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Sample records for bone x-ray examination

  1. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) ... diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist, an individual specially ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses ... assess trauma patients in emergency departments. A CT scan can image complicated fractures, subtle fractures or dislocations. ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it ... organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose ... bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays to pass through them. As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... asked to wait until the radiologist determines that all the necessary images have been obtained. A bone ... while it may be barely seen, if at all, on a hip x-ray. For suspected spine ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ... are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and ...

  2. Bone diagnosis by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Parcegoni, N.; Rosenthal, D. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Duarte, M.E.L. [Histologic and Embriology Department, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    In this work, two X-ray techniques used were 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and X-ray microfluorescence (micro-XRF) in order to investigate the internal structure of the bone samples. Those two techniques work together, e.g. as a complement to each other, to characterize bones structure and composition. Initially, the specimens were used to do the scan procedure in the microcomputer tomography system and the second step consists of doing the X-ray microfluorescence analysis. The results show that both techniques are powerful methods for analyzing, inspecting and characterizing bone samples: they are alternative procedures for examining bone structures and compositions and they are complementary.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x- ... examination itself is a painless procedure. You may experience discomfort from the cool temperature in the examination ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement ... A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is particularly useful in emergency ... diagnosis and treatment of the individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the ... individual patient's condition. Ultrasound imaging, which uses sound waves instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic images, ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are easily accessible and are frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. ... of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patients and physicians. Because x-ray imaging is fast and easy, it is particularly useful in emergency ... 06, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient for ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much like a large photographic negative). Today, most ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dislocations. In elderly or patients with osteoporosis, a hip fracture may be clearly seen on a CT scan, while it may be barely seen, if at all, on a hip x-ray. For suspected spine injury or other ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or ... pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or ... Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. ... follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x- ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the proper position. A lead apron may be ... in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and how do I get them? A radiologist , ... care or referring physician , who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow-up exam is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ... the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study A A A ... system. It's usually done by taking a single X-ray of the left wrist, hand, and fingers. ...

  13. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: An alternative for X-ray?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); G.D.S. Ernst (Gesina); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); J.J.M. Geelhoed (Miranda); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Methods: Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric endocrinol

  14. Risks of Chest X-ray Examination for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohara,Takahiko

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Chest X-ray (CXR examination is considered essential for health checkups of students;thus, it is important to objectively assess the CXR for a better understanding of the appropriate X-ray exposure dose, and the risks such an examination entails. Accordingly, we performed a multi-institutional study regarding students' CXR exposure, during a 6year-period from 2002 (partially including 2001 to 2007, with the collaboration of national, municipal, and private universities and colleges in Japan. A glass badge was worn by the students at the time of CXR screening examination. These glass badges were collected, and their X-ray exposure doses were measured. The results indicated a tendency of decreasing exposure dose over the 6 years, though the difference was not significant. In a comparison of the chest X-ray systems within institutions (own X-ray equipmentinside systems with those outside the institution (mobile X-ray equipmentoutside systems, the average exposure dose with the outside systems exceeded that of the inside systems. Both inside and outside systems included a few X-ray machines with which the exposure was more than 1mSv. Based on these facts, individuals in charge of student health checkups should be aware of the exposure dose of each chest fluorographic system at their institution.

  15. X-ray microtomography of bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G R; Wong, F S

    1996-08-01

    X-ray microtomography is a miniaturized version of computerized axial tomography with a resolution of the order of micrometres. In the biomedical field it is particularly useful in the study of hard tissue because of its ability to accurately measure the linear attenuation coefficient. From this, the mineral concentration can be computed, which is one measure of bone quality. Using microtomography it is also possible to form three-dimensional images of bone from which structural parameters can be derived which could not be measured using conventional histomorphometry. Various types of microtomography scanner have been used, including simple translate-rotate systems which are capable of measuring x-ray attenuation at multiple energies simultaneously, and "cone-beam' systems which can acquire the necessary data for three-dimensional reconstructions in a relatively short time. Both laboratory x-ray sources and synchrotrons have been used in the study of hard tissue using microtomography. Most studies of bone have been concerned primarily with either the mineral concentration in cortical bone or the structure in cancellous bone. The mineral concentration in teeth has also been studied, in particular the loss of mineral in enamel during in vitro demineralization and the gain during subsequent remineralization. Although there are currently relatively few centres carrying out this work, interest in the technique is rapidly growing and it is likely to find a useful place both in research and ultimately in clinical practice.

  16. Frequency of x-ray examinations of neonates classified according to their birth weight in NICU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Hada, M.; Mitarai, T.; Kato, Y. [Oita Prefectural Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T. [Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    For neonates, red bone marrow is distributed in the whole body, and it is reported that cancer susceptibility to radiation may be higher than fetuses. However, there are few reports about the frequency of X-ray examination for neonates. To clarify the X-ray examination of neonates in intensive care unit, we investigated the actual frequency of mobile X-ray, CT and fluoroscopy. We followed the 306 infants who were admitted in and discharged from neonatal intensive care unit of Oita Prefecture Hospital between October 1 in 1998 and June 30 in 1999. The investigated items were types of radiograph, the number of mobile X-ray, and CT and fluoroscopy examination, the body weight at birth (BWAB), and the body weight at the day when X-ray examination was performed (BWXE). These were classified according to the BWAB. The relation between the frequency of X-ray examination and the high-risk-infant classification was examined. For mobile X-ray, the 1053 radiographs were performed, including 258 chest radiographs, 685 combined abdominal and chest radiographs, 52 abdominal radiographs, 37 wrist radiographs, 21 others radiographs. For CT, the 118 examinations was performed, including 116 head, 2 abdominal. For fluoroscopy, the 24 examinations were performed, including 13-air contrast enema, 5 gastroduodenal, 2 cystoradiogram, 1 urethrography, 1 intestine, 2 cavitas nasi and 152 abdominal radiographs. These showed that for less BWAB, more X-ray examinations were carried out. In the high-risk-infant classification, a lot of X-ray frequencies were observed for infants with extremely low BWAB. The infant with extremely low BWAB was accompanied with complication such as respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, and meconium disease. The histogram of the BWXE had two peaks; one at 600g-800g, another at 2100g-2500g. This study revealed the current frequency of X-rays examination in neonatal intensive care unit. We evaluated the dose to neonates in another paper of IRPA-10

  17. SRM improved X-rays examination: automatic detection in sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, P.

    2004-04-01

    Reliability needs in Ariane V program require a high level of nondestructive testing (NDT) specially for solid rocket motors (SRM). In this way, 100% X-rays control is done on SRM segment with a real time radioscopic technique. The development of Ariane V showed the interest to use this technique for large sample examination. But it showed also that numerical radiograph has a poor contrast and a low signal to noise ratio images. In these conditions, inspectors work is not easy and twice result reading is needed. So in order to increase reliability, production rate and cost reduction, a development has been done supported by CNES and SNPE. To achieve these goals we have worked on X-ray detector and image processing tools improvement with LETI laboratory (CEA Grenoble). In this paper we present work and results achieved in the two domains. X-ray detector has been changed by a high energy specific design and numerical CCD camera has been tested. Image processing method, based on tomosynthesis algorithms, has been developed. It allows pictures summation while the sample is moving and gives three-dimensional information. To speed up the processing time of these tasks, optimized algorithms on dedicated machine have been set up. The implementation of those improvements has been done on UPG production site and some results are shown. Thanks to these improvements on X-rays quality pictures the implementation of detection attended by computer is considered.

