. Graff of Braunschweig, West Germany, from worms originally obtained .... provides for an alternate life history strategy in Perionyx excavatus. ... illustrated. .... (1984), (eds) Edwards, C.A. & Lofty, J.R. Cambridge,. England.

  1. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guevara López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  2. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  4. Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Yan-Heng; Han, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xue-Jie; Li, Bin; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks

  5. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  6. Is Host-Based Anomaly Detection + Temporal Correlation = Worm Causality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekar, Vyas; Xie, Yinglian; Reiter, Michael K; Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Epidemic-spreading attacks (e.g., worm and botnet propagation) have a natural notion of attack causality - a single network flow causes a victim host to get infected and subsequently spread the attack...

  7. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  8. Hybrid Epidemics - A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore ...

  9. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  11. Mathematical description of tooth flank surface of globoidal worm gear with straight axial tooth profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połowniak, Piotr; Sobolak, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, a mathematical description of tooth flank surface of the globoidal worm and worm wheel generated by the hourglass worm hob with straight tooth axial profile is presented. The kinematic system of globoidal worm gear is shown. The equation of globoid helix and tooth axial profile of worm is derived to determine worm tooth surface. Based on the equation of meshing the contact lines are obtained. The mathematical description of globoidal worm wheel tooth flank is performed on the basis of contact lines and generating the tooth side by the extreme cutting edge of worm hob. The presented mathematical model of tooth flank of TA worm and worm wheel can be used e.g. to analyse the contact pattern of the gear.

  12. Refleksion - Worms kabinet og renæssancen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Udstilling om Ole Worms liv og videnskab. Ole Worm var læge og videnskabsmand i renæssancen. Ud over at være medicinsk professor ved Københavns Universitet interesserede han sig indgående for Danmarks fortidsminder og runeskrift. Ole Worm skabte sit eget museum, det såkaldte  Museum Wormianum, som...... alt indhold. Ikke med originale genstande, men med dyr, sten, metal og artefakter, der kom så tæt på det originale som muligt.  Denne installation samt portrætgalleriet af Ole Worms forfædre og efterkommere udgør udstillingens hovedelementer. Dertil kommer eksempler på de naturobjekter, der indgik i hans...... medicinske behandlinger og et udvalg af Ole Worms originale videnskabelige publikationer. Til udstillingen er opbygget et moderne "skab dit eget museum" til brug for de besøgendes egne medbragte genstande, som de opfordres til at forsøge at systematisere og udstille efter behag....

  13. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  14. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  15. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwang Zhang

    Full Text Available Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  16. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  17. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  18. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from eight city administrative divisions. Proportional random sampling method to select forty five (45) schools out of 320 public, private and non-formal schools was used. Using the school ...

  19. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...

  20. Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm disease): a rare cause of calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospos, C.

    1980-01-01

    Tangled whorly calcifications were seen in the abdominal subcutaneous tissues of a negro patient from Africa. The differential diagnosis of such calcifications - rarely observed in Europe - includes a variety of parasites. In this patient, Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm disease) was the cause.

  1. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... deleted at the Data Manager Level in Loki. Conclusion. Community-based surveillance for guinea worm is a good example of a surveillance system on which an integrated disease surveillance system can be based in countries with poor surveillance like South Sudan. This makes its potential value to ...

  2. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their packed cell volumes were estimated with centrifuge hematocrit and stool examined for parasitic worms with saline wet prep microscopy. A dose of Albendazole was administered to the study group. The data presented in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, were then analysed using SPSS version 17, T-test and Chi Square ...

  3. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  4. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  5. Allozyme variation in two populations of the Mopane worm, Imbrasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the limited flight ability of moths has an effect on gene flow between two geographically distant I. belina populations, whether there are gene expression differences between moths, worms and pupae and whether staggered generations have different genotypic expressions.

  6. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  7. Guinea worm eradication program in Borno state: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...

  8. Genetic variation in the Critically Endangered velvet worm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the genetic variation of the Critically Endangered velvet worm species Opisthopatus roseus is examined. This species is endemic to the Ngele mistbelt forest in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In recent years the forest has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities such as logging of ...

  9. Prevalence And Disabilities Caused By Guinea-Worm Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...

  10. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  11. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits form part of the selection objective in wool sheep enterprises. The present study investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for nematode resistance (using faecal worm egg count (FEC)) with subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits.

  12. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermiculture. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons are produced at a ...

  13. Aquatic worms eating waste sludge in a continuous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic worms are a biological approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced at waste water treatment plants. A new reactor concept was recently introduced in which the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is immobilised in a carrier material. The current paper describes

  14. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  15. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  16. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial

  17. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a

  18. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyu Jung

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  19. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  20. Spread and Control of Mobile Benign Worm Based on Two-Stage Repairing Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in traditional social network and in mobile network environment, the worm is a serious threat, and this threat is growing all the time. Mobile smartphones generally promote the development of mobile network. The traditional antivirus technologies have become powerless when facing mobile networks. The development of benign worms, especially active benign worms and passive benign worms, has become a new network security measure. In this paper, we focused on the spread of worm in mobile environment and proposed the benign worm control and repair mechanism. The control process of mobile benign worms is divided into two stages: the first stage is rapid repair control, which uses active benign worm to deal with malicious worm in the mobile network; when the network is relatively stable, it enters the second stage of postrepair and uses passive mode to optimize the environment for the purpose of controlling the mobile network. Considering whether the existence of benign worm, we simplified the model and analyzed the four situations. Finally, we use simulation to verify the model. This control mechanism for benign worm propagation is of guiding significance to control the network security.

  1. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  2. Worm gearing for valve automation; Schneckengetriebe fuer die Armaturenautomatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, Michael [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Part-turn gearboxes are indispensable for exertion of the torques necessary for large part-turn valves. Torque demand has increased in the past decade, as a result, for example, of the use of pipelines of ever greater diameters in large conurbations, and of the operation of such pipelines at ever higher pressures. The design principle of a worm gear is useful in this context. Worm gearing systems with initial torques of up to 675,000 Nm are now available. The design of gearing systems capable of handling forces of this magnitude necessitates great know-how and experience. The very maximum of reliability is a basic requirement for actuator systems for applications involving such dimensions, since a failure may have catastrophic consequences. (orig.)

  3. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  4. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent ...

  5. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid developmen...

  6. Hybrid epidemic spreading - from Internet worms to HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic phenomena are ubiquitous, ranging from infectious diseases, computer viruses, to information dissemination. Epidemics have traditionally been studied as a single spreading process, either in a fully mixed population or on a network. Many epidemics, however, are hybrid, employing more than one spreading mechanism. For example, the Internet worm Conficker spreads locally targeting neighbouring computers in local networks as well as globally by randomly probing any computer on the Inter...

  7. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  8. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  9. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-01-04

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  11. Worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems. A worm gear is used in Column type Electric Power Steering (C-EPS systems and an Anti-Rattle Spring (ARS is employed in C-EPS systems in order to prevent rattling when the vehicle goes on a bumpy road. This ARS plays a role of preventing rattling by applying preload to one end of the worm shaft but it also generates undesirable friction by causing misalignment of the worm shaft. In order to propose the worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment, geometrical and tribological analyses were performed in this study. For geometrical analysis, normal load on gear teeth was calculated using output torque, pitch diameter of worm wheel, lead angle and normal pressure angle and this normal load was converted to normal pressure at the contact point. Contact points between the tooth flanks of the worm and worm wheel were obtained by mathematically analyzing the geometry, and Hertz's theory was employed in order to calculate contact area at the contact point. Finally, misalignment by an ARS was also considered into the geometry. Friction coefficients between the tooth flanks were also researched in this study. A pin-on-disk type tribometer was set up to measure friction coefficients and friction coefficients at all conditions were measured by the tribometer. In order to validate the worm gear efficiency model, a worm gear was prepared and the efficiency of the worm gear was predicted by the model. As the final procedure of the study, a worm gear efficiency measurement system was set and the efficiency of the worm gear was measured and the results were compared with the predicted results. The efficiency considering misalignment gives more accurate results than the efficiency without misalignment.

  12. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  13. : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain, by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old and immature (20-day-old worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.

  14. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  16. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Graham E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid development. These findings may further help unravelling the phylogenetic position of the Priapulida within the Scalidophora and hence contribute to the elucidation of the nature of the ecdysozoan ancestor.

  17. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-05-26

    Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid development. These findings may further help unravelling the phylogenetic position of the Priapulida within the Scalidophora and hence contribute to the elucidation of the nature of the ecdysozoan ancestor.

  18. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious

  19. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  1. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  2.  Grunting for worms: reactions of Diplocardia to seismic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Callaham

    2009-01-01

    Harvesting earthworms by a practice called 'worm grunting' is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a fiat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not...

  3. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    161. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta). J.M. Venter* and A.J. Reinecke. Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE, Potchefstroom, 2520 Republic of South Africa. Received 29 January, 1987; accepted 29 January 1988. To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia ...

  4. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate

  5. Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete

  6. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  7. Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Didden, W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the

  8. The effect of chloroquine on the male worms of Onchocerca volvulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroqunie is a well-known anti-malaria drug commonly used in the tropics. Chloroquine was in this study, tested on adult male worms of Onchocerca volvulus to assess its possible effect. Male worms were mechanically isolated from nodules of untreated onchocerciasis patients. After 24hours incubation in a drug-free ...

  9. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infection mimicking retroperitoneal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Turnbull, A; Lieberman, P H; Sternberg, S S

    1986-07-01

    A 50-year-old Chinese man was found by ultrasound and computed tomography to have a retroperitoneal mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. At operation, a hemorrhagic cyst was detected at the upper pole of the right kidney adjacent to the adrenal gland. Microscopic examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of granulomatous tissue loaded with eggs and cross-sections of parasites, identified as Dioctophyma renale. The eggs were characterized by a birefringent striated double wall. The presence of cross sections of adult worms of D. renale in human tissue has not been previously described. Another unique feature of this case was that the right kidney was intact, as examined grossly at laparotomy and by intravenous pyelography. Eggs were not detected in the urine.

  11. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  12. Worm Control in Livestock: Bringing Science to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Hutchings, Fiona; Morgan-Davies, Claire; van Dijk, Jan; Bartley, Dave J

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections are ubiquitous in grazing livestock. Chemical control through the frequent 'blanket' administration of anthelmintics (wormers) has been, and remains, the cornerstone in controlling these infections, but this practice is unsustainable. Alternative strategies are available but, even with the plethora of best practice advice available, have yet to be integrated into routine farming practice. This is probably due to a range of factors, including contradictory advice from different sources, changes to advice following increased scientific understanding, and top-down knowledge exchange patterns. In this article, we discuss the worm control options available, the translation of new best practice advice from science bench to field, and ideas for future work and directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David E; Weinstock, Joel V

    2009-01-01

    There is an epidemic of immune-mediated disease in highly-developed industrialized countries. Such diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and asthma increase in prevalence as populations adopt modern hygienic practices. These practices prevent exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). Epidemiologic studies suggest that people who carry helminths have less immune-mediated disease. Mice colonized with helminths are protected from disease in models of colitis, encephalitis, Type 1 diabetes and asthma. Clinical trials show that exposure to helminths reduce disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. This chapter reviews some of the work showing that colonization with helminths alters immune responses, against dysregulated inflammation. These helminth-host immune interactions have potentially important implications for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  14. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yong-Wang; Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R 0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R 0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R 0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  15. The research of hourglass worm dynamic balancing simulation based on SolidWorks motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuangzhuang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Pingyi; Zhao, Junpeng

    2018-02-01

    Hourglass worm is extensively used in industry due to its characteristic of heavy-load and a large reduction ratio. Varying sizes of unbalanced mass distribution appeared in the design of a single head worm. With machines developing towards higher speed and precision, the vibration and shock caused by the unbalanced mass distribution of rotating parts must be considered. Therefore, the balance grade of these parts must meet higher requirements. A method based on theoretical analysis and SolidWorks motion software simulation is presented in this paper; the virtual dynamic balance simulation test of the hourglass worm was carried out during the design of the product, so as to ensure that the hourglass worm meet the requirements of dynamic balance in the design process. This can effectively support the structural design of the hourglass worm and provide a way of thinking and designing the same type of products.

  16. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taishi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1976-01-01

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  17. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (1000 cells), transparent, and genetically tractable. Despite its simplicity, the worm exhibits complex phenotypes associated with multicellularity: the worm has differentiated cells and organs, it ages and has a well-defined lifespan, and it is capable of learning and remembering. This Review argues that the balance between simplicity and complexity in the worm will make it a useful tool in determining the relationship between molecular-scale phenomena and organism-level phenomena, such as aging, behavior, cognition, and disease. Following an introduction to worm biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Paula Aguiar

    Full Text Available Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR, a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, Glutathione reductase (GR, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them.

  19. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  20. Promoting positive health behaviours--'tooth worm' phenomenon and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X L; Hsu, C Y S; Xu, Y C; Loh, T; Koh, D; Hwarng, H B

    2012-03-01

    'Tooth worm' is a traditional belief about the pathogen of dental caries (tooth decay). Nevertheless, in our previous study, parental 'tooth worm' belief was linked to a reduced caries risk of their children. This study aimed to further characterize the impact of parental 'tooth worm' belief on their children's caries experience and its psychobehavioural mechanisms. analytic observational study. Thirteen randomly selected kindergartens in Singapore. 1,782 preschoolers aged 3-6 years. Each child received an oral examination and microbiological tests. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire on their socio-demographic background, oral health knowledge/attitude and child's oral health habits. Multivariate analysis confirmed a reduced chance of 'high caries rate' (number of affected teeth > 2) among children whose parents held the 'tooth worm' belief (Odds Ratio = 0.41; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.19-0.89). With such perception among parents, children brushed their teeth more frequently (p = 0.042). Since no difference in oral hygiene was observed, the health benefit of the "tooth worm" perception may be acquired through the delivery of fluoride (an agent with proven anti-caries effect) during frequent toothbrushing episodes. This study revealed a 'tooth worm' phenomenon, indicating that parental 'tooth worm' belief is associated with early establishment of regular toothbrushing habit and reduction of dental caries in children. This phenomenon and its psychobehavioural mechanisms, enriching our understanding of oral health behaviours, have implications for effective health education.

  1. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13). Snacks were served once per day (100 g) for 45 days and designed to contain similar amounts of vegetables (carrots and long beans) and other ingredients including rice, sticky rice, cassava, sweet potato, banana, or tofu with or without sago worms. Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  2. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM. By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  3. Recurrent cholangitis in the tropics: Worm or cast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biliary casts is very rare, especially in non-liver transplant patients. The etiology of these casts is uncertain but several factors have been proposed which lead to bile stasis and/or gallbladder hypo-contractility and promote cast formation. Here, we report a 54-year-old male, with diabetes and ischemic heart disease, who presented with recurrent attacks of cholangitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed linear T1 hyperintense and T2 hypointense filling defects in the right and left hepatic ducts extending into the common hepatic duct, and a calculus in the lower common bile duct, raising a suspicion of worm in the biliary tree. In view of failed attempts at extraction on endoscopy, patient underwent surgery. At exploration, biliary casts and stones were extracted from the proximal and the second order bile ducts, with the help of intraoperative choledochoscopy and a bilio-enteric anastomosis was accomplished. Although endoscopic retrieval of the biliary cast can be employed as first-line management, surgery should be considered in case it fails.

  4. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  5. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2015-10-01

    Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these regions as well. The "hygiene hypothesis" was developed to partly explain this phenomenon. It has been proposed that modern-day sanitary living has altered our exposure to organisms that provided protection from these diseases in the past. Alternations in the composition of our intestinal flora and fauna could play a role. Helminths are a group of worm-like parasitic organisms that have adapted to live in various regions of their hosts. Epidemiological and some clinical data suggest that these organisms can protect people from developing immune-mediated diseases. Animal experimentation has shown that helminths stimulate the production of regulatory cytokines, activate regulatory T cells, and induce regulatory dendritic cells and macrophages. This could be the mechanism by which they protect the host from these diseases. Early clinical studies also suggest that helminths may prove useful for treating immunological diseases. More sophisticated clinical studies are underway, testing live helminth agents as therapeutic agents. Also, a strong effort is ongoing to discover the agents produced by helminths that modulate host immune responses with an eye on developing new, highly effective immune modulatory therapeutic agent.

  6. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  7. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  8. Kilima-mrota is not a worm: the effect of conservation education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kilima-mrota is not a worm: the effect of conservation education and a local naming contest on the perspectives held by the peoples of Sagalla Hill, Kenya toward the Sagalla Caecilian Boulengerula niedeni.

  9. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  10. Worms Expelled With the Urine From a Bosniak Cyst III of the Left Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Pu; Su, Chuan; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Gu, Min

    2016-07-01

    An old fishman presented with left lumbago and finding worms in his urine. Type-B ultrasonic inspection and computed tomography scan found a Bosniak cyst III, containing several wire-like elements, in the middle of the left kidney. Expelled worms were confirmed to be Dioctophyma renale. After two courses of albendazole, the man was cured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of Optimal Temperature and Moisture for Worms Growth and Operating Vermicompost Production of Food Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    A Eslami; A Nabaey; R Rostami

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives:Nowadays vermicompost production of food wastes is posed as one of appropriate methods to food wastes. disposal, its production used in agriculture and gardening. Moreover this process has some by products beside useful fertilizer that one of them is the worms. we can use them in variety of products specially in production of poultry and fish food. So determination of optimal condition for operating vermicompost production process of food wastes and worms. growt...

  12. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-01-01

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this stud...

  13. Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-Polycaprolactone Worm Micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by poly...

  14. An Epidemic Model of Computer Worms with Time Delay and Variable Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of Internet, network security issues become increasingly serious. Temporary patches have been put on the infectious hosts, which may lose efficacy on occasions. This leads to a time delay when vaccinated hosts change to susceptible hosts. On the other hand, the worm infection is usually a nonlinear process. Considering the actual situation, a variable infection rate is introduced to describe the spread process of worms. According to above aspects, we propose a time-delayed worm propagation model with variable infection rate. Then the existence condition and the stability of the positive equilibrium are derived. Due to the existence of time delay, the worm propagation system may be unstable and out of control. Moreover, the threshold τ0 of Hopf bifurcation is obtained. The worm propagation system is stable if time delay is less than τ0. When time delay is over τ0, the system will be unstable. In addition, numerical experiments have been performed, which can match the conclusions we deduce. The numerical experiments also show that there exists a threshold in the parameter a, which implies that we should choose appropriate infection rate β(t to constrain worm prevalence. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out to prove the validity of our conclusions.

  15. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-05-10

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  16. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  17. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.M.; Subhani, A.; Hassan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  18. Treatment of Schistosoma mansoni with miltefosine in vitro enhances serological recognition of defined worm surface antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa H El-Faham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Miltefosine, an anti-cancer drug that has been successfully repositioned for treatment of Leishmania infections, has recently also shown promising effects against Schistosoma spp targeting all life cycle stages of the parasite. The current study examined the effect of treating Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with miltefosine on exposure of worm surface antigens in vitro.In an indirect immunofluorescence assay, rabbit anti-S.mansoni adult worm homogenate and anti-S. mansoni infection antisera gave strong immunofluorescence of the S. mansoni adult worm surface after treatment with miltefosine, the latter antiserum having previously been shown to synergistically enhance the schistosomicidal activity of praziquantel. Rabbit antibodies that recognised surface antigens exposed on miltefosine-treated worms were recovered by elution off the worm surface in low pH buffer and were used in a western immunoblotting assay to identify antigenic targets in a homogenate extract of adult worms (SmWH. Four proteins reacting with the antibodies in immunoblots were purified and proteomic analysis (MS/MS combined with specific immunoblotting indicated they were the S. mansoni proteins: fructose-1,6 bisphosphate aldolase (SmFBPA, Sm22.6, alkaline phosphatase and malate dehydrogenase. These antibodies were also found to bind to the surface of 3-hour schistosomula and induce immune agglutination of the parasites, suggesting they may have a role in immune protection.This study reveals a novel mode of action of miltefosine as an anti-schistosome agent. The immune-dependent hypothesis we investigated has previously been lent credence with praziquantel (PZQ, whereby treatment unmasks parasite surface antigens not normally exposed to the host during infection. Antigens involved in this molecular mechanism could have potential as intervention targets and antibodies against these antigens may act to increase the drug's anti-parasite efficacy and be involved in the development

  19. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

    2012-03-01

    Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  1. Worm grunting, fiddling, and charming--humans unknowingly mimic a predator to harvest bait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis. This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called "worm grunting". In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that "worm grunters" unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of "rare predators" in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race.

  2. Guinea worm infection in northern Nigeria: reflections on a disease approaching eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Greenwood, Alice; Bradley, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Global eradication of the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) is near, although perhaps delayed a little by the discovery of a transmission cycle in dogs. It is therefore an appropriate time to reflect on the severe impact of this infection on the life of the communities where it was endemic prior to the start of the global eradication programme in 1981. From 1971 to 1974, we conducted a series of unpublished studies on guinea worm in a group of villages in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, where the infection was highly endemic. These studies demonstrated the high rate of infection in affected communities, the frequent recurrence of the infection in some subjects and the long-standing disability that remained in some infected individuals. Immunological studies showed a high level of immediate hypersensitivity to adult worm and larval antigens but a downregulation of Th1-type T-cell responses to worm antigens. Freeing communities such as those described in this article from the scourge of guinea worm infection for good will be an important public health triumph. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  4. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the analysis of the biochemical composition of C. elegans worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ming; Gorzsás, András; Tuck, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Changes in intermediary metabolism have profound effects on many aspects of C. elegans biology including growth, development and behavior. However, many traditional biochemical techniques for analyzing chemical composition require relatively large amounts of starting material precluding the analysis of mutants that cannot be grown in large amounts as homozygotes. Here we describe a technique for detecting changes in the chemical compositions of C. elegans worms by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. We demonstrate that the technique can be used to detect changes in the relative levels of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in one and the same worm. We suggest that Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy represents a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for metabolic studies of C. elegans worms.

  5. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  6. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency

  7. Hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone worm micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E

    2005-09-21

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation-induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by polycaprolactone hydrolysis, with distinct mechanism and kinetics from that which occurs in bulk material.

  8. Schistosoma mansoni: effects of anesthetics and antimonial drugs on worm shift in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were injected with sodium thiopental or sodium antimonyl gluconate (Triostib R, or submitted to halothane inhalation, with or without a previous injection of thiopental. Data obtained showed that halothane and thiopental induce worm shift to the liver (99 and 76%, respectively. Sodium gluconate and antimonium (Triostib R shifted 52% of worms towards the liver. These results seem to indicate that the use of antimonium would be unnecessary, when surgical removal of schistosomules is carried out through the extracorporeal filtration technique, in patients with portal hypertension.

  9. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  10. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  11. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  12. The effect of antibiotic- and hydrocortisone-containing ointments in preventing secondary infections in guinea worm disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, P.; Yakubu, A.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    A randomized, single-blind, controlled study comparing the efficacy of an ointment containing two antibiotics, one containing one antibiotic plus hydrocortisone, and no treatment in reducing secondary infections in patients with patent Guinea worm was undertaken in the northern region of Ghana. S...... for application at the early stage of patent Guinea worm infection....

  13. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Mueller Fox

    Full Text Available Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks-one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFNγ production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths.

  14. A deformable magnetizable worm in a magnetic field-A prototype of a mobile crawling robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Klaus [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany)]. E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de; Naletova, Vera A. [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Zeidis, Igor [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany); Turkov, Vladimir A. [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Kolev, Emil [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany); Lukashevich, Mikhail V. [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Stepanov, Gennadij V. [State Research Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 38, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    The paper deals with the deformation and worm-like motion of a magnetizable elastic body in an alternate magnetic field from an experimental and a theoretically point of view. Theoretically (analytically and numerically) calculated results of the body velocity are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Unravelling the protein preference of aquatic worms during waste activated sludge degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) by Tubifex tubifex was investigated using waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrate. In order to better understand the sludge degradation mechanisms during WP, the activity of five common hydrolytic enzymes was determined and compared among the initial feed activated

  16. The life-cycle of the compost worm (Oligochaeta) | Venter | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia fetida as waste processor and as source of protein, the life-cycle of this species had to be studied thoroughly. The development, growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida were studied on cattle manure under favourable conditions of moisture, temperature and ...

  17. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  18. Influence of Parasitic Worm Infections on Allergy Diagnosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoah, Abena S.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Ree, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies from Sub-Saharan Africa indicate that allergies are on the rise in this region especially in urban compared to rural areas. This increase has been linked to improved hygiene, lifestyle changes, and lower exposure to pathogens in childhood. Reduced exposure to parasitic worm

  19. From early lessons to new frontiers: The worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Youngman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, the tiny soil nematode C. elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNAi pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  20. An analysis on the re-emergence of SQL Slammer worm using network telescope data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chindipha, SD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The SQL Slammer worm is a self propagated computer virus that caused a denial of service on some Internet hosts and dramatically slowed down general Internet traffic. An observation of network traffic captured in the Rhodes University’s network...

  1. Microbial stability of worm castings and sugarcane filter mud compost blended with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic amendments such as worm castings and filter mud compost can provide nutrient rich substrates for enhanced plant growth. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of these substrates might be enhanced with the addition of biochar. A series of experiments was carried out to determine the stab...

  2. Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.P.; Sands, D.P.A.; Spradbery, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for 32 P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

  3. Some parasitic worms in freshwater fishes and fish-predators from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report concerns a collection of parasitic worms from South Africa, and contains a new species of monogenean, Gyrodactylus transvaalensis, six species of adult trematodes, including a new species of Phyllodistomum.P. van der waali, two metacercariae of the Family Clinostomidae and three of the Order Strigeida, ...

  4. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  5. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  6. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  7. Sediment-worm interaction: transfer of 65Zn from marine silt by the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.; Benayoun, G.

    1976-01-01

    Marine polychaete worms (Nereis diversicolor) accumulated 65 Zn sorbed to silty marine sediment for 5 days and were then transferred to nonradioactive sediment in the laboratory and in the sea. The mean biological half-life (T/sub B//2/) for the laboratory worms did not differ greatly from that for worms in the sea. Worms living in small flowing seawater systems containing 16 cm 3 of sediment accumulated 65 Zn added to each system in the form of radioactive organic detritus. Higher percentage uptake of 65 Zn was from radioactive detritus particles 0.2 to 2 mm in diameter resting on the sediment surface or mixed with sediment than from finely-ground ( 65 Zn coprecipitated from fresh water with Fe(OH) 3 was accumulated by N. diversicolor when the precipitate was on the sediment surface than when the precipitate was well mixed with the sediment. These experimental results indicate that benthic organisms may take up limited amounts of heavy metals associated with bottom sediments and recycle them to benthic and pelagic food webs

  8. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  9. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  10. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Ummu; Hambal, Muhammad; Rinidar; Athaillah, Farida; Ismail; Azhar; Vanda, Henni; Darmawi

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii . Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl 3 , Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii , and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope. We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms. We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

  11. Evaluation of integrated sludge worm and catfish farming with biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Pardiansyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCurrently, supply of sludge worm (Tubifex sp. merely came from wild, so that it could not meet demand for fish hatchery. Additionally, harvest from the wild did not have a quality assurance, due to the possibility of sludge worm becoming an agent of disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the production of sludge worm culture by utilizing catfish culture waste (Clarias sp. in bioflok system. In this system, water from catfish culture media flowed into sludge worm culture media using recirculation systems. This study used a completely randomized design with four treatments and two replications, in which treatment A (addition of catfish culture waste from intensive system, treatment B (addition of catfish culture waste from biofloc system, treatment C (the addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment as negative control, and treatment D (addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment and then every five days as positive control. The results showed that the highest production was obtained by treatment B at biomass growth of 0.97 kg/m2 and sludge worm density of 388.000 individu/m2. Keywords: sludge worm, biofloc, chicken manure, catfish, catfish culture waste  ABSTRAK Saat ini pasokan cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. hanya berasal dari alam, sehingga belum mencukupi permintaan untuk kegiatan pembenihan ikan. Selain itu, hasil tangkapan dari alam tidak memiliki jaminan kualitas, karena cacing sutra dapat menjadi agen penyakit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi hasil produksi budidaya cacing sutra dengan memanfaatkan limbah budidaya ikan lele (Clarias sp. sistem bioflok. Pada sistem ini, air dari media budidaya ikan lele dialirkan ke media pemeliharaan cacing sutra menggunakan sistem resirkulasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan dua ulangan, yaitu perlakuan A (pemberian limbah ikan lele sistem intensif, perlakuan B (pemberian limbah ikan lele

  12. Additional file 4: Figure S2. of WorMachine: machine learning-based phenotypic analysis tool for worms

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Adam; Mor, Yael; Toker, Itai; Levine, Amir; Neuhof, Moran; Markovitz, Yishai; Rechavi, Oded

    2018-01-01

    Features used to establish worm masculinity. Violin plots show the morphological features (A) and fluorescent features (B) used to determine the masculinity of him-5; [tph-1p::GFP] worms. A total of 545 pre-labeled worms of each sex were used for analysis (****p < 10–4, ***p < 10–3, *p < 0.05, two-tailed t test after α = 0.01 trimming to exclude extreme outliers with false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons). Only features that were significantly distinct and had pl...

  13. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...

  14. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  15. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  16. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  17. Smart worm-like micelles responsive to CO2/N2 and light dual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wang, Guozheng; Ma, Yuxuan; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2017-04-12

    CO 2 /N 2 and light dual stimuli-responsive worm-like micelles (WLMs) were obtained by addition of a relatively small amount of a switchable surfactant, 4-butyl-4'-(4-N,N-dimethylhexyloxy-amine) azobenzene bicarbonate (AZO-B6-CO 2 ), sensitive to the same triggers to a binary aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal).

  18. Valorisation of waste streams from by-product to worm biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Laarhoven, Bob

    2017-01-01

    There is a global demand for more feed resources to keep up with the increasing production of livestock. The hunger for resources is most urgent in the aquaculture sector, which to a large degree depends on the non-sustainable use of fish oil/ meal from wild fish. Aquatic macro invertebrates such as the freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae, common name blackworms, further abbreviated as Lv) are rich in proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. When cultivated on s...

  19. Online decision trees to support the control of gastrointestinal worms in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Regine; Dämmrich, Michaela; Ploeger, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Control of gastrointestinal worms is crucial to any pasture system for ruminants. To support the farmer's foresighted planning of pasturage and to avoid excessive deworm-ing in Germany we created four decision trees and put them online. They are freely accessible at www.weide-parasiten.de. There is one decision tree for young first season cattle in intensive dairy husbandry, one decision tree for young cattle in suckling-cow management and one decision tree for sheep and goats, respectively.

  20. Liesegang rings in tissue. How to distinguish Liesegang rings from the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuur, S M; Nelson, A M; Gibson, D W; Neafie, R C; Johnson, F B; Mostofi, F K; Connor, D H

    1987-08-01

    Liesegang rings (LRs) are periodic precipitation zones from supersaturated solutions in colloidal systems. They are formed by a process that involves an interplay of diffusion, nucleation, flocculation or precipitation, and supersaturation. Examples include LRs of calcium carbonate in oölitic limestone (in nature), LRs of silver chromate in gelatin (in vitro), and LRs of glycoprotein in pulmonary corpora amylacea (in vivo). Here we describe LRs in lesions from 29 patients--mostly lesions of the kidney, synovium, conjunctiva, and eyelid. The LRs formed in cysts, or in fibrotic, inflamed, or necrotic tissue. The LRs in this study varied greatly in shape and size, measuring 7-800 microns. Special stains and energy-dispersive radiographic analysis or scanning electron microscopy revealed that some LRs contained calcium, iron (hemosiderin), silicon, and sulfur. Some pathologists have mistaken LRs for eggs, larvae, or adults of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. D. renale is a large blood-red nematode that infects a variety of fish-eating mammals, especially mink. Fourteen documented infections of humans have been recorded, usually with adult worms expelled from the urethra. The adult worms are probably the largest helminth to parasitize humans. Eggs of D. renale are constant in size (60-80 microns X 39-47 microns), contain an embryo, and have characteristic sculpturing of the shell. Liesegang rings should not be mistaken for eggs, larvae, or adults of D. renale, or for any other helminth.