  18. [Capabilities of digital microfocal x-ray study in the evaluation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue in an experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Bulanova, I M; Mal'ginov, N N; Kiseleva, E V; Cherniaev, S E; Nikulina, O M; Tarasenko, I V; Volozhin, A I

    2008-01-01

    Digital microfocal x-ray study was experimentally studied in animals to examine the time course of changes in their bone regeneration. Sixteen Chinchila rabbits whose bone defect in the angle of the mandibular ramus had been closed with the osteoplastic material Gapcol with the applied allogeneic, autologous stem cells isolated from rabbit adipose tissue and human plasma enriched with thrombocytic growth factors were examined. The capabilities of digital microfocal x-ray study versus x-ray computed tomography were compared in the evaluation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue. The results of radiation studies were verified with the data of scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Exploration of computerized image processing in underexposed and overexposed X-rays of bones and joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao-chen; ZHANG You-jun; FENG Cheng-qiang; ZHU Yuan-zhong; YAN Shi-yi; LIU Yu-jin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effective computerized image processing of underexposed and overexposed X-rays of bones and joints. Methods: Ninety-nine conventional X-ray images (82 were overexposed and 17 were underexposed),scanned by an UMAX Astra 4000U Scanner, were converted into digital images on the basis of their analog images. A computerized imaging processing program consisting of five functional modules such as Contrast Stretch, Fast Flourier Transform (FFT), Image Smoothing Modules, Inverse Fast Flourier Transform (IFFT) and Nonlinear Transform performed image contrast stretch and smoothing. Three senior doctors from hospital image sections made their evaluation of all the processed images. Results: Of 82 overexposed films, 71 met the clinical requirements after image processing, and 11 were unable to be applied to clinical diagnosis, accounting for 87% and 13% respectively. Of the other 17 underexposed X-ray images, 11 met the clinical requirements while 6 were not, making a percentage of 64 and 35. Conclusion: Image contrast stretch and smoothing processing are significantly effective on conventional X-ray images which were inappropriately exposed, and can avoid more X-ray radiation caused by handling of radiological photograph again. This method can decrease hospital cost and provide acute and effective X-ray examinations for the treatment and cure for critical patients.

  20. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...... polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  1. Doses Received by Patients during Thorax X-Ray Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikan U. Esen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiation exposures from diagnostic medical examinations are generally low and are almost always justified by the benefits of accurate diagnosis of possible disease conditions. Therefore, entrance skin dose (ESD, body organ dose (BOD, and effective dose (ED from adult patients undergoing routine thorax posterior-anterior (PA and thorax right lateral (RLAT were estimated in University Hospital, Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods Totally, 102 patients were considered in this work. Using software packages to carry out ESD, BOD, and ED is a recent resource in dosimetry and is being widely used in hospitals. The software used in this work was  CALDose_X 5.0. The software makes use of the technical exposure parameters and the tube output of the X-ray machine. Results The estimated ESD median values were 0.96 and 1.85 mGy for thorax posterior anterior (PA and right lateral (RLAT, respectively. The highest BOD was in the adrenals (270 µGy for thorax PA and Liver (263 µGy for thorax RLAT. Similarly, ED for thorax PA and RLAT examination were 0.068 and 0.107 mGy, respectively. Conclusion It could be observed that examinations that imparted the highest ESD were thorax PA when compared with the established dose level. Therefore, these results call for quality assurance program (QAP in diagnostic X-ray units in Nigeria hospitals.

  2. X-Ray and MRI Correlation of Bone Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh D. Ghadiali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The evaluation of all skeletal lesions should begin with plain radiographic imaging. These images give basic information about its site, its location,its morphology, its aggressiveness. After the initial plain radiographic evaluation, the next imaging modality of choice is MRI. its clinical applications in the form of diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring has reached a new height in musculoskeletal imaging1. Method: Correlating x-ray findings with mri findings to know the sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic modality and to know role of each in planning management 30 patients were studied,The plain film included at least 2 projection depending on location and then patients underwent MRI. Result: MRI is useful for information regarding soft tissue component, periosteal reaction where as XRAY is useful for information regarding bone and tumour calcification [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(4.000: 309-311

  3. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  4. Exposure to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation Alters Bone Progenitor Cells and Bone Microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Florence; Swift, Joshua M; Greene, Elisabeth S; Allen, Matthew R; Cunningham, David A; Braby, Leslie A; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2017-08-03

    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent. In this study, mice were irradiated with a total-body dose of 0.17, 0.5 or 1 Gy to quantify the early (day 3 postirradiation) and delayed (day 21 postirradiation) effects of radiation on bone microarchitecture and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Female BALBc mice (4 months old) were divided into four groups: irradiated (0.17, 0.5 and 1 Gy) and sham-irradiated controls (0 Gy). Micro-computed tomography analysis of distal femur trabecular bone from animals at day 21 after exposure to 1 Gy of X-ray radiation revealed a 21% smaller bone volume (BV/TV), 22% decrease in trabecular numbers (Tb.N) and 9% greater trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) compared to sham-irradiated controls (P < 0.05). We evaluated the differentiation capacity of bone marrow stromal cells harvested at days 3 and 21 postirradiation into osteoblast and adipocyte cells. Osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation was decreased when cells were harvested at day 3 postirradiation but enhanced in cells isolated at day 21 postirradiation, suggesting a compensatory recovery process. Osteoclast differentiation was increased in 1 Gy irradiated BMSCs harvested at day 3 postirradiation, but not in those harvested at day 21 postirradiation, compared to controls. This study provides evidence of an early, radiation-induced decrease in osteoblast activity and numbers, as well as a later recovery effect after exposure to 1 Gy of X-rays, whereas osteoclastogenesis was enhanced. A better

  5. Long bone X-ray image stitching using Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Benhimane, Selim; Euler, Ekkehard; Graumann, Rainer; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    X-ray images are widely used during surgery for long bone fracture fixation. Mobile C-arms provide X-ray images which are used to determine the quality of trauma reduction, i.e. the extremity length and mechanical axis of long bones. Standard X-ray images have a narrow field of view and can not visualize the entire long bone on a single image. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate panoramic X-ray images in real time by using the previously introduced Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm. This advanced mobile C-arm system acquires registered X-ray and optical images by construction, which facilitates the generation of panoramic X-ray images based on first stitching the optical images and then embedding the X-ray images. We additionally introduce a method to reduce the parallax effect that leads to the blurring and measurement error on panoramic X-ray images. Visual marker tracking is employed to automatically stitch the sequence of video images and to rectify images. Our proposed method is suitable for intra-operative usage generating panoramic X-ray images, which enable metric measurements, with less radiation and without requirement of fronto-parallel setup and overlapping X-ray images. The results show that the panoramic X-ray images generated by our method are accurate enough (errors less than 1%) for metric measurements and suitable for many clinical applications in trauma reduction.