  1. Chemical Composition and Nutrient Digestibility of Super Worm Meal in Red Tilapia Juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Abd Rahman Jabir*, S. A. Razak and S. Vikineswary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of super worm (Zophobas morio meal were determined for fish feed formulations. Experiments were conducted to compare super worm meal (SWM with fish meal (FM as main protein sources for fish diets. Super worm had lower protein content (42.83% compared to fish meal (52.64%. SWM contained high percentage (40.01% of lipids along with quality protein and this made it a suitable replacement for FM. SWM contained seventeen amino acids including the essential amino acids. All eight essential amino acids present were similar in values except for methionine which showed a large difference with 5.75 (mg/g crude protein and 21.17 (mg/g crude protein for SWM and FM respectively. SWM contained higher percentage of arginine and glutamic acid while the rest of the essential amino acids were lower than those present in FM. The fatty acid profile of SWM also showed a good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.87. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of protein in SWM diet was lowest (50.53±6.08% and significantly different (P<0.05 from that of FM diet (77.48±0.53%. Lipid digestibility of SWM based diet was significantly lower (69.76±3.72% than that of FM value (91.51±0.21%. However, SWM-based diets fulfilled the requirements of fish recommended by FAO.

  2. Bacterial endosymbioses of gutless tube-dwelling worms in nonhydrothermal vent habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Elsaied, Hosam E; Hoshii, Daiki; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Gutless tube-dwelling worms of pogonophorans (also known as frenulates) and vestimentiferans depend on primary production of endosymbiotic bacteria. The endosymbionts include thiotrophs that oxidize sulfur for autotrophic production and methanotrophs that oxidize and assimilate methane. Although most of the pogonophoran and vestimentiferan tube worms possess single thiotrophic 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) related to gamma-proteobacteria, some pogonohorans are known to bear single methanotroph species or even dual symbionts of thiotrophs and methanotrophs. The vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. L1 shows symbiotic 16S rDNA sequences of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and epsilon-proteobacteria, varying among specimens, with RuBisCO form II gene (cbbM) sequences related to beta-proteobacteria. An unidentified pogonophoran from the world's deepest cold seep, 7326-m deep in the Japan Trench, hosts a symbiotic thiotroph based on 16S rDNA with the RuBisCO form I gene (cbbL). In contrast, a shallow-water pogonophoran (Oligobrachia mashikoi) in coastal Japan Sea has a methanotrophic 16S rDNA and thiotrophic cbbL, which may suggest the feature of type X methanotrophs. These observations demonstrate that pogonophoran and vestimentiferan worms have higher plasticity in bacterial symbioses than previously suspected.

  3. Potential Test of Irradiated Vaccine for Haemonchus Contortus Worm and Food Supplement on Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukardji Partodiharjo; Arifin, M.; Endang Yuliawati; Enuh Rahardjo

    2004-01-01

    An experiment of vaccines was carried out is one of Nematoda worm present in abomasums or stomach of sheep or goat. The case in the field was high enough, may teach 60% the aim of this study is on observe the effect of gastric worm vaccination irradiated 5000 L 3 post challenge wild strain 5000 L 3 , The parameter of observe were clinic, blood twice description number of adult worms, with 3 treatments as follows; control (K), V 2 = twice vaccinations without challenge V 1 twice vaccinations with challenge. The result of the study the average of gain (gram); V 1 =97, V 2 =91 and K=31.20 (P 6 ), V 1 =6.50, V 2 =5.90 and K=6.10 (P 1 =29.30, V 2 =35.30 and K=27.50 (P 3 ), V 1 =9.30, V 2 =9.00 and K=7.40 (P 1 =8.30, V 2 =9.50 and K=6.20 (P 1 immunity respond of weight gain, erythrocyte and leucocyte to have immunity which is better than the respond of other treatments. (author)

  4. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  5. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  6. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance on polychaete worm tubes and age-0 flatfish distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a field experiment that examined how juvenile flatfish distribution changed with worm tube heterogeneity, i.e. density and patchiness.

  8. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  9. In vitro effects of amodiaquine on paired Schistosoma mansoni adult worms at concentrations of less than 5 µg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 µg/mL, but not at 0.5 µg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 µg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 µg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.

  10. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.

  11. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  12. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  13. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P 1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F 1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F 1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F 1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F 1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F 1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-06-08

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology.

  15. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  16. WormScan: a technique for high-throughput phenotypic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Mathew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are four main phenotypes that are assessed in whole organism studies of Caenorhabditis elegans; mortality, movement, fecundity and size. Procedures have been developed that focus on the digital analysis of some, but not all of these phenotypes and may be limited by expense and limited throughput. We have developed WormScan, an automated image acquisition system that allows quantitative analysis of each of these four phenotypes on standard NGM plates seeded with E. coli. This system is very easy to implement and has the capacity to be used in high-throughput analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our system employs a readily available consumer grade flatbed scanner. The method uses light stimulus from the scanner rather than physical stimulus to induce movement. With two sequential scans it is possible to quantify the induced phototactic response. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we measured the phenotypic response of C. elegans to phosphine gas exposure. We found that stimulation of movement by the light of the scanner was equivalent to physical stimulation for the determination of mortality. WormScan also provided a quantitative assessment of health for the survivors. Habituation from light stimulation of continuous scans was similar to habituation caused by physical stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing systems for the automated phenotypic data collection of C. elegans. The specific advantages of our method over existing systems are high-throughput assessment of a greater range of phenotypic endpoints including determination of mortality and quantification of the mobility of survivors. Our system is also inexpensive and very easy to implement. Even though we have focused on demonstrating the usefulness of WormScan in toxicology, it can be used in a wide range of additional C. elegans studies including lifespan determination, development, pathology and behavior. Moreover, we have even adapted the

  17. Insurance against an Old World screw-worm fly invasion of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddle, Neil; Mahon, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    Australia is fortunate that neither the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (NWSWF) nor the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (OWSWF), have become established within our country, although much of the northern areas are environmentally suitable (Suthurst et al. 1989). The OWSWF is a substantial threat as it is prevalent in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Perhaps more importantly, it is also present in many of our trading partners in Southeast Asia. The export of live cattle from northern Australian ports to Southeast Asian nations has become an important and rapidly expanding trade. The fly is also present near ports in the Middle East which receive considerable numbers of live sheep exported from various Australian ports. In both situations, there is the ever-present opportunity for the screw-worm fly (SWF) to return to Australia as larvae, pupae or adults on stock carrying vessels. While this means of transport probably represents the most likely route for the pest to gain access to Australia, accidental transport on aircraft and active myiases on humans or companion animals remain possibilities. The introduction of the NWSWF into Australia is considered unlikely, but not impossible. Indeed, in 1992, an Australian tourist returning from South America carried live NWSWF larvae into Australia in a neck wound. Fortunately, the diagnosis was made early and the wound was treated, preventing any larvae evacuating. This was in southern Australia in May, where climatic conditions are unlikely to favour survival at that time of the year, but it demonstrates the potential for inadvertent introduction. Models of the impact of the OWSWF indicate that the cost of an invasion would be high. It has been estimated by Anaman et al. (1993), that the annual cost in an average climate year to beef cattle, sheep and dairy producers of an endemic establishment would be A$281 million. These costs would be

  18. Production and characterization of monospecific adult worm infections of Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J R; Chapman, M R; Klei, T R

    1994-02-01

    Since 1978, 20 surgical implantations of either Strongylus vulgaris or Strongylus edentatus have been performed in our laboratory for the purpose of obtaining single species cultures of these parasites. Following surgical implantation peak EPG values of 13-327 (S. vulgaris) and 363-1284 (S. edentatus) generally occurred during the first 3 weeks post-implantation. Duration of infections was as long as 5 years. Successful outcome of such surgeries appears to be related to the total number of parasites used (> or = 38) and the ratio of female to male worms implanted (1:1 or 2:1).

  19. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12 in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63 were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the

  20. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp.) in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys; Mamani-Pati Francisco; Sainz-Mendoza Humberto; Villca-Huanaco René

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp.) in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered) and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW) in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis). The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greate...

  1. First record of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. FERRERO-VICENTE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 have been collected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, thus increasing the number of known sipunculan species of up to 36 in this area. They were encountered on soft bottoms from the coast of San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean. Thirty specimens were collected at a depth ranging from 32.6 to 37.2 m, mainly in sandy substrata with high load of silt and clays. 80% of the individuals were found inhabiting empty shells of gastropods or empty tubes of serpulid polychaetes.

  2. Analysis and testing of model worm type tanks on shaking table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the summary of the lectures, notes and discussions at the IAEA workshop on Benchmark studies for seismic analysis of WWER NPPs, held in 1995 at St. Petersburg. The specific subject of main interest at the meeting was the testing of unanchored worm-type tanks in the emergency cooling systems of WWER-440/213 NPPs such as Paks and Bohunice. Seismic forces were not considered in the original design, therefore this is one of the important tasks in the assessment of seismic vulnerabilities of the WWER NPPs

  3. Delay Induced Hopf Bifurcation of an Epidemic Model with Graded Infection Rates for Internet Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed SEIQRS worm propagation model with different infection rates for the exposed computers and the infectious computers is investigated in this paper. The results are given in terms of the local stability and Hopf bifurcation. Sufficient conditions for the local stability and the existence of Hopf bifurcation are obtained by using eigenvalue method and choosing the delay as the bifurcation parameter. In particular, the direction and the stability of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated by means of the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, a numerical example is also presented to support the obtained theoretical results.

  4. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad), in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus), experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains), by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a) non-irradiated (control groups), and b) irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60). From the 33 rd day on, some stability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90 th day), notedly in relation to the LE strain . Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad) is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61 st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immuno-protection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immuno-pathological involvements for the host) are here discussed. (author)

  5. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva R, Samy; Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina; Aburto, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min) -1 and 37.1 Gy min -1 , respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  6. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva R, Samy; Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)], e-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl, e-mail: paguirre@cchen.cl, e-mail: ssilva@cchen.cl; Aburto, Patricio [Expo Agro (Chile)], e-mail: expoag@expoag.cl

    2009-07-01

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min){sup -1} and 37.1 Gy min{sup -1}, respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  7. Effect of gamma-rays on some technologic properties of cocoon and filament of the silk worm (Bombyx mori L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkh, T.T.; Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of silk worm eggs with 1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00 and 7.00 Gy gamma-rays on some major technologic properties of cocoons and filament of the mulbery silk worm was studied. Single irradiation of silk worm during the phase of highest lengthening of nucleus development causes both stimulating and inhibitory effect on the technologic properties of the cocoons and the filament. The degree of stimulation or inhibition is dependent on the irradiation dose, the specificity of technologic processes and biologic characteristics of silk worm species and hybrids. Gamma-irradiation with doses 2.00 and 3.00 Gy stimulates the increase in weight of silk covering by 2.07-8.28%, raw cocoon silkness by 0.38-3.21 points and length of cocoon filament by 40-151 m. Irradiation of silk worm eggs with 2.00-4.00 Gy gamma-rays decreases by 1.4-2.3 kg (12.61-21.91%) the quantity of raw cocoons, required for production of 1 kg grege. 9 refs., 4 tabs. (author)

  8. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Razzaq

    Full Text Available Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered (SEIDQR(S/I along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.

  9. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  10. Histological changes in the testes of gamma irradiated cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.). Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; Ibrahim, S M; El-Naggar, S M [Department of biological applications, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abel--Gawad, A A; Assar, M M [Plant protection Department, Faculty of Africulture Moshtohor, Zagazig University cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Male adults, less than 24 hours, of cotton leaf worm, S. Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy and mated with normal females. The resulting males of each generation were used for mating normal females throughout three successive generations. Dissection of adult male parents immediately after irradiation showed no histological effects on testes. The volumes of testes of F{sub 1}, F{sub 2} and F{sub 3} generations of cotton leaf worm male moths were significantly affected by the radiation doses applied to parental males. The effects on internal anatomy and histology of the male reproductive system confirm that Gy had minimal effect on the volume and the structure of the testes among the three successive generations. Most of the sperm bundles appeared normal and the individual sperm was fully formed indicating normal metamorphosis. However, a dose of 150 Gy showed morphological abnormalities and retardation in sperm maturation. At 200 Gy the volume and structure of the testes were severely affected. Damage in the testes was highest among F{sub 1}, and was minimized in the other generations. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Pyron, R Alexander; Pisani, Davide; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-07

    Worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) are burrowing squamates that live as subterranean predators. Their underground existence should limit dispersal, yet they are widespread throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. This pattern was traditionally explained by continental drift, but molecular clocks suggest a Cenozoic diversification, long after the break-up of Pangaea, implying dispersal. Here, we describe primitive amphisbaenians from the North American Palaeocene, including the oldest known amphisbaenian, and provide new and older molecular divergence estimates for the clade, showing that worm lizards originated in North America, then radiated and dispersed in the Palaeogene following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) extinction. This scenario implies at least three trans-oceanic dispersals: from North America to Europe, from North America to Africa and from Africa to South America. Amphisbaenians provide a striking case study in biogeography, suggesting that the role of continental drift in biogeography may be overstated. Instead, these patterns support Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis that the geographical ranges of modern clades result from dispersal, including oceanic rafting. Mass extinctions may facilitate dispersal events by eliminating competitors and predators that would otherwise hinder establishment of dispersing populations, removing biotic barriers to dispersal. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation sensitivity and gene expression in Enchytraeus japonensis, a species of earth worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of radiological protection of the environment based on scientific principles is gaining international recognition as environment issues garner more attention. Earthworm (annelids) is a ubiquitous soil invertebrate known to play an important role in the maintenance of the soil ecosystem and thus selected as one of 12 kinds of reference animals and plants by the ICRP. In the present study, radiation sensitivity and gene expression in a recently described terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus japonensis (E. japonensis) were studied. E. japonensis worms were acutely irradiated at increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the number of worms after 30 days of radiation was examined. The dose effectively inhibiting 50% of proliferation was approximately 22 Gy, which was comparable to the dose required to elicit growth inhibition in other earthworm species. In order to seek other biological endpoints for more sensitive and/or quicker assessment of radiation effects, gene expression profiling in E. japonensis was also performed, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase I (PARP I) was identified as a radiation-responsive gene. PARP I transcript level increased dose-dependently. (author)

  14. Comparison of various extraction techniques for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, D; Hoogerbrugge, R; Stoffelsen, B H G; Dijkman, E; Berkhoff, C J; Hogendoorn, E A

    2002-10-25

    Two less laborious extraction methods, viz. (i) a simplified liquid extraction using light petroleum or (ii) microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE), for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of the compost worm Eisenia andrei, were compared with a reference method. After extraction and concentration, analytical methodology consisted of a cleanup of (part) of the extract with high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and instrumental analysis of 15 PAHs with reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (RPLC-FLD). Comparison of the methods was done by analysing samples with incurred residues (n=15, each method) originating from an experiment in which worms were exposed to a soil contaminated with PAHs. Simultaneously, the performance of the total lipid determination of each method was established. Evaluation of the data by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the performance of the light petroleum method for both the extraction of PAHs (concentration range 1-30 ng/g) and lipid content corresponds very well with the reference method. Compared to the reference method, the MASE method yielded somewhat lower concentrations for the less volatile PAHs, e.g., dibenzo[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene and provided a significant higher amount of co-extracted material.

  15. The landscape of human genes involved in the immune response to parasitic worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumagalli Matteo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from helminth infections. The highest parasite burdens occur in children and helminth infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and reduced birth weight. Therefore, helminth infections can be regarded as a strong selective pressure. Results Here we propose that candidate susceptibility genes for parasitic worm infections can be identified by searching for SNPs that display a strong correlation with the diversity of helminth species/genera transmitted in different geographic areas. By a genome-wide search we identified 3478 variants that correlate with helminth diversity. These SNPs map to 810 distinct human genes including loci involved in regulatory T cell function and in macrophage activation, as well as leukocyte integrins and co-inhibitory molecules. Analysis of functional relationships among these genes identified complex interaction networks centred around Th2 cytokines. Finally, several genes carrying candidate targets for helminth-driven selective pressure also harbour susceptibility alleles for asthma/allergy or are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness, therefore expanding the known parallelism between these conditions and parasitic infections. Conclusions Our data provide a landscape of human genes that modulate susceptibility to helminths and indicate parasitic worms as one of the major selective forces in humans.

  16. Bifurcation Analysis for an SEIRS-V Model with Delays on the Transmission of Worms in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation for an SEIRS-V model with delays on the transmission of worms in a wireless sensor network is investigated. We focus on existence of the Hopf bifurcation by regarding the diverse delay as a bifurcation parameter. The results show that propagation of worms in the wireless sensor network can be controlled when the delay is suitably small under some certain conditions. Then, we study properties of the Hopf bifurcation by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, we give a numerical example to support the theoretical results.

  17. Study on the effect of gamma-radiation on the development of silk worm (Bombyx mori L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekov, D.

    1995-01-01

    These investigations are of special interest to the breeding practice considering the lack of profound research activity. The main purpose was to find out possibilities of using gamma-rays as a mutagenic factor in sericulture. The results obtained show that the irradiation of silk worm eggs at b 2 stage of embryo development with 5 Gy stimulates the biological development. The irradiation doses of 10-25 Gy inhibit mulberry silk worm development. The different species react in different way. Probably mutation forms are to be sought within 10-25 Gy doses. 10 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  18. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennafirme, Simone F.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles within the

  19. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennafirme, Simone F., E-mail: sipennafirme@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Marinha; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: machado@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles

  20. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3%) and 238 goat flocks (52.6%) were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6%) and goat (85.1%) flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year) in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007), whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance

  1. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  2. Phytoplankton reduction in near-bottom water caused by filter-feeding Nereis diversicolor - Implications for worm growth and population grazing impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.; Poulsen, L.

    1996-01-01

    reduced specific growth rate of worms at the sea floor (0.2 ± 1.1% d-1), compared to worms elevated just 10 cm above the sediment surface (2.5 ± 0.8% d-1), indicates that extremely meagre food conditions may be prevailing at the bottom. Experimental laboratory data on the development of vertical algal...

  3. Low temperature industrial waste heat utilization in the area 'Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal-Worms'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunold, K.; Krebs, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is the elaboration of reliable facts whether and under which conditions low temperature industrial waste heat systems can be economically utilized for heating purposes. The source of the waste heat are power- and industrial plants. In order to obtain reliable results, investigations have been carried out in the area Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal and Worms. These investigations showed a number of application possibilities for heat pumps and it became moreover evident that there is a high variaiton of the heat requirement due to social components and the different type of building structures of the consumers. The economic results showed that the application of this heating system can under certain conditions supplement resp. replace other heating systems. (orig.) [de

  4. Economic impact of eradicating the New World screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) from Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Trang T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the economic feasibility of eradicating the New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, from Jamaica. The endemic presence of the NWS in Jamaica has caused the livestock sector to incur recurrent economic costs and losses. Eradication of the pest utilising the environmentally-benign sterile insect technique (SIT) has proved technologically feasible on other islands and other parts of the world. Based on these successful experiences, the proposed project to eradicate the NWS from Jamaica is expected to be similarly effective in eliminating the pest from Jamaica in a relatively short period of time. The elimination of the pest from the Caribbean would lessen the significant risk of re-infestation of eradicated areas and pest-free countries in the region

  5. WormGUIDES: an interactive single cell developmental atlas and tool for collaborative multidimensional data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Anthony; Catena, Raúl; Kovacevic, Ismar; Shah, Pavak; Yu, Zidong; Marquina-Solis, Javier; Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Schaff, James; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari; Mohler, William A; Bao, Zhirong

    2015-06-09

    Imaging and image analysis advances are yielding increasingly complete and complicated records of cellular events in tissues and whole embryos. The ability to follow hundreds to thousands of cells at the individual level demands a spatio-temporal data infrastructure: tools to assemble and collate knowledge about development spatially in a manner analogous to geographic information systems (GIS). Just as GIS indexes items or events based on their spatio-temporal or 4D location on the Earth these tools would organize knowledge based on location within the tissues or embryos. Developmental processes are highly context-specific, but the complexity of the 4D environment in which they unfold is a barrier to assembling an understanding of any particular process from diverse sources of information. In the same way that GIS aids the understanding and use of geo-located large data sets, software can, with a proper frame of reference, allow large biological data sets to be understood spatially. Intuitive tools are needed to navigate the spatial structure of complex tissue, collate large data sets and existing knowledge with this spatial structure and help users derive hypotheses about developmental mechanisms. Toward this goal we have developed WormGUIDES, a mobile application that presents a 4D developmental atlas for Caenorhabditis elegans. The WormGUIDES mobile app enables users to navigate a 3D model depicting the nuclear positions of all cells in the developing embryo. The identity of each cell can be queried with a tap, and community databases searched for available information about that cell. Information about ancestry, fate and gene expression can be used to label cells and craft customized visualizations that highlight cells as potential players in an event of interest. Scenes are easily saved, shared and published to other WormGUIDES users. The mobile app is available for Android and iOS platforms. WormGUIDES provides an important tool for examining developmental

  6. Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infections in dogs from Northern Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tizianne Larissa Duim Ribeiro; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; dos Reis, Antônio Carlos Faria; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2007-04-30

    This article describes the pathological observations of Dioctophyma renale in dogs from the northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil. A female, 6-year-old dog, Fila Brasileiro breed and a 16-year-old, male Poodle were diagnosed positive for D. renale during routine necropsy. Clinically, both dogs demonstrated hematuria, and the Poodle had a radiographic diagnosis of prostatic tumor, but neither had a clinical diagnosis of this infection prior to necropsy. Three giant worms were observed in the urinary bladder of the first case and one within the renal pelvis of the other dog. Histological findings were similar in both cases and represented compressive atrophy due to the presence of the nematode. Additionally, aspects of the life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology associated with this parasitism in Brazil are also discussed.

  7. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  8. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-01-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 10 5 s) and promising great read durability (10 6 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices. (paper)

  9. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, Ayad A.; Al-Izzi, Mohammed A.J.; Jassim, Fadhil A.

    2000-01-01

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  10. A Worm Algorithm for the Lattice CP(N-1) Model arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than the one for simulating 4D QCD. However to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose and test a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications.

  11. Lessons from "lower" organisms: what worms, flies, and zebrafish can teach us about human energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Schlegel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic of metabolic diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, unleashed by multiple social and economic factors beyond the control of most individuals, threatens to diminish human life span for the first time in the modern era. Given the redundancy and inherent complexity of processes regulating the uptake, transport, catabolism, and synthesis of nutrients, magic bullets to target these diseases will be hard to find. Recent studies using the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the zebrafish Danio rerio indicate that these "lower" metazoans possess unique attributes that should help in identifying, investigating, and even validating new pharmaceutical targets for these diseases. We summarize findings in these organisms that shed light on highly conserved pathways of energy homeostasis.

  12. Study of the stability of a SEIRS model for computer worm propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.; Hernández Encinas, L.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, malware is the most important threat to information security. In this sense, several mathematical models to simulate malware spreading have appeared. They are compartmental models where the population of devices is classified into different compartments: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. The main goal of this work is to propose an improved SEIRS (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) mathematical model to simulate computer worm propagation. It is a continuous model whose dynamic is ruled by means of a system of ordinary differential equations. It considers more realistic parameters related to the propagation; in fact, a modified incidence rate has been used. Moreover, the equilibrium points are computed and their local and global stability analyses are studied. From the explicit expression of the basic reproductive number, efficient control measures are also obtained.

  13. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  14. Concluding comments: from the worm's view, eco-pharmacodynamics and 2000 A.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbehenn, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    There may be zoonoses to study (or avoid) in your own backyard but, in any event, a closer look at parasitic worms may shed some light on processes affecting mammalian populations. Here I offer some speculation with varying degrees of empirical and theoretical support. Endoparasites of mammals have different functional relationships with their hosts than do ecotoparasites and insect parasitoids. Since death of the host usually terminates life for the endoparasite, some such parasites may have evolved mechanisms for preventing diseases in their hosts. Parasites may also promote apparent competitive exclusion among similar host species and a likely example is found among the flying squirrels in Eastern United States. Conceivably, parasites may mediate some predator-prey interactions but no examples are available. Adverse impacts of man-made organochlorine compounds, especially on predatory birds and mammals, have been documented, but the associated processes of bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification have not been clarified much beyond the stage of operational definitions

  15. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  16. Mass rearing the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, R.J.; Hamdan bin Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    Many countries within the tropics are afflicted with one of two species of screw-worm, either the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWSWF), or the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve (OWSWF). In nature, larvae of both species are obligate parasites and feed on the living flesh of mammals and to a lesser extent, birds. Female flies lay eggs at the site of a pre-existing wound or near body orifices of the host. First instar larvae feed superficially on the wound; however, larger larvae use their hooked mouthparts to burrow deep into the flesh of the host. Damaged blood vessels provide a steady stream of blood and plasma that typically oozes from the infested wound. The wound also acquires a characteristic odour. Presumably, some of the volatile components emanating from the wound, also provide strong signals to gravid female flies, as once infested, wounds become far more attractive as a site to lay eggs than uninfested wounds. As the number of larvae increases, the myiasis enlarges and the well-being of the host is threatened. In areas where gravid female SWF are numerous, the wound has little chance to heal, thus death of the host is likely unless the wound is treated and re-infestation prevented. While New and Old World species are distantly related, they are remarkably similar ecologically and in their biological characteristics. Wherever either species occurs, it is considered a serious pest of livestock. Australia is fortunate that neither species of the screw-worm is present despite evidence that extensive areas appear environmentally suitable. The OWSWF is considered the most serious threat to Australia as it is present in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. It is envisaged that the sterile insect release method (SIRM) will be employed to eradicate the OWSWF if it becomes established in Australia. To facilitate such a programme, and to reduce delays in constructing a suitable mass rearing

  17. Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H; Manuilskiy, A; Sidén, J; Gao, J; Kunninmel, G V; Nilsson, H-E; Hummelgård, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications. (paper)

  18. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  19. Accounting for Film-Forming and Damping Properties of Lubricants in Worm Gear Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Polyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers to use a curve of changing vibration amplitude of the rotating moment on the worm shaft of reducer in the process of growing brake (loading moment as one of criteria of the worm reducer operability. A condition of reducer operability at the nominal moment is lack of vibrations of the rotating moment with a critical value of amplitude.It is shown that vibrations of rotating moment on a shaft of the electric engine, by their nature, are self-vibrations in the system with "negative friction". Values of the brake moment at which there is a sharp increase of vibration amplitude leading to operability loss correspond to the nominal moment for this reducer or to the brake moment, corresponding to the maximum efficiency. It is shown that different lubricants differently influence on the generation of self-vibrations. The most efficient damping occurs when using oil with the additive "Striboil", and the reason of falling efficiency at the excess of the nominal moment is essentially increased energy losses at generation of vibrations with "negative friction", especially when approaching to the resonance area. Thus, taking into account a nature of damping vibrations, with using different lubricants, allows us to increase the permissible tension since the more is a damping value the more is a brake moment corresponding to the maximum efficiency. It is noted that, when using the additives to oils, a growth of the permissible tension is caused by the processes of film formation increasing the real contact area, which increases its share of the nominal contact area determined by the Hertz formula.

  20. Pathway of oxfendazole from the host into the worm: Trichuris suis in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina V.A. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of a single oral dose of benzimidazoles against Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is poor, but is currently still used in control programmes against human trichuriasis. However, the route of the benzimidazoles from the treated host to Trichuris remains unknown. As parts of adult Trichuris are situated intracellularly in the caecum, they might be exposed to anthelmintic drugs in the intestinal content as well as the mucosa. In this study, the pathway of oxfendazole and its metabolites was explored using a T. suis-pig infection model, by simultaneously measuring drug concentrations within the worms and the caecal mucosa, caecal tissue, caecal content and plasma of pigs over time after a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg oxfendazole. Additionally, for comparison to the in vivo study, drug uptake and metabolism of oxfendazole by T. suis was examined after in vitro incubation. Oxfendazole and metabolites were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a strong and highly significant association between OFZ concentrations within T. suis and in plasma, along with a weaker association between OFZ concentrations in caecal tissue/mucosa and T. suis, suggesting that oxfendazole reaches T. suis after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and enters the worms by the blood-enterocyte pathway. The fenbendazole sulfone level in T. suis was highly affected by the concentrations in plasma. In addition, correlations between drug concentrations in the host compartments, were generally highest for this metabolite. In comparison to oxfendazole, the correlation between plasma and content was particularly high for this metabolite, suggesting a high level of drug movement between these compartments and the possible involvement of the enterohepatic circulation. Keywords: Trichuris, Benzimidazole, Drug efficacy, Drug pathway

  1. Short-Term Effects of the Anti-sea Lice Therapeutant Emamectin Benzoate on Clam Worms (Nereis virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBriarty, G J; Kidd, K A; Burridge, L E

    2018-05-01

    The polychaete Nereis virens occurs commonly in marine sediments, is widely distributed, and is a popular bait species, as well as a potential replacement for wild-caught fish in commercial fish feed preparations. It is being considered as a potential co-extractive species for culture in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture operations. However, it is not known whether pesticides or drugs used to treat sea lice on farmed salmon, such as emamectin benzoate (EB), would adversely affect cultured or wild worms, because these compounds may persist in the environment. To determine the potential effects of EB to N. virens, bioassays were performed wherein worms were exposed in sand for 30 days to a concentration of 400 µg/kg dw (nominal). While no treatment-related mortality occurred, significant decreases in worm mass and marked behavioral changes (lack of burrowing) were observed in EB-treated sand compared with controls. These lab-based observations suggest a potential hazard to worms at sites where EB treatments have occurred.

  2. Abundance and population structure of eastern worm snakes in forest stands with various levels of overstory tree retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    In-depth analyses of a species’ response to canopy retention treatments can provide insight into reasons for observed changes in abundance. The eastern worm snake (Carphophis amoenus amoenus Say) is common in many eastern deciduous forests, yet little is known about the ecology of the species in managed forests. We examined the relationship between...

  3. A novel extracellular gut symbiont in the marine worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) reveals an alphaproteobacterial symbiont clade of the Ecdysozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over eight years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S r...

  4. Baseline study of effects of ionizing radiation on the chromosomes of the marine worm, 'Neanthes arenaceodentata'. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesch, G.G.; Young, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    Between 1946 and 1970 the United States disposed of low level radioactive waste at several sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In 1972 the Environmental Protection Agency was authorized under the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act (PL-92-532) to regulate all ocean disposal activities. This Act requires EPA to establish a program for reviewing and evaluating ocean dumping permit applications. Before EPA can approve permits for ocean dumping of radioactive waste, it will be necessary to determine how such wastes may affect marine biota. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using a marine coastal worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata, as a cytogenetic model for assessing radiation damage to ocean organisms. Groups of worms were exposed to cobalt-60, then slide preparations were made and scored for gross chromosome aberrations and damage. All the levels of ionizing radiation tested from 180-680 rads were found to cause significant chromosome damage in N. arenaceodentata. The nature of this damage depended on dose, dose-rate and DNA repair capability of the worm. Worms responded to the same dose range as do mice. Since mice are accepted models for studying radiation effects on humans, this study supports the utility of using this species to study radiation effects on marine organisms

  5. A rabbit eye model for in vivo transformation of progenetic metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum into ovigerous adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, A; Zaidi, Z A; Alam, M M; Zafar, A; Shareef, P A A; Saifullah, M K; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2014-03-01

    Clinostomum complanatum is a digenetic trematode that causes yellow grub disease in some fish species and also shows zoonotic potential by sporadically infecting humans. In this study, progenetic metacercariae of C. complanatum were obtained from the fish Trichogaster fasciatus, and were aseptically placed in conjunctival incisions made in the superior and inferior fornices of the eye of rabbits, which served as the experimental hosts. Worms were harvested without necropsy of the host on days 4 and 8 post infection, to observe in vivo transformation of the progenetic metacercariae into ovigerous adult worms. The worms appeared to cause minimal damage to the host although they were tenaciously attached. In vivo maturation was evident by the development of the vitellaria, enlargement of gonads, the presence of a large number of shelled eggs in a distended uterus and ramifications of the intestinal caeca. Obtaining mature ovigerous worms without sacrificing the host clearly gives the rabbit eye model an advantage over those described previously. Due to the relative advantage of the short time required for maturation and the prolific egg production by C. complanatum, it is suggested that this host-parasite system could be used as an excellent model for classroom teaching of trematode biology and to investigate the cues involved in in vivo transformation and host-parasite interactions.

  6. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  7. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS and related databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Costello

    Full Text Available The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies, 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive, of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved

  8. Uptake of TiO2 Nanoparticles into C. elegans Neurons Negatively Affects Axonal Growth and Worm Locomotion Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Chih; Wu, Gong-Her; Hua, Tzu-En; Wagner, Oliver I; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2018-03-14

    We employ model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to effectively study the toxicology of anatase and rutile phase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs). The experimental results show that nematode C. elegans can take up fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled TiO 2 NPs and that both anatase and rutile TiO 2 NPs can be detected in the cytoplasm of cultured primary neurons imaged by transmission electron microscopy. After TiO 2 NP exposure, these neurons also grow shorter axons, which may be related to the detected impeded worm locomotion behavior. Furthermore, anatase TiO 2 NPs did not affect the worm's body length; however, we determined that a concentration of 500 μg/mL of anatase TiO 2 NPs reduced the worm population by 50% within 72 h. Notably, rutile TiO 2 NPs negatively affect both the body size and worm population. Worms unable to enter the L4 larval stage explain a severe reduction in the worm population at TiO 2 NPs LC 50 /3d. To obtain a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in TiO 2 NP intoxication, DNA microarray assays were employed to determine changes in gene expression in the presence or absence of TiO 2 NP exposure. Our data reveal that three genes (with significant changes in expression levels) were related to metal binding or metal detoxification (mtl-2, C45B2.2, and nhr-247), six genes were involved in fertility and reproduction (mtl-2, F26F2.3, ZK970.7, clec-70, K08C9.7, and C38C3.7), four genes were involved in worm growth and body morphogenesis (mtl-2, F26F2.3, C38C3.7, and nhr-247), and five genes were involved in neuronal function (C41G6.13, C45B2.2, srr-6, K08C9.7, and C38C3.7).

  9. Urban pollution of sediments: Impact on the physiology and burrowing activity of tubificid worms and consequences on biogeochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigneret, M., E-mail: mathilde.pigneret@univ-lyon1.fr [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Mermillod-Blondin, F.; Volatier, L.; Romestaing, C. [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Maire, E.; Adrien, J. [MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA de Lyon, 25 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Guillard, L.; Roussel, D.; Hervant, F. [LEHNA, UMR CNRS 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, ENTPE, 6 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-10-15

    In urban areas, infiltration basins are designed to manage stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces and allow the settling of associated pollutants. The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of these structures is highly organic and multicontaminated (mainly heavy metals and hydrocarbons). Only few aquatic species are able to maintain permanent populations in such an extreme environment, including the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Nevertheless, the impact of urban pollutants on these organisms and the resulting influence on infiltration basin functioning remain poorly studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how polluted sediments could impact the survival, the physiology and the bioturbation activity of L. hoffmeisteri and thereby modify biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface. To this end, we conducted laboratory incubations of worms, in polluted sediments from infiltration basins or slightly polluted sediments from a stream. Analyses were performed to evaluate physiological state and burrowing activity (X-ray micro-tomography) of worms and their influences on biogeochemical processes (nutrient fluxes, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} degassing rates) during 30-day long experiments. Our results showed that worms exhibited physiological responses to cope with high pollution levels, including a strong ability to withstand the oxidative stress linked to contamination with heavy metals. We also showed that the presence of urban pollutants significantly increased the burrowing activity of L. hoffmeisteri, demonstrating the sensitivity and the relevance of such a behavioural response as biomarker of sediment toxicity. In addition, we showed that X-ray micro-tomography was an adequate technique for accurate and non-invasive three-dimensional investigations of biogenic structures formed by bioturbators. The presence of worms induced stimulations of nutrient fluxes and organic matter recycling (between + 100% and 200% of CO

  10. Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Poore, Gary C. B.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T. Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  11. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  12. Transcriptomic and proteomic insights into innate immunity and adaptations to a symbiotic lifestyle in the gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippler, Juliane; Kleiner, Manuel; Lott, Christian; Gruhl, Alexander; Abraham, Paul E; Giannone, Richard J; Young, Jacque C; Hettich, Robert L; Dubilier, Nicole

    2016-11-21

    The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. Here, we generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota. Key adaptations to the symbiosis include (i) the expression of gut-specific digestive enzymes despite the absence of a gut, most likely for the digestion of symbionts in the host's epidermal cells; (ii) a modified hemoglobin that may bind hydrogen sulfide produced by two of the worm's symbionts; and (iii) the expression of a very abundant protein for oxygen storage, hemerythrin, that could provide oxygen to the symbionts and the host under anoxic conditions. Additionally, we identified a large repertoire of proteins involved in interactions between the worm's innate immune system and its symbiotic microbiota, such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins, lectins, fibrinogen-related proteins, Toll and scavenger receptors, and antimicrobial proteins. We show how this worm, over the course of evolutionary time, has modified widely-used proteins and changed their expression patterns in adaptation to its symbiotic lifestyle and describe expressed components of the innate immune system in a marine oligochaete. Our results provide further support for the recent realization that animals have evolved within the context of their associations with microbes and that their adaptive responses to symbiotic microbiota have led to biological innovations.

  13. Worm Phenotype Ontology: Integrating phenotype data within and beyond the C. elegans community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yook Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caenorhabditis elegans gene-based phenotype information dates back to the 1970's, beginning with Sydney Brenner and the characterization of behavioral and morphological mutant alleles via classical genetics in order to understand nervous system function. Since then C. elegans has become an important genetic model system for the study of basic biological and biomedical principles, largely through the use of phenotype analysis. Because of the growth of C. elegans as a genetically tractable model organism and the development of large-scale analyses, there has been a significant increase of phenotype data that needs to be managed and made accessible to the research community. To do so, a standardized vocabulary is necessary to integrate phenotype data from diverse sources, permit integration with other data types and render the data in a computable form. Results We describe a hierarchically structured, controlled vocabulary of terms that can be used to standardize phenotype descriptions in C. elegans, namely the Worm Phenotype Ontology (WPO. The WPO is currently comprised of 1,880 phenotype terms, 74% of which have been used in the annotation of phenotypes associated with greater than 18,000 C. elegans genes. The scope of the WPO is not exclusively limited to C. elegans biology, rather it is devised to also incorporate phenotypes observed in related nematode species. We have enriched the value of the WPO by integrating it with other ontologies, thereby increasing the accessibility of worm phenotypes to non-nematode biologists. We are actively developing the WPO to continue to fulfill the evolving needs of the scientific community and hope to engage researchers in this crucial endeavor. Conclusions We provide a phenotype ontology (WPO that will help to facilitate data retrieval, and cross-species comparisons within the nematode community. In the larger scientific community, the WPO will permit data integration, and

  14. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EL- Wahed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera- Noctuidae) is widely distributed all over the world, particularly in moderate and subtropical countries of the northern and southern hemispheres (Kononenko ,2003). The greasy cut worm causes damage to vegetables, cucurbitaceous and industrial crops. The greatest damage is caused to cotton, essential-oil cultures, maize, tobacco, sunflower, tomatoes, sugar beet and potato. The pest can strongly harm vegetables, and also damage seedlings of tree species (pine, maple, and nut). This pest has solitary habits. They commonly feed on seedlings at ground level, cutting off the stem and sometimes dragging the plants into their burrows. The continuous use of chemical pesticides against pests, resistance to the action of pesticides had dramatically evolved. Also, the extensive use of these chemicals has given rise to problems such as residual toxicity (pollution) and harmful effects on beneficial insects, which are natural enemies of target or nontarget pest species. Such problems have become a cause of search for safety pesticides including microbial agents as fungi, bacteria and viruses (Rashed, 1993). The use of radiation to induce dominate lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now as the major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominate lethal mutation. Care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insects.(Sawires, 2005). This technique would be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including A. Ipsilon has been studied (EL- kady et al., 1983, EL-Naggar et al., 1984, Abd El -Hamid 2004 and Gabarty, 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi that infect insects have received considerable

  15. THE E.U. TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE AND ITS IMPACT ON SILK WORM REARING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the major trade flows in the E.U. textile and clothing industry in close connection with the future development of sericiculture using the data provided by EU Market Access Data Base for the period 2007-2011.The world market of textile and clothing is divided into two parts: raw material providers mainly situated in Asia, but also in South America and large processors situated in the E.U. such as Italy, France, United Kingdom and Spain, whose contribution to the EU production is 75 %. The main E.U. supplier of raw material for textile and clothing industry is China, followed by India, Bangladesh, Turkey and Brazil. About 33 % of the E.U.production of textile and garments is successfully exported as long as demand/offer ratio is unbalanced at world level. Import and export price have substantially increased. At present, the EU is the 2nd silk products exporter in the world. The new E.U. policy strategy regarding sericiculture is focused on the stimulation of silk worm rearing for producing cocoons mainly in Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Spain, France and Romania where climate conditions are favorable, it is a long tradition in the field and rural population needs jobs. At the same time, the E.U. is focused on technology improvement and silk product design in order to create more value added and increase export and sales.

  16. The mitochondrial genomes of the acoelomorph worms Paratomella rubra, Isodiametra pulchra and Archaphanostoma ylvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen E; Lapraz, François; Egger, Bernhard; Telford, Maximilian J; Schiffer, Philipp H

    2017-05-12

    Acoels are small, ubiquitous - but understudied - marine worms with a very simple body plan. Their internal phylogeny is still not fully resolved, and the position of their proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha remains debated. Here we describe mitochondrial genome sequences from the acoels Paratomella rubra and Isodiametra pulchra, and the complete mitochondrial genome of the acoel Archaphanostoma ylvae. The P. rubra and A. ylvae sequences are typical for metazoans in size and gene content. The larger I. pulchra  mitochondrial genome contains both ribosomal genes, 21 tRNAs, but only 11 protein-coding genes. We find evidence suggesting a duplicated sequence in the I. pulchra mitochondrial genome. The P. rubra, I. pulchra and A. ylvae mitochondria have a unique genome organisation in comparison to other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. We found a large degree of protein-coding gene and tRNA overlap with little non-coding sequence in the compact P. rubra genome. Conversely, the A. ylvae and I. pulchra genomes have many long non-coding sequences between genes, likely driving genome size expansion in the latter. Phylogenetic trees inferred from mitochondrial genes retrieve Xenacoelomorpha as an early branching taxon in the deuterostomes. Sequence divergence analysis between P. rubra sampled in England and Spain indicates cryptic diversity.

  17. Efficiency of Worm Reactors in Reducing Sludge Volume in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Naderi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process is the most widely used on a global scale for the biological treatment of both domestic and industrial effluents. One problem associated with the process, however, is the high volume of sludge produced. Excess sludge treatment and disposal account for up to 60% of the total operating costs of urban wastewater treatment plants due to the stringent environmental regulations on excess sludge disposal. These strict requirements have encouraged a growing interest over the last few years in reducing sludge volumes produced at biological treatment plants and a number of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods have been accordingly developed for this purpose. The proposed methods are disadvantaged due to their rather high investment and operation costs. An alternative technology that avoids many of these limitations is the worm reactor. In this study, the characteristics of this technology are investigated while the related literature is reviewed to derive the optimal conditions for the operation of this process in different situations.

  18. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Gautam; Sankara, Dieudonne P; Agua-Agum, Junerlyn; Maiga, Alhousseini

    2013-08-05

    Dracunculiasis, commonly known as guinea worm disease, is a nematode infection transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The disease prevails in the most deprived areas of the world. No vaccine or medicine is available against the disease: eradication is being achieved by implementing preventive measures. These include behavioural change in patients and communities--such as self-reporting suspected cases to health workers or volunteers, filtering drinking water and accessing water from improved sources and preventing infected individuals from wading or swimming in drinking-water sources--supplemented by active surveillance and case containment, vector control and provision of improved water sources. Efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. By the end of 2012, the disease had reached its lowest levels ever. This paper reviews the progress made in eradicating dracunculiasis since the eradication campaign began, the factors influencing progress and the difficulties in controlling the pathogen that requires behavioural change, especially when the threat becomes rare. The challenges of intensifying surveillance are discussed, particularly in insecure areas containing the last foci of the disease. It also summarizes the broader benefits uniquely linked to interventions against dracunculiasis.

  19. A worm-like trace of cathode spots on Cu-Zr-Ti amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengyu; Yang Zhimao; Wang Yaping; Ding Bingjun

    2003-01-01

    On Cu-Zr-Ti amorphous ribbons, a lot of worm-like traces or quasi-continuous traces of cathode spots have been clearly observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This kind of trace is eroded by the motion of a single spot step by step, and could not be observed on cathodes made of crystalline materials. Spot motion direction can be identified from the trace. The arc spreading velocity and spot lifetime can also be evaluated by these traces on SEM photographs, and they are 2.3 m s -1 for arc spreading velocity and (1.10 ± 0.32) μs for spot lifetime. Previously, these could only be measured using high-speed photographs. A linear relationship was found between the length of spot displacement and number of steps, which is quite different from that obtained by high-speed photographs, which fit Gaussian curves and a Rayleigh function. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed

  20. Effects of acute irradiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of acute irradiation on the reproductive success of a relatively low-fecundity species were investigated by exposing pairs of female and male polychaete worms (Neanthes arenaceodentata) to either no radiation (controls) or 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10 or 50 Gy of acute irradiation (5 Gy min -1 ) at the time when oocytes were visible in the female. The broods from the pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on the number in the brood, the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and the number of embryos that were living, dying and dead. Developing gametes of N. arenaceodentata appeared to be sensitive to acute irradiation. There was a significant reduction in the percentage of live embryos in the broods from pairs receiving doses as low as 0.5 Gy, which is lower than the lowest dose at which effects in invertebrates have been reported previously. This was most likely due to the induction of lethal mutations in the developing gametes, which affected the survival of embryos in early stages of life. Except for those pairs receiving 10 or 50 Gy, there was no evidence of decreased fertility or fecundity or of reduced fertilization success; the number of embryos in the broods from only these irradiated groups was significantly different from the controls. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Amino Acid Content of the Gamma Irradiated Cotton Leaf-Worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobeiha, A.K.; Sallam, H.A.; El-Shall, S.S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on amino acid content of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis was studied.The identified amino acids in the total body tissue of male moths were Theronine, Serine, Glutamic, Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Cystine, Methionine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, Lysine, Histidine and Arginine. The irradiation of full grown male pupae with doses 100,200 and 300 Gy decreased the total quantity of amino acids and the amount of most individual amino acids in male moths of P 1 or F 1 generations with some exceptions for Threonine, Alanine, Glycine, Serine, Valine, Cystine and Methionine which were increased.The effect of irradiation on amino acid content of the reproductive system tissues for each male or female were also studied.The results indicated that irradiation decreased the total quantity of amino acid content of both sexes by increasing the dose and males were more radiosensitive than females. Also, irradiation decreased the amount of individual amino acids in both sexes with certain exceptions, e.g. Alanine, Methionine and Tyrosine which increased in the reproductive system of male, and Methionine which increased by more than four times as control.The amino acid content was determined as well in F 1 egg progeny, which was produced from irradiated males Irradiation doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy) decreased the total quantity of amino acids, and all individual ones except Cystine.The greatest reduction (54.9% was observed with Lysine at 300 Gy as compared to control

  2. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm.

  3. Mitogenomics and phylogenomics reveal priapulid worms as extant models of the ancestral Ecdysozoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Bonnie L; Copley, Richard R; Jenner, Ronald A; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline A; Bourlat, Sarah J; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Littlewood, D T J; Telford, Maximilian J

    2006-01-01

    Research into arthropod evolution is hampered by the derived nature and rapid evolution of the best-studied out-group: the nematodes. We consider priapulids as an alternative out-group. Priapulids are a small phylum of bottom-dwelling marine worms; their tubular body with spiny proboscis or introvert has changed little over 520 million years and recognizable priapulids are common among exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossils. Using the complete mitochondrial genome and 42 nuclear genes from Priapulus caudatus, we show that priapulids are slowly evolving ecdysozoans; almost all these priapulid genes have evolved more slowly than nematode orthologs and the priapulid mitochondrial gene order may be unchanged since the Cambrian. Considering their primitive bodyplan and embryology and the great conservation of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, priapulids may deserve the popular epithet of "living fossil." Their study is likely to yield significant new insights into the early evolution of the Ecdysozoa and the origins of the arthropods and their kin as well as aiding inference of the morphology of ancestral Ecdysozoa and Bilateria and their genomes.

  4. Selenium incorporated in vegetable material for the obtaining of worm flour and compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbio Alcivar Cedeño

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was done to evaluate the quality of the earthworm flour fed with the addition of selenium. Two groups with three replicates were used; a food made of sterilized vegetable waste and other with the addition of soya (5% as a source of selenium. Temperature, humidity, and pH were controlled to ensure the optimal growth of earthworms. A 0.5 g sample of both groups replicates was weighed in order to determine the amount of Na, K, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu, Li, Se, Hg and Pb. The humus quality provided by the samples was also qualitatively analyzed, and the amount of moisture, protein, dry matter, fat, ash, crude fiber and soluble carbohydrates were determined. The amount of the elements Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Li was satisfactory because the flour had concentrations similar to the conventional worm flour, which is first achieved for this type of product. The amount of protein and lipid was also high similar to the conventional foods derived from animals. No heavy metals were found. Remarkably, the use of Eisenia foetida Savigny extracts can be used as a dietary supplement in amounts less than 1 g per person, which minimizes the risk of heavy metals. The application of humus from earthworms that were fed with a diet that contained selenium, corn plants obtained were significantly different from the untreated ones.

  5. Stable photosymbiotic relationship under CO₂-induced acidification in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

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    Sam Dupont

    Full Text Available As a consequence of anthropogenic CO₂ emissions, oceans are becoming more acidic, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification. Many marine species predicted to be sensitive to this stressor are photosymbiotic, including corals and foraminifera. However, the direct impact of ocean acidification on the relationship between the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organism remains unclear and is complicated by other physiological processes known to be sensitive to ocean acidification (e.g. calcification and feeding. We have studied the impact of extreme pH decrease/pCO₂ increase on the complete life cycle of the photosymbiotic, non-calcifying and pure autotrophic acoel worm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Our results show that this species is resistant to high pCO₂ with no negative or even positive effects on fitness (survival, growth, fertility and/or photosymbiotic relationship till pCO₂ up to 54 K µatm. Some sub-lethal bleaching is only observed at pCO₂ up to 270 K µatm when seawater is saturated by CO₂. This indicates that photosymbiosis can be resistant to high pCO₂. If such a finding would be confirmed in other photosymbiotic species, we could then hypothesize that negative impact of high pCO₂ observed on other photosymbiotic species such as corals and foraminifera could occur through indirect impacts at other levels (calcification, feeding.

  6. "Omic" investigations of protozoa and worms for a deeper understanding of the human gut "parasitome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Valeria; Mancinelli, Livia; Bracaglia, Giorgia; Del Chierico, Federica; Vernocchi, Pamela; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Garrone, Stefano; Tchidjou Kuekou, Hyppolite; D'Argenio, Patrizia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Urbani, Andrea; Putignani, Lorenza

    2017-11-01

    The human gut has been continuously exposed to a broad spectrum of intestinal organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites (protozoa and worms), over millions of years of coevolution, and plays a central role in human health. The modern lifestyles of Western countries, such as the adoption of highly hygienic habits, the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs, and increasing globalisation, have dramatically altered the composition of the gut milieu, especially in terms of its eukaryotic "citizens." In the past few decades, numerous studies have highlighted the composition and role of human intestinal bacteria in physiological and pathological conditions, while few investigations exist on gut parasites and particularly on their coexistence and interaction with the intestinal microbiota. Studies of the gut "parasitome" through "omic" technologies, such as (meta)genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are herein reviewed to better understand their role in the relationships between intestinal parasites, host, and resident prokaryotes, whether pathogens or commensals. Systems biology-based profiles of the gut "parasitome" under physiological and severe disease conditions can indeed contribute to the control of infectious diseases and offer a new perspective of omics-assisted tropical medicine.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon (hufn. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; Elnagar, S; Ibrahim, S M

    1991-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon were irradiated with 5, 10, 15, 30 and 35 krad of gamma radiation for males and with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad for females. The emerged adults were paired with the untreated opposite sex. Both the percentage of mated females and the average number of spermatophores per mated female decreased by irradiating male pupae with 20 krad and above. percentage of inseminated mated females decreased at the dose 15 krad and the reduction increased with increasing the gamma dose. Fecundity of female paired with irradiated male was decreased gradually with increasing the dose. A severe reduction in fecundity was obtained, in the case of irradiated female pupae. Egg hatch was also dose dependent, as it decreased with the increase in the radiation dose. Females were more radiosensitive than males, as far as reduction in hatchability was concerned. The sterilizing doses ranged between 30-35 and 15-20 krad for males and females, respectively.

  8. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO–PVK–Al WORM memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, T J; Woon, K L; Wong, W S; Chanlek, N; Nakajima, H; Saisopa, T; Songsiriritthigul, P

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current–voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK–Al interface. (paper)

  9. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO-PVK-Al WORM memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Woon, K. L.; Wong, W. S.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current-voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK-Al interface.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon (hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Elnagar, S.; Ibrahim, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the black cut worm, agrotis ipsilon were irradiated with 5, 10, 15, 30 and 35 krad of gamma radiation for males and with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krad for females. The emerged adults were paired with the untreated opposite sex. Both the percentage of mated females and the average number of spermatophores per mated female decreased by irradiating male pupae with 20 krad and above. percentage of inseminated mated females decreased at the dose 15 krad and the reduction increased with increasing the gamma dose. Fecundity of female paired with irradiated male was decreased gradually with increasing the dose. A severe reduction in fecundity was obtained, in the case of irradiated female pupae. Egg hatch was also dose dependent, as it decreased with the increase in the radiation dose. Females were more radiosensitive than males, as far as reduction in hatchability was concerned. The sterilizing doses ranged between 30-35 and 15-20 krad for males and females, respectively

  11. Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian P Nesnidal

    Full Text Available Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic "orphan worm" Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias.

  12. Influence of Parasitic Worm Infections on Allergy Diagnosis in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Abena S; Boakye, Daniel A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Ree, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological studies from Sub-Saharan Africa indicate that allergies are on the rise in this region especially in urban compared to rural areas. This increase has been linked to improved hygiene, lifestyle changes, and lower exposure to pathogens in childhood. Reduced exposure to parasitic worm (helminth) infections and allergy outcomes has been the focus of a number of population studies over the years. Paradoxically, there are parallels in the immune responses to helminths and to allergies. Both conditions are associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E, high numbers of T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells. These immune parallels have meant that the diagnosis of allergies in parts of the world where helminths are endemic can be hampered. The aim of this review is to examine observations from population studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa that demonstrate how helminth infections influence the parameters used to diagnose allergy outcomes in this region. We explore specifically how helminth infections hinder the in vitro diagnosis of allergic sensitization, influence the clinical manifestations of allergy, and also the effect of anthelmintic treatment on allergy outcomes. Advancing our understanding of how helminths influence allergy diagnosis is imperative for the development of improved tools to assess, diagnose, and treat allergic disorders in both helminth-endemic and non-endemic countries worldwide.

  13. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  14. The European lesser glow worm, Phosphaenus hemipterus (Goeze, in North America (Coleoptera, Lampyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphaenus hemipterus (Goeze is a Palaearctic glow worm (Coleoptera: Lampyridae, previously been reported in North America on the basis of two specimens; one collected in 1947 in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia; the other in 1989 in Montreal, Quebec. The present study newly records it from three sites in Halifax, Nova Scotia. One hundred and twenty six adult males and larvae were collected in 2009 in disturbed urban grassland areas, similar to habitats in England and Belgium where the species has been investigated. Experiments confirm that larvae feed on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris, consistent with observations in Europe. The habitat is described, including vegetation, potential predators, and prey. Although ballast-shipments have previously been proposed as a vector for the species’ introduction to North America, the present study suggests that the importation of agricultural and horticultural products, which has lead to the introduction of many earthworms to the continent, could also serve as a conduit for the introduction of obligate earthworm predators such as the larvae of P. hemipterus. Although an adventive species, possible conservation concerns are discussed for a species that is considered endangered in parts of its native range.

  15. BENEFITS VERSUS RISKS OF PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS: ARE WE OPENING THE CAN OF WORMS

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    Naser Ashraf Tadvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide They are indicated for treatment of Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD, acid peptic disorders, stress ulcers and prophylaxis of NSAID induced ulcers.[1] PPIs are more efficacious than other drugs like histamine -2 receptor blockers for the treatment of these disorders.[1] Though PPIs are highly potent and effective acid suppressors they are often misused and prescribed irrationally. The incidence of irrational use of PPIs varies from 40-70 % in different studies. [2] In one of our previous studies 58 % of PPIs prescriptions were irrational. [2] These findings become much more significant in the light of recent findings which suggest correlation of long term use of PPIs to myocardial infarction and kidney injury. [3,4] The PPIs may be deemed safe for short term use but chronic use carries risk of hip fractures, infection with clostridium difficle, community acquired pneumonia.[2] PPIs exposure in elderly population was also found to be associated with hyperparathyroidism in one recently conducted study.[5] The ongoing long term studies for assessing the safety and association of PPIs with various serious outcomes may open up a new can of worms. Keeping in mind the benefits as well as risks of proton pump inhibitors, clinicians should judiciously use these drugs in practice. The patients should also be educated regarding the adverse outcomes of PPIs on long term therapy as these drugs are easily available without prescription.

  16. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  17. Rearing and estimation of life-cycle parameters of the tubicifid worm Branchiura sowerbyi: application to ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Quéau, Hervé; Mons, Raphaël; Lafont, Michel; Garric, Jeanne

    2007-10-01

    This paper provides original collection, acclimatizing, rearing and toxicity test methods for the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi, an alternative species to Tubifex tubifex for ecotoxicity evaluation of sediments. Influence of the substrate, type of food, and feeding level on individual performances was assessed in short-term tests, in order to set up optimal culture and test conditions. Low-size particles and high organic matter content favoured the growth and reproduction of B. sowerbyi. The relative contribution of sediments and fish food to the individual food intake was assessed using a foraging efficiency model based upon the dynamic energy budget theory. Individual performances were optimal when the substrate plus fish food provided the energy equivalent to 5 mg Tetramin per worm per day, which is the ad libitum food level for adults at 21 degrees C. The life-cycle of the worm was fully characterized using a life-cycle test conducted under the previously defined optimal conditions. Hatching rates were low (32%), whereas newborn and juveniles exhibited high survival (>80%) and growth (2.4 mg/day in juveniles) rates. Age at puberty was low (60 days) when compared to the maximal life span (1100 days) as predicted using a Weibull model. Adults reproduced every other month with a constant fecundity (0.16 cocoon/worm/day). The mean values of the life-cycle parameters and their variability and reproducibility among laboratory studies were discussed in order to identify relevant endpoints to be used in ecotoxicity tests. Survival, juvenile growth, and fecundity may constitute suitable test endpoints, whereas hatching rate and adult growth should not be used as endpoints in B. sowerbyi.

  18. Synthesis of hierarchical worm-like SnO2@C aggregates and their enhanced lithium storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhen-Guo; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhong, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jie; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Ling; Zhong, Ben-He; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The hierarchical worm-like SnO 2 @C aggregates were synthesized. • The hierarchical worm-like SnO 2 @C unit is assembled by nanowires. • The cycling performances of SnO 2 @C aggregates are improved. • A capacity of 477.0 mA h g −1 at 400 mA g −1 could be obtained after 60 cycles. - Abstract: The present paper reports a synthetic strategy of hierarchical worm-like SnO 2 @C aggregates with enhanced electrochemical performances. Specifically, a glucose-assisted hydrothermal treatment of the intermediate Co–Sn alloy nanoparticles, which were formed by carbothermal reduction of mixed commercial SnO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The SnO 2 @C sample exhibits enhanced cycling performance in comparison with raw commercial SnO 2 nanoparticles and intermediate Co–Sn alloy nanoparticles when used as anode of lithium ion battery. A stable capacity of 533.6 mA h g −1 at 100 mA g −1 and 477.0 mA h g −1 at 400 mA g −1 remains after 60 cycles. When the current density increases to 1600 mA g −1 , the SnO 2 @C sample still deliver a high capacity of 384.2 mA h g −1 . The superior electrochemical performances could be attributed to the synergistic effect of unique worm-like aggregates structure and carbon surface-layer, which facilitate the electron transportation and buffer the large volume change

  19. Synthesis of hierarchical worm-like SnO{sub 2}@C aggregates and their enhanced lithium storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhen-Guo [School of Chemical Engineering, SichuanUniversity, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jun-Tao, E-mail: jtli@xmu.edu.cn [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhong, Yan-Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, SichuanUniversity, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Guo, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: xiaodong2009@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering, SichuanUniversity, Chengdu 610065 (China); Huang, Ling [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhong, Ben-He [School of Chemical Engineering, SichuanUniversity, Chengdu 610065 (China); Sun, Shi-Gang [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • The hierarchical worm-like SnO{sub 2}@C aggregates were synthesized. • The hierarchical worm-like SnO{sub 2}@C unit is assembled by nanowires. • The cycling performances of SnO{sub 2}@C aggregates are improved. • A capacity of 477.0 mA h g{sup −1} at 400 mA g{sup −1} could be obtained after 60 cycles. - Abstract: The present paper reports a synthetic strategy of hierarchical worm-like SnO{sub 2}@C aggregates with enhanced electrochemical performances. Specifically, a glucose-assisted hydrothermal treatment of the intermediate Co–Sn alloy nanoparticles, which were formed by carbothermal reduction of mixed commercial SnO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The SnO{sub 2}@C sample exhibits enhanced cycling performance in comparison with raw commercial SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and intermediate Co–Sn alloy nanoparticles when used as anode of lithium ion battery. A stable capacity of 533.6 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} and 477.0 mA h g{sup −1} at 400 mA g{sup −1} remains after 60 cycles. When the current density increases to 1600 mA g{sup −1}, the SnO{sub 2}@C sample still deliver a high capacity of 384.2 mA h g{sup −1}. The superior electrochemical performances could be attributed to the synergistic effect of unique worm-like aggregates structure and carbon surface-layer, which facilitate the electron transportation and buffer the large volume change.

  20. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1 Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Ziniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450 gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA silencing of S. mansoni (SmCYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design.

  1. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi; A.O. Tom Ashafa

    2015-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia were investigated using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms in order to justify the folkloric claim of the plants as worm expeller in south west of Nigeria. The acetone, ethanol, hydro-alcohol and distilled water extracts showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activities at the different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/ml) when tested against nematodes larvae. The order of anthelmintic effect ...

  3. Evaluating the sustainability, scalability, and replicability of an STH transmission interruption intervention: The DeWorm3 implementation science protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Bailey, Robin; Galactionova, Katya; Gwayi-Chore, Marie-Claire; Halliday, Katherine; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Juvekar, Sanjay; Kalua, Khumbo; Kang, Gagandeep; Lele, Pallavi; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Pullan, Rachel; Sarkar, Rajiv; Schär, Fabian; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Weiner, Bryan J.; Yard, Elodie; Walson, Judd

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid trials that include both clinical and implementation science outcomes are increasingly relevant for public health researchers that aim to rapidly translate study findings into evidence-based practice. The DeWorm3 Project is a series of hybrid trials testing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil transmitted helminths (STH), while conducting implementation science research that contextualizes clinical research findings and provides guidance on opportunities to optimize delivery of STH interventions. The purpose of DeWorm3 implementation science studies is to ensure rapid and efficient translation of evidence into practice. DeWorm3 will use stakeholder mapping to identify individuals who influence or are influenced by school-based or community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) for STH and to evaluate network dynamics that may affect study outcomes and future policy development. Individual interviews and focus groups will generate the qualitative data needed to identify factors that shape, contextualize, and explain DeWorm3 trial outputs and outcomes. Structural readiness surveys will be used to evaluate the factors that drive health system readiness to implement novel interventions, such as community-wide MDA for STH, in order to target change management activities and identify opportunities for sustaining or scaling the intervention. Process mapping will be used to understand what aspects of the intervention are adaptable across heterogeneous implementation settings and to identify contextually-relevant modifiable bottlenecks that may be addressed to improve the intervention delivery process and to achieve intervention outputs. Lastly, intervention costs and incremental cost-effectiveness will be evaluated to compare the efficiency of community-wide MDA to standard-of-care targeted MDA both over the duration of the trial and over a longer elimination time horizon. PMID:29346376

  4. Integumentary L-histidine transport in a euryhaline polychaete worm: regulatory roles of calcium and cadmium in the transport event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, H R; Ahearn, G A; Gomme, J

    2000-09-01

    Integumentary uptake of L-[(3)H]histidine by polychaete worms (Nereis succinea) from estuarine waters of Oahu, Hawaii was measured in the presence and absence of calcium and cadmium using a physiological saline that approximated the ion composition of 60 % sea water. In this medium 1 micromol L(-1) cadmium significantly increased (Psystem carrier protein that is regulated by the external divalent cations calcium and cadmium.

  5. Short Communication: A Simple Method for Performing Worm-Egg Counts on Sodium Acetate Formaldehyde-Preserved Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kato Katz method is the most common way of performing worm-egg counts on human faecal samples, but it must be done in the field using freshly collected samples. This makes it difficult to use in remote, poorly accessible situations. This paper describes a simple method for egg counts on preserved samples collected in the field and sent to a central location for further processing.

  6. Minyoo Matata - The Vicious Worm - A Taenia solium Computer-Based Health-Education Tool - in Swahili

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Fèvre, Eric M.; Owiny, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Lack of knowledge is one of the main risk factors for the spread of the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium. The computer-based health-education tool 'The Vicious Worm' was developed to create awareness and provide evidence-based health education as a specific measure in control strategies. To increase...... the reach of the tool, a new version in Swahili was developed and can now be downloaded for free from http://theviciousworm.sites.ku.dk....