  6. Use of X-ray microprobe to diagnose bone tissue demineralization after caffeine administration Use of X-ray microprobe to diagnose bone tissue demineralization after caffeine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tomaszewski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a methylxanthine which permeates the placenta. In studies on animals, it has been
    shown to produce teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in large doses. The objective of this study was to
    assess the influence of caffeine on the development of bone tissue, with particular reference to elemental
    bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. The research was conducted on rats. The fertilized females
    were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group was
    given caffeine orally in 30 mg/day doses from the 8th to the 21st day of pregnancy, while the control group
    was given water. The fetuses were used to assess the growth and mineralization of the skeleton. On the
    basis of double dyeing, a qualitative analysis of the bone morphology and mineralization was conducted.
    For calcium and potassium analysis, an X-ray microprobe was used. In 67 fetuses from the experimental
    group, changes in skeleton staining with the alcian-alizarin method were noticed. The frequency of the
    development of variants in the experimental group was statistically higher. In the experimental group,
    a significant decrease in the calcium level, as well as an increase in the potassium level, was observed.
    The X-ray microprobe’s undoubted advantage is that is offers a quick qualitative and quantitative analysis
    of the elemental composition of the examined samples. Employing this new technique may furnish us
    with new capabilities when investigating the essence of the pathology process.Caffeine is a methylxanthine which permeates the placenta. In studies on animals, it has been
    shown to produce teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in large doses. The objective of this study was to
    assess the influence of caffeine on the development of bone tissue, with particular reference to elemental
    bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. The research was conducted on

  7. Development and Testing of X-Ray Imaging-Enhanced Poly-L-Lactide Bone Screws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Nanosized iron oxide particles exhibit osteogenic and radiopaque properties. Thus, iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles were incorporated into a biodegradable polymer (poly-L-lactic acid, PLLA to fabricate a composite bone screw. This multifunctional, 3D printable bone screw was detectable on X-ray examination. In this study, mechanical tests including three-point bending and ultimate tensile strength were conducted to evaluate the optimal ratio of iron oxide nanoparticles in the PLLA composite. Both injection molding and 3D printing techniques were used to fabricate the PLLA bone screws with and without the iron oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated screws were implanted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. Bone blocks containing the PLLA screws were resected 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the surrounding bone and the radiopacity of the iron-oxide-containing PLLA screws were evaluated. Our results indicated that addition of iron oxide nanoparticles at 30% significantly decreased the ultimate tensile stress properties of the PLLA screws. The screws with 20% iron oxide exhibited strong radiopacity compared to the screws fabricated without the iron oxide nanoparticles. Four weeks after surgery, the average bone volume of the iron oxide PLLA composite screws was significantly greater than that of PLLA screws without iron oxide. These findings suggested that biodegradable and X-ray detectable PLLA bone screws can be produced by incorporation of 20% iron oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, these screws had significantly greater osteogenic capability than the PLLA screws without iron oxide.

  8. X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, A J; Evans, J P O; Rogers, K D; Stone, N; Greenwood, C; Godber, S X; Prokopiou, D; Clement, J G; Lyburn, I D; Martin, R M; Zioupos, P

    2015-08-07

    There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as 'bone quality' need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction.In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of 'bone quality'. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined.

  9. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, Shaun S [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Mullens, James A [Knoxville, TN

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  10. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... degenerative) Bone tumor Broken bone (fracture) Dislocated bone Osteomyelitis (infection) Arthritis Other conditions for which the test ... Bone tumor Bone x-ray Broken bone Clubfoot Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 7/3/2016 Updated ...

  11. Distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the filling factor of trabecular bone in the x-ray image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeul; Jeong, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoo, Done-Sik; Kim, Seunghwan

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by an abnormal loss of bone mineral content, which leads to a tendency to non-traumatic bone fractures or to structural deformations of bone. Thus, bone density measurement has been considered as a most reliable method to assess bone fracture risk due to osteoporosis. In past decades, X-ray images have been studied in connection with the bone mineral density estimation. However, the estimated bone mineral density from the X-ray image can undergo a relatively large accuracy or precision error. The most relevant origin of the accuracy or precision error may be unstable X-ray image acquisition condition. Thus, we focus our attentions on finding a bone mineral density estimation method that is relatively insensitive to the X-ray image acquisition condition. In this paper, we develop a simple technique for distal radius bone mineral density estimation using the trabecular bone filling factor in the X-ray image and apply the technique to the wrist X-ray images of 20 women. Estimated bone mineral density shows a high linear correlation with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (r=0.87).

  12. X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

  13. X-ray dual energy spectral parameter optimization for bone Calcium/Phosphorus mass ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, P. I.; Fountos, G. P.; Martini, N. D.; Koukou, V. N.; Michail, C. M.; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Nikiforidis, G. C.

    2015-09-01

    Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) bone mass ratio has been identified as an important, yet underutilized, risk factor in osteoporosis diagnosis. The purpose of this simulation study is to investigate the use of effective or mean mass attenuation coefficient in Ca/P mass ratio estimation with the use of a dual-energy method. The investigation was based on the minimization of the accuracy of Ca/P ratio, with respect to the Coefficient of Variation of the ratio. Different set-ups were examined, based on the K-edge filtering technique and single X-ray exposure. The modified X-ray output was attenuated by various Ca/P mass ratios resulting in nine calibration points, while keeping constant the total bone thickness. The simulated data were obtained considering a photon counting energy discriminating detector. The standard deviation of the residuals was used to compare and evaluate the accuracy between the different dual energy set-ups. The optimum mass attenuation coefficient for the Ca/P mass ratio estimation was the effective coefficient in all the examined set-ups. The variation of the residuals between the different set-ups was not significant.

  14. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  15. PCXMC, a Monte Carlo program for calculating patient doses in medical x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapiovaara, M.; Siiskonen, T.

    2008-11-15

    PCXMC is a Monte Carlo program for calculating patients' organ doses and effective doses in medical x-ray examinations. The organs and tissues considered in the program are: active bone marrow, adrenals, brain, breasts, colon (upper and lower large intestine), extrathoracic airways, gall bladder, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, lymph nodes, muscle, oesophagus, oral mucosa, ovaries, pancreas, prostate, salivary glands, skeleton, skin, small intestine, spleen, stomach, testicles, thymus, thyroid, urinary bladder and uterus. The program calculates the effective dose with both the present tissue weighting factors of ICRP Publication 103 (2007) and the old tissue weighting factors of ICRP Publication 60 (1991). The anatomical data are based on the mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models of Cristy and Eckerman (1987), which describe patients of six different ages: new-born, 1, 5, 10, 15-year-old and adult patients. Some changes are made to these phantoms in order to make them more realistic for external irradiation conditions and to enable the calculation of the effective dose according to the new ICRP Publication 103 tissue weighting factors. The phantom sizes are adjustable to mimic patients of an arbitrary weight and height. PCXMC allows a free adjustment of the x-ray beam projection and other examination conditions of projection radiography and fluoroscopy

  16. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  17. An active contour method for bone cement reconstruction from C-arm x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Blake C; Otake, Yoshito; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H

    2012-04-01

    A novel algorithm is presented to segment and reconstruct injected bone cement from a sparse set of X-ray images acquired at arbitrary poses. The sparse X-ray multi-view active contour (SxMAC-pronounced "smack") can 1) reconstruct objects for which the background partially occludes the object in X-ray images, 2) use X-ray images acquired on a noncircular trajectory, and 3) incorporate prior computed tomography (CT) information. The algorithm's inputs are preprocessed X-ray images, their associated pose information, and prior CT, if available. The algorithm initiates automated reconstruction using visual hull computation from a sparse number of X-ray images. It then improves the accuracy of the reconstruction by optimizing a geodesic active contour. Experiments with mathematical phantoms demonstrate improvements over a conventional silhouette based approach, and a cadaver experiment demonstrates SxMAC's ability to reconstruct high contrast bone cement that has been injected into a femur and achieve sub-millimeter accuracy with four images.