  7. A Novel Extracellular Gut Symbiont in the Marine Worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) Reveals an Alphaproteobacterial Symbiont Clade of the Ecdysozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Schramm, Andreas; Funch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over eight years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, these symbionts comprise a novel genus of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified them as extrace...

  8. Importance of dose metrics for lethal and sublethal sediment metal toxicity in the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, O.P.; Kilpi-Koski, J.; Toivainen, K. [Helsinki Univ., Lahti (Finland). Dept. of Ecology end Environmental Sciences; Jokela, M. [Mikkeli Univ. of Applied Sciences, Mikkeli (Finland); Vaeisaenen, A. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-02-15

    Background, aims, and scope. There is an increasing demand for controlled toxicity tests to predict biological effects related to sediment metal contamination. In this context, questions of metal-specific factors, sensitivity of toxicity endpoints, and variability in exposure duration arise. In addition, the choice of the dose metrics for responses is equally important and is related to the applicability of the concept of critical body residue (CBR) in exposure assessments, as well as being the main focus of this study. Methods. Experiments were conducted to assess toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb to the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus with the aim of determining CBRs for two response metrics. Mortality and feeding activity of worms exposed to sediment-spiked metals were used as end-points in connection with residue analyses from both the organisms and the surrounding media. Results. LC50 values were 0.3, 1.4, 5.2, and 6.7 mg/L (from 4.7 {mu}mol/L to 128.0 {mu}mol/L), and the order of toxicity, from most toxic to least toxic, was Cu > Cd > Pb>Cr. By relating toxicity to body residue, variability in toxicity among the metals decreased and the order of toxicity was altered. The highest lethal residue value was obtained for Cu (10.8 mmol/kg) and the lowest was obtained for Cd (2.3 mmol/kg). In the 10-d sublethal test, both time and metal exposure were an important source of variation in the feeding activity of worms. The significant treatment effects were observed from worms exposed to Cd or Pb, with the controls yielding the highest feeding rate. However, quantitative changes in the measured end-point did not correlate with the exposure concentrations or body residues, which remained an order of magnitude lower than in the acute exposures. (orig.)

  9. Managing anthelmintic resistance-Variability in the dose of drug reaching the target worms influences selection for resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M; Luo, Dongwen

    2017-08-30

    The concentration profile of anthelmintic reaching the target worms in the host can vary between animals even when administered doses are tailored to individual liveweight at the manufacturer's recommended rate. Factors contributing to variation in drug concentration include weather, breed of animal, formulation and the route by which drugs are administered. The implications of this variability for the development of anthelmintic resistance was investigated using Monte-Carlo simulation. A model framework was established where 100 animals each received a single drug treatment. The 'dose' of drug allocated to each animal (i.e. the concentration-time profile of drug reaching the target worms) was sampled at random from a distribution of doses with mean m and standard deviation s. For each animal the dose of drug was used in conjunction with pre-determined dose-response relationships, representing single and poly-genetic inheritance, to calculate efficacy against susceptible and resistant genotypes. These data were then used to calculate the overall change in resistance gene frequency for the worm population as a result of the treatment. Values for m and s were varied to reflect differences in both mean dose and the variability in dose, and for each combination of these 100,000 simulations were run. The resistance gene frequency in the population after treatment increased as m decreased and as s increased. This occurred for both single and poly-gene models and for different levels of dominance (survival under treatment) of the heterozygote genotype(s). The results indicate that factors which result in lower and/or more variable concentrations of active reaching the target worms are more likely to select for resistance. The potential of different routes of anthelmintic administration to play a role in the development of anthelmintic resistance is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural groundglass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus

  11. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic potential of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia were investigated using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms in order to justify the folkloric claim of the plants as worm expeller in south west of Nigeria. The acetone, ethanol, hydro-alcohol and distilled water extracts showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activities at the different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/ml when tested against nematodes larvae. The order of anthelmintic effect for the plants was H. indicum> S. fistula> S. anthelmia. Acetone and ethanol extracts of the three plants showed the most effective activity (100% mortality against adult earth worm (Pheretima posthuma after 30 min of exposure The reference standard drug (Vermox® showed less effectiveness compared to the medicinal plants used in the study. Overall, the study indicates that Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia are potential anthelmintic herbal drugs, which in turn validates the use of the three species as worm expellers by the Yorubas tribe of South West Nigeria.

  12. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  13. Effects of the herbicide isoproturon on metallothioneins, growth, and antioxidative defenses in the aquatic worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Couderchet, Michel; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie; Vernet, Guy

    2005-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered to be a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction of MTs as biomarkers of exposure to the pesticide isoproturon has been investigated in the aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly (p isoproturon (maximum increase compared to unexposed controls: +148.56% for 10 mg l(-1) after 4 days of exposure). In response to isoproturon, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (max. +52%), glutathione-reductase (max. +100%), and catalase (max. +117%) increased, demonstrating the occurrence of an oxidative stress response to the herbicide. Thus, the increase in MT contents caused by isoproturon was interpreted as a defense response towards increased oxidative stress generated by the herbicide. Residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin were detected in the worm growth medium. Half-life of the herbicide was shorter at a low (0.1 mg l(-1)) initial concentration. The herbicide accumulated in T. tubifex but no metabolite could be detected.

  14. Human Schistosoma haematobium antifecundity immunity is dependent on transmission intensity and associated with immunoglobulin G1 to worm-derived antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; van Dam, Govert J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity that reduces worm fecundity and, in turn, reduces morbidity is proposed for Schistosoma haematobium, a parasite of major public health importance. Mathematical models of epidemiological trends suggest that antifecundity immunity is dependent on antibody responses to adult......-worm-derived antigen. METHODS: For a Malian cohort (age, 5-29 years) residing in high-transmission fishing villages or a moderate-transmission village, worm fecundity was assessed using the ratio of urinary egg excretion to levels of circulating anodic antigen, a Schistosoma-specific antigen that is steadily secreted......, host age and transmission were negatively associated with worm fecundity. A significant interaction term between host age and transmission indicates that antifecundity immunity develops earlier in high-transmission areas. SWA immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) levels explained the effect of transmission...

  15. Elimination of Guinea Worm Disease in Ethiopia; Current Status of the Disease's, Eradication Strategies and Challenges to the End Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo; Bekele, Abyot; Shifara, Amanu; Ebstie, Yehenew A; Desalegn, Zelalem; Kebede, Zeyede; Mulugeta, Abate; Deribe, Kebede; Tadesse, Zerihun; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Biruck; Abrha, Getaneh; Jima, Daddi

    2017-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, also named Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) caused by a parasitic nematode known as Dracunculus medinensis and has been known since antiquity as 'fiery serpent' from Israelites. It is transmitted to humans via drinking contaminated water containing infective copepods. Given, its feasibility for eradication, the Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was launched in 1980 with the aim of eradicating the disease. Since its inception, GWEP has made an extraordinary progress in interrupting transmission. Globally, the number of reported cases reduced from 3.5 million in 20 countries in 1986 to only 22 cases in 2015 from only four countries namely South Sudan, Mali, Chad and Ethiopia. Since Mali has interrupted transmission of GWD in 2016, currently, the disease remains endemic in only three sub-Saharan African countries namely, South Sudan, Chad and Ethiopia. Each endemic country has its own national Guinea Worm Eradication Program. In Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) which was established in 1993 has made remarkable move towards interruption of disease transmission and now the endgame is fast approaching. The EDEP with support mainly from The Carter Center, WHO, and UNICEF has reduced GWD by more than 99% from 1994 to 2015. In 2015, only 3 indigenous cases in humans and 14 in animals (13 in dogs and 1 in baboon) were reported. In 2016, 3 human cases, 14 dogs and 2 baboon infections were reported.. Refugee influx from the Republic of South Sudan (RSS), increased animal infections with unknown role in transmission of Dracunculiasis, the presence of hard to reach communities and lack of safe water sources in remote non-village areas remain among important challenges at this final stage of GWD eradication in Ethiopia. This paper reviews progress made towards Guinea Worm Eradication with a focus on the experience of the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP), and

  16. Capacidad de carga de las transmisiones por tornillo sinfín y corona. // Load capacity of worm gears transmissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivero Llerena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los reductores de velocidad comenzó a principios del siglo xx, su extensa difusión en el mundo actual permiteadquirirlos como unidades ensambladas a un costo relativamente bajo para la calidad del producto ofertado. Losantecedentes de este trabajo están en las investigaciones realizadas desde hace más de tres décadas en el ISPJAE. Lacreación de tecnologías propias sobre la base de estas investigaciones ha permitido la producción de reductores develocidad por tornillo sinfín con índices de calidad comparables con los índices de los reductores foráneos. El método dereconversión de reductores de velocidad que han quedado fuera de servicio, es utilizado en Cuba con resultadossatisfactorios a partir de la utilización de las carcasas originales. El presente trabajo pretende destacar la influencia de loserrores de contacto en la capacidad de carga de la transmisión por tornillo sinfín. Se brinda en esta ocasión, unprocedimiento para el cálculo automatizado de la superficie activa del diente de la rueda y se ofrece una expresión decálculo propia que permite pronosticar la capacidad de carga de la transmisión, a partir de la huella de contacto, encorrespondencia con los requisitos de contacto para un grado de precisión dado.Palabras claves: Capacidad de carga, huella de contacto, tornillo sinfín._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The use of worm gears transmissions started at the beginning of the 20th century and its wide spread use allow to purchaseas join units with low cost according to the product quality. Investigations that for more than thirty years took place at theISPJAE are the bases of this study. The Cuban technologies have permitted to produce worm gears with a comparablequality as foreign ones. The reconversion method for worm gears out of service is used in Cuba, and satisfactory results areobtained. In this paper are exposed the contact errors influence

  17. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  18. Parasitic Worm in Tiger (Panthera tigris at Serulingmas Zoological Garden Banjarnegara, Bandung Zoological Garden, and Indonesia Safari Park Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Tiuria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to infestigate the existence and the type of parasitic worms from feces of tiger (Panthera tigris at Serulingmas Zoological Garden (TRMS at Banjarnegara, Central Java , Bandung Zoological Garden (KBB, and Indonesia Safari Park Bogor (TSI. Total of 35 tigers feces samples were examined. They are taken from 4 Bengal tigers at Serulingmas Zoological Garden, 12 tigers (8 Bengal tigers and 4 Sumatran tigers at Bandung Zoological Garden, and 19 tigers (4 Bengal tigers and 15 Sumatran tigers at Indonesia Safari Park Bogor. All of the feces samples were examined with qualitative (flotation and sedimentation and quantitative (McMaster slide method to know the existence of parasitic worm eggs. Moreover, a tiger feces that contain eggs of strongylid were cultured. Parasitic worms that were found in tigers from the research were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Trichostrongylus sp, Ancylostoma sp, Cooperia sp, , oxyurid (Oxyuris sp and Strongyloides sp. The result showed that prevalence index of parasitic worms in tigers at TRMS, KBB, and TSI were 100%, 50%, and 47,4%, respectively. Parasitic worms at TRMS were ascarid (Toxocara sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, Cooperia sp and Strongyloides sp. Parasitic worms at KBB were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, dan oxyurid (Oxyuris sp. Parasitic worms at TSI were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, and oxyurid (Oxyuris sp. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis cacing parasitik pada harimau (Panthera tigris di Taman Rekreasi Margasatwa Serulingmas (TRMS Banjarnegara Jawa Tengah, Kebun Binatang Bandung (KBB, dan Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI Bogor. Sebanyak 35 sampel tinja harimau dari tiga lembaga konservasi eks-situ, yaitu 4 ekor harimau Benggala dari TRMS, 12 ekor (4 ekor harimau Benggala dan 8 ekor harimau Sumatera dari KBB, dan 19 ekor (4 ekor harimau

  19. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Hazaa, M.A.; Abd El-Rahman, H.A.; Hussein, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  20. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C

    2004-01-01

    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  1. On the Temperature Behavior of Pulse Propagation and Relaxation in Worms, Nerves and Gels.

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    Christian Fillafer

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on pulse propagation in biological systems has been an important field of research. Environmental temperature not only affects a host of physiological processes e.g. in poikilotherms but also provides an experimental means to investigate the thermodynamic phenomenology of nerves and muscle. In the present work, the temperature dependence of blood vessel pulsation velocity and frequency was studied in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus. The pulse velocity was found to vary linearily between 0°C and 30°C. In contrast, the pulse frequency increased non-linearly in the same temperature range. A heat block ultimately resulted in complete cessation of vessel pulsations at 37.2±2.7°C (lowest: 33°C, highest: 43°C. However, quick cooling of the animal led to restoration of regularly propagating pulses. This experimentally observed phenomenology of pulse propagation and frequency is interpreted without any assumptions about molecules in the excitable membrane (e.g. ion channels or their temperature-dependent behaviour. By following Einstein's approach to thermodynamics and diffusion, a relation between relaxation time τ and compressibility κ of the excitable medium is derived that can be tested experimentally (for κT ∼ κS. Without fitting parameters this theory predicts the temperature dependence of the limiting (i.e. highest pulse frequency in good agreement with experimental data. The thermodynamic approach presented herein is neither limited to temperature nor to worms nor to living systems. It describes the coupling between pulse propagation and relaxation equally well in nerves and gels. The inherent consistency and universality of the concept underline its potential to explain the dependence of pulse propagation and relaxation on any thermodynamic observable.

  2. studies on the sterilization of egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm El-din, M.M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full-grown male and female pupae of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were gamma irradiated with the doses of 100, 125 , 150 Gy; the fecundity decreased with the increase in dose. The reduction in egg hatch ability was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to parental males and females.full grown male and female pupae were irradiated with the doses of 125, 150 Gy for male line and with 125 Gy for female line. the inherited effects of radiation on some biological aspects among irradiated P 1 and their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations were studied. the data indicated that the fecundity of both normal females mated with irradiated males, and irradiated females mated with normal males decreased . almost proportionally with the increase in the dose, also, the percent egg hatch was significantly reduced by increasing the dose among P 1 ,F 1 and F 2 generations. Gamma irradiation did not clearly affect the percentage of mated female in p 1 and their three successive filial generations. however, the reduction was observed in the percentage of inseminated female . the average number of spermatophores per mated female was slightly affected among p 1 ,F 1 ,F 2 and F 3 at the majority of the tested mating combinations. the percentage of larval/pupal survival was obviously affected among F1 and F2 generations

  3. Excretory/secretory products from Trichinella spiralis adult worms ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice.

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    Xiaodi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many evidences show the inverse correlation between helminth infection and allergic or autoimmune diseases. Identification and characterization of the active helminth-derived products responsible for the beneficial effects on allergic or inflammatory diseases will provide another feasible approach to treat these diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% DSS orally for 7 days. During this period, the mice were treated daily with the excretory/secretory products from T. spiralis adult worms (AES intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was monitored by measuring body weight, stool consistency or bleeding, colon length and inflammation. To determine the T. spiralis AES product-induced immunological response, Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory cytokine profiles were measured in lymphocytes isolated from colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, and the spleen of treated mice. The CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs were also measured in the spleens and MLN of treated mice. Mice treated with AES significantly ameliorated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis indicated by the reduced disease manifestations, improved macroscopic and microscopic inflammation correlated with the up-regulation of Treg response (increased regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-beta and regulatory T cells and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-6 and IL-17 in the spleens, MLN and colon of treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide direct evidences that T. spiralis AES have a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice. This effect is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells to produce regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  4. A simultaneous localization and tracking method for a worm tracking system

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    Kowalski Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of worm tracking refers to the path analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and is an important tool in neurobiology which helps to describe their behavior. Knowledge about nematode behavior can be applied as a model to study the physiological addiction process or other nervous system processes in animals and humans. Tracking is performed by using a special manipulator positioning a microscope with a camera over a dish with an observed individual. In the paper, the accuracy of a nematode’s trajectory reconstruction is investigated. Special attention is paid to analyzing errors that occurred during the microscope displacements. Two sources of errors in the trajectory reconstruction are shown. One is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring the microscope shift, the other is due to a nematode displacement during the microscope movement. A new method that increases path reconstruction accuracy based only on the registered sequence of images is proposed. The method Simultaneously Localizes And Tracks (SLAT the nematodes, and is robust to the positioning system displacement errors. The proposed method predicts the nematode position by using NonParametric Regression (NPR. In addition, two other methods of the SLAT problem are implemented to evaluate the NPR method. The first consists in ignoring the nematode displacement during microscope movement, and the second is based on a Kalman filter. The results suggest that the SLAT method based on nonparametric regression gives the most promising results and decreases the error of trajectory reconstruction by 25% compared with reconstruction based on data from the positioning system

  5. Acquisition of a Novel Sulfur-Oxidizing Symbiont in the Gutless Marine Worm Inanidrilus exumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gutless phallodrilines are marine annelid worms without a mouth or gut, which live in an obligate association with multiple bacterial endosymbionts that supply them with nutrition. In this study, we discovered an unusual symbiont community in the gutless phallodriline Inanidrilus exumae that differs markedly from the microbiomes of all 22 of the other host species examined. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that I. exumae harbors cooccurring gamma-, alpha-, and deltaproteobacterial symbionts, while all other known host species harbor gamma- and either alpha- or deltaproteobacterial symbionts. Surprisingly, the primary chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizer “Candidatus Thiosymbion” that occurs in all other gutless phallodriline hosts does not appear to be present in I. exumae. Instead, I. exumae harbors a bacterial endosymbiont that resembles “Ca. Thiosymbion” morphologically and metabolically but originates from a novel lineage within the class Gammaproteobacteria. This endosymbiont, named Gamma 4 symbiont here, had a 16S rRNA gene sequence that differed by at least 7% from those of other free-living and symbiotic bacteria and by 10% from that of “Ca. Thiosymbion.” Sulfur globules in the Gamma 4 symbiont cells, as well as the presence of genes characteristic for autotrophy (cbbL) and sulfur oxidation (aprA), indicate that this symbiont is a chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizer. Our results suggest that a novel lineage of free-living bacteria was able to establish a stable and specific association with I. exumae and appears to have displaced the “Ca. Thiosymbion” symbionts originally associated with these hosts. IMPORTANCE All 22 gutless marine phallodriline species examined to date live in a highly specific association with endosymbiotic, chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers called “Ca. Thiosymbion.” These symbionts evolved from a single common ancestor and represent the ancestral trait for

  6. Decay of velvet worms (Onychophora), and bias in the fossil record of lobopodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Duncan Je; Gabbott, Sarah E; Mayer, Georg; Purnell, Mark A

    2014-11-29

    Fossil lobopodians, including animals proposed to have close affinity to modern onychophorans, are crucial to understanding the evolution of the panarthropod body plan and the phylum-level relationships between the ecdysozoan groups. Unfortunately, the key features of their anatomy are un-mineralized and subject to biases introduced during death, decay and preservation, yet the extent to which these fossils have been affected by the processes of post-mortem decay is entirely untested. Recent experimental work on chordates has highlighted a profound bias caused by decay, resulting in the erroneous interpretation of badly decayed specimens as primitive members of a clade (stemward slippage). The degree to which this bias affects organisms other than chordates is unknown. Here we use experimental decay of velvet worms (Onychophora) to examine the importance of decay bias in fossil lobopodians. Although we find stemward slippage is not significant in the interpretation of non-mineralized lobopodian fossils, the affect of decay is far from unbiased. Quantitative analysis reveals significant changes in body proportions during decay, a spectrum of decay resistance across anatomical features, and correlated decay of topologically associated characters. These results have significant implications for the interpretation of fossil lobopodian remains, demonstrating that features such as body outline and relative proportions are unreliable for taxonomy or phylogenetic reconstruction, unless decay is taken into account. Similarly, the non-independent loss of characters, due to juxtaposition in the body, during decay has the potential to bias phylogenetic analyses of non-biomineralized fossils. Our results are difficult to reconcile with interpretations of highly decay-prone tissues and structures, such as neural tissue, and complex musculature, in recently described Cambrian lobopodians. More broadly, we hypothesize that stemward slippage is unlikely to be a significant factor

  7. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-27

    Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  8. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing. Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%. We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease. These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects. In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  9. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianmei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information for the vaccine design and its delivery procedure. Results The worm length (p p p + T cells was higher in yellow cattle, while the percentage of CD8+ T cells was higher in water buffalo from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. The CD4/CD8 ratios were decreased in both species after challenge with schistosomes. Comparing with water buffalo, the IFN-γ level was higher and decreased significantly, while the IL-4 level was lower and increased gradually in yellow cattle from pre-infection to 7 w post infection. Conclusions In this study, we confirmed that yellow cattle were more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo, and more serious pathological damage was observed in infected yellow cattle. Immunological analysis suggested that CD4+ T cells might be an integral component of the immune response and might associate with worm development in yellow cattle. A shift from Th1 to Th2 type polarized immunity was only shown clearly in schistosome-infected yellow cattle, but no shift in water buffalo. The results provide valuable information for increased understanding of host-schistosome interactions, and for control of schistosomiasis.

  10. Seasonal evolution of faecal egg output by gastrointestinal worms in goats on communal farms in eastern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Kumba

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available As a more detailed continuation of a previous study, faecal samples for worm egg counts were collected per rectum from ten marked adult animals in selected flocks of goats, in each of six villages evenly spread out in the communal farming district of Okakarara in eastern Namibia. The study was conducted on a monthly basis from August 1999 to July 2000. Average faecal worm egg counts (FECs were highest during the warm-wet season, much lower during the cold-dry months and moderate during the hot-dry season. Least square means of FECs were 2 140, 430 and 653 per gram of faeces for the three seasons, respectively. Seasonal variation in egg counts was significant (P < 0.0001. Gastrointestinal strongyles, and to a lesser extent Strongyloides species, were the predominant parasite groups identified in goats. Kidding rates peaked in the cold-dry season and mortality rates in the hot-dry season. Results of this study suggest that gastrointestinal parasitism may be a problem that accentuates the effect of poor nutrition on small ruminants during the season of food shortages in the east of Namibia and that the use of FECs per se to assess the severity of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in goats followed by chemoprophylactic strategic and / or tactical treatment, may not be the best approach to addressing the worm problem under resource-poor conditions. The use of the FAMACHA(c system that identifies severely affected animals for treatment is technically a better option for communal farmers.

  11. Parasitic worms: knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Western Côte d'Ivoire with implications for integrated control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia A Acka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. METHODS: We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001. Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections.

  12. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery...... the 12 dogs evaluated in this study. Dogs showed significantly increased HP concentrations(P SAA concentrations before surgery, and cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at admission when compared to recovery. No significant correlations were found between the number...

  13. [Parasitologic significance of the alteration of the causative Anisakidae worm and of the Pseudoterranova decipiens female immature adult worm, casting off the cuticles, and excreted from human in Kanazawa City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, H; Kikuchi, K; Akao, N; Doutei, M; Yagi, K; Takahashi, S; Sato, N

    1995-09-01

    We have been studying Anisakidae larvae, their intermediate hosts and their final hosts in the northern Japan Sea area. These larvae cause anisakidosis. According to the investigation, the recent burst of pseudoterranovosis in this area can be attributed to the increased presence of sea lions, which proliferate in the Arctic region, then migrate to the northern Japan Sea and eat the intermediate host fish. In a stomach of a male sea lion that was captured in February 1995, we found more than 4,500 Pseudoterranova decipiens. Although there is no known circumstance in which a human would consume an adult worm of Anisakis nematode, an astonishing case of this was found in Kanazawa; a female young adult Pseudoterranova decipiens undergoing the final metamorphosis was emitted from a patient. This indicates that the Anisakis larva can mature into the adult worm in humans. It is postulated that the Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is in the process of adapting to use humans as the final host.

  14. Wear Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Acetal Spur, Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears Using a TS Universal Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Samy; Osman, T. A.; Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.; Zohdy, Gamal A.

    2015-12-01

    Although the applications of nanotechnologies are increasing, there remains a significant barrier between nanotechnology and machine element applications. This work aims to remove this barrier by blending carbon nanotubes (CNT) with common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel and worm). This was done by using adhesive oil (paraffin) during injection molding to synthesize a flange and short bars containing 0.02% CNT by weight. The flanges and short bars were machined using hobbing and milling machines to produce nanocomposite polymer gears. Some defects that surfaced in previous work, such as the appearance of bubbles and unmelted pellets during the injection process, were avoided to produce an excellent dispersion of CNT in the acetal. The wear resistances of the gears were measured by using a TS universal test rig using constant parameters for all of the gears that were fabricated. The tests were run at a speed of 1420 rpm and a torque of 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear resistances of the CNT/acetal gears were increased due to the addition of CNT, especially the helical, bevel and worm gears.

  15. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The current OECD acute worm toxicity test does not relate well to ambient conditions. - In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12500 μg Pb g -1 of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate>carbonate>sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC 50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321±275 μg Pb g -1 of soil and this did not change with time. The LC 50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC 50 s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 μg Pb g -1 of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance

  16. Salinity and Temperature Tolerance of the Nemertean Worm Carcinonemertes errans, an Egg Predator of the Dungeness Crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Paul H; Young, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries can be harsh habitats for the marine animals that enter them, but they may also provide these species with sub-saline refuges from their parasites. The nemertean egg predator Carcinonemertes errans is known to occur less frequently and in smaller numbers on its host, the Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister, when the hosts are found within estuaries. We examined the temperature and salinity tolerances of C. errans to determine if this observed distribution represents a true salinity refuge. We monitored the survival of juvenile and larval worms exposed to ecologically relevant salinities (5-30) and temperatures (8-20 °C) over the course of several days under laboratory conditions. Juvenile worms were unaffected by the experimental temperature levels and exhibited robustness to salinity treatments 25 and 30. However, significant mortality was seen at salinity treatments 20 and below. Larvae were less tolerant than juveniles to lowered salinity and were also somewhat more susceptible to the higher temperatures tested. Given that the Dungeness crab can tolerate forays into mesohaline (salinity 5-18) waters for several days at a time, our findings suggest that salinity gradients play an important role in creating a parasite refuge for this species within the estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  17. Effects of radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Moore, D.H.; Varela, M.

    1983-04-01

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects of low levels of radioactivity because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation exposure regimes. Groups of 100 larvae were exposed to either x rays delivered at high dose rates (0.7 Gy min -1 ) or to 60 Co gamma rays delivered at low dose rates (4.8 X 10 -5 to 1.2 X 10 -1 Gy h -1 ). After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 X 10 -5 M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h ( 60 Co-irradiated larvae). Slides of larval cells were prepared for observation of CAs and SCEs. Frequencies of CAs were determined in first division cells; frequencies of SCEs were determined in second division cells. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but an x-ray dose greater than or equal to 2 Gy was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving 60 Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies; a significant increase in SCE frequency was observed at 0.6 Gy. 49 references, 2 figures

  18. Proteomic analysis of the excretory/secretory products and antigenic proteins of Echinococcus granulosus adult worms from infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Xiao, Di; Shen, Yujuan; Han, Xiuming; Zhao, Fei; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Weiping; Zhou, Hejun; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cao, Jianping

    2015-05-21

    Cystic echinococcosis, which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most widespread zoonotic helminth diseases that affects humans and livestock. Dogs, which harbor adult worms in their small intestines, are a pivotal source of E. granulosus infection in humans and domestic animals. Therefore, novel molecular approaches for the prevention and diagnosis of this parasite infection in dogs need to be developed. In this study, we performed proteomic analysis to identify excretory/secretory products (ES) and antigenic proteins of E. granulosus adult worms using two-dimensional electrophoresis, tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF), and Western blotting of sera from infected dogs. This study identified 33 ES product spots corresponding to 9 different proteins and 21 antigenic protein spots corresponding to 13 different proteins. Six antigenic proteins were identified for the first time. The present study extended the existing proteomic data of E. granulosus and provides further information regarding host-parasite interactions and survival mechanisms. The results of this study contribute to vaccination and immunodiagnoses for E. granulosus infections.

  19. Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Ravasi, Timothy; Reish, Donald; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The Neanthes acuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthes arenaceodentata, complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. © 2013 Chandramouli et al.

  20. Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-30

    The Neanthes acuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthes arenaceodentata, complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. © 2013 Chandramouli et al.

  1. Comparison between female and male of demand of sulfur-containing amino acid of domestic silk worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Tamio

    1977-01-01

    Comparison of the demand of sulfur-containing amino acid (methionine and cystine) of young domestic silk worms was made between female and male using amino acid diet, and the relation among growth, blood protein and ninhydrin positive substance concentration was discussed. When 3 mg/g of methionine was added to the diet, the growth promotion effect of cystine was hardly recognized for male, while no addition of cystine showed inferior growth for female, however the normal growth was recognized when more than 1 mg/g was added. Accordingly, it is recognized that the female requires more sulfur-containing amino acid than the male. The relationship between the addition of methionine and cystine and the blood protein concentration showed the tendency to conform to the growth approximately. In the effects of blood protein concentration due to diet condition, the difference between female and male were recognized. The relationship between the addition of methionine and cystine in the diet and the ninhydrin positive substance concentration was high in case of the lack of methionine, but the relationship to cystine addition and the difference between female and male were not clear. As a result of measuring 14 CO 2 exhaled from the young worms injected with DL-cystine-1- 14 C, the resolution of cystine in the living body of female was lower than that of male. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Quantitative analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a combined system of MBR and worm reactors treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Tian, Yu; Wang, Dezhen; Lu, Yaobin; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR) followed by the MBR (S-MBR) is one of the advanced excess sludge treatments. In this paper, the control MBR (C-MBR) and the SSBWR-MBR were operated in parallel to study the changes of NH3-N removal and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The results showed that the capacity of NH3-N removal of the S-MBR was improved by the worm reactors along with the operation. The S-MBR was favorable because it selected for the higher activity of the ammonia oxidization and better cells appearance of the sludge. The five species (Nitrosomonas, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridium, Dechloromonas and Bacteria) were found to be significantly correlate with the ammonia oxidization functions and performance of NH3-N removal in the C-MBR and S-MBR. The Nitrosomonas, Betaproteobacteria and Dechloromonas remained and eventually enriched in the S-MBR played a primary role in the NH3-N removal of the S-MBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new species and new record of deep-sea scale-worms (Polynoidae: Polychaeta) from the Okinawa Trough and the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-03-06

    A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep. Keys to distinguish the species of Branchipolynoe and Lepidonotopodium are provided.

  4. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O. conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O. youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O. mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector, this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos

  5. From the Worm in a Bottle of Mezcal: iDNA Confirmation of a Leech Parasitizing the Antillean Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, J; Rueda-Calderon, H; Kvist, S; Siddall, M E; Oceguera-Figueroa, A

    2016-10-01

    Invertebrate-derived ingested DNA (iDNA) is quickly proving to be a valuable, non-invasive tool for monitoring vertebrate species of conservation concern. Using the DNA barcoding locus, we successfully identified both the blood-feeding leech Haementeria acuecueyetzin and its blood meal-the latter is shown to be derived from the Caribbean manatee, Trichechus manatus . DNA amplification was successful despite the fact that the specimen was fixed in Mezcal (a beverage distilled from agave). We report the first confirmed case of a leech feeding on a manatee, the first record of H. acuecueyetzin for the State of Chiapas and, to our knowledge, the first case of successful DNA amplification of a biological sample fixed in Mezcal other than the caterpillar "worms" more commonly found in that beverage.

  6. Chrodrimanins O-S from the fungus Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 isolated from a marine worm, Sipunculusnudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Dong; Zhang, Ren-Shuai; Ma, Qing-Yun; Xie, Qing-Yi; Wang, Pei; Chen, Peng-Wei; Zhou, Li-Man; Dai, Hao-Fu; Luo, Du-Qiang; Zhao, You-Xing

    2017-10-01

    Five new meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins O-S (1-5), as well as a known one (6), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 isolated from a marine worm, Sipunculusnudus, from Haikou Bay, China. The structures including the absolute configurations of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic data and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. Among them, compound 1 represents the first example of an unusual trichlorinated meroterpenoid with an unique dichlorine functionality. Compounds 1 and 4-6 displayed inhibitory activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC 50 values of 71.6, 62.5, 63.1, and 39.6μM, respectively, and showed no apparent activity against three tumor cell lines (A549, HepG2, and Hela) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) at 10μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Reproduction and Mating Competitiveness in the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H. A.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; El-Dessouki, S. A.; El-Awady, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 100, 125, 150 Gy. The fecundity of normal females crossed with treated males decreased with the increase of the dose given to males. The reduction in egg hatch was significant at all tested doses. The percentage of mated females was not clearly affected. However, the reduction observed in either percentage of inseminated female or the average number of spermatophores per mated female was increased by increasing the dose to males. Males irradiated by low doses of 125 and 150 Gy were fully competitive against untreated males for mating with normal females. Increasing the ratio of irradiated males to normal males from 1:1 to 5:1 decreased the rate of egg viability among P 1 and their successive filial generations. (Authors)

  8. A novel extracellular gut symbiont in the marine worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida reveals an alphaproteobacterial symbiont clade of the Ecdysozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eKroer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over eight years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, these symbionts comprise a novel genus of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH identified them as extracellular, elongate bacteria closely associated with the microvilli, for which we propose the name ‘Candidatus Tenuibacter priapulorum’. Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa, which may indicate an evolutionary adaptation of this bacterial group to the microvilli-lined guts of the Ecdysozoa.