  18. The risk of X-ray examinations of the lungs in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M

    1991-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the lungs is an important element in the evaluation of the neonates and their respiratory function. It is often necessary to perform a large number of X-ray examinations depending upon the infant's birthweight, gestational age and respiratory problems. To estimate the risk o....... It is concluded, that even using the latest increased risk factors, the radiation risk of repeated X-ray examinations of the chest in prematures will be very low considering the benefit for the infant.......X-ray examinations of the lungs is an important element in the evaluation of the neonates and their respiratory function. It is often necessary to perform a large number of X-ray examinations depending upon the infant's birthweight, gestational age and respiratory problems. To estimate the risk...... radiation dose calculated to 40 microsievert per examination (AP- and lateral). Using the latest increased risk factors this means an excess cancer mortality of 5 x 10(-5) for boys and 11 x 10(-5) for girls per millisievert, corresponding to 25 X-ray examinations (AP- and lateral) of the lungs...

  19. Correlation of X-Ray Vector Radiography to Bone Micro-Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Florian; Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Eggl, Elena; Noël, Peter B.; Baum, Thomas; Garcia, Eduardo Grande; Bauer, Jan S.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Besides the overall mass density, strength of trabecular bone depends significantly on its microstructure. However, due to dose constraints in medical CT imaging, it is impossible to gain sufficient information about very fine bone structures in vivo on the micrometer scale. Here we show that a recently developed method of X-ray vector radiography (XVR), an imaging method which uses X-ray scattering information to form an image, allows predictions on the bone microstructure without the explicit need to spatially resolve even individual trabeculae in the bone. We investigated thick human femoral bone samples and compared state-of-the-art μCT data with XVR imaging. A model is presented which proves that XVR imaging yields information directly correlated with the trabecular microstructure. This opens up possibilities of using XVR as a tool to help early diagnosis of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  20. Apparatus for use in examining the lattice of a semiconductor wafer by X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D. L.; Porter, W. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus for examining the crystal lattice of a semiconductor wafer utilizing X-ray diffraction techniques was presented. The apparatus is employed in a method which includes the step of recording the image of a wafer supported in a bent configuration conforming to a compound curve, produced through the use of a vacuum chuck provided for an X-ray camera. The entire surface thereof is illuminated simultaneously by a beam of incident X-rays which are projected from a distant point-source and satisfy conditions of the Bragg Law for all points on the surface of the water.

  1. Treatment of renal osteopathy by Rocaltrol, with special reference to parathormone levels and X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.L.

    The effects of treatment of renal osteopathy with 1.25 (OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ was evaluated in 24 chronic hemodialysis patients. The best results of treatment were displayed in patients in whom 1.25 (OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ determined only a slow rise in plasma calcium levels. In these patients iPTH, alkaline phosphatase levels, and osteoblast counts in bone biopsies were initially high. Definite improvement of bone resorption was found on X-ray examination. In contrast in patients with low iPTH, low alkaline phosphatase levels, and low osteoblast counts, administration of 1.25 (OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ determined a fast rise of plasma calcium levels. No X-ray modifications could be detected.

  2. Measuring metacarpal cortical bone by digital x-ray radiogrammetry: a step forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, PP; Lems, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in metacarpal cortical bone mineral density (BMD) using digital x-ray radiogrammetry were studied in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. After 1, 2, and 5 years, large BMD losses were found: -1.7%, -2.8%, and -5.6%, respectively. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and anti-cyclic

  3. The effects of X-ray radiation on mandibular bone of low-calcium diet rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Akihiko (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    In an attempt to examine the effects of X-ray on osteoporosis, a single dose of 30 Gy was delivered to the mandible in rats given low-calcium diet. Serum levels of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) were measured; and changes in bone salt were determined by autoradiography, microradiography, and roentgenography using an electron probe microanalyzer. Body weight was lower in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group, irrespective of types of diet. The serum Ca levels in the irradiated group given a normal diet were significantly decreased on Days 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. When given a low-Ca diet, these levels tended to be lower in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group on Day 7 or later. The serum levels of inorganic P were significantly lower in the irradiated group given a normal diet than the non-irradiated group on Day 3. Rats given a low-Ca diet had the same levels, irrespective of irradiation. Autoradiography revealed that Ca-45 retention in the whole jaw was slightly greater in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group On Days 7 and 21. Rats given a low-Ca diet in both irradiated and non-irradiated groups had a greater Ca-45 retention than those given a normal diet. Microradiography revealed that bone formation-like changes, such as flat surface of the periodontal membrane at the intra-alveolar septum, were slightly noticeable in the irradiated group of rats given a normal diet on Day 21. Thinning of the intra-alveolar septum and decrease of the trabecula at the diaphysis were also noticeable in the irradiated group of rats given a low-Ca diet. Variation of X-ray intensity was more marked on Day 7 than on Day 21 in the irradiated group given a normal diet. When given a low-Ca diet, both the irradiated and non-irradiated group had noticeable X-ray intensity variation. (N.K.).

  4. The risk of X-ray examinations of the lungs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroee, M. (Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. Hospital of Copenhagen, Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the lungs is an important element in the evaluation of the neonates and their respiratory function. It is often necessary to perform a large number of X-ray examinations depending upon the infant's birthweight, gestational age and respiratory problems. To estimate the risk of X-ray examinations of the lungs the radiation dose to 18 infants at the Neonatal Intensive Care Univ, Hvidovre Hospital, was measured by means of the thermoluminescent dosimeter placed on the nipple of the infant. The radiation dose to various organs was estimated and the risk weighted whole body radiation dose calculated to 40 microsievert per examination (AP- and lateral). Using the latest increased risk factors this means an excess cancer mortality of 5x10{sup -5} for boys abd 11x10{sup -5} for girls per millisievert, corresponding to 25 X-ray examinations (AP- and lateral) of the lungs. It is concluded, that even using the latest increased risk factors, the radiation risk of repeated X-ray examinations of the chest in prematures will be very low considering the benefit for the infant. (au).

  5. A study on development of guideline on writing technical document for electrical medical devices: Bone absorptiometric X-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Youl; Kim, Jae Ryang; Kim, Eun Rim; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Chang Hyung; Park, Chang Won [Medical Device Research Division, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The market size of the bone absorptiometric X-ray system and the number of its approval by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) has annually increased, with a trend of increasing aging population and osteoporosis patients. For approval of manufactured or imported medical devices in Republic of Korea, it is required to submit its technical document. Therefore, it is need to develop the technical document guideline for the bone absorptiometric X-ray system for manufacturers, importers and reviewers. First of all, the technical documents which were already approved were examined and analyzed through MFDS approval administration system. Second, safety and performance test standards and methods that match international standards were drawn after conducting survey of the market status and the technology development trend for it, with examination and analysis of applicable domestic and overseas standards. Third, by operating industry-research-government cooperation, the guideline draft on writing technical document for the bone absorptiometric X-ray system was discussed, collecting their opinion. As a result, it is suitable to international and domestic condition, includes test evaluation methods and offer various information with appropriate examples to civil petitioner, when they write the technical documents.

  6. ANATOMICAL DISPOSITION OF CARPAL BONES OF GOLDEN RETRIEVER DOG BY X-RAY EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mandal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the general disposition of bones in carpal region of experimental dogs by X-ray study with an objective that the findings will facilitate to have an in-depth knowledge about the proper positioning of the carpal bones for surgical management of fractures and different types of bone deformities in dogs. In the present study, the anatomical disposition and arrangement pattern of carpal bones playing a pivotal role in providing the structural conformity in the limbs of Golden Retriever dog has been thoroughly confirmed by Xray exposure.

  7. Thanatophoric dysplasia. Correlation among bone X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E. [University of Brescia, Orthopaedic Clinic, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Donzelli, Carla M. [Spedali Civili di Brescia, Morbid Anatomy Department, Brescia (Italy); Izzi, Claudia [University of Brescia, Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Brescia (Italy); Baldi, Maurizia [Hospital Galliera, Human Genetic Laboratory, Genova (Italy); Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Bondioni, MariaPia [University of Brescia, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Documentation through X-ray morphometry and histology of the steady phenotype expressed by FGFR3 gene mutation and interpolation of mechanical factors on spine and long bones dysmorphism. Long bones and spine of eight thanatophoric dysplasia and three age-matched controls without skeletal dysplasia were studied after pregnancy termination between the 18th and the 22nd week with X-ray morphometry, histology, and molecular analysis. Statistical analysis with comparison between TD cases and controls and intraobserver/interobserver variation were applied to X-ray morphometric data. Generalized shortening of long bones was observed in TD. A variable distribution of axial deformities was correlated with chondrocyte proliferation inhibition, defective seriate cell columns organization, and final formation of the primary metaphyseal trabeculae. The periosteal longitudinal growth was not equally inhibited, so that decoupling with the cartilage growth pattern produced the typical lateral spurs around the metaphyseal growth plates. In spine, platyspondyly was due to a reduced height of the vertebral body anterior ossification center, while its enlargement in the transversal plane was not restricted. The peculiar radiographic and histopathological features of TD bones support the hypothesis of interpolation of mechanical factors with FGFR3 gene mutations. The correlated observations of X-ray morphometry, histopathology, and gene analysis prompted the following diagnostic workup for TD: (1) prenatal sonography suspicion of skeletal dysplasia; (2) post-mortem X-ray morphometry for provisional diagnosis; (3) confirmation by genetic tests (hot-spot exons 7, 10, 15, and 19 analysis with 80-90 % sensibility); (4) in negative cases if histopathology confirms TD diagnosis, research of rare mutations through sequential analysis of FGFR3 gene. (orig.)

  8. Detection of demineralization in rat legs using multiple-angle x-ray bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lawrence M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Sebes, Jeno I.; Thomason, Donald B.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Davis, Peter G.; Kambeyanda, Dona; Li, Gao; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1994-05-01

    A method utilizing digital dual-energy subtraction X-ray radiography for measuring calcium densities localized to the cortical and cancellous regions of bone cross sections is described. The method is being used to study calcium loss in femurs of two differently treated groups of rats. In each experimental cohort, one group of rats is restrained from weightbearing on hind limbs by suspension from a tail harness. The other (control) group is allowed normal weightbearing on all limbs. The densitometry data for each rat leg consists of six X-ray projection images acquired at roughly equal angles about the bone axis by an intensifying screen/CCD camera imaging system. Images of bone cross sections are reconstructed by application of a maximum entropy algorithm constrained by the six projection images. The observed density data are further discriminated into cortical, cancellous and external regions on the basis of reference levels found on image density histograms.

  9. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  10. Frequency of medical and dental x-ray examinations in the UK. 1997/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.; Wall, B.; Shrimpton, P. [and others

    2000-12-01

    A survey has been performed to assess the numbers of all types of radiological x-ray examination conducted in the UK during the period from April 1997 to March 1998. The survey covers all diagnostic and interventional procedures using x-rays for medical and dental purposes, both within and outside the National Health Service (NHS), but excludes a detailed analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and nuclear medicine. This is the first such national survey conducted by NRPB since 1983. The results provide a current picture of the pattern of medical x-ray imaging practice in the UK and will allow revised estimates to be made of the collective dose to the population from these procedures. The survey has utilised detailed information available from radiology management systems at a selected sample of 38 English NHS trusts. The different classifications of x-ray procedure have been re-arranged into 62 standardised categories based on anatomical location and whether they were conventional, computed tomography (CT) or interventional procedures. Extrapolation of the sample data to the whole of England was carried out using broad NHS radiology statistics (KH12 returns) for the period of the survey from the Department of Health. Additional data have been obtained covering NHS radiology practice in Wales and Northern Ireland and also for x-ray imaging practice outside NHS hospitals such as that performed in independent hospitals and by dentists and chiropractors. Results are presented giving the annual numbers and relative frequencies of x-ray examinations in the 62 categories and the contributions from radiology practice outside NHS hospitals and from the whole of the UK. Altogether, about 41.5 million medical and dental x-ray examinations were conducted in the UK in 1997/98, corresponding to 704 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. The increase since 1983 for medical examinations conducted in NHS hospitals has just kept pace with the increase in population

  11. Atlas-based rib-bone detection in chest X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candemir, Sema; Jaeger, Stefan; Antani, Sameer; Bagci, Ulas; Folio, Les R; Xu, Ziyue; Thoma, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates using rib-bone atlases for automatic detection of rib-bones in chest X-rays (CXRs). We built a system that takes patient X-ray and model atlases as input and automatically computes the posterior rib borders with high accuracy and efficiency. In addition to conventional atlas, we propose two alternative atlases: (i) automatically computed rib bone models using Computed Tomography (CT) scans, and (ii) dual energy CXRs. We test the proposed approach with each model on 25 CXRs from the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and another 25 CXRs from the National Library of Medicine CXR dataset. We achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 95% for Montgomery and 91% for JSRT datasets. Using the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, we achieve a segmentation accuracy of 88.91±1.8% for Montgomery and 85.48±3.3% for JSRT datasets. Our method produces comparable results with the state-of-the-art algorithms. The performance of our method is also excellent on challenging X-rays as it successfully addressed the rib-shape variance between patients and number of visible rib-bones due to patient respiration.