  9. A Novel Extracellular Gut Symbiont in the Marine Worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) Reveals an Alphaproteobacterial Symbiont Clade of the Ecdysozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper U; Nyengaard, Jens R; Schramm, Andreas; Funch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over 8 years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, these symbionts comprise a novel genus of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria). Electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified them as extracellular, elongate bacteria closely associated with the microvilli, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Tenuibacter priapulorum". Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa, which may indicate an evolutionary adaptation of this bacterial group to the microvilli-lined guts of the Ecdysozoa.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation at pupal stage on fall army worm parent and F1 generation reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Maximiliano Wiendl, F.M.; Duarte Aguilar, J.A.; Domarco, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    To induce sterility in the F 1 generation, pupae of the fall army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), were irradiated at the age of five days. The radiation source was a 60 Co panoramic irradiator. The pupae were irradiated at the dose rate of 2.60 kGy/h with doses of 0 (control), 50, 75, 100 and 125 Gy. The percentage hatch of eggs laid by adults that originated from pupae irradiated with 125 Gy was 15.0 and 10.0% for males and females, respectively. By crossing this irradiated parent generation, it was found that the egg hatch in the F 1 generation was 4% for descendants of treated males and 10% for descendants of treated females. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Opsins in onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kohler, Martin; Kelber, Almut; Bleidorn, Christoph; Leschke, Maren; Nickel, Birgit; Meyer, Matthias; Kircher, Martin; Sunnucks, Paul; Mayer, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue-green light. In our phylogenetic analyses, the onychopsins represent the sister group to the monophyletic clade of visual r-opsins of arthropods. These results concur with phylogenomic support for the sister-group status of the Onychophora and Arthropoda and provide evidence for monochromatic vision in velvet worms and in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. We conclude that the diversification of visual pigments and color vision evolved in arthropods, along with the evolution of compound eyes-one of the most sophisticated visual systems known.

  12. Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. As the intervention is often claimed to have important health, nutrition, and societal effects beyond the removal of worms, we critically evaluated the evidence on benefits. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving deworming drugs to children to treat soil-transmitted helminths on weight, haemoglobin, and cognition; and the evidence of impact on physical well-being, school attendance, school performance, and mortality. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (14 April 2015); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 4); MEDLINE (2000 to 14 April 2015); EMBASE (2000 to 14 April 2015); LILACS (2000 to 14 April 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and reference lists, and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 14 April 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, haemoglobin, and formal tests of intellectual development. We also sought data on school attendance, school performance, and mortality. We included trials that combined health education with deworming programmes. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed the trials, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. The evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. This edition of the Cochrane Review adds the DEVTA trial from India, and draws on an independent analytical replication of a trial from

  13. Immunization with tegument nucleotidases associated with a subcurative praziquantel treatment reduces worm burden following Schistosoma mansoni challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique K. Rofatto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease caused by flatworm parasites of the Schistosoma genus and remains a high public health impact disease around the world, although effective treatment with Praziquantel (PZQ has been available since the 1970s. Control of this disease would be greatly improved by the development of a vaccine, which could be combined with chemotherapy. The sequencing of the Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome and genome identified a range of potential vaccine antigens. Among these, three nucleotidases from the tegument of the parasite, presumably involved in purinergic signaling and nucleotide metabolism, were proposed as promising vaccine candidates: an alkaline phosphatase (SmAP, a phosphodiesterase (SmNPP-5 and a diphosphohydrolase (SmNTPDase. Herein, we evaluate the potential of these enzymes as vaccine antigens, with or without subcurative PZQ treatment. Immunization of mice with the recombinant proteins alone or in combination demonstrated that SmAP is the most immunogenic of the three. It induced the highest antibody levels, particularly IgG1, associated with an inflammatory cellular immune response characterized by high TNF-α and a Th17 response, with high IL-17 expression levels. Despite the specific immune response induced, immunization with the isolated or combined proteins did not reduce the worm burden of challenged mice. Nonetheless, immunization with SmAP alone or with the three proteins combined, together with subcurative PZQ chemotherapy was able to reduce the worm burden by around 40%. The immunogenicity and relative exposure of SmAP to the host immune system are discussed, as key factors involved in the apparently synergistic effect of SmAP immunization and subcurative PZQ treatment.

  14. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Moore, D.H.

    1984-07-01

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects from ocean disposal of low-level radioactive waste because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The SCEs, in contrast to chromosomal aberrations, do not alter the overall chromosome morphology and in mammalian cells appear to be a more sensitive indicator of DNA alterations caused by environmental mutagens. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation-exposure regimes of either x rays at a high dose rate of 0.7 Gy (70 rad)/min for as long as 5.5 min or to 60 Co gamma rays at a low dose rate of from 4.8 x 10 -5 to 1.2 x 10 -1 Gy (0.0048 to 12 rad)/h for 24 h. After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 x 10 -5 M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h ( 60 Co-irradiated larvae). Larval cells were examined for the proportion of cells in first, second, and third or greater division. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs were determined in first and second division cells, respectively. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but a dose of equal or greater 2 Gy (equal to or greater than 200 rad) was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving 60 Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies with a significant increase of 0.6 Gy (60 rad). We suggest that both SCEs and chromosomal aberrations may be useful for measuring effects on genetic material induced by radiation. 56 references, 7 figures, 9 tables

  15. Effect of Simulated Weathering and Aging of TNT in Amended Sandy Loam Soil on Toxicity to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytreaeus Crypticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    high bioavailability of organic compounds. However, amended SSL soil was analyzed for presence of metabolic transformation products from nitroaromatic...Phillips, C.; Checkai, R. 1999. Comparison of malathion toxicity using enchytraeid reproduction test and earthworm toxicity test in different soil ...OF TNT IN AMENDED SANDY LOAM SOIL ON TOXICITY TO THE ENCHYTRAEID WORM, ENCHYTRAEUS CRYPTICUS Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  16. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected.

  17. A method of obtaining dietary data for slow worms (Anguis fragilis) by means of non-harmful cooling and results from a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Iben; Jensen, Jan Kjærgaard; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    and adults. The regurgitations revealed that the slow worms preyed on small snails, slugs, pill millipedes (Glomeris marginata), earthworms and Lepidoptera larvae. There were seasonal changes in taxon composition of the diet but no ontogenetic or sex-related differences. The food quality of selected prey...

  18. Dot-blot immunoassay of Fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kDa and adult worm regurge antigens in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hanan H; Saad, Ghada A; Sarhan, Rania M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-Kilodalton (KDa) antigen versus Fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a DOT-Blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in Egyptian patients. Fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(KDa) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution SDS-PAGE. A Dot-Blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with F. gigantica in Egypt. Control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers to assess the test and compare between the antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Dot-Blot using the adult worm regurge were 80%, 90%, 94.1%, and 69.2% respectively, while those using 27-KDa were 100% which confirms the diagnostic potential of this antigen. All patients infected with Fasciola were positive, with cross reactivity reported with Schistosoma mansoni serum samples. This 27-KDa Dot-Blot assay showed to be a promising test which can be used for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis in Egyptian patients especially, those presenting with hepatic disease. It is specific, sensitive and easy to perform method for the rapid diagnosis particularly when more complex laboratory tests are unavailable.

  19. The impact of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on Oesophagostomum dentatum worm population dynamics and host immune responses in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Millan; Mejer, Helena; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    Oesophagostomum infections in pigs persist for months. We hypothesized that feeding fructans (dried chicory roots) may improve immunity and facilitate worm expulsion. We therefore examined the effects of long-term chicory on O. dentatum population dynamics and host immune responses. Methods: Seve...

  20. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. METHODS: Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. RESULTS: Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62. In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively, whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  1. A New Design of the Universal Test Rig to Measure the Wear Characterizations of Polymer Acetal Gears (Spur, Helical, Bevel, and Worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the wear characterization of common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel, and worm using a new TS universal test rig, in order to obtain reliable results and as a reference when compared with acetal nanocomposite gears later. The TS universal test rig consists of three different units that are connected by a main driver shaft and a pair of constantly meshing metal spur gears, which transfer power to the bevel and worm test units. The first unit is used to test the bevel gears, the second unit is used to test the spur and helical gears, and the third unit is used to test the worm gears. The loading mechanism is similarly designed to block the brake mechanism. Hobbing and milling machines were used to machine an injection-moulded polymer flanges and produce the tested gears. All gear pairs, except the worm gear, have identical gear ratios. The experiments were performed at speed 1420 rpm and the torque was 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear rates (in the form of weight loss of spur gears were consistent with the previous results and the other gear types had larger wear rates.

  2. Influencia de la lubricación en la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín//Influence of oil lubrication on cylindrical worm gear efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fue desarrollado un procedimiento para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico considerando pérdidas de potencia por fricción entre flancos conjugados, tres bases de lubricantes y sistema de lubricación. El procedimiento fue validado por comparación con valores de eficiencia reportados para engranajes fabricados por una compañía especializada en engranajes. Los resultadosestablecen fuerte dependencia entre el coeficiente de fricción y la velocidad de deslizamiento hasta valores inferiores a 0.4 m/s en engranajes con aceites sintéticos y para engranajes con inmersión en aceites minerales el coeficiente de fricción de ensayo fue observado constante hasta velocidades dedeslizamiento inferiores a 0,9 m/s. Fue determinado que en sistemas de lubricación por inmersión, los aceites sintéticos en sustitución de aceites minerales mejoran como promedio en 44 % la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín. Finalmente, fue formulado un módulo racional del engranaje orientado amaximizar la eficiencia del engranaje lubricado con aceite sintético.Palabras claves: eficiencia, engranaje, tornillo sinfín, lubricante, aceite sintético, ISO/TR 145281._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this study, a general procedure is proposed for the prediction of cylindrical worm gear efficiency takinginto account friction losses between worm and wheel gear, three base oils and lubrication system. Thevalidation of procedure was achieved by comparing with values of efficiency for worm gear unitsreferenced by a German gear manufacturer company. In the case of worm gears lubricated with syntheticbase oils, results show an strong dependency between basic coefficient of friction and sliding velocity up to0,4 m/s and for dip lubrication with mineral oils the basic coefficient of friction was observed constant forsliding velocity below 0,9 m/s. Other results confirm the increase of

  3. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments and body tissues of red worm (Tubifex spp.) collected from natural habitats in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra Kumar; Chavan, Sugandha L; Sapkale, Pravin H

    2007-06-01

    Live feeds, especially Tubifex spp., which are collected from a wide variety of polluted habitats, are used by aquarium fish keepers in India. These habitats receive domestic sewage and industrial wastes from nearby residential and industrial areas. Reports of morbidity and mortality from aquarium fish culturists in and around Mumbai led to the present investigations on the ecology of these habitats with a view to assess the water quality, presence of heavy metals in the environment and their bioaccumulation in Tubifex worms, and to examine whether these habitats could be exploited to meet the demand of the industry. Six natural red worm (Tubifex spp.) collection centres in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra state in India constituting a major source of live Tubifex supply to aquarium fish industry were evaluated for pollution, heavy metal concentration in water, sediments and in the body tissues of Tubifex. Data revealed the presence of heavy metals in water and sediments at collection sites and bioaccumulation of cadmium, iron, lead, zinc and copper in body tissues of Tubifex worms. Cadmium ranged from 2.38 to 7.21 mg/kg, iron 671.9 to 5738 mg/kg, lead 14.95 to 33.49 mg/kg, zinc 60.20 to 166.60 mg/kg and copper 29.38 to 108.90 mg/kg of dry Tubifex worms. The study suggests that all the six collection sites are polluted and the red worms contaminated with heavy metals and hence, unfit for use in aquaria or feeding any variety of fish or crustaceans in the hatcheries.

  5. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP NUMBER: 2001-02, VERSION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it

  6. The cost-effectiveness of an eradication programme in the end game: Evidence from guinea worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Sankara, Dieudonné P; Agua, Junerlyn Farah; Jonnalagedda, Lakshmi; Rumi, Filippo; Weiss, Adam; Braden, Matthew; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Kruse, Nicole; Braband, Kate; Biswas, Gautam

    2017-10-01

    Of the three diseases targeted for eradication by WHO, two are so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)-guinea worm disease (GWD) and yaws. The Guinea Worm Eradication Programme (GWEP) is in its final stages, with only 25 reported in 2016. However, global eradication still requires certification by WHO of the absence of transmission in all countries. We analyze the cost-effectiveness of the GWEP in the end game, when the number of cases is lower and the cost per case is higher than at any other time. Ours is the first economic evaluation of the GWEP since a World Bank study in 1997. Using data from the GWEP, we estimate the cost of the implementation, pre-certification and certification stages. We model cost-effectiveness in the period 1986-2030. We compare the GWEP to two alternative scenarios: doing nothing (no intervention since 1986) and control (only surveillance and outbreak response during 2016-2030). We report the cost per case averted, cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted and cost per at-risk life year averted. We assess cost-effectiveness against a threshold of about one half GDP per capita (less than US$ 500 in low income countries). All costs are expressed in US$ of 2015. The GWEP cost an estimated US$ 11 (95% uncertainty interval, 4.70-12.49) per case averted in the period 1986-2030. The pre-certification and certification phases can cost as much as US$ 0.0041 and US$ 0.0015 per capita per year. The cost per DALY averted by the GWEP relative to doing nothing is estimated at US$ 222 (118-372) in 1986-2030. The GWEP is probably more cost-effective than control by the year 2030. The GWEP is certainly more cost-effective than control if willingness to pay for one year of life lived without the risk of GWD exceeds US$ 0.10. Even if economic costs are two times as high as the financial costs estimated for the period to 2020, the GWEP will still be cost-effective relative to doing nothing. Whether the GWEP turns out to be the most cost

  7. The cost-effectiveness of an eradication programme in the end game: Evidence from guinea worm disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fitzpatrick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the three diseases targeted for eradication by WHO, two are so-called Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs-guinea worm disease (GWD and yaws. The Guinea Worm Eradication Programme (GWEP is in its final stages, with only 25 reported in 2016. However, global eradication still requires certification by WHO of the absence of transmission in all countries. We analyze the cost-effectiveness of the GWEP in the end game, when the number of cases is lower and the cost per case is higher than at any other time. Ours is the first economic evaluation of the GWEP since a World Bank study in 1997.Using data from the GWEP, we estimate the cost of the implementation, pre-certification and certification stages. We model cost-effectiveness in the period 1986-2030. We compare the GWEP to two alternative scenarios: doing nothing (no intervention since 1986 and control (only surveillance and outbreak response during 2016-2030. We report the cost per case averted, cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY averted and cost per at-risk life year averted. We assess cost-effectiveness against a threshold of about one half GDP per capita (less than US$ 500 in low income countries. All costs are expressed in US$ of 2015.The GWEP cost an estimated US$ 11 (95% uncertainty interval, 4.70-12.49 per case averted in the period 1986-2030. The pre-certification and certification phases can cost as much as US$ 0.0041 and US$ 0.0015 per capita per year. The cost per DALY averted by the GWEP relative to doing nothing is estimated at US$ 222 (118-372 in 1986-2030. The GWEP is probably more cost-effective than control by the year 2030. The GWEP is certainly more cost-effective than control if willingness to pay for one year of life lived without the risk of GWD exceeds US$ 0.10.Even if economic costs are two times as high as the financial costs estimated for the period to 2020, the GWEP will still be cost-effective relative to doing nothing. Whether the GWEP turns out to be the most

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a new family of alkylammonium–chromium phosphates with worm-like morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amghouz, Zakariae, E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Departamento de Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Departamento de Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R. [Departamento de Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    A series of layered alkylammonium–chromium phosphates, formulated as [C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}NH{sub 3}]Cr(OH)PO{sub 4} (n=2–6), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The interlayer spacing, increasing linearly with the increase of alkyl-chain length from 13.61 Å (n=2) to 21.20 Å (n=6), is occupied by a double sheet of packed amine molecules with a tilt angle of ca. 51° respect to the inorganic sheet. The powders are constituted by circular plates (diameter=0.5–3 µm, thickness=∼50 nm) with central holes when n=4–6, stacked in axial direction showing worm-like morphologies. The presence of holes, and some corrugated and zig-zag fashions observed on the edge of thin circular plates are the most probable ways for the reduction of the steric tensions between organic and inorganic portions in these hybrid materials. The thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of selected compounds have been studied, including the determination of activation energy data for the decomposition processes. - Graphical abstract: A novel series of layered alkylammonium–chromium phosphates, [C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}NH{sub 3}]Cr(OH)PO{sub 4} (n=2–6), was obtained and characterized. The interlayer spacing, increasing linearly with the increase of alkyl-chain length, is occupied by a double sheet of packed amine molecules. The powders are constituted by circular plates (diameter=0.5–3 µm, thickness=∼50 nm) with central holes when n=4–6, stacked in axial direction showing worm-like morphologies. - Highlights: • A series of alkylammonium–chromium phosphates has been obtained by the hydrothermal method. • The interlayer spacing increases linearly with the increase of alkyl-chain length. • The interlayer spacing is occupied by a double sheet of packed amine molecules. • The powders are constituted by stacked circular plates showing wormlike morphology. • Thermal behaviour depends on the atmosphere used and the intercalated amine.

  9. Cotton Leaf worm: Inherited Effects of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on The Progeny of Irradiated Males. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; El-Naggar, S M; Shible, M M [Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, (Egypt); El-Dessouki, S A; El-Awady, S M [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Full grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50,75, and 100 Gy. The effects on reproduction, development and sex ratio were the biological aspects studied among P{sub 1}, F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3} generations. Fecundity of normal females mated with F{sub 1} or F{sub 2} males was significantly reduced for all doses. The F{sub 1} males were more sterile than their irradiated parental males, while F{sub 2} males were more fertile F{sub 1} males. Irradiation of P{sub 1} males did not clearly affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the average number of spermatophores per mated females among the individuals of P{sub 1}, F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3} generations. The percent of larvae surviving to the adult stage was gradually decreased by increasing dose to P{sub 1} male throughout the first three filial generation. The average larval and pupal durations were not affected among the progeny of P{sub 1} males for both males and females. The sex ratio among the progeny of irradiated males was nearly 1:1. 3 tabs.

  10. Cotton Leaf worm: Inherited Effects of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on The Progeny of Irradiated Males. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.M.; Shible, M.M.; El-Dessouki, S.A.; El-Awady, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50,75, and 100 Gy. The effects on reproduction, development and sex ratio were the biological aspects studied among P 1 , F 1 , F 2 , F 3 generations. Fecundity of normal females mated with F 1 or F 2 males was significantly reduced for all doses. The F 1 males were more sterile than their irradiated parental males, while F 2 males were more fertile F 1 males. Irradiation of P 1 males did not clearly affect neither the percentage of mated females nor the average number of spermatophores per mated females among the individuals of P 1 , F 1 , F 2 , F 3 generations. The percent of larvae surviving to the adult stage was gradually decreased by increasing dose to P 1 male throughout the first three filial generation. The average larval and pupal durations were not affected among the progeny of P 1 males for both males and females. The sex ratio among the progeny of irradiated males was nearly 1:1. 3 tabs

  11. Field assessment of synthetic attractants and traps for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, R; Green, P E; Brown, G W; Spradbery, J P; Tozer, R S; Mayer, D G; Tack Kan, Y

    2012-07-06

    The performance of newly developed trapping systems for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana has been determined in field trials on cattle farms in Malaysia. The efficacy of non-sticky traps and new attractants to trap C. bezziana and non-target flies was compared with the standard sticky trap and Swormlure. The optimal trap was a modified LuciTrap(®) with a new attractant mixture, Bezzilure-2. The LuciTrap/Bezzilure-2 caught on average 3.1 times more C. bezziana than the sticky trap with Swormlure (PChrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies with factors of 5.9 and 6.4, respectively. The LuciTrap also discriminates with factors of 90 and 3.6 against Hemipyrellia sp. and sarcophagid flesh flies respectively, compared to the sticky trap. The LuciTrap/Bezzilure-2 system is recommended for screwworm fly surveillance as it is more attractive and selective towards C. bezziana and provides flies of better quality for identification than the sticky trap. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new giant species of placented worm and the mechanism by which onychophorans weave their nets (Onychophora: Peripatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Morera-Brenes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Onychophorans, or velvet worms, are poorly known and rare animals. Here we report the discovery of a new species that is also the largest onychophoran found so far, a 22cm long female from the Caribbean coastal forest of Costa Rica. Specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscopy; Peripatus solorzanoi sp. nov., is diagnosed as follows: primary papillae convex and conical with rounded bases, with more than 18 scale ranks. Apical section large, spherical, with a basal diameter of at least 20 ranks. Apical piece with 6-7 scale ranks. Outer blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 vestigial accessory tooth (formula: 1/1/1; inner blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 rudimentary accessory tooth, 9 to 10 denticles (formula: 1/1/1/9-10. Accessory tooth blunt in both blades. Four pads in the fourth and fifth oncopods; 4th. pad arched. The previously unknown mechanism by which onychophorans weave their adhesive is simple: muscular action produces a swinging movement of the adhesive-spelling organs; as a result, the streams cross in mid air, weaving the net. Like all onychophorans, P. solorzanoi is a rare species: active protection of the habitat of the largest onychophoran ever described, is considered urgent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1127-1142. Epub 2010 December 01.

  13. Polychaete Annelid (segmented worms) Species Composition in the Deep Gulf of Mexico following the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    QU, F.; Rowe, G.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments 5 to 9 km from the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill site were sampled using a 0.2 m2 box corer 5 months after the event to assess the effects of the oil spill on polychaete annelid (segmented worms) community structure. Numbers of species, abundance, and biodiversity indices were all significantly lower than pre-spill values from similar depths in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). All of the five dominant species were different. Non-selective deposit feeders and selective deposit feeders were still the most frequent feeding guilds, but their abundances decreased significantly after the event. A large number of carnivorous Sigalionidae may be a response to an accumulation of PAHs on the sediment. Multivariate analyses (CLUSTER and multidimensional scaling (MDS)) illustrate the differences between assemblages near the DWH and those from prior studies in similar deep GoM habitats. In sum, the polychaete populations appeared to be at an early stage of succession in the recovery from the spill or they could be a resident assemblage that is the natural characteristic infauna in or adjacent to natural seeps of fossil hydrocarbons.

  14. Effect of low 60Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to 60 Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates

  15. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Rahman, H.A.; Sallam, H.; El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  16. Impact of Gamma Irradiation and Phenol on the Biological Activity of the Cotton Leaf Worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, R.S.; Sileem, Th.M.; Sayed, W.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma irradiation and Simple Phenole could potentially be used as a new approach to control the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Inherited sterility (IST) technique using sub-sterilizing doses of gamma irradiation and /or different concentrations of phenol were tested on the biological activity of S. littoralis. The biological as pects included egg hatch ability; larval mortality pupation, survival, adult emergence, sex ratio and longevity were tested. It was noticed that the phenol concentrations (2.5 and 5%) and sub-sterilizing dose of gamma irradiation 100 Gy were the most promising for combination treatment. The results indicated that the combined treatments drastically decreased the percentages of pupation and survival more than separate treatments, to reach 3.0 and 2.0%, respectively in the case of 100 Gy + 5%. Also, the deleterious effect of combined treatment son growth inhibition, relative growth index, growth index was sharply decreased in F1 generation than each treatment. The reduction of F1 progeny in combined treatments was higher than could be expected from the sum of. the two treatments. It was concluded that insect suppression was more pronounced in the case of 100 Gy + 5% phenol than in the case of 100 Gy + 2.5% phenol. These findings indicate that the IS technique might be considered as an environmentally compatible alternative or supplement to the phenol for Spodoptera littoralis pests management

  17. Analysis of Waste in the Production of Flour California Red Worm (eisenia foet in Manabí Technical Universitypilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbio Alcívar-Cedeño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for have efficient tools in the environmental assessment of production processesis treated in this paper. This work is related to a previous work made in the Technical University of Manabi, forprotein supplements production from unconventional raw materials, specifically Earthworm (Eisenia foetidaflour, using various ecotoxicological methods to evaluategeneratedwaste in pilot production, in order to contribute to compliance the environmental regulations.Liquid wastes generated in the production of earthworm flour were determined and evaluated under the following biological indicators: inhibition of seed germination, root growth in Lactuca sativa, acute toxicity in Eisenia foetida to determine the environmental toxicity of the production process. As result, the major environmental contamination that occurs during the process of obtaining meal worm (Eisenia foetida is given in the cleaning process, sacrifice, washing and milling. The waste characterization allowed determining that they are domestic water and process water. The use of ecotoxicological bioassays described, that the sacrificialwater inhibit germination and root elongation, and they are classified as slightly toxic thewash waters cause sublethal effects.

  18. “Omic” investigations of protozoa and worms for a deeper understanding of the human gut “parasitome”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Valeria; Mancinelli, Livia; Bracaglia, Giorgia; Del Chierico, Federica; Vernocchi, Pamela; Di Girolamo, Francesco; Garrone, Stefano; Tchidjou Kuekou, Hyppolite; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Urbani, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The human gut has been continuously exposed to a broad spectrum of intestinal organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites (protozoa and worms), over millions of years of coevolution, and plays a central role in human health. The modern lifestyles of Western countries, such as the adoption of highly hygienic habits, the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs, and increasing globalisation, have dramatically altered the composition of the gut milieu, especially in terms of its eukaryotic “citizens.” In the past few decades, numerous studies have highlighted the composition and role of human intestinal bacteria in physiological and pathological conditions, while few investigations exist on gut parasites and particularly on their coexistence and interaction with the intestinal microbiota. Studies of the gut “parasitome” through “omic” technologies, such as (meta)genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are herein reviewed to better understand their role in the relationships between intestinal parasites, host, and resident prokaryotes, whether pathogens or commensals. Systems biology–based profiles of the gut “parasitome” under physiological and severe disease conditions can indeed contribute to the control of infectious diseases and offer a new perspective of omics-assisted tropical medicine. PMID:29095820

  19. Feasibility study of using a Zener diode as the selection device for bipolar RRAM and WORM memory arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingtao; Fu, Liping; Tao, Chunlan; Jiang, Xinyu; Sun, Pengxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cross-bar arrays are usually used for the high density application of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. However, cross-talk interference limits an increase in the integration density. In this paper, the Zener diode is proposed as a selection device to suppress the sneak current in bipolar RRAM arrays. Measurement results show that the Zener diode can act as a good selection device, and the sneak current can be effectively suppressed. The readout margin is sufficiently improved compared to that obtained without the selection device. Due to the improvement for the reading disturbance, the size of the cross-bar array can be enhanced to more than 10 3  × 10 3 . Furthermore, the possibility of using a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) cross-bar array is also demonstrated by connecting the Zener diode and the bipolar RRAM in series. These results strongly suggest that using a Zener diode as a selection device opens up great opportunities to realize high density bipolar RRAM arrays. (paper)

  20. WORM memory devices based on conformation change of a PVK derivative with a rigid spacer in side chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanhua; Li Najun; Xia Xuewei; Xu Qingfeng; Ge Jianfeng; Lu Jianmei

    2010-01-01

    A nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device based on poly((4-vinylbenzyl)-9H-carbazole) (PVCz) was fabricated by a simple and conventional process. The as-fabricated device was found to be at its OFF state and could be programmed irreversibly to the ON state with a low transition voltage of -1.7 V. The device exhibits a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 10 6 , high stability in retention time up to 8 h and number of read cycles up to 10 8 under a read voltage of -1.0 V in both ON and OFF states. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence emission spectra in different states of PVCz indicate that the electrical bistable phenomenon is caused by the voltage-induced conformation change of the pendant carbazole groups. With high performance, low power consumption and low production cost, the device fabricated with PVCz has a potential application for nonvolatile memory.

  1. Shifts in microbial community structure and diversity in a MBR combined with worm reactors treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Lipin; Tian, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH 3 -N removal, membrane fouling, sludge characteristics and microbial community structure in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with worm reactors (SSBWR) were evaluated for 210days. The obtained results were compared to those from a conventional MBR (C-MBR) operated in parallel. The results indicated that the combined MBR (S-MBR) achieved higher COD and NH 3 -N removal efficiency, slower increase in membrane fouling, better sludge settleability and higher activities of the related enzymes in the activated sludge. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the microbial community structures in the C-MBR and the S-MBR. The microbial community structure in the S-MBR was more diverse than that in the C-MBR. Additionally, the slow-growing microbes such as Saprospiraceae, Actinomyces, Frankia, Clostridium, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Flavobacterium were enriched in the S-MBR, further accounting for the sludge reduction, membrane fouling alleviation and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Human eosinophils modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweyongyere, R; Namanya, H; Naniima, P; Cose, S; Tukahebwa, E M; Elliott, A M; Dunne, D W; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    High numbers of eosinophils are observed in parasitic infections and allergic diseases, where they are proposed to be terminally differentiated effector cells that play beneficial role in host defence, or cause harmful inflammatory response. Eosinophils have been associated with killing of schistosomulae in vitro, but there is growing evidence that eosinophils can play additional immuno-regulatory role. Here, we report results of a study that examines peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (SWA) when stimulated alone or enriched with autologous eosinophils. Production of the Th-2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was lower (P = 0·017, 0·018 and eosinophil cultures than in PBMC-only cultures stimulated with SWA. Substantial levels of IL-13, IL-10, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha were recorded in cultures of eosinophils, but none of these cytokines showed significant association with the observed eosinophil-induced drop in cytokine responses of PBMC. Transwell experiments suggested that the observed effect is due to soluble mediators that downmodulate production of Th-2 type cytokines. This study shows that eosinophils may down-modulate schistosome-specific Th-2 type cytokine responses in S. mansoni-infected individuals. The mechanism of this immune modulation remains to be elucidated. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Feeding on protists and particulates by the leptocephali of the worm eels Myrophis spp. (Teleostei: Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae, and the potential energy contribution of large aloricate protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jeffrey Govoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The food sources of the leptocephali of the teleostean superorder Elopomorpha have been controversial, yet observations on the leptocephali of the worm eels, Myrophis spp. (family Ophichthidae collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico indicate active, not passive, feeding. Leptocephali had protists in their alimentary canals. Estimates of the physiological energetics of worm eels indicate that large aloricate protozoa including ciliates could provide substantial energy to these leptocephali toward the end of the premetamorphic and metamorphic stages, given the low energy requirements of metamorphosing leptocephali. Global ocean warming will likely force a shift in oceanic food webs; a shift away from large protozoa toward smaller protists is possible. Such a disruption of the oceanic food webs could further compromise the survival of leptocephali.

  4. Descifrado geométrico de transmisiones de engranaje por tornillo sinfín cilíndrico // Deciphered geometric of worm gears transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivero Llerena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de la geometría de transmisiones de engranaje por tornillo sinfín cilíndrico como acción preliminar alproceso de reconversión de reductores de velocidad de mismo tipo. Se utilizan los diagramas bicromáticos como unaherramienta para el tratamiento algorítmico de problemas de descifrado geométrico.Palabras claves: Transmisión mecánica, descifrado, grafos bicromáticos, engranaje de tornillo sinfín.____________________________________________________________________AbstractThe worm gear geometry is treated as a way of recovering of speed reducers. Bicromatic diagram is used as tool foralgorithm treatment and analyzing of geometric problems.Key word: Worm gears, deciphered, bicromatic diagrams, mechanical transmissions.

  5. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangueu, Calvin Bogning; Olounlade, Abiodoun Pascal; Ossokomack, Marlyse; Djouatsa, Yolande Noelle Nangue; Alowanou, Goue Géorcelin; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio José; de Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Hounzangbe-Adote, Mawulé Sylvie

    2018-05-02

    Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p  50%). These in vitro results suggest the presence of some anthelmintic properties in M. senegalensis extract, which is traditionally used by small farmers in west and central Africa. These effects may be due to the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins present in the extract and need to be studied under in vivo conditions.

  6. Myiasis by Screw Worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Wild Maned Wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in Brasília, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cansi, ER; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, HS; Pujol-Luz, JR

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.

  7. Myiasis by screw worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a wild maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in Brasília, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansi, E R; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, H S; Pujol-Luz, J R

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.