  12. Evaluation of osteoporotic bone structure through synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, T.U.; Correa da Costa, V.M. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The abnormal accumulation or deficiency of trace elements may theoretically impair the formation of bone and contribute to osteoporosis. In this context, the knowledge of major and trace elements is very important in order to clarify many issues regarding diseases of the bone, such as osteoporosis, that remain unresolved. Several kinds of imaging techniques can be useful to access morphology and the minerals present in osteoporotic bones. In this work, synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence was used as an X-ray imaging technique to investigate bone structures. Therefore, this research aims to improve the knowledge about some aspects of bone quality. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory Light Laboratory, in Brazil. A white beam with an energy range of 4-23 keV, a 45 deg./45 deg. geometry and a capillary optics were used. It was demonstrated that bone quality can and must be evaluated not only by considering the architecture of bones but also by taking into account the concentration and the distribution of minerals. Our results showed that the elemental distributions in bone zones on a micron scale were very helpful to understand functions in those structures.

  13. Medical X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benefits The discovery of X-rays and the invention of CT represented major advances in medicine. X- ... in X-ray and CT ExaminationsX-ray definition, dose measurement, safety precautions, risk, and consideration with ...

  14. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Kinderklinik) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of [approx] 1 kg). Data analysis showed widely differing radiographic techniques. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques poorly suited for paediatric radiology. Significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. This study emphasises the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology. (author).

  15. Correlative Light and Scanning X-Ray Scattering Microscopy of Healthy and Pathologic Human Bone Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, C.; D. Siliqi; Bunk, O.; Beraudi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Altamura, D.; Stea, S.; Baruffaldi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning small and wide angle X-ray scattering (scanning SWAXS) experiments were performed on healthy and pathologic human bone sections. Via crystallographic tools the data were transformed into quantitative images and as such compared with circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy images. SWAXS and CPL images allowed extracting information of the mineral nanocrystalline phase embedded, with and without preferred orientation, in the collagen fibrils, mapping local changes at sub-osteon res...

  16. Hand x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fractures, bone tumors , degenerative bone conditions, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection). ... chap 46. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 9/8/2014 Updated ...

  17. Fractional Brownian Motion and Geodesic Rao Distance for Bone X-ray Image Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassouni, Mohammed; Tafraouti, Abdessamad; Toumi, Hechmi; Lespessailles, Eric; Jennane, Rachid

    2016-10-19

    Osteoporosis diagnosis has attracted particular attention in recent decades. Textured images from the microarchitecture of osteoporotic and healthy subjects show a high degree of similarity, increasing the difficulty of classifying such textures. Thus, the evaluation of osteoporosis from bone X-ray images presents a major challenge for pattern recognition and medical applications. The purpose of this paper is to use the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model and the Probability Density Function (PDF) of its increments to compute a similarity measure with the Rao geodesic distance to classify trabecular bone X-ray images. When evaluated on synthetic fBm images (test vectors) with the well-known Hurst parameter H, the proposed method met our expectations in that a good classification of the synthetic images was achieved. A clinical study was conducted on textured bone X-ray images from two different female populations of osteoporotic patients (fracture cases) and control subjects. Using the proposed method, an Area Under Curve (AUC) rate of 97% was achieved.

  18. Segmentation of Bone Structure in X-ray Images using Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CERNAZANU-GLAVAN, C.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation process represents a first step necessary for any automatic method of extracting information from an image. In the case of X-ray images, through segmentation we can differentiate the bone tissue from the rest of the image. There are nowadays several segmentation techniques, but in general, they all require the human intervention in the segmentation process. Consequently, this article proposes a new segmentation method for the X-ray images using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. In present, the convolutional networks are the best techniques for image segmentation. This fact is demonstrated by their wide usage in all the fields, including the medical one. As the X-ray images have large dimensions, for reducing the training time, the method proposed by the present article selects only certain areas (maximum interest areas from the entire image. The neural network is used as pixel classifier thus causing the label of each pixel (bone or none-bone from a raw pixel values in a square area. We will also present the method through which the network final configuration was chosen and we will make a comparative analysis with other 3 CNN configurations. The network chosen by us obtained the best results for all the evaluation metrics used, i.e. warping error, rand error and pixel error.

  19. X-ray examination apparatus with an imaging arrangement having a plurality of image sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; Harms, M.O.

    1999-01-01

    An imaging arrangement including a multi-sensor for use in an x-ray examination apparatus is described that combines a plurality of partially overlapping sub-images, resulting in an increased effective sensor area when compared to a single sensor-image. Thus an imaging arrangement is provided suitab

  20. X-ray examination apparatus with an imaging arrangement having a plurality of image sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.

    1995-01-01

    An imaging arrangement including a multi-sensor for use in an x-ray examination apparatus is described that combines a plurality of partially overlapping sub-images, resulting in an increased effective sensor area when compared to a single sensor-image. Thus an imaging arrangement is provided suitab

  1. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose

  2. Correlative Light and Scanning X-Ray Scattering Microscopy of Healthy and Pathologic Human Bone Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, C.; Siliqi, D.; Bunk, O.; Beraudi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Altamura, D.; Stea, S.; Baruffaldi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning small and wide angle X-ray scattering (scanning SWAXS) experiments were performed on healthy and pathologic human bone sections. Via crystallographic tools the data were transformed into quantitative images and as such compared with circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy images. SWAXS and CPL images allowed extracting information of the mineral nanocrystalline phase embedded, with and without preferred orientation, in the collagen fibrils, mapping local changes at sub-osteon resolution. This favorable combination has been applied for the first time to biopsies of dwarfism syndrome and Paget's disease to shed light onto the cortical structure of natural bone in healthy and pathologic sections. PMID:22666538

  3. The Distribution of Elements in 48 Canine Compact Bone Types Using Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Piboon, Promporn; Klinhom, Sarisa

    2016-11-01

    A major question when we talk about the elements in the bone is whether all bones contain the same elements. To answer this question, this study was designed for determination of the elemental levels in 48 various canine compact bones using handheld X-ray fluorescence technique. From a total of 26 elements that could be detected, only 13 elements were found in all 48 bones. The sternum and os penis were significantly different from the other bones in that they contained the highest number of elements. The ratio of Ca and P was significantly different when comparing certain bones: there was a higher Ca/P ratio in the patella (right), calcaneus (right and left), and sternum compared with a lower ratio in the radius (left), rib (left), phalanx (left forelimb), and carpus (left). These results are the first to demonstrate that different types of bones have different elemental profiles, even for major elements such as Ca and P. Moreover, the Ca/P ratio was also different between bone types. This data is important for the selection of bones appropriate to the element studied. In addition, the results proved that the elements were not equally distributed in every bone in the body.

  4. Bone mineral density level by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Awan, Shazia; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Memon, Shazia; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To observe the level of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The observational study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from January 2011 to December 2014. Bone mineral density was measured from the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar spine, in patients 25-55 years of age, who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases were assessed for bone mineral density from appendicular as well as axial skeleton. Data was collected through a designed proforma and analysis was performed using SPSS 21. Of the 229 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 33(14.4%) were males. Five (15.1%) males had normal bone density, 14(42.4%) had osteopenia and 14(42.4%) had osteoporosis. Of the 196(85.5%) females, 45(29.9%) had normal bone density, 72 (37.7%) had osteopenia and 79(40.30%) had osteoporosis. Of the 123(53.7%) patients aged 30-50 years, 38(30.9%) had normal bone density, 59(48.0%) had osteopenia, and 26(21.1%) had osteoporosis. Of the 106(46.3%) patients over 50 years, 12(11.3%) had normal bone density, 27 (25.5%) had osteopenia and 67(63.2%) had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were most common among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Assessment of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can lead to quick relief in the clinical symptoms with timely therapy.

  5. The Survey for Awareness of Radiation Dose of CT and General X-ray Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Cheol; Cho, Han Byul [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; You, In Gyu; Yang, Oh Nam; Kim, Min Cheol [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Joon [Dept. of Radiotechnolgy, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The goal of this study is to awaken about risk occurred by CT examination. For radio-technologists working at 'S medical center' located in Seoul, we investigated a recognition about dose and risk CT and normal X-ray examination according by working experience in hospital, experience about CT examination and radiation source. For subjects of investigation, radio-technologists working at 'S medical center' located in Seoul helped us. We collected 131 questionnaires for a test of hypothesis. Cronbach coefficients of questionnaires were 0.825988 and 0.767161 and a rejection rate of p-value was below 0.05. SAS 9.1(SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.) statistic package was used for hypothesis test. We used Mann-Whitney test, Kruskai-Wallis test, Two sample T-test, Two sample T-test with Bonferroni's Correction and One-way ANOVA methods. P-values of hypothesis about dose of CT and normal X-ray examination were 0.2291-0.9663. p-values of hypothesis about risk were 0.1924-1.0000. All of hypothesis is over rejection rate(<0.05). This study shows that radio-technologists of S medical center recognized that CT has higher dose and risk than general X-ray examination.

  6. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  7. Characterisation of mineralisation of bone and cartilage: X-ray diffraction and Ca and Sr K α X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.; Muthuvelu, P.; Ellis, R. E.; Green, E. M.; Attenburrow, D.; Barrett, R.; Arkill, K.; Colridge, D. B.; Winlove, C. P.

    2007-10-01

    Bone is a dynamic structure, constantly remodelling in response to changing mechanical and environmental factors. This is particularly evident in the mineral component encrusting the collagenous framework. The mineral is principally in the form of calcium apatite, but calcium can exchange with strontium, both during the cellular processes of mineralisation and resorption and by passive exchange with the deposited crystals. Mineralisation is generally characterized by densitometry, but because of the differences in absorption cross sections of calcium and strontium it can be misleading in studies of composition. In this work we have used X-ray diffraction to identify calcium and strontium apatite and X-ray fluorescence to quantify strontium and calcium distribution. With the beam characteristics available from synchrotron radiation, this has enabled us to obtain microscopic resolution on thin sections of bone and cartilage from the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. Two issues have been investigated; the first is the distribution of mineral in the bone-cartilage interface and within individual trabeculae. In trabecular bone the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration was typically 0.0035 ± 0.0020, and higher by a factor of ∼3 at the periphery than in the centre of a trabeculum (possibly reflecting the more rapid turnover of mineral in the surface layer). In the dense subchondral bone the ratio was similar, approximately doubling in the calcified cartilage. The second objective was to explore the changes in mineralisation associated with development of osteoarthrosis. We analysed lesions showing cartilage thinning and changes in the trabecular organization and density of the underlying bone. At the centre of the lesion the ratio of strontium to calcium was much lower than that in normal tissue, although the calcified cartilage still showed a higher ratio than the underlying bone. In the superficially normal tissue around the lesion the calcified cartilage

  8. Characterisation of mineralisation of bone and cartilage: X-ray diffraction and Ca and Sr K{sub {alpha}} X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk; Muthuvelu, P.; Ellis, R.E.; Green, E.M.; Attenburrow, D. [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Barrett, R. [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Arkill, K.; Colridge, D.B.; Winlove, C.P. [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Bone is a dynamic structure, constantly remodelling in response to changing mechanical and environmental factors. This is particularly evident in the mineral component encrusting the collagenous framework. The mineral is principally in the form of calcium apatite, but calcium can exchange with strontium, both during the cellular processes of mineralisation and resorption and by passive exchange with the deposited crystals. Mineralisation is generally characterized by densitometry, but because of the differences in absorption cross sections of calcium and strontium it can be misleading in studies of composition. In this work we have used X-ray diffraction to identify calcium and strontium apatite and X-ray fluorescence to quantify strontium and calcium distribution. With the beam characteristics available from synchrotron radiation, this has enabled us to obtain microscopic resolution on thin sections of bone and cartilage from the equine metacarpophalangeal joint. Two issues have been investigated; the first is the distribution of mineral in the bone-cartilage interface and within individual trabeculae. In trabecular bone the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration was typically 0.0035 {+-} 0.0020, and higher by a factor of {approx}3 at the periphery than in the centre of a trabeculum (possibly reflecting the more rapid turnover of mineral in the surface layer). In the dense subchondral bone the ratio was similar, approximately doubling in the calcified cartilage. The second objective was to explore the changes in mineralisation associated with development of osteoarthrosis. We analysed lesions showing cartilage thinning and changes in the trabecular organization and density of the underlying bone. At the centre of the lesion the ratio of strontium to calcium was much lower than that in normal tissue, although the calcified cartilage still showed a higher ratio than the underlying bone. In the superficially normal tissue around the lesion the calcified

  9. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, J M; Fleming, D E B

    2009-04-21

    In order to quantify the bone lead concentration from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement, typically two estimates of the lead concentration are determined by comparing the normalized x-ray peak amplitudes from the Kalpha(1) and Kbeta(1) features to those of the calibration phantoms. In each case, the normalization consists of taking the ratio of the x-ray peak amplitude to the amplitude of the coherently scattered photon peak in the spectrum. These two Pb concentration estimates are then used to determine the weighted mean lead concentration of that sample. In calculating the uncertainties of these measurements, it is important to include any covariance terms where appropriate. When determining the uncertainty of the lead concentrations from each x-ray peak, the standard approach does not include covariance between the x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered feature. These spectral features originate from two distinct physical processes, and therefore no covariance between these features can exist. Through experimental and simulated data, we confirm that there is no observed covariance between the detected Pb x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered photon signal, as expected. This is in direct contrast to recent work published by Brito (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6125-39). There is, however, covariance introduced in the calculation of the weighted mean lead concentration due to the common coherent normalization. This must be accounted for in calculating the uncertainty of the weighted mean lead concentration, as is currently the case. We propose here an alternative approach to calculating the weighted mean lead concentration in such a way as to eliminate the covariance introduced by the common coherent normalization. It should be emphasized that this alternative approach will only apply in situations in which the calibration line intercept is not included in the calculation of the Pb concentration from the spectral data: when the source of the intercept is

  10. Analysis of 20 KEV Electron Induced X-Ray Production in Skull, Femur/tibia Bones of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rahul; Watson, Alec; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2010-04-01