  8. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Woolsey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1 by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3 previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1

  9. One-step solvothermal synthesis, a worm-shaped morphology and luminescence properties of green-emitting Y2O2S:Tb3+ nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Lian, Jingbao; Wu, Nianchu; He, Jiao; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-01

    The worm-shaped Y2O2S:Tb3+ nanophosphors have been successfully prepared via one-step solvothermal synthesis, using ethanediamine as the main solvent and sublimed sulfur powder as the source of sulfur without adding additional structure-directing reagents. XRD, FT-IR, FESEM, PL and CIE chromaticity diagram were used to characterize the obtained products. XRD results demonstrate that all diffraction peaks of the sample can be well indexed to pure hexagonal phase of Y2O2S with optimal condition, i.e. the molar ration of S/Y3+m = 10, solvothermal temperature T = 220 °C and synthetic time t = 24 h. When t varies from 2 h to 24 h, the morphology of Y2O2S transforms from cauliflower-like structure to worm-shaped nanoparticles with the length of ∼80 nm. The formation mechanism depending on t has also been proposed. Upon 250 nm ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, the worm-shaped Y2O2S:Tb3+ nanophosphors exhibit green emissions, corresponding to the 5D4 → 7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb3+ions. The quenching concentration is 7% and its corresponding lifetime is 1216 μs. The CIE chromaticity coordinates show the tuneable emission shifting from yellow green to yellowish green with increasing concentration of Tb3+ions from 1% to 7%. Those results suggest that the worm-shaped Y2O2S:Tb3+ nanophosphors may have potential applications in X-ray intensifying screens, fluorescence and biomedical fields.

  10. A new orthopteran-parasitizing horsehair worm, Acutogordius taiwanensis sp. n., with a redescription of Chordodes formosanus and novel host records from Taiwan (Nematomorpha, Gordiida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chung Chiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A description of a new species of horsehair worm, Acutogordius taiwanensis sp. n., a redescription of Chordodes formosanus, and novel host records for the latter are provided. Acutogordius taiwanensis sp. n. is morphologically similar to A. protectus with moderately flat areoles on its tail tips, but is distinguishable by small mid-body ornamentations. Despite the distinct differences in the post-cloacal crescents between 14 male samples, their conspecific status, along with that of nine female samples, was upheld by a phylogenetic comparison of partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI sequences. Chordodes formosanus is another common horsehair worm species in Taiwan, which was previously believed to specifically parasitize Hierodula mantids. However, in this study, five C. formosanus were observed emerging from an Acromantis mantid, and two long-horned grasshopper hosts (Leptoteratura sp. and Holochlora japonica. These five worms showed high degrees of similarity in COI sequences and morphology, but one of these individuals bore abnormal crowned areoles, which has never been observed in C. formosanus, and may be attributed to the incomplete development of this particular individual.

  11. Biomonitoring in a clean and a multi-contaminated estuary based on biomarkers and chemical analyses in the endobenthic worm Nereis diversicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durou, Cyril [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France) and Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquees, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France)]. E-mail: cyril.durou@uco.fr; Poirier, Laurence [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Amiard, Jean-Claude [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Budzinski, Helene [CNRS UMR 5472, LPTC, Universite de Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Gnassia-Barelli, Mauricette [UMR INRA UNSA 1112 ROSE, Faculte des Sciences, BP 71, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Lemenach, Karyn [CNRS UMR 5472, LPTC, Universite de Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Peluhet, Laurent [CNRS UMR 5472, LPTC, Universite de Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Mouneyrac, Catherine [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquees, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Romeo, Michele [UMR INRA UNSA 1112 ROSE, Faculte des Sciences, BP 71, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Amiard-Triquet, Claude [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-07-15

    Relationships between biochemical and physiological biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], catalase, and glutathione S-transferase [GST] activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glycogen, lipids and proteins) and accumulated concentrations of contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals) were examined in the keystone species Nereis diversicolor. The chemical analyses of worms and sediments allowed the designation of the Seine estuary and the Authie estuary as a polluted and relatively clean site respectively. Worms from the Seine estuary exhibited higher GST and lower AChE activities. Generally, larger worms had higher concentrations of energy reserves. Principal component analyses clearly highlighted intersite differences: in the first plan, GST activities and chemical concentrations were inversely related to concentrations of energy reserves; in the second one, PCB concentrations and AChE activity were inversely related. Depleted levels of energy reserves could be a consequence of combating toxicants and might predict effects at higher levels of biological organization. The use of GST and AChE activities and energy reserve concentrations as biomarkers is validated in the field in this keystone species. - The use of N. diversicolor as a biomonitor of environmental quality via the measurement of biomarkers and accumulated concentrations of contaminants is validated in the field.

  12. Diversity and Activity of Insect Natural Enemies of the Bag worm (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) within an Oil Palm Plantation in Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman Kamarudin; Othman Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Bag worms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are one of the important leaf-eating pests of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia. Crop losses, due to the extensive defoliation by a serious bag worm attack are inevitable. The establishment and propagation of the bag worm's parasitoids, depend very much on species of flowering plants as sources of nectar. Cassia cobanensis, was proven suitable due to its attractiveness to most bag worm parasitoids. A study to assess the diversity of bag worm's natural enemies (hymenopterous parasitoids and reduuvid predatory bugs) on the C. cobanensis plant and within the undergrowth of the oil palm planting block was evaluated by sweep net and sticky trap sampling. Environmental parameters such as light intensity, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded during the sampling to determine their possible range of influence towards the activity of the insect natural enemies. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of insect natural enemies occurring on the C. cobanensis plant was 2.32. Among the dominant parasitoids observed on C. cobanensis plants are chalcids (Brachymeria lugubris and Brachymeria carinata) and braconids (Dolichogenidea metesae and Apanteles aluella), besides the reduuvid predator, Cosmolestes picticeps. In contrast, within the oil palm planting block, the undergrowth within the non-harvesting path only recorded a much lower diversity index of 1.09 and 1.12 each, in a block with C. cobanensis at the roadside and without, respectively. However, C. picticeps was shown to be much more dominant within both oil palm planting blocks, up to two- to three-fold, with much lesser numbers of hymenopterous parasitoids (less than five individuals). This indicates the important contribution of C. cobanensis plant towards enriching the diversity of the parasitoids, which are normally not found within the oil palm block, due to much less intense sunlight. In terms of insect activity, they are significantly more active in the

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on various stages in the life cycle of meal worm, Tenebrio molitor Lin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiravathanapong, S.; Segsarnviriya, S.

    1984-12-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on each growth stage of meal worm (Tenebrio molitor Lin.) were conducted at 27+-2 0 C and 75+-2% relative humidity. LD 50 and LD 99 of 5-day old eggs at 5 days after irradiation were 76 and 367 gray. The survived larvae could live no longer than 5 days and seldom moved or without feeding. LD 50 and LD 99 of last instar larvae at 10 days after irradiation were 662 and 1,367 gray. No pupation occurred in larvae after irradiation. Dead larvae caused by radiation turned blackish, liquid oozed out from the body, and survived no longer than 5 days. Some irradiated larvae had incomplete molting and died. LD 50 and LD 99 of 6-day-old pupae at 3 days after irradiation were 874 and 1,492 gray. Abnormal irradiated pupae, some abnormal pupae were underdeveloped wing and abdominal pupal characteristic was still remained. Pupal legs could develop to adult legs only and could survive no longer than 1 week. Unfortunately pupae irradiated at low dosage of radiation would develop to be complete adult head, but could survive no longer than 2 weeks with slow movement and no oviposition. LD 50 of male adults and female adults was checked in 7 days postirradiation and it was estimated as 788 and 786 gray while LD 99 was estimated as 1,375 and 1,350 gray respectively. Results of male adults and female adults checking in 10 days post-irradiation found that LD 50 was estimated as 533 and 598 gray and LD 99 was estimated as 1,227 and 1,229 gray respectively. The remained survivors of both sexes could survive no longer than 10 days without feeding and mating

  14. First occurrence of western corn root worm beetles in the federal states Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, western corn root worm beetles were detected in the federal states Hesse (Groß-Gerau and Rhineland-Palatinate (Bodenheim for the first time. Control measures based on commission decision 2003/766/EG (Byrne, 2003 were conducted after detection in PAL-traps. Focus and safety zones were established. In Hesse, both focus and safety zones were treated with the insecticide Biscaya, due to the high number of 50 beetles which were detected in the PAL-traps. Since in Rhineland-Palatinate, only one beetle had been captured, only the focus zone was treated with the insecticide. After insecticide treatment, new PAL-traps were arranged like a close grid over the infested areas in both federal states. In each maize field in the focus- and safety zone further traps were placed and checked weekly until September 30th by supporting staff. Until the end of the monitoring in 2011 (September 30th further beetles were detected in the south of the area (district of Groß-Gerau, Hesse, were the first infestation had been discovered. However, in Rhineland-Palatinate no further beetles were detected that year. By the end of the monitoring 354 beetles in Hesse and one beetle in Rhineland-Palatinate had been captured in total. Subsequently the demarked zones in Hesse were extended. Taking into account the local circumstances, the new focus zone was delimited to include all the areas where beetles had been detected as well as the surrounding maize fields. In the focus zones the cultivation of maize was forbidden for the consecutive two years and a crop rotation with at least 50 percent maize was established in the safety zones. In 2012 no further beetles were captured in the infested region.

  15. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  16. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms.

  17. Flooding modifies the genotoxic effects of pollution on a worm, a mussel and two fish species from the Sava River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborgiba, Mustafa; Kostić, Jovana; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Elbahi, Samia; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Paunović, Momir; Gačić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    Extreme hydrological events, such as water scarcity and flooding, can modify the effect of other stressors present in aquatic environment, which could result in the significant changes in the ecosystem functioning. Presence and interaction of various stressors (genotoxic pollutants) in the environment can influence the integrity of DNA molecules in aquatic organisms which can be negatively reflected on the individual, population and community levels. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the impact of flooding, in terms of genotoxicity, on organisms belonging to different trophic levels. The study was carried out on the site situated in the lower stretch of the Sava River which faced devastating effects of severe flooding in May 2014. The flooding occurred during our field experiment and this event provided a unique opportunity to assess its influence to the environment. The in situ effects of this specific situation were monitored by measuring physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of water, and by comparing the level of DNA damage in coelomocytes and haemocytes of freshwater worms Branchiura sowerbyi, haemocytes of freshwater mussels Unio tumidus and blood cells of freshwater fish Abramis bjoerkna/Abramis sapa, by means of the comet assay. Our study indicated that the flooding had a significant impact on water quality by decreasing the amount and discharge rate of urban wastewaters but simultaneously introducing contaminants from the nearby fly ash disposal field into river by runoff, which had diverse effects on the level of DNA damage in the studied organisms. This indicates that the assessment of genotoxic pollution in situ is strongly affected by the choice of the bioindicator organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Making Worms Glow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/03/0291-0298. Keywords. Nanotechnology, nanomachines, I-switch, FRET, fluorophore, endocytosis, pH sensor, C.elegans. Abstract. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule that carries geneticinformation in a cell. The field of DNA nanotechnologyaims to use ...

  19. Making Worms Glow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunaina Surana1 Yamuna Krishnan2. Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders Institute of Neurology University College London Queen Square London WC1N 3BG, UK. Gordon Centre for Integrative Science 929 E., 57th Ellis Avenue Department of Chemistry University of Chicago Chicago ...

  20. Making Worms Glow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The field of DNA nanotechnology aims to .... assembly returns to its 'open' conformation (Figure 3a). Forma ... neutral, and the I-switch is in its 'open' conformation, the donor .... tures to activate defense mechanisms in the mouse to treat cancer-.

  1. Earth, worms & birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Het Nederlandse weidelandschap is al decennialang weids en groen. Toch is het grasland van nu door intensief landgebruik flink veranderd. Weidevogels, die van dit landschap afhankelijk zijn, nemen al jaren hard in aantallen af. De belangrijkste prooi voor deze groep vogels zijn regenwormen. In dit

  2. Radiation induced F1 sterility in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and tropical army worm, Spodoptera litura F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, S.; Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutardji, D.; Rahayu, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 300 Gy dose of gamma irradiation can be used as the sterilizing dose for the diamond-back moth (DBM). This caused 90% sterility of the moths. Releases of irradiated moths into the normal populations (nine irradiated to one normal) in laboratory cages, field cages and small field plots reduced the F 1 population by 61, 55 and 42%, respectively. The effects of substerilizing doses of 175 and 200 Gy to the irradiated parents caused 26 and 36% sterilities, respectively. The dose of 175 Gy caused the levels of sterility of the male and female F 1 progeny to be 54 and 74%, respectively, while the dose of 200 Gy caused 56% sterility of the F 1 male and 71% of the F 1 female. The sterility of the F 2 population was nearly the same as that of the irradiated parents. At a radiation doses of 175 Gy the sterility of F 2 males was about 11% and of females 37%. At a dose of 200 Gy the levels of sterility of the males and females were 9 and 14%, respectively. Gamma irradiation did not affect the fecundity of the irradiated parents or of the F 1 and F 2 progeny. The average number of eggs produced by one pair of DBM moths was 180. The viabilities of unirradiated pupae, irradiated parents, F 1 and F 2 at a dose of 200 Gy were 94, 89, 54 and 65%, respectively. The effect of releasing F 1 sterile moths into untreated populations at a ratio of 45:1 could be a reduction in the population by 22%. Delta traps baited with the sex pheromone Sj showed the highest trapping efficiency. The highest population of DBMs in the dry season is in May and the lowest point is in July. The longevity of the tropical army worm was slightly affected by gamma irradiation. The dose of irradiation did not affect the viability of the pupae. A substerilizing dose of 100 Gy caused 43% parental sterility, 76% F 1 sterility and 54% F 2 sterility. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Signaling in Parasitic Nematodes: Physicochemical Communication Between Host and Parasite and Endogenous Molecular Transduction Pathways Governing Worm Development and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B

    2016-12-01

    Signaling or communication between host and parasite may occur over relatively long ranges to enable host finding and acquisition by infective parasitic nematode larvae. Innate behaviors in infective larvae transmitted from the soil that enhance the likelihood of host contact, such as negative geotaxis and hypermotility, are likely mediated by mechanoreception and neuromuscular signaling. Host cues such as vibration of the substratum, elevated temperature, exhaled CO 2 , and other volatile odorants are perceived by mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the amphidial complex. Beyond this, the molecular systems that transduce these external cues within the worm are unknown at this time. Overall, the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate switching between dauer and continuous reproductive development in Caenorhabditis elegans , and doubtless other free-living nematodes, have provided a useful framework for testing hypotheses about how the morphogenesis and development of infective parasitic nematode larvae and the lifespan of adult parasites are regulated. In C. elegans , four major signal transduction pathways, G protein-coupled receptor signaling, insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling, TGFβ-like signaling and steroid-nuclear hormone receptor signaling govern the switch between dauer and continuous development and regulate adult lifespan. Parasitic nematodes appear to have conserved the functions of G-protein-coupled signaling, insulin-like signaling and steroid-nuclear hormone receptor signaling to regulate larval development before and during the infective process. By contrast, TGFβ-like signaling appears to have been adapted for some other function, perhaps modulation of the host immune response. Of the three signal transduction pathways that appear to regulate development in parasitic nematodes, steroid-nuclear hormone signaling is the most straightforward to manipulate with administered small molecules and may form the basis of new

  4. The other prey-capture silk: Fibres made by glow-worms (Diptera: Keroplatidae) comprise cross-β-sheet crystallites in an abundant amorphous fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Weisman, Sarah; Trueman, Holly E; Merritt, David J; Sutherland, Tara D

    2015-09-01

    Glow-worms (larvae of dipteran genus Arachnocampa) are restricted to moist habitats where they capture flying prey using snares composed of highly extensible silk fibres and sticky mucus droplets. Little is known about the composition or structure of glow-worm snares, or the extent of possible convergence between glow-worm and arachnid capture silks. We characterised Arachnocampa richardsae silk and mucus using X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. Silk but not mucus contained crystallites of the cross-β-sheet type, which occur in unrelated insect silks but have not been reported previously in fibres used for prey capture. Mucus proteins were rich in Gly (28.5%) and existed in predominantly a random coil structure, typical of many adhesive proteins. In contrast, the silk fibres were unusually rich in charged and polar residues, particularly Lys (18.1%), which we propose is related to their use in a highly hydrated state. Comparison of X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy and amino acid analysis data suggests that silk fibres contain a high fraction of disordered protein. We suggest that in the native hydrated state, silk fibres are capable of extension via deformation of both disordered regions and cross-β-sheet crystallites, and that high extensibility is an adaptation promoting successful prey capture. This study illustrates the rich variety of protein motifs that are available for recruitment into biopolymers, and how convergently evolved materials can nevertheless be based on fundamentally different protein structures. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated inoculations with the lung and heartworm nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum result in increasing larval excretion and worm burden in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Webster, P; Thamsborg, S; Schnyder, Manuela; Monrad, Jesper; Kapel, C M O

    2017-12-01

    The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1) by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces. Experimentally infected foxes were subsequently inoculated via stomach tube once (9 weeks post initial inoculation) or twice (9 and 13 weeks post inoculation (wpi)) with 100 third stage A. vasorum larvae (L3) previously isolated from aquatic snails infected with L1 from a naturally infected dog. Despite large variation in fecal larval excretion for the individual animals within the groups, excretion of L1 was significantly higher in foxes twice inoculated as compared to foxes inoculated only once. With an outlier in the once inoculated group removed, excretion became significantly higher in the three times inoculated group. Establishment of adult worms varied and only a trend to higher worm burdens was found in the group of foxes inoculated three times. However, this became significant with the same single outlier removed. Overall, it appears that protective immunity to A. vasorum does not appear to occur in V. vulpes with animals exhibiting high infection intensities without obvious clinical signs. The increasing larval excretion in foxes being repeatedly exposed to A. vasorum L3 support the hypothesis that foxes under natural conditions may repeatedly ingest infected gastropods and remain a source of environmental contamination for several months, potentially contributing to the establishment of endemic foci through increasing L1 excretion.

  6. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and MeHg in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from amphipod and worm prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Jessica, E-mail: dutton.jess@gmail.com; Fisher, Nicholas S., E-mail: nfisher@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

    2011-08-15

    Elevated metal levels in fish are a concern for the fish themselves, their predators, and possibly humans who consume contaminated seafood. Metal bioaccumulation models often rely on assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals and loss rate constants after dietary exposure (k{sub ef}s). These models can be used to better understand processes regulating metal accumulation and can be used to make site-specific predictions of metal concentrations in animal tissues. Fish often consume a varied diet, and prey choice can influence these two parameters. We investigated the trophic transfer of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and methylmercury (MeHg) from a benthic amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) and an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) using gamma-emitting radioisotopes. Except for MeHg, AEs varied between prey type. AEs were highest for MeHg (92%) and lowest for Cd (2.9-4.5%) and Cr (0.2-4%). Hg(II) showed the largest AE difference between prey type (14% amphipods, 24% worms). For Cd and Hg(II) k{sub ef}s were higher after consuming amphipods than consuming worms. Tissue distribution data shows that Cd and Hg(II) were mainly associated with the intestine, whereas As and MeHg were transported throughout the body. Calculated trophic transfer factors (TTFs) suggest that MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step at all ingestion rates, whereas As, Cd, Cr, and Hg(II) will not. Data collected in this study and others indicate that using one prey item to calculate AE and k{sub ef} could lead to an over- or underestimation of these parameters. - Highlights: {yields} We investigated the trophic transfer of metals to killifish from amphipod and worm prey. {yields} Prey choice influences metal accumulation from the diet. {yields} Only MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step.

  7. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health- and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½h individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall knowledge on aspects of acquisition and transmission of T. solium infections (78%), porcine cysticercosis treatment (77%), human tapeworm in general (72%), neurocysticercosis in general (49%), and porcine cysticercosis diagnosis (48%). However, there was a lack of knowledge on acquisition of neurocysticercosis (15%), prevention of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (28%), and relation between porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, and taeniosis (32%). Overall, the study subject's knowledge was significantly improved both immediately after (p=0.001) and two weeks after (pthe health education and knowledge regarding specific aspects was significantly improved in most aspects immediately after and two weeks after the health education. The focus group discussions showed positive attitudes towards the program and the study subjects found 'The Vicious Worm' efficient, simple, and appealing. The study revealed a good effect of 'The Vicious Worm' suggesting that it could be a useful health education tool, which should be further assessed and thereafter integrated in T. solium

  8. Evidence That Rhesus Macaques Self-Cure from a Schistosoma japonicum Infection by Disrupting Worm Esophageal Function: A New Route to an Effective Vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    Full Text Available Rhesus macaques are unusual among schistosome hosts, self-curing from an established infection and thereafter manifesting solid immunity against a challenge, an ideal model for vaccine development. Previously, the immunological basis of self-cure was confirmed; surviving worms had ceased feeding but how immunological pressure achieved this was unclear. The schistosome esophagus is not simply a conduit for blood but plays a central role in its processing. Secretions from the anterior and posterior esophageal glands mix with incoming blood causing erythrocyte lysis and tethering and killing of leucocytes.We have analysed the self-cure process in rhesus macaques infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Faecal egg output and circulating antigen levels were used to chart the establishment of a mature worm population and its subsequent demise. The physiological stress of surviving females at perfusion was especially evident from their pale, shrunken appearance, while changes in the structure and function of the esophagus were observed in both sexes. In the anterior region electron microscopy revealed that the vesicle secretory process was disrupted, the tips of lining corrugations being swollen by greatly enlarged vesicles and the putative sites of vesicle release obscured by intense deposits of IgG. The lumen of the posterior esophagus in starving worms was occluded by cellular debris and the lining cytoplasmic plates were closely adherent, also potentially preventing secretion. Seven proteins secreted by the posterior gland were identified and IgG responses were detected to some or all of them. Intrinsic rhesus IgG colocalized with secreted SjMEGs 4.1, 8.2, 9, 11 and VAL-7 on cryosections, suggesting they are potential targets for disruption of function.Our data suggest that rhesus macaques self-cure by blocking esophagus function with antibody; the protein products of the glands provide a new class of potential vaccine targets.

  9. Preliminary assessment of the computer-based Taenia solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake in primary school students in rural areas in eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Emma C; Mwape, Kabemba Evans; Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; Zulu, Gideon; Mambwe, Moses; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Phiri, Isaac Khozozo; Masuku, Maxwell; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Colston, Angela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, Arve Lee; Gabriël, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The zoonotic helminth Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, causing human (taeniasis and (neuro)cysticercosis) and pig (porcine cysticercosis) diseases with high health, social and economic burdens. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a health educational program intended to lead to powerful and cumulative improvements in knowledge, attitudes and practices that decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence. Half-day health education workshops were conducted in three primary schools in the highly endemic Eastern Province of Zambia, using the computer-based T. solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm'. Questionnaires were administered before and after the educational component to determine the program's impact on knowledge uptake in primary school students. In total, 99 students participated: 38 males and 61 females, with a median age of 14 years (range 10-18 years). Baseline general knowledge of T. solium, including awareness of the different human and pig disease states, and disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention, was quite high (average score 62%) and consistent across all three study areas. Participants' knowledge had significantly increased after the educational component, particularly regarding parasite transmission and disease prevention. Preliminary assessment of 'The Vicious Worm' indicates it is an effective tool for the short-term T. solium education of primary school students in Zambia. Follow-up studies are planned to assess the longer term impact of the program on knowledge uptake in the study neighbourhoods. Inclusion of tailored 'The Vicious Worm' educational workshops should be considered in integrated cysticercosis control programs in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. "Koko et les lunettes magiques": An educational entertainment tool to prevent parasitic worms and diarrheal diseases in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Essé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps.In a first step, preliminary research was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of school-aged children regarding parasitic worm infections and hygiene, to identify key health messages to be included in an animated cartoon. Second, an animated cartoon was produced, which included the drafting of the script and story board, and the production of the cartoon's initial version. Finally, the animated cartoon was pilot tested in eight selected schools and further fine-tuned.According to the questionnaire results, children believed that the consumption of sweet food, eating without washing their hands, sitting on the floor, and eating spoiled food were the main causes of parasitic worm infections. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, failure to grow, and general fatigue were mentioned as symptoms of parasitic worm infections. Most of the children knew that they should go to the hospital for treatment if they experienced symptoms of parasitic worm diseases. The animated cartoon titled "Koko et les lunettes magiques" was produced by Afrika Toon, in collaboration with a scientific team composed of epidemiologists, civil engineers, and social scientists, and the local school children and teachers. Pilot testing of the animated cartoon revealed that, in the short term, children grasped and kept key messages. Most of the children who were shown the cartoon reported to like it. Acceptance of the

  11. "Koko et les lunettes magiques": An educational entertainment tool to prevent parasitic worms and diarrheal diseases in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essé, Clémence; Koffi, Véronique A; Kouamé, Abel; Dongo, Kouassi; Yapi, Richard B; Moro, Honorine M; Kouakou, Christiane A; Palmeirim, Marta S; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2017-09-01

    Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps. In a first step, preliminary research was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of school-aged children regarding parasitic worm infections and hygiene, to identify key health messages to be included in an animated cartoon. Second, an animated cartoon was produced, which included the drafting of the script and story board, and the production of the cartoon's initial version. Finally, the animated cartoon was pilot tested in eight selected schools and further fine-tuned. According to the questionnaire results, children believed that the consumption of sweet food, eating without washing their hands, sitting on the floor, and eating spoiled food were the main causes of parasitic worm infections. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, failure to grow, and general fatigue were mentioned as symptoms of parasitic worm infections. Most of the children knew that they should go to the hospital for treatment if they experienced symptoms of parasitic worm diseases. The animated cartoon titled "Koko et les lunettes magiques" was produced by Afrika Toon, in collaboration with a scientific team composed of epidemiologists, civil engineers, and social scientists, and the local school children and teachers. Pilot testing of the animated cartoon revealed that, in the short term, children grasped and kept key messages. Most of the children who were shown the cartoon reported to like it. Acceptance of the animated cartoon was high

  12. “Koko et les lunettes magiques”: An educational entertainment tool to prevent parasitic worms and diarrheal diseases in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamé, Abel; Dongo, Kouassi; Yapi, Richard B.; Moro, Honorine M.; Kouakou, Christiane A.; Palmeirim, Marta S.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Background Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children’s awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d’Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps. Methodology In a first step, preliminary research was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of school-aged children regarding parasitic worm infections and hygiene, to identify key health messages to be included in an animated cartoon. Second, an animated cartoon was produced, which included the drafting of the script and story board, and the production of the cartoon’s initial version. Finally, the animated cartoon was pilot tested in eight selected schools and further fine-tuned. Principal findings According to the questionnaire results, children believed that the consumption of sweet food, eating without washing their hands, sitting on the floor, and eating spoiled food were the main causes of parasitic worm infections. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, failure to grow, and general fatigue were mentioned as symptoms of parasitic worm infections. Most of the children knew that they should go to the hospital for treatment if they experienced symptoms of parasitic worm diseases. The animated cartoon titled “Koko et les lunettes magiques” was produced by Afrika Toon, in collaboration with a scientific team composed of epidemiologists, civil engineers, and social scientists, and the local school children and teachers. Pilot testing of the animated cartoon revealed that, in the short term, children grasped and kept key messages. Most of the children who were shown the cartoon reported to

  13. Adaptation and evolution of deep-sea scale worms (Annelida: Polynoidae): insights from transcriptome comparison with a shallow-water species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Chen, Chong; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Chiu, Jill M.Y.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Polynoid scale worms (Polynoidae, Annelida) invaded deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems approximately 60 million years ago, but little is known about their genetic adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment. In this study, we reported the first two transcriptomes of deep-sea polynoids (Branchipolynoe pettiboneae, Lepidonotopodium sp.) and compared them with the transcriptome of a shallow-water polynoid (Harmothoe imbricata). We determined codon and amino acid usage, positive selected genes, highly expressed genes and putative duplicated genes. Transcriptome assembly produced 98,806 to 225,709 contigs in the three species. There were more positively charged amino acids (i.e., histidine and arginine) and less negatively charged amino acids (i.e., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) in the deep-sea species. There were 120 genes showing clear evidence of positive selection. Among the 10% most highly expressed genes, there were more hemoglobin genes with high expression levels in both deep-sea species. The duplicated genes related to DNA recombination and metabolism, and gene expression were only enriched in deep-sea species. Deep-sea scale worms adopted two strategies of adaptation to hypoxia in the chemosynthesis-based habitats (i.e., rapid evolution of tetra-domain hemoglobin in Branchipolynoe or high expression of single-domain hemoglobin in Lepidonotopodium sp.). PMID:28397791

  14. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-15

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows.

  15. MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lahcen I; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J; Telford, Maximilian J; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide

    2011-09-20

    Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.

  16. Reproductive system abnormalities in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae: brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with genital anomalies isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy under the reflected mode. One male without testicular lobes (testicular agenesia/anorchism and two females, one with an atrophied ovary and another with 17 uterine eggs, were identified. The absence of testicular lobes occurred in a worm presenting otherwise normal male adult characteristics: tegument, tubercles and a gynaecophoric canal with spines. In both female specimens the digestive tube showed a vacuolated appearance, and the specimen with supernumerary uterine eggs exhibited a developing miracidium and an egg with a formed shell. The area of the ventral sucker was similar in both specimens however the tegument thickness, ovary and vitelline glands of the specimen with the atrophied ovary were smaller than those of the one with supernumerary eggs. These reported anomalies in the reproductive system call attention to the need to improve our understanding of genetic regulation and the possible role of environmental influences upon trematode development.

  17. Morphological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from nourished and undernourished mice: a comparative analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.

  18. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  19. Drug-like analogues of the parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator ES-62 are therapeutic in the MRL/Lpr model of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D T; Pineda, M A; Suckling, C J; Harnett, W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction ES-62, a phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing immunomodulator secreted by the parasitic worm Acanthocheilonema viteae, protects against nephritis in the MRL/Lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, ES-62 is not suitable for development as a therapy and thus we have designed drug-like small molecule analogues (SMAs) based around its active PC-moiety. To provide proof of concept that ES-62-based SMAs exhibit therapeutic potential in SLE, we have investigated the capacity of two SMAs to protect against nephritis when administered to MRL/Lpr mice after onset of kidney damage. Methods SMAs 11a and 12b were evaluated for their ability to suppress antinuclear antibody (ANA) generation and consequent kidney pathology in MRL/Lpr mice when administered after the onset of proteinuria. Results SMAs 11a and 12b suppressed development of ANA and proteinuria. Protection reflected downregulation of MyD88 expression by kidney cells and this was associated with reduced production of IL-6, a cytokine that exhibits promise as a therapeutic target for this condition. Conclusions SMAs 11a and 12b provide proof of principle that synthetic compounds based on the safe immunomodulatory mechanisms of parasitic worms can exhibit therapeutic potential as a novel class of drugs for SLE, a disease for which current therapies remain inadequate. PMID:26085597

  20. A new giant species of placented worm and the mechanism by which onychophorans weave their nets (Onychophora: Peripatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Morera-Brenes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Onychophorans, or velvet worms, are poorly known and rare animals. Here we report the discovery of a new species that is also the largest onychophoran found so far, a 22cm long female from the Caribbean coastal forest of Costa Rica. Specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscopy; Peripatus solorzanoi sp. nov., is diagnosed as follows: primary papillae convex and conical with rounded bases, with more than 18 scale ranks. Apical section large, spherical, with a basal diameter of at least 20 ranks. Apical piece with 6-7 scale ranks. Outer blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 vestigial accessory tooth (formula: 1/1/1; inner blade 1 principal tooth, 1 accessory tooth, 1 rudimentary accessory tooth, 9 to 10 denticles (formula: 1/1/1/9-10. Accessory tooth blunt in both blades. Four pads in the fourth and fifth oncopods; 4th. pad arched. The previously unknown mechanism by which onychophorans weave their adhesive is simple: muscular action produces a swinging movement of the adhesive-spelling organs; as a result, the streams cross in mid air, weaving the net. Like all onychophorans, P. solorzanoi is a rare species: active protection of the habitat of the largest onychophoran ever described, is considered urgent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1127-1142. Epub 2010 December 01.Los onicóforos o "peripatos" son animales escasos y poco conocidos. Aquí informamos el descubrimiento del onicóforo más grandes conocido, una hembra de 22cm de longitud del bosque costero caribeño de Costa Rica. Analizamos los especímenes con microscopia electrónica de barrido. La nueva especie, Peripatus solorzanoi, sp. nov. se caracteriza así: papilas primarias convexas y cónicas, con bases redondeadas y más de 18 filas de escamas de alto. Sección apical grande y esférica, con diámetro basal de al menos 20 filas. Parte apical con 6-7 filas de escamas de alto. Fórmula de lámina mandibular externa 1/1/1, lámina interna: 1/1/1/9-10. Diente accesorio romo

  1. Progress on the artificial rearing of the army worm, Spodoptera (Laphygma) exigua Hb. and radiation sterilization in the male of this species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Chiravathanapong, S.

    1971-01-01

    The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited

  2. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Shall, S.A.; Sobeiha, A.K.; El-Bamby, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs

  3. Effect of gamma rays on nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (BOISD). Vol. 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; El-Shall, S A [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Sobeiha, A K; El-Bamby, M A [Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Full grown pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) were exposed to exposed to sub sterilizing doses of 100, 200 and 300 Gy gamma radiation. The changes in nucleic acids content (RNA and DNA) of irradiated pupae, after 24 hours from irradiation, and also in 3 days old adults resulting from irradiated pupae were investigated. The total nucleic acids content in either pupae or adults was progressively reduced as the dose was increased. The reduction of both RNA and DNA in females was greater than in males. DNA was more radiosensitive than RNA. The destructive action of irradiation on nucleic acids was more pronounced in adult stage. Irradiation increased the RNA/DNA ratio than control at all treatments for female pupae at 200 Gy. 2 tabs.

  4. TLR2 signal influences the iNOS/NO responses and worm development in C57BL/6J mice infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Yun-Liang; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Yi-Chao

    2017-08-07

    Although the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and associated cytokine after Clonorchis sinensis infection have been studied recently, their mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signals on iNOS/nitric oxide (NO) responses after C. sinensis infection. We also evaluated the correlations between iNOS responses and worm development, which are possibly regulated by TLR2 signal. TLR2 wild-type and mutant C57BL/6 J mice were infected with 60 C. sinensis metacercariae, and the samples were collected at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days post-infection (dpi). The total serum NO levels were detected using Griess reagent after nitrate was reduced to nitrite. Hepatic tissue samples from the infected mice were sliced and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to observe worm development in the intrahepatic bile ducts. The iNOS mRNA transcripts in the splenocytes were examined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and iNOS expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Developing C. sinensis juvenile worms were more abundant in the intrahepatic bile ducts of TLR2 mutant mice than those of TLR2 wild-type mice. However, no eggs were found in the faeces of both mice samples. The serum levels of total NO significantly increased in TLR2 mutant mice infected with C. sinensis at 30 (t (5)  = 2.595, P = 0.049), 60 (t (5)  = 7.838, P = 0.001) and 90 dpi (t (5)  = 3.032, P = 0.029). Meanwhile, no changes occurred in TLR2 wild-type mice compared with uninfected controls during the experiment. The iNOS expression in splenocytes showed unexpected higher background levels in TLR2 mutant mice than those in TLR2 wild-type mice. Furthermore, the iNOS mRNA transcripts in splenocytes were significantly increased in the TLR2 wild-type mice infected with C. sinensis at 30 (t (5)  = 5.139, P = 0.004), 60 (t (5)  = 6.138, P = 0.002) and 90 dpi (t (5)  = 6

  5. DETERMINING AND VERIFYING THE GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HELICAL GROOVES IN THE WORM IN PLANETARY TOROIDAL DRIVES IN A MORE EFFECTIVE WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila VOJTKOVÁ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the toroidal drive, a screw-shaped groove is cut into the globoid worm. There is contact with the rolling element in this groove. This helix can be described by parametric equations. When calculating the values of the first and second curvature of the curve, as well as the radius of curvature, we must calculate the individual derivations. A new, more effective way is to determine the values already mentioned by using NX software only. When using Siemens PLM NX software, it is not necessary to determine individual derivations and their values, although the NX software determines the radii of the first and second curvature, based on the defined helix curve.

  6. Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel sea lion virus type 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Brown, R J

    1980-11-01

    Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the sea lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful.

  7. Application of a unique test design to determine the chronic toxicity of boron to the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus and fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott; Lockwood, Rick; Harrass, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    The chronic (21- and 28-day) toxicity of boron was determined for two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates: the fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea and the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. The rapid depletion of boric acid from spiked sediments in tests using flow-through overlying waters was addressed by constant addition of boric acid to overlying water at concentrations matching those of the targeted porewater exposures. This proved highly successful in maintaining constant whole-sediment and sediment porewater boron concentrations. Boron sublethal 25 % inhibition concentration values based on porewater concentrations were 25.9 mg B/L (L. variegatus) and 38.5 mg B/L (L. siliquoidea), indicating similar test organism sensitivity. Expressed as dry whole-sediment values, the respective L. variegatus and L. siliquoidea sublethal (growth) IC25 values for whole-sediment exposures were 235.5 mg B/kg sediment dry weight (dw) and 310.6 mg B/kg dw. The worm lethality-based end points indicated greater sensitivity than the sublethal end points, bringing into question the validity of a "lethality" end point for L. variegatus given its fragmentation mode of reproduction. For comparison, water-only mussel exposures were tested resulting in an IC25 value of 34.6 mg B/L, which was within 20 % of the porewater value. This suggests that the primary route of boron exposure was through the aqueous phase. The results of this study indicated that for test materials that are readily water soluble, standard sediment test designs may be unsuitable, but water-only exposures can provide toxicological data representative of sediment tests.

  8. Porous worm-like NiMoO4 coaxially decorated electrospun carbon nanofiber as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaodong; Li, Xiao; Yang, Tao; Wang, Kai; Wang, Hongbao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-03-01

    The peculiar architectures consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers coaxially decorated by porous worm-like NiMoO4 were successfully fabricated for the first time to address the poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability of the state-of-the-art NiMoO4-based electrodes caused by the insufficient structural stability, dense structure and low conductivity. The porous worm-like structure endows the electrode high capacitance/capacity due to large effective specific surface area and short electron/ion diffusion channels. Moreover, the robust integrated electrode with sufficient internal spaces can self-accommodate volume variation during charge/discharge processes, which is beneficial to the structural stability and integrity. By the virtue of rational design of the architecture, the hybrid electrode delivered high specific capacitance (1088.5 F g-1 at 1 A g-1), good rate capability (860.3 F g-1 at 20 A g-1) and long lifespan with a capacitance retention of 73.9% after 5000 cycles when used as supercapacitor electrode. For lithium-ion battery application, the electrode exhibited a high reversible capacity of 1132.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. Notably, 689.7 mAh g-1 can be achieved even after 150 continuous cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1. In the view of their outstanding electrochemical performance and the cost-effective fabrication process, the integrated nanostructure shows great promising applications in energy storage.

  9. Failure analysis of the worm gear of the actuator of the motor-valve 2-N71-MV-1867; Analisis de falla del tornillo sin fin del actuador de la motovalvula 2-N71-MV-1867

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles P, E. F.; Vazquez B, S.; Medina A, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mar M, S. P., E-mail: eduardo.robles@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the results of the tests realized to the worm gear of the actuator of the motor-valve type butterfly 2-N71-MV-1867 coming from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde area presented, to determine the failure mechanism that caused the fracture of two of their wires. These wires present a lines model of irregular contact, what suggests the existence of non alignment in the gear-wheel system. The chemical analysis by means of optical emission spectrophotometry showed that the worm gear was manufactured starting from steel grade machinery AISI 4320H. The metallographic analysis corroborated that the chord of the worm gear was hardened superficially by means of a thermochemistry treatment of cemented, reaching a maximum hardness of cemented layer in the contact area of 58 HRC and a thickness of effective layer of 1.2 mm, also the presence of carbides precipitated in grain limits in the cemented layer was found, that which is not desirable because this increases its fragility. Likewise in the nucleus a tempering structure too much soft was revealed, 22 HRC. The analysis of the extracted fracture surfaces of the cracked areas during the operation of the worm gear, they suggest that the fracture mechanism was the fatigue of the material, which was generated starting from an em brittle cemented surface and it is spread inside a nucleus of low mechanical resistance. (Author)

  10. NF1, Sp1 and HSF1 are synergistically involved in sulfide-induced sqr activation in echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Xueyu; Ma, Xiaoyu; Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Zhifeng, E-mail: zzfp107@ouc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Sulfide activates sqr transcription against respiratory toxicity in Urechis unicinctus. • Sulfide increases expressions and activities of NF1, Sp1 and HSF1 in a time-dependent manner. • NF1 and Sp1 participate in both basal and early sulfide-induced sqr transcription. • HSF1 functions more significantly than NF1 and Sp1 in sulfide-induced sqr transcription. • Transcription factors NF1, Sp1 and HSF1 enhance sqr promoter activity synergistically. - Abstract: Background: Sulfide is a well-known environmental toxic substance. Mitochondrial sulfide oxidation is a main mechanism of sulfide detoxification in organisms, and sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a key enzyme which is involved in transferring electrons from sulfide to ubiquinone and converting sulfide into thiosulfate. Previous studies have revealed the SQR-mediated mitochondrial sulfide oxidation exists in the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, and its sqr mRNA level increased significantly when the worm is exposed to sulfide. In this study, we attempt to reveal the synergistic regulation of transcription factors on sulfide-induced sqr transcription in U. unicinctus. Methods: ChIP and EMSA were used to identify the interactions between sqr proximal promoter (from −391 to +194 bp) and transcription factors NF1 (nuclear factor 1) and Sp1 (specificity protein 1). Site-directed mutation and transfection assays further revealed their binding sites and synergistic roles of HSF1, NF1 and Sp1 in the sqr transcription. When U. unicinctus were exposed to 150 μM sulfide, the expression levels and nuclear contents of NF1 and Sp1 were examined by Western blotting, and the binding contents between NF1 or Sp1 and the sqr promoter were also detected by ChIP. Results: Transcription factors NF1 and Sp1 were confirmed to interact with the sqr proximal promoter, and their binding sites were identified in −75 to −69 bp for NF1 and −210 to −201 bp for Sp1. Transfection assays showed mutation

  11. SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm, SeisComP and their usage around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Sleeman, Reinoud

    2010-05-01

    Many medium to big size seismic data centers around the world are facing the same question: which software to use to acquire seismic data in real-time? A home-made or a commercial one? Both choices have pros and cons. The in-house development of software usually requires an increased investment in human resources rather than a financial investment. However, the advantage of fully accomplishing your own needs could be put in danger when the software engineer quits the job! Commercial software offers the advantage of being maintained, but it may require both a considerable financial investment and training. The main seismic software data acquisition suites available nowadays are the public domain SeisComP and EarthWorm packages and the commercial package Antelope. Nanometrics, Guralp and RefTek also provide seismic data acquisition software, but they are mainly intended for single station/network acquisition. Antelope is a software package for real-time acquisition and processing of seismic network data, with its roots in the academic seismological community. The software is developed by Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) and commercialized by Kinemetrics. It is used by IRIS affiliates for off-line data processing and it is the main acquisition tool for the USArray program and data centers in Europe like the ORFEUS Data Center, OGS (Italy), ZAMG (Austria), ARSO (Slovenia) and GFU (Czech Republic). SeisComP was originally developed for the GEOFON global network to provide a system for data acquisition, data exchange (SeedLink protocol) and automatic processing. It has evolved into to a widely distributed, networked seismographic system for data acquisition and real-time data exchange over Internet and is supported by ORFEUS as the standard seismic data acquisition tool in Europe. SeisComP3 is the next generation of the software and was developed for the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). SeisComP is licensed by GFZ (free of charge) and

  12. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  13. Tegumental Ca-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms Atividade da adenosina trifosfatase estimulada pelo Ca no tegumento de vermes adultos de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo M. Cesari

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A Ca-stimulated ATPase activity (pH 9.5 associated with the tegumental membrane enriched (TME fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adults was partially inhibited by NAP-taurine or by increasing concentrations of chlorpromazine; endogenous calmodulin was found associated with the TME fraction. A similar activity (pH 8.6 was histochemically visualized whithin the tegument of fixed worms on the cytoplasmic leaflet of both the doubel surface membrane and the basement membrane; this reaction was inhibited by 1 µM chloropromazine and it was also observed on the inner side of double membrane vesicles present in the TME fraction. No ATPase activity could be seen at alkaline pH with added Mg or Na/K ions. Without ATP, the addition of external Ca to the fixed worms induced the appearance of lead precipitates on the tegumental discoid bodies; this reaction was inhibited by molybdate and not by chlorpromazine. The intrategumentary regulation of calcium by the systems described and the possible use of phenothiazines against schistosimes are discussed.A atividade ATPse (pH 9.5 estimulada por ions de Ca associados a uma fração enriquecida de membranas do tegumento (fração EMT de vermes adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, foi inibida pro NAP-taurina ou por concentrações crescentes de clorpromacina. Foi encontrada calmodulina enfogena associada principlamente a esta fração. Em vermes adultos fixados com glutaraldeido se detectou histoquimicamente uma atividade ATPase similar (pH 8.6 na face citoplasmática da dupla membrana de superfície e da membrana por 1 µM de clorpromacina e foi também observada na face interna de vesículas de dupla membrana presentes na fração EMT. Não se pôde detectar atividade ATpase em pH alcalino na presença de ions de Mg ou Na/K. A adição externa de Ca, sem ATP, aos vermes fixados induz ao aparecimento de precipitados nos corpos discóides do tegumento; esta reação foi inibida. Os resultados são discutidos em relação a

  14. Inducible deletion of CD28 prior to secondary nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection impairs worm expulsion and recall of protective memory CD4⁺ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlumani Ndlovu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IL-13 driven Th2 immunity is indispensable for host protection against infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostronglus brasiliensis. Disruption of CD28 mediated costimulation impairs development of adequate Th2 immunity, showing an importance for CD28 during the initiation of an immune response against this pathogen. In this study, we used global CD28⁻/⁻ mice and a recently established mouse model that allows for inducible deletion of the cd28 gene by oral administration of tamoxifen (CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻+TM to resolve the controversy surrounding the requirement of CD28 costimulation for recall of protective memory responses against pathogenic infections. Following primary infection with N. brasiliensis, CD28⁻/⁻ mice had delayed expulsion of adult worms in the small intestine compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice that cleared the infection by day 9 post-infection. Delayed expulsion was associated with reduced production of IL-13 and reduced serum levels of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE. Interestingly, abrogation of CD28 costimulation in CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice by oral administration of tamoxifen prior to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis resulted in impaired worm expulsion, similarly to infected CD28⁻/⁻ mice. This was associated with reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, diminished serum titres of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE and a reduced CXCR5⁺ T(FH cell population. Furthermore, total number of CD4⁺ T cells and B220⁺ B cells secreting Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly reduced in CD28⁻/⁻ mice and tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Importantly, interfering with CD28 costimulatory signalling before re-infection impaired the recruitment and/or expansion of central and effector memory CD4⁺ T cells and follicular B cells to the draining lymph node of tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that CD28

  15. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL- Wahed Ali, A G.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied.

  16. Sexually Dimorphic Scale Worms (Annelida: Polynoidae From Hydrothermal Vents in the Okinawa Trough: Two New Species and Two New Sex Morphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Scale worms in the family Polynoidae are common inhabitants of both shallow-water and deep-sea ecosystems, but their diversity in the deep-sea remains poorly known. In the West Pacific, only 10 polynoid species have been described from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems including hydrothermal vents and methane seeps. Here, we described two new species of polynoids based on specimens collected from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough. Levensteiniella undomarginata sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeners by having elytra with a wave-shaped edge, and that males possess two pairs of nephridial papillae. Branchinotogluma elytropapillata sp. nov. differs from other congeners by having papillae on the elytral edge, and by having a single pair of nephridial papillae and five pairs of C-shaped lamellae in males. Furthermore, we redescribed Lepidonotopodium okinawae (Sui and Li, 2017 and Branchinotogluma japonicus Miura and Hashimoto, 1991, because the original description of the former species did not cover males and that of the latter did not cover females. Sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in these four species confirmed the sexual dimorphism in vent polynoids for the first time, and provided reliable barcoding sequences for identifying these polychaetes.

  17. Citation patterns of a controversial and high-impact paper: Worm et al. (2006 "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor A Branch

    Full Text Available Citation patterns were examined for Worm et al. 2006 (Science 314:787-790, a high-impact paper that focused on relationships between marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper sparked much controversy through its projection, highlighted in the press release, that all marine fisheries would be collapsed by 2048. Analysis of 664 citing papers revealed that only a small percentage (11% referred to the 2048 projection, while 39% referred to fisheries collapse in general, and 40% to biodiversity and ecosystem services. The 2048 projection was mentioned more often in papers published soon after the original paper, in low-impact journals, and in journals outside of fields that would be expected to focus on biodiversity. Citing papers also mentioned the 2048 projection more often if they had few authors (28% of single-author papers vs. 2% of papers with 10 or more authors. These factors suggest that the more knowledgeable the authors of citing papers were about the controversy over the 2048 projection, the less likely they were to refer to it. A noteworthy finding was that if the original authors were also involved in the citing papers, they rarely (1 of 55 papers, 2% mentioned the 2048 projection. Thus the original authors have emphasized the broader concerns about biodiversity loss, rather than the 2048 projection, as the key result of their study.

  18. Citation patterns of a controversial and high-impact paper: Worm et al. (2006) "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Trevor A

    2013-01-01

    Citation patterns were examined for Worm et al. 2006 (Science 314:787-790), a high-impact paper that focused on relationships between marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper sparked much controversy through its projection, highlighted in the press release, that all marine fisheries would be collapsed by 2048. Analysis of 664 citing papers revealed that only a small percentage (11%) referred to the 2048 projection, while 39% referred to fisheries collapse in general, and 40% to biodiversity and ecosystem services. The 2048 projection was mentioned more often in papers published soon after the original paper, in low-impact journals, and in journals outside of fields that would be expected to focus on biodiversity. Citing papers also mentioned the 2048 projection more often if they had few authors (28% of single-author papers vs. 2% of papers with 10 or more authors). These factors suggest that the more knowledgeable the authors of citing papers were about the controversy over the 2048 projection, the less likely they were to refer to it. A noteworthy finding was that if the original authors were also involved in the citing papers, they rarely (1 of 55 papers, 2%) mentioned the 2048 projection. Thus the original authors have emphasized the broader concerns about biodiversity loss, rather than the 2048 projection, as the key result of their study.

  19. Has long-term metal exposure induced changes in life history traits and genetic diversity of the enchytraeid worm Cognettia sphagnetorum (Vejd.)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimi, Jari; Knott, Karelyn Emily; Selonen, Salla; Laurikainen, Marjo

    2006-01-01

    We studied whether long-term metal exposure has affected life history traits, population growth patterns and genetic diversity of the asexual enchytraeid worm Cognettia sphagnetorum (Vejd.). Enchytraeids from metal contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil were compared by growing them individually in the laboratory and by following their population development in patchily Cu contaminated microcosms. Genetic differences between the two native populations were studied using allozyme electrophoresis. Individuals from the contaminated site had slower growth rate and they produced fewer fragments of larger size when compared to individuals from the uncontaminated site. In patchily Cu contaminated microcosms, C. sphagnetorum from the contaminated site had a slower population growth rate. Most alleles were shared by the two native populations, but there was greater diversity and more unique genotypes in the population living in the uncontaminated site. Overall, long-term exposure to metals has induced only slight changes in life history properties and clonal diversity of C. sphagnetorum. - Long-term exposure to metals caused only small changes in life histories of two populations of Cognettia sphagnetorum

  20. A new look at the ventral nerve centre of Sagitta: implications for the phylogenetic position of Chaetognatha (arrow worms and the evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chaetognatha (arrow worms are a group of marine carnivores whose phylogenetic relationships are still vigorously debated. Molecular studies have as yet failed to come up with a stable hypothesis on their phylogenetic position. In a wide range of metazoans, the nervous system has proven to provide a wealth of characters for analysing phylogenetic relationships (neurophylogeny. Therefore, in the present study we explored the structure of the ventral nerve centre ("ventral ganglion" in Sagitta setosa with a set of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers. Results In specimens that were immunolabeled for acetylated-alpha tubulin the ventral nerve centre appeared to be a condensed continuation of the peripheral intraepidermal nerve plexus. Yet, synapsin immunolocalization showed that the ventral nerve centre is organized into a highly ordered array of ca. 80 serially arranged microcompartments. Immunohistochemistry against RFamide revealed a set of serially arranged individually identifiable neurons in the ventral nerve centre that we charted in detail. Conclusion The new information on the structure of the chaetognath nervous system is compared to previous descriptions of the ventral nerve centre which are critically evaluated. Our findings are discussed with regard to the debate on nervous system organisation in the last common bilaterian ancestor and with regard to the phylogenetic affinities of this Chaetognatha. We suggest to place the Chaetognatha within the Protostomia and argue against hypotheses which propose a deuterostome affinity of Chaetognatha or a sister-group relationship to all other Bilateria.

  1. Biological and physiological studies on the effect of some botanical oils and gamma irradiation on the Greasy Cut Worm Agrotis Ipsilon (HUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL- Wahed Ali, A.G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The greasy cut worm, Agrotis ipsilon ( Lepidoptera-Noctuidae ) is a serious pest for the seedlings of most crops such as cotton, maize, beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, chinese broccoli, chinese cabbage, Chinese spinach, corn, eggplant, flowering white cabbage, green beans, head cabbage, lettuce, mustard cabbage, potato, spinach, sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato, turnip, as well as many other plants. An extensive listing of hosts of the greasy cutworm may be found in (Rings et al. 1975). The extensive and continuous use of synthetic pesticides in control of agricultural pests have created many problems, one of them is the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses. Therefore, it was of great interest to investigate some alternative methods as substitutes for insecticides in the control of this pest. Among these methods, is the irradiation, plant extracts and oils. Irradiation techniques seem to offer solutions that are desirable in many aspects, contributing that this treatment should eventually prove to be cheaper, safer and more reliable than chemical control. Irradiation shortens life span of insects (Baxter and Blair, 1969), possibly by accelerating senescence (Aly et al., 1996). Irradiation may also cause protein denaturation, which may impair enzyme activity (Ljubenov and Andreev, 1974) and (Tribe and Webb, 1979 a, b, c). According to (Kinipling, 1955), insect exposure to ionizing radiation causes sterilization through induction of dominates lethal mutation in the genetic structure of organisms. This technique to be successful control device for suppressing and combating many lepidopteraus insect pests, including Agrotis ipsilon has been studied

  2. Efficacy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a diagnostic tool for schistosomiasis mansoni in individuals with low worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward José de Oliveira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available IgM-ELISA is an immunoenzymatic method useful for detection of IgM antibodies against a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA that is soluble in trichloroacetic acid (AWA-TCA. This method was applied to three groups of individuals with different clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and the results compared with those obtained by other diagnostic methods: immunofluorescence test for detection of IgM antibodies (IgM-IFT or IgG antibodies (IgG-IFT, ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies (IgG-ELISA, and two parasitological methods, Kato-Katz and miracidium hatching. The IgM-ELISA presented a sensitivity of 98%, when the parasitologic fecal examination was defined as reference diagnostic method, and a specificity of 98 and 97.3%, respectively for the group of clinically healthy individuals and other helminth carriers. A comparative analysis between the results of IgM-ELISA and those obtained by other serologic tests showed a good degree of agreement, with Kappa indices ranging from 0.95 to 0.98. The diagnostic efficacy of 97.8%, as determined with schistosomiasis patients with low parasitic burden, suggests the excellent performance of the IgM-ELISA and its usefulness for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis when applied in low endemic areas.

  3. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  4. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  5. Chrodrimanins K-N and Related Meroterpenoids from the Fungus Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 Isolated from a Marine Worm, Sipunculus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Dong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Li-Man; Yuan, Jing-Zhe; Dai, Hao-Fu; Zhao, You-Xing

    2017-04-28

    Six new meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins K-N (1-4), including two uncommon chlorinated ones (1 and 2), and verruculides B2 (5) and B3 (6), as well as seven known ones (7-13), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. SCS-KFD09 isolated from a marine worm, Sipunculus nudus, from Haikou Bay, China. The structures including the absolute configurations of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic data, X-ray diffraction analysis, and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. In addition, the X-ray crystal structures and absolute configurations of two previously reported meroterpenoids, chrodrimanins F (9) and A (11), are described for the first time. Compounds 1, 4, and 7 displayed anti-H1N1 activity with IC 50 values of 74, 58, and 34 μM, respectively, while compound 5 showed weak inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 32 μg/mL.

  6. Biological response of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, towards combination of seed and leaf extracts from red gum Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and/or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shall, S.S.A.; Alm El Din, M.M.S.; Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The biological response of the F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Bosid.), (from males irradiated as parental pupae with 75 and 125 Gy gamma radiation) to seed or leaf extracts of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis plant were studied. The fecundity, fertility, and mating potency of F1 adults were employed as assess for response. Analysis of variance indicated that, different treatments with gamma irradiation and/or plant extracts, at most mating crosses and most interactions between all of them, showed significant role in decreasing the fecundity and fertility of F1 adults. In general, the combined treatments of seed or leaf extracts with gamma irradiation. as dependent factors regardless other factors, decreased the emergence of adults compared to the control or single treatments of either seed extract or gamma irradiation. As well, combination treatments of radiation and seed extract decreased significantly the fecundity of moths compared to control or irradiation treatment alone. On the other hand, the combination treatments of either seed or leaf extracts did not have any significant difference in the number of mating per female, as compared to control, while irradiation treatments decreased the number of mating compared to vontrol. The effects of most possible probabilities of interaction between doses, crosses and treatments on reproduction were estimated and discussed and also the effects on development of F1 progeny were included

  7. Drug Combination Synergy in Worm-like Polymeric Micelles Improves Treatment Outcome for Small Cell and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaomeng; Min, Yuanzeng; Bludau, Herdis; Keith, Andrew; Sheiko, Sergei S; Jordan, Rainer; Wang, Andrew Z; Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2018-03-27

    Nanoparticle-based systems for concurrent delivery of multiple drugs can improve outcomes of cancer treatments, but face challenges because of differential solubility and fairly low threshold for incorporation of many drugs. Here we demonstrate that this approach can be used to greatly improve the treatment outcomes of etoposide (ETO) and platinum drug combination ("EP/PE") therapy that is the backbone for treatment of prevalent and deadly small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A polymeric micelle system based on amphiphilic block copolymer poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx) poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline- block-2-butyl-2-oxazoline- block-2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (P(MeOx- b-BuOx- b-MeOx) is used along with an alkylated cisplatin prodrug to enable co-formulation of EP/PE in a single high-capacity vehicle. A broad range of drug mixing ratios and exceptionally high two-drug loading of over 50% wt. drug in dispersed phase is demonstrated. The highly loaded POx micelles have worm-like morphology, unprecedented for drug loaded polymeric micelles reported so far, which usually form spheres upon drug loading. The drugs co-loading in the micelles result in a slowed-down release, improved pharmacokinetics, and increased tumor distribution of both drugs. A superior antitumor activity of co-loaded EP/PE drug micelles compared to single drug micelles or their combination as well as free drug combination was demonstrated using several animal models of SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer.

  8. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonóra Szirovicza

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni, nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus, and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi, respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  9. The New World screw-worm as a pest in the Caribbean and plans for its eradication from Jamaica and the other infested Caribbean islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, George H.; Wendell Snow, J.; Vargas Teran, Moises

    2000-01-01

    The screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWS), was eradicated from the Caribbean island of Curacao in 1964 (Baumhover et al. 1955). This programme was considered as a test of the SIT principle. In 1959, the pest was eradicated from Florida with the concept fully established as a sound and novel entomological principle (Baumhover 1966). In 1962, a similar programme was initiated in the southeastern United States with a barrier established along the Mexican-US Border (Bushland 1975). In 1975, the pest was eradicated from the island of Puerto Rico, the US and the British Virgin Islands (Williams et al. 1977). In 1981, the pest was totally eradicated from the United States and in 1986 from all of Mexico. It has since been eradicated from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The eventual goal of the programme is to eradicate the pest from Costa Rica and Panama down to the Derail Gap where a sterile fly barrier will be maintained. In the Caribbean, an estimated 86% of the land mass is considered infested by the New World screw-worm. Jamaica, Hispaniola, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago are the countries known to be infested. Despite this fact, no comprehensive plans have ever been made for its eradication from these countries which together have a total livestock population of well over 16 million (Table 1). However, based on the great success of the programme elsewhere and recent interest shown by various international organisations and governments in countries which are infested, the situation is changing rapidly. Currently, the country which is most prepared for an eradication programme is Jamaica where government officials have long shown an interest in eradicating the pest. For example, in 1959, a group of Jamaican livestock owners visited officials associated with the Florida eradication programme. Since this date, serious consideration has been given and several attempts made by Jamaica to implement an eradication programme but without success

  10. Decline in faecal worm egg counts in lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics: implications for hastening development of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P

    2015-04-30

    The aim for this experiment was to look for evidence of milk transfer of anthelmintic actives from ewes to their suckling lambs by reference to lambs' faecal worm egg count (WEC). The hypothesis was that WEC will decline in lambs suckling ewes treated with anthelmintics known to be lipophilic. One group of lactating Border Leicester×Merino ewes were treated (TX) with a combination of short (2.5mg/kg monepantel) and long-acting (1mg/kg moxidectin long-acting injection and a sustained release of 4.62g albendazole over 100 days) anthelmintics to remove gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burden on day 0. The other group of lactating ewes (UTX) and all lambs (White Suffolk sires) were not treated. Ewes and lambs grazed as a single group and were exposed to GIN (predominately Haemonchus contortus) infection from pasture. Measurements were taken on days 0 and 7. WEC of lambs suckling UTX ewes increased from 6441 to 10,341 eggs per gram (epg) between days 0 and 7, while there was a 51% reduction in WEC for lambs suckling TX ewes. Packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly higher for lambs suckling TX ewes on day 7 compared to lambs suckling UTX ewes (28.5% vs. 24.9%, p=0.039). These results suggest that lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics received a sub-therapeutic dose via milk which would increase selection within the GIN (H. contortus) population for anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity of some insecticides to F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) gamma irradiated as parental pupae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    The response of the F1 Progeny of Cotton Leaf worm; Spodoptera littoralis Boisd, (from male irradiated as parental pupae with 0, 50, 100 and 150 Gy of gamma irradiation) to Silicron, Atabron and Catabroun were studied. The lethal concentration doses of insecticides that kill 10,50 and 90 % of population (LC 10 , LC 50 and LC 90 ); The lethal time that kill 50% of population (LT 50 ) and the Tolerance Ratio(T.R) to the different previous insecticides were employed as parameters for measuring the response of irradiated and un-irradiated progeny. The results indicated that, the dose of irradiation and time post insecticides application had a great role in alter the response of F1 progeny of S. littoralis to the different-insecticides. Also, gamma irradiation increased the toxicity of Silicron at 2 and 4 days post insecticide treatments. By time elapsing after insecticide application the irradiated larvae became virtually the same degree of susceptibility as compared to non-irradiated ones. As well, 50 Gy slightly alter the toxicity of Atabron, while population irradiated with 100 and 150 Gy showed a high level of susceptibility to Atabron at 22 and 26 days post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated population. In addition, the toxicity of Catabroun increased in case of irradiated population at most of interval time post insecticide treatments as compared to un-irradiated ones. Furthermore, a Comparison was made and discussed between the susceptibility of irradiated population only, population treated with insecticides only and population treated with both insecticides and radiation by using the standard parameter LT 50

  12. Skull osteology of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium (Reptilia, Squamata) suggests convergent evolution and reversals of fossorial adaptations in worm lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Maisano, Jessica A

    2016-11-01

    The fossorial amphisbaenians, or worm lizards, are characterized by a suite of specialized characters in the skull and postcranium, however fossil evidence suggests that at least some of these shared derived traits evolved convergently. Unfortunately the lack of detailed knowledge of many fossil taxa has rendered a more precise interpretation difficult. Here we describe the cranial anatomy of the oldest-known well-preserved amphisbaenian, Spathorhynchus fossorium, from the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming, USA, using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT). This taxon possesses one of the most strongly reinforced crania known among amphisbaenians, with many dermal bones overlapping each other internally. In contrast to modern taxa, S. fossorium has a paired orbitosphenoid, lacks a true compound bone in the mandible, and possesses a fully enclosed orbital rim. The last feature represents a highly derived structure in that the jugal establishes contact with the frontal internally, reinforcing the posterior orbital margin. S. fossorium also possesses a strongly modified Vidian canal with a previously unknown connection to the ventral surface of the parabasisphenoid. Comparison with the closely related fossil taxon Dyticonastis rensbergeri reveals that these derived traits are also shared by the latter species and potentially represent synapopmorphies of an extinct Paleogene clade of amphisbaenians. The presence of a reinforced orbital rim suggests selection against the loss of a functional eye and indicates an ecology potentially different from modern taxa. Given the currently accepted phylogenetic position of Spathorhynchus and Dyticonastis, we predict that supposedly 'unique' cranial traits traditionally linked to fossoriality such as a fused orbitosphenoid and the reduction of the eye show a more complex character history than previously assumed, including both parallel evolution and reversals to superficially primitive conditions. © 2016

  13. Nutritive value of Mopanie worms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dreyer, JJ

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the caterpillar of the Mopanie moth (Conimbrasia belina) as a food by the Pedi nation has been described in detail by Quin, who also recorded data on the average weight and moisture, protein and fat contents of the fresh caterpillars...

  14. Charming worms: crawling between natures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoni, F.

    2012-01-01

    Some anthropologists have argued that Euro-American culture is naturalist, anchored to the belief in a coherent, unitary universe in which natural laws operate. From a close ethnographic inspection, however, the allegedly naturalist sciences emerge as heterogeneous practices, engaging with complex

  15. (SWASH-D for Worms: A pilot study investigating the differential impact of school- versus community-based integrated control programs for soil-transmitted helminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Clarke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infect nearly 1.5 billion individuals globally, and contribute to poor physical and cognitive development in children. STH control programs typically consist of regular delivery of anthelminthic drugs, targeting school-aged children. Expanding STH control programs community-wide may improve STH control among school-aged children, and combining deworming with improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH may further reduce transmission. The (SWASH-D for Worms pilot study aims to compare the differential impact of integrated WASH and deworming programs when implemented at primary schools only versus when additionally implemented community-wide.A two-arm, non-randomized cluster intervention study was conducted. Six communities were identified by partner WASH agencies and enrolled in the study. All communities received a school-based WASH and deworming program, while three additionally received a community-based WASH and deworming program. STH infections were measured in school-aged children at baseline and six months after deworming. Over 90% of eligible children were recruited for the study, of whom 92.3% provided stool samples at baseline and 88.9% at follow-up. The school WASH intervention improved school sanitation, while the community WASH intervention reduced open defecation from 50.4% (95% CI 41.8-59.0 to 23.5% (95% CI 16.7-32.0. There was a trend towards reduced odds of N. americanus infection among children who received the community-wide intervention (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.07-2.36, p = 0.32.This pilot study provides proof of principle for testing the hypothesis that community-wide STH control programs have a greater impact on STH infections among children than school-based programs, and supports the rationale for conducting a full-scale cluster randomized controlled trial. High recruitment and participation rates and successful implementation of school WASH programs demonstrate study feasibility and

  16. CD4+ T-cell clones obtained from cattle chronically infected with Fasciola hepatica and specific for adult worm antigen express both unrestricted and Th2 cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Davis, W C; Dobbelaere, D A; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1994-01-01

    The well-established importance of helper T (Th)-cell subsets in immunity and immunoregulation of many experimental helminth infections prompted a detailed study of the cellular immune response against Fasciola hepatica in the natural bovine host. T-cell lines established from two cattle infected with F. hepatica were characterized for the expression of T-cell surface markers and proliferative responses against F. hepatica adult worm antigen. Parasite-specific T-cell lines contained a mixture of CD4+, CD8+, and gamma/delta T-cell-receptor-bearing T cells. However, cell lines containing either fewer than 10% CD8+ T cells or depleted of gamma/delta T cells proliferated vigorously against F. hepatica antigen, indicating that these T-cell subsets are not required for proliferative responses in vitro. Seventeen F. hepatica-specific CD4+ Th-cell clones were examined for cytokine expression following concanavalin A stimulation. Biological assays to measure interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-4, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor and Northern (RNA) blot analysis to verify the expression of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma revealed that the Th-cell clones expressed a spectrum of cytokine profiles. Several Th-cell clones were identified as Th2 cells by the strong expression of IL-4 but little or no IL-2 or IFN-gamma mRNA. The majority of Th-cell clones were classified as Th0 cells by the expression of either all three cytokines or combinations of IL-2 and IL-4 or IL-4 and IFN-gamma. No Th1-cell clones were obtained. All of the Th-cell clones expressed a typical memory cell surface phenotype, characterized as CD45Rlow, and all expressed the lymph node homing receptor (L selectin). These results are the first to describe cytokine responses of F. hepatica-specific T cells obtained from infected cattle and extend our previous analysis of Th0 and Th1 cells from cattle immune to Babesia bovis (W. C. Brown, V. M. Woods, D. A. E. Dobbelaere, and K. S. Logan, Infect. Immun. 61

  17. Study on the use of sheep serum post vaccination of three phase larva (L3) Haemonchus contortus worm irradiated inoculated to rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partodihardjo, Sukardji; Suryadi, Helmi; Purwanti, Endang; Adiwinata, Gatot; Irtisam

    1998-01-01

    Study has been done on rabbit to find out the effect of giving sheep serum post vaccination with irradiated gastric worm challenged with infective H. contortus larva. Forty eight local rabbit divided into 3 groups : K, VI and V2, each groups: consists of 4 rabbit, by using 4 times repetition. K group which only inoculated 10,000L3 H. contortus infective. V1 = group which twice serum inoculated with 21 days interval, inoculation dose were 0,3 ml serum each, and challenged with 10.000 L3 H.contortus infective. V2 = group which 3 times serum inoculation with 21 days interval, inoculation dose 0,3 ml serum each and challenged with 10.000 L3 H.contortus infective. Design model used with Completely Random Design (RAL), Duncan was used as inter treatment test. Parameter observed are total protein fraction, Larva L4 content in gaster, cumulative weight gain, and death percentage rabbits. Result of study showed that on average parameter total protein fraction on K + 2,0086 ± 0,2353 mg/dl, V1 = 3,2781 ± 0,9227 mg/dl and V2 = 5,5035 ± 1,6794 mg/d. Average parameter L4 death showed on K = 10, V1 = 8, and V2 = 4, while L4 alive on K = 3, V1 + 1 and V2 = 0. Commutative Average parameter PCV value on K = 19,91 ± 1,24%, V1= 27,31 ± 1,22%, and V2 35,71 ± 0,56 %. Average parameter weight gain per week on K = 24,46 ± 0,74 g, V1 = 26,04 ± 2.23 g, and V2 = 28,93 ± 1,67 g. Percentage average parameter death rate on K = 37,5 ± 14,46%, V1=18,75 ± 23,90% and V2 = 0± 0%. The conclusion of the study result was serum inoculation on rabbits have positive result on reducing anaemia rate, elevating weight gain, reduce death percentage, reduced L4 alive content in gaster, and able oneelevate immunity respond content that is total protein fraction on rabbits. (author)

  18. Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Bieler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae, is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of

  19. Inherited sterility in the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis,(Boisd.), and changes in the DNA pattern as a result of using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD EL-KADER, T.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on certain biological aspects of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the sub sterilizing doses of 0, 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450 Gy of gamma irradiation (cobalt and cesium sources) on different generations of Spodoptera littoralis irradiated as pupae to study the inherited sterility. A dose level at 450 Gy completely inhibited full pupal development, but the emerged adult at the dose 350 Gy did not lay eggs, whether they were combined with non-irradiated or irradiated individuals of opposite sexes. The produced adults (P) showed increasing sterility with increasing the irradiation dose. While, their fertility, fecundity, pupation percent and adult emergence were found to be reduced in the parents followed by F1, but increased in F2. In all cases, sex ratio was shifted in favor of males. A significant negative relationship between dose levels and percentage of egg hatching was obtained; [the higher the dose, the lower the percentage of egg hatching]. The percentage of egg hatching resulting from irradiated male pupae was higher than that resulting from irradiated female pupae. Females were more sensitive for irradiation than males. Cobalt irradiation source was more effective than cesium source. The effect of gamma irradiation on the DNA pattern of adult male parents, F1 and F2 showed alterations among the controls, the treated parents, F1 and F2 individuals. Exposure to irradiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD- PCR and ISSR amplification pattern of the irradiated insects. The appearance of extra bands was attributed to the repair mechanism that occur in the irradiation damaged DNA. However, the similarity in DNA patterns between some normal and treated samples was interpreted by assuming that the irradiation induced damage was in regions

  20. Assessing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths through mass drug administration: The DeWorm3 cluster randomized trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana Hrönn; Ajjampur, Sitara S Rao; Anderson, Roy M; Bailey, Robin; Gardiner, Iain; Halliday, Katherine E; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Kalua, Khumbo; Kang, Gagandeep; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Luty, Adrian J F; Means, Arianna Rubin; Oswald, William; Pullan, Rachel L; Sarkar, Rajiv; Schär, Fabian; Szpiro, Adam; Truscott, James E; Werkman, Marleen; Yard, Elodie; Walson, Judd L

    2018-01-01

    Current control strategies for soil-transmitted helminths (STH) emphasize morbidity control through mass drug administration (MDA) targeting preschool- and school-age children, women of childbearing age and adults in certain high-risk occupations such as agricultural laborers or miners. This strategy is effective at reducing morbidity in those treated but, without massive economic development, it is unlikely it will interrupt transmission. MDA will therefore need to continue indefinitely to maintain benefit. Mathematical models suggest that transmission interruption may be achievable through MDA alone, provided that all age groups are targeted with high coverage. The DeWorm3 Project will test the feasibility of interrupting STH transmission using biannual MDA targeting all age groups. Study sites (population ≥80,000) have been identified in Benin, Malawi and India. Each site will be divided into 40 clusters, to be randomized 1:1 to three years of twice-annual community-wide MDA or standard-of-care MDA, typically annual school-based deworming. Community-wide MDA will be delivered door-to-door, while standard-of-care MDA will be delivered according to national guidelines. The primary outcome is transmission interruption of the STH species present at each site, defined as weighted cluster-level prevalence ≤2% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), 24 months after the final round of MDA. Secondary outcomes include the endline prevalence of STH, overall and by species, and the endline prevalence of STH among children under five as an indicator of incident infections. Secondary analyses will identify cluster-level factors associated with transmission interruption. Prevalence will be assessed using qPCR of stool samples collected from a random sample of cluster residents at baseline, six months after the final round of MDA and 24 months post-MDA. A smaller number of individuals in each cluster will be followed with annual sampling to monitor trends in

  1. Utilización de Sistemas Basados en Reglas y en Casos para diseñar transmisiones por tornillo sinfín // Use of rules based systems and cases based systems for worm gear design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Laureano Moya‐Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial se aplican hoy en día a diferentes problemas de Ingeniería,especialmente los Sistemas Basados en el Conocimiento. Entre estos últimos los más comunes son losSistemas Basados en Patrones, los Sistemas Basados en Reglas, los Sistemas Basados en Casos y losSistemas Híbridos. Los Sistemas Basados en Casos parten de problemas resueltos en un dominio deaplicación y mediante un proceso de adaptación, encuentran la solución a un nuevo problema. Estossistemas pueden ser usados con éxito para el diseño de engranajes, particularmente para el diseño detransmisiones por tornillo sin fin, sin embargo ello constituye un campo de las aplicaciones de laInteligencia Artificial aún inexplorada. En el presente trabajo se hace una comparación del uso de losSistemas Basados en Regla y los Sistemas Basados en Casos para el diseño de transmisiones portornillo sin fin y se muestran los resultados de la aplicación de los sistemas basados en regla al diseñoparticular de una transmisión por tornillo sin fin.Palabras claves: tornillo sin fin, engranajes, sistemas basados en casos, sistemas basados en reglas,inteligencia artificial.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractNowadays Artificial Intelligence techniques are applied successfully to different engineering problems,especially the “Knowledge Based Systems”. Among them the most common are the “Frame basedSystems”, “Rules Based Systems”, “Case Based Systems” and "Hybrid Systems". The “Case BasedSystems” (CBS analyze solved problems in an application domain and by means of a process ofadaptation; they find the solution to a new problem. These systems can be used successfully for thedesign of gears, particularly for designing worm gears; nevertheless it constitutes a field of the applicationsof artificial intelligence even unexplored. A comparison of the use of “Rules Based System” and

  2. The EGU2010 SM1.3 Seismic Centers Data Acquisition session: an introduction to Antelope, EarthWorm and SeisComP, and their use around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Pesaresi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Session «SM1.3 - Seismic Centers Data Acquisition» was part of the General Assembly 2010 of the European Geosciences Union (EGU that took place in Vienna (Austria from 2-7 May, 2010. This session was organized to present both the differences and similarities in the operations of different types of seismic data centers, to share the experiences and to stimulate constructive discussion. There are only a few, widely used, "all-in-one" data acquisition and processing packages available for seismic data centers, with two public-domain tools (SeisComP and EarthWorm and one commercial tool (Antelope. The choice of any particular tool will depend on many different criteria, from operational aspects to scientific results, or on the availability of specific requirements in relation to a specific mission. The development of EarthWorm originally started in 1993 in the USA, and it was designed to replace the aging and vendor-tied, regional processing systems. Antelope, started around 1996, with the aim to have real-time data flow from field sensors to scientist. SeisComP also started in the nineties as a real-time data acquisition and processing system, and it evolved towards an early warning system for seismic observatories. Protocols have been established to exchange real-time waveform data between the different packages. In this introductory report, we outline the main characteristics of the three software packages for seismic data acquisition.

  3. Comparison of ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured materials from Echinococcus granulosus by measuring expression levels of five genes putatively involved in the development and maturation of adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Mehdi; Spiliotis, Markus; Boubaker, Ghalia; Taheri, Elham; Almani, Pooya Ghaseminejad; Tohidi, Farideh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Gottstein, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Parts of the natural life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus can be retraced in vitro such as the development of protoscoleces into semiadult worms with three or more proglottids, or the redifferentiation of in vitro cultured protoscoleces into metacestode-like cystic structures. Most in vitro generated samples share-at the microscopical level-high similarities with those naturally grown, but developmental differences have also been documented, such as missing egg production in in vitro grown adults or unusual bladder/vesicle formation in protoscoleces cultured into the metacestode direction. The aim of the present study was to explore how far different in vitro generated stage-specific materials/structures match the natural situation on the transcriptome level, based on testing five exemplarily chosen different genes: the frizzled receptor eg-fz4 (posterior marker), the FGF receptor-like factor eg-fgfrl (anterior association), the cell differentiation protein eg-rcd1 (part of the CCR4-NOT complex, a key regulator of eukaryotic gene expression), the rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma serin/threonin kinase eg-braf (part of the MAPK pathway involved, e.g., in EGF signaling) and the co-smad eg-smadD (downstream factor of TGFβ/BMP2/activin signaling). These genes-tested via qPCR-were selected such as to allow a discussion on their potential role in the development of E. granulosus into the adult stage. Thus, testing took place with three ex vivo isolated samples, namely (i) egg-containing adult worms, (ii) invaginated protoscoleces, and (iii) protoscolex-free germinal layer tissue. Respective data were compared (a) with in vitro generated metacestode-like microcysts developed from protoscolices, and (b) different development stages of protoscoleces in vitro cultured toward adult maturation. As a finding, only eg-smadD and partially eg-fz4 showed high expression similarities between ex vivo harvested and in vitro cultured E. granulosus, thus suggesting a putative role in

  4. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings.We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1-2 cassettes showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives. After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05. Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives, equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA.Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a lyophilizer and the electricity to run it.

  5. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. Methods and analysis WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded

  6. Orthonectids Are Highly Degenerate Annelid Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Philipp H; Robertson, Helen E; Telford, Maximilian J

    2018-05-24

    The animal groups of Orthonectida and Dicyemida are tiny, extremely simple, vermiform endoparasites of various marine animals and have been linked in the Mesozoa (Figure 1). The Orthonectida (Figures 1A and 1B) have a few hundred cells, including a nervous system of just ten cells [2], and the Dicyemida (Figure 1C) are even simpler, with ∼40 cells [3]. They are classic "Problematica" [4]-the name Mesozoa suggests an evolutionary position intermediate between Protozoa and Metazoa (animals) [5] and implies that their simplicity is a primitive state, but molecular data have shown they are members of Lophotrochozoa within Bilateria [6-9], which means that they derive from a more complex ancestor. Their precise affinities remain uncertain, however, and it is disputed whether they even constitute a clade. Ascertaining their affinities is complicated by the very fast evolution observed in their genes, potentially leading to the common systematic error of long-branch attraction (LBA) [10]. Here, we use mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence data and show that both dicyemids and orthonectids are members of the Lophotrochozoa. Carefully addressing the effects of unequal rates of evolution, we show that the Mesozoa is polyphyletic. While the precise position of dicyemids remains unresolved within Lophotrochozoa, we identify orthonectids as members of the phylum Annelida. This result reveals one of the most extreme cases of body-plan simplification in the animal kingdom; our finding makes sense of an annelid-like cuticle in orthonectids [2] and suggests that the circular muscle cells repeated along their body [11] may be segmental in origin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is a Mealworm Really a Worm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Kimberly; Read, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Many times students are given the task of keeping a science notebook, but do not fully understand the process or purpose of this endeavour. Science notebooks contain not only data but also questions, predictions, observations, and reflections from their experiences in science. To maximize the effectiveness of the science notebook, teachers must…

  8. The Rose Report [Continued]: "The Invisible Worm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    While Colin Richards' article is a trenchant analysis of the big themes and missed opportunities of the Rose Report, this response examines some of the small print. It concludes that the document is disfigured by many minor blemishes, and is also fatally flawed by a crude misapprehension of the nature of progress and the purpose of education.

  9. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  10. Soil and worm: on eating as relating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoni, F.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms and soil combine in an ecotoxicological experiment in the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. To determine the effects of a toxic compound produced by genetically modified broccoli, ecotoxicologists use the earthworm in a standardized test to understand the conditions of the soil. In the

  11. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-12-30

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded by a Partnership for Better Health--Project grant from the National

  12. Screening of the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, “coiled” xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46–5.93 μM, inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31–12.5 μM and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3–50 μM adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm and eventually kill (>90% these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50–100 μM as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm. Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases, optimising analogs with improved biological activities and

  13. Evaluación del Fertilizante Orgánico Líquido de Lombriz San Rafael en el Cultivo de Rosa cv. Classy Evaluation of the Worm Organic Liquid Fertilizer San Rafael on cv. Classy Rose Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ramírez Castañeda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de fertilizantes es una de las principales actividades técnicas que se realizan en el cultivo de rosas, práctica que puede llegar a causar un impacto ambiental importante. El uso de fertilizantes orgánicos en este cultivo ha sido mínimo. Fertilizantes orgánicos como los vermicompuestos aportan elementos, algunos en formas más disponibles, como también mejoran las características físicas de los suelos. El objetivo fue evaluar la adición del fertilizante orgánico líquido de lombriz San Rafael a la fertilización comercial completa y la reducción de un 25% de su composición por cama, midiendo su efecto semanalmente sobre la productividad y la calidad de los tallos florales, el descabece de flor y en análisis foliares en plantas de rosa cv. Classy. Los resultados indican que para los análisis foliares y los diferentes grados de calidad (longitud de tallo y de botón floral no existió evidencia de diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos. Se encontró diferencia significativa en productividad, siendo mayor el promedio de las plantas tratadas con la fórmula de fertilización completa más el fertilizante orgánico. Para el descabece de la flor se encontró que el tratamiento donde se aplicó la fórmula de fertilización reducida más el fertilizante orgánico, fue significativamente menor en comparación con los otros dos tratamientos.Fertilizer application is one of the main technical activities made in rose crop, but it may cause an important environmental impact. The use of organic fertilizers has been low in this crop. An organic fertilizer as vermicompost contributes with some elements in better available forms, and improves some soil physical characteristics. The purpose was to evaluate the addition of worm liquid organic fertilizer San Rafael to complete commercial fertilization and to decrease 25% of its composition per bed, measuring weekly its effect on yield, degrees of quality flowering stems

  14. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de

  15. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da fertilidade e sobrevida de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas com 3 Krad, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, com a finalidade de observar o efeito da irradiação gama sobre a fertilidade das fêmeas e a sobrevida dos vermes no sistema porta. A partir do 33º dia ocorre uma certa estabilidade na população dos vermes sobreviventes, ficando esta população constante, notadamente em relação à cepa LE, até o final das observações (90º dia. Concluiu-se que esta dose de radiação gama impede a produção de ovos dos vermes em 98,1% dos camundongos infectados, sendo mortos todos os ovos detectados; as fêmeas são mais resistentes à irradiação e o efeito desta sobre a mortalidade dos machos somente se torna estatisticamente significativo a partir do 61º dia de infecção. O longo tempo de permanência de vermes adultos irradiados estéreis no sistema porta de camundongos e o seu provável envolvimento no desenvolvimento de imunoproteção, tipo imunidade concomitante sem as implicações imunopatológicas para o hospedeiro, são discutidos nesse trabalho.The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus, experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains, by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a non-irradiated (control groups, and b irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60. From the 33rd day on, some estability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day, notedly in relation to the LE strain. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad is able to hinder the worm egg

  16. The worm in the world and the world in the worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caenorhabditis elegans is a preeminent model organism, but the natural ecology of this nematode has been elusive. A four-year survey of French orchards published in BMC Biology reveals thriving populations of C. elegans (and Caenorhabditis briggsae in rotting fruit and plant stems. Rather than being simply a 'soil nematode', C. elegans appears to be a 'plant-rot nematode'. These studies signal a growing interest in the integrated genomics and ecology of these tractable animals. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/59

  17. Modelación de las cargas de reacción en los apoyos de los árboles de la Transmisión por tornillo sinfín. // Reaction loads models in shafts supports of worm gear transmissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivero Llerena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El análisis y cálculo de las cargas que se generan en los apoyos de los árboles de los conjuntos mecánicos rotatorios, resultaun proceso complejo pero imprescindible en la tarea de selección de los rodamientos, por ello en el presente trabajo sepropone el uso de las NTIC como herramientas efectivas de diseño y modelación para la solución de este problema. En estainvestigación se trata el caso de la transmisión por tornillo sinfín por su importancia en los accionamientos industriales y enotros campos, se ha formalizado en tres modelos, el análisis de las cargas de operación y de reacción que se producendurante el funcionamiento. Se presentan los resultados que puede brindar el software de cálculo creado, usando el paquetede información que contiene la modelación realizada para obtener una respuesta ágil y exacta de las cargas de reacciónresultantes en los apoyos de árboles.Palabras claves: Sinfín, rodamiento, modelación.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The analysis and calculation of the loads generated in the shafts supports of the rotational machines, is a complex butindispensable process in the task of selection rolling bearings. The present paper exposes the use of the NTIC like effectivetools of design and modelling in order to solve this problem. The worm gear transmission case is studied in thisinvestigation because their importance in the industrial machinery and other fields, the analysis of the operation andreaction loads has been formalized in three models. Also it is presented the results of software for calculation, using theinformation package that contains the three models for obtaining an agile and exact answer of the resulting reaction loads inthe shafts supports.Key words: Worm gear, bearing, modelling.

  18. Investigations performed on the compost worm Eisenia fetida and selected species of earthworms concerning the intake of HCB and pyrene with the goal of deriving a bioaccumulation test; Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme von HCB und Pyren durch den Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und ausgewaehlte Regenwurmwildarten. Ableitung eines Bioakkumulationstests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vespermann, A.; Riepert, F.; Pflugmacher, J. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Inst. fuer Oekotoxikologie im Pflanzenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The man issues of the studies described were the validation of a test design for the assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of environmental pollutants and the applicability of Eisenia fetida as a model-organism and artificial soil (OECD) as a standard test substrate. The test organisms used were E. fetida of our own breeding stock and Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora longa and Lumbricus rubellus sampled from a field site. Test soils used were the artificial soil (OECD) and a BBA field soil. Soils were each contaminated with 10 mg HCB and Pyrene per soil dry-weight. Within the test period of 4 weeks, samples were taken weekly for residue analysis in the worms and soils. Bioaccumulation factors (AF) calculated for E. fetida and the free-living species were in the range of 10-17 (HCB) and 0.9-1.7 (Pyrene) depending on the soil used. By re-calculation of the concentrations in soil to concentrations in soil water, the resulting bioconcentration factors are compared with published BCF values determined from QSAR's of other worm species and fresh water fish. It could be concluded that the existing earthworm tests (OECD 1984, ISO 1998) represent an appropriate design for testing the bioconcentration potential of chemicals in soil. (orig.) [German] Ziel der beschriebenen Untersuchungen war die praktische Ueberpruefung eines Methodenentwurfs zur Erfassung der Bioakkumulation von Umweltchemikalien mit Eisenia fetida, der Eignung von E. fetida als Modellorganismus und des OECD-Kunstbodens als Standardsubstrat. Als Testorganismen wurden aus eigener Zucht der Kompostwurm Eisenia fetida und nach Feldentnahme Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora longa und Lumbricus rubellus eingesetzt. Testboeden waren der OECD-Kunstboden und ein Boden vom Versuchsfeld der BBA in Berlin-Dahlem. Beiden Boeden wurden die Testsubstanzen Hexachlorbenzol und Pyren in einer Konzentration von 10 mg/kg Bodentrockengewicht zugemischt

  19. Análisis y solución de avería del acoplamiento del sinfín de fondo de la Bañera de una Planta de Plástico Mixto. // Analysis and solution of the coupling failure of the bottom worm conveyor of the bathtub in a Mixed Plastic Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Goytisolo Espinosa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se realizó una investigación para esclarecer las causas de la avería del acoplamiento del sinfín de fondo de labañera de una planta de plástico mixto. En la misma se concluyó que las causas fundamentales de las obstrucciones delsinfín de fondo son el hecho de que el sinfín de elevación de la bañera tiene una capacidad cuatro veces menor que el sinfínde fondo, lo que provoca que el material se acumule en el fondo de la bañera y por otro lado la comunicación entre el sinfínde fondo y el de elevación se produce a través de un tubo vertical de capacidad reducida, que constituye también un cuellode botella. Se modificó la relación de transmisión de la cadena del accionamiento del sinfín de elevación para elevar suvelocidad e igualar la capacidad de transportación de ambos sinfines y se eliminó el tubo de conexión entre los mismos. Elacoplamiento se fabricó de plástico poliamídico, lográndose una adecuada resistencia.Palabras claves: Bañera de plástico, transportadores sinfín, acoplamiento dentado.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper is shown the investigation carried out in order to clarify the failure causes of the coupling of the bottom wormconveyor of the bathtub in a Mixed Plastic Plant. In the same was it was concluded that the fundamental causes of theobstructions of the bottom conveyor are the fact that the elevator worm conveyor of the bathtub has a capacity four timesminor that the bottom conveyor, which causes that the material accumulates in the bottom of the bathtub, and on the otherhand the communication between the bottom conveyor and the elevator one takes place through a vertical tube of reducedcapacity that also constitutes a bottle neck. The transmission relationship of the chain of the elevator working conveyor wasmodified in order to elevate their speed and to equal the capacity of transportation of both conveyors, and the

  20. Advances in synapse formation: forging connections in the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherra, Salvatore J; Jin, Yishi

    2015-01-01

    Synapse formation is the quintessential process by which neurons form specific connections with their targets to enable the development of functional circuits. Over the past few decades, intense research efforts have identified thousands of proteins that localize to the pre- and postsynaptic compartments. Genetic dissection has provided important insights into the nexus of the molecular and cellular network, and has greatly advanced our knowledge about how synapses form and function physiologically. Moreover, recent studies have highlighted the complex regulation of synapse formation with the identification of novel mechanisms involving cell interactions from non-neuronal sources. In this review, we cover the conserved pathways required for synaptogenesis and place specific focus on new themes of synapse modulation arising from studies in Caenorhabditis elegans. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash the c...

  2. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... The use of subjectively assessed traits for selecting ... use objective measurements for Merino sheep selection criteria led to the development of a ..... food intake comparison of Romney single-trait selection and control lines.

  3. Nutritive potential and utilization of super worm (Zophobas morio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... (Zophobas morio) meal in the diet of Nile tilapia. (Oreochromis ... production is rapidly increasing in Malaysia and other parts of the world (FAO, ..... zooplankton do enhance the survival and healthy state of fish at early stage.

  4. Worms under stress: unravelling genetic complex traits through perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of an organism could be considered ‘the most amazing piece of engineering’ existing in nature. Looking from a certain distance, the genetic complexity of an organism could be described as an immense jigsaw puzzle. As in a real jigsaw, the connection between two pieces

  5. A draft genome assembly of the army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-08-01

    Spodoptera is an agriculturally important pest insect and studies in understanding its biology have been limited by the unavailability of its genome. In the present study, the genomic DNA was sequenced and assembled into 37,243 scaffolds of size, 358 Mb with N50 of 53.7 kb. Based on degree of identity, we could anchor 305 Mb of the genome onto all the 28 chromosomes of Bombyx mori. Repeat elements were identified, which accounts for 20.28% of the total genome. Further, we predicted 11,595 genes, with an average intron length of 726 bp. The genes were annotated and domain analysis revealed that Sf genes share a significant homology and expression pattern with B. mori, despite differences in KOG gene categories and representation of certain protein families. The present study on Sf genome would help in the characterization of cellular pathways to understand its biology and comparative evolutionary studies among lepidopteran family members to help annotate their genomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. What does a worm want with 20,000 genes?

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    The number of genes predicted for the Caenorhabditis elegans genome is remarkably high: approximately 20,000, if both protein-coding and RNA-coding genes are counted. This article discusses possible explanations for such a high value.

  7. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-09

    Dec 9, 2015 ... transformations that are applied to FWEC data are the cube root transformation and .... Table 2 Least square means (± SE) and estimated back transformed values (± approximate SE derived from ..... temperature fluctuations.

  8. Allozyme variation in two populations of the Mopane worm, Imbrasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    equilibrium with Levene's (1949) formula for small sample size. ..... These theories might explain the high amount of gene flow between the Messina staggered ... (Alsophila pometaria) and its bearing on the evolution of host affiliation in ...

  9. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... that this species does have potential to combat organic waste problems. The complete life-cycle of D. veneta has not been documented yeL We therefore included this ... in plastic containers with gauze lids. Fifty grams of the stabilized culture medium per wonn was added when the experiment was started.

  10. The Vicious Worm - a cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    Porcine cysticercosis is an infection of pigs caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a tapeworm that causes taeniosis in humans. The disease is common in developing countries and is a serious public health risk. Cysticercosis implicates significant economic losses, both in pig production...

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters in three commercial silk-worm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... Gener. Lin.×Gene. S.S.. 0.0005. 0.0016. 0.0550. 0.0303. 0.0896. 0.2441. 0.1202. 0.7733. M.S.. 0.0002. 0.0004. 0.0275. 0.0151. 0.0224. 0.1220. 0.0601. 0.1933. F value. 1.790. 2.790. 0.930. 0.510. 0.760. 2.540. 1.250. 4.010. Gene., generation; lin, line. Table 6. Comparison of change in breeding value in ...

  12. SOME PARASITIC WORMS IN FRESHWATER FISHES AND FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and on the other hand to forms in freshwater fishes of the Indo-Malaysian region, it would ... about 25 p.m in total length, of which the sickle-shaped terminal structure .... The ejaculatory duct is short and runs from the genital ...... This larva appears to be very common in C. gariepinus collected ..... Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.

  13. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...... (Table 4). Studies in Australian Merinos yielded a lower rg estimate of −0.20 where regression analysis was ..... Stochastic model.

  14. Coprophilous Streptomycetes and Fungi - Food Sources for Enchytraeid Worms (Enchytraeidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištůfek, Václav; Nováková, Alena; Pižl, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2001), s. 555-558 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6066001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : food selection * vermicomposting * Eisenia and rei Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  15. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    . Information is divided in three levels, each level is designed at different target audiences: VILLAGE knowledge relevant to the people living here using animations, short stories, videos, quizzes and games. TOWN information for professionals (medical doctors, veterinarians, meat inspectors & agricultural...

  16. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  17. Venereal worms: sexually transmitted nematodes in the decorated cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; Zuk, M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2000-06-01

    The nematode, Mehdinema alii, occurs in the alimentary canal of the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult nematodes occur primarily in the hindgut of mature male crickets, whereas juvenile nematodes are found in the genital chambers of mature male and female crickets. Here, we present experimental evidence for the venereal transmission of M. alii in G. sigillatus. Infectivity experiments were conducted to test for transmission via oral-fecal contamination, same-sex contact, and copulation. The infective dauers of the nematode are transferred from male to female crickets during copulation. Adult female crickets harboring infective dauers subsequently transfer the nematode to their next mates. Thus, M. alii is transmitted sexually during copulation.

  18. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepel, Adam; Bejerano, Gill; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three...... species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with a computer program called phastCons, which is based on a two-state phylogenetic hidden Markov model (phylo-HMM). PhastCons works by fitting a phylo......-HMM to the data by maximum likelihood, subject to constraints designed to calibrate the model across species groups, and then predicting conserved elements based on this model. The predicted elements cover roughly 3%-8% of the human genome (depending on the details of the calibration procedure) and substantially...

  19. Customization of worm gear drives; Schneckengetriebemotoren werden kundenspezifisch angepasst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Reinhold

    2009-08-31

    As a result of the diverse wishes of their customers, producers of motors and gears are faced with strongly varying machine and system configurations. It may be necessary to develop components that are not part of the manufacturer's original portfolio but may be obtained by new developments or further development of existing components. (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of PbTe nanocubes, worm-like structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the optical bandgap energies of 1.61, 1.23 and 1.01 eV, respectively. Photoconductivity measurement shows that the prepared nanocrystalline PbTe thin films of different morphology exhibits good response. This structure induced change in optical properties may have potential applications in optoelectronics devices.