    Hind-limb suspension (HLS) of rats is a NASA validated model of simulated weightlessness. This study examines the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system of rats to assess whether or not exposure of rats to HLS for one week will induce alteration of structural features in selected bones. Four groups of rats were used: two unsuspended controls and two suspended groups. Body weight, food, and water intake were monitored daily before and after suspension. X-rays were measured by a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(li) detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that provided the 20 keV electron beam. X-ray data were collected from square cross sections between 100 μm2 and 104 μm2. The bones were measured for elemental levels of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon from both control and HLS rats. The average body weight of all HLS groups decreased compared to their respective unsuspended controls. Food and water intake was also lower in both suspended groups. A correlation among HLS and control samples in terms of the distribution of the primary elements was found in the bone tissue when analyzed as a function of position along the hind-leg and within the cross sections.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of bone-mineral density loss using X-ray coherent scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Regina Cély; Oliveira, Luis Fernando; Castro, Carlos Roberto Ferreira; Lima, João Carlos; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Droppa, Roosevel; Tromba, Giuliana; Mancini, Lucia; Zanini, Franco; Rigon, Luigi; Dreossi, Diego

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we intend to relate the mineral to non-mineral bone scattering intensity ratio with the bone-mineral density (BMD) reduction. In this way, EDXRD can be a novel technique to measure BMD loss in function of the mineral and non-mineral scattering intensity. The scattering profiles were obtained at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS) at the X-ray diffraction beamline XD2. A double-crystal Si(1 1 1) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth (Δ λ/ λ≈10 -4) at 11 keV. The sample holder has a circle depression in the center to contain a range of bone and fat mixture ratios. The mixture consists of powdered cortical bone and fat, which together simulate in vivo bone. The diffraction patterns were carried out with 0.5 mm slits after and behind of the sample holder. The data were collected in 0.05° increments every 0.5 s. EDXRD results show an indication of different bone densities may be distinguished which suggested that X-ray coherent scattering technique may have a role in monitoring changes in BMD via changes in the related scattering intensity of mineral and non-mineral bone. The main aim of the Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) project at the ELETTRA is the investigation and the development of innovative techniques for medical imaging. The beamline provides, at a distance of about 23 m from the source, a monochromatic, laminar section X-ray beam with a maximum area of about 160×5 mm 2 at 20 keV. The monochromator, that covers the entire angular acceptance of the beamline, is based on a double-Si (1 1 1) crystal system working in Bragg configuration. A micrometric vertical and horizontal translation stage allows the positioning and scanning of the sample with respect to the stationary beam. In this case, the detector is kept stationary in front of the beam, while the object is rotated in discrete steps in front of it. At each rotation, a projection is acquired. A goniometric

  12. Radiation exposure of the UK population from medical and dental x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D.; Wall, B.F

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of recent trends in the radiation doses from x-ray examinations and their distribution for the UK population provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimise the protection of the population in a cost-effective manner. In this report, the results of a recent survey of the frequency of medical and dental x-ray examinations in the UK and contemporary data on the radiation doses typically received by patients, are used to assess trends in the extent and the pattern of the population exposure. Individual patient doses, expressed in terms of the effective dose, range from a few microsieverts for simple radiographic examinations of the teeth, limbs or chest to tens of millisieverts for prolonged fluoroscopic procedures or some computed tomography (CT) examinations. A total of about 41.5 million medical and dental x-ray examinations are now conducted each year in the UK (0.70 examination per head of population) resulting in an annual per caput effective dose of 330 {mu}Sv. This is not significantly different from the previous rough estimate of 350 {mu}Sv for 1991. However, over the last ten years CT has more than doubled its contribution and is now responsible for 40% of the total dose to the population from medical x-rays. In contrast, the contribution from conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations has nearly halved to about 44%. Interventional and angiographic procedures together contribute the remaining 16%. The annual per caput dose of 330 {mu}Sv is low in comparison with other countries having similarly developed systems of health care. This is due to both a lower frequency of x-ray examinations per head of population and generally lower doses in the UK than in other developed countries. However, the much increased contributions of CT, angiography and interventional procedures to the UK population dose indicate an urgent need to develop radiation protection and optimisation activities

  13. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Beyond Bone Mineral Density Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant improvements in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA concerning quality, image resolution and image acquisition time have allowed the development of various functions. DXA can evaluate bone quality by indirect analysis of micro- and macro-architecture of the bone, which and improve the prediction of fracture risk. DXA can also detect existing fractures, such as vertebral fractures or atypical femur fractures, without additional radiologic imaging and radiation exposure. Moreover, it can assess the metabolic status by the measurement of body composition parameters like muscle mass and visceral fat. Although more studies are required to validate and clinically use these parameters, it is clear that DXA is not just for bone mineral densitometry.

  14. Bone mineral density of normal people by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The bone minearl density(BMD) determination is performed for 210 selected Shanghai residents of both sexes across the age range 15-50 using Hologic QDR-2000 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA).The results whow that in female groups the peak value of L1-L4 BMD is 1.023±0.103g/cm2 at the ages of 31-35,but in male groups it is 0.971±0.118g/cm2 aged 26-30 and the peak period can last he ages 46-50,The similarconclusion is also obtained by further statistics.

  15. Strontium Localization in Bone Tissue Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Ståhl, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Strontium has recently been introduced as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. We determined the localization of strontium incorporated into bone matrix from dogs treated with Sr malonate by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A new approach for analyzing the X...... structural order than when present in serum but less order than when it is incorporated into CaHA. The total amount of strontium in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the amount of Sr was found to increase with increasing dose levels and treatment periods, whereas...

  16. Rietveld Refinement on X-Ray Diffraction Patterns of Bioapatite in Human Fetal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Carlo; Dalconi, Maria Chiara; Nuzzo, Stefania; Mobilio, Settimio; Wenk, Rudy H.

    2003-01-01

    Bioapatite, the main constituent of mineralized tissue in mammalian bones, is a calcium-phosphate-based mineral that is similar in structure and composition to hydroxyapatite. In this work, the crystallographic structure of bioapatite in human fetuses was investigated by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (XRD) and microdiffraction (μ-XRD) techniques. Rietveld refinement analyses of XRD and μ-XRD data allow for quantitative probing of the structural modifications of bioapatite as functions of the mineralization process and gestational age. PMID:12609904

  17. Will it hurt? Patients' experience of X-ray examinations: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesson, Rosemary A. [Health Services Research Group, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Good, Maureen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Hart, Cleone L. [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Moray Health Services, Elgin (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a worldwide trend towards involving patients in health care, but little is known about children's expectations of routine radiological procedures. Objective: To determine children's perceptions of X-ray examinations. Materials and methods: A convenience sample was selected from consecutive patients referred to a children's hospital in Scotland. Children were allocated either to a drawing study (n=20) or a two-stage interview (n=25). The investigation was restricted to first-time users of the radiological service aged 7-14 years if accompanied by a parent and consent having been obtained. Children were excluded if pain control was administered in the Accident and Emergency Department. Children's drawings were reported on by an art therapist and a child psychiatrist. Results: All children approached agreed to participate. Seventeen children provided accurate pictures of the X-ray examination room. Concordance existed between the psychiatrist's and art therapist's reports. Children at interview had at least a minimal level of knowledge of X-rays and this was from (1) family, friends and neighbours, (2) the school classroom, and (3) television programmes. Conclusions: Children had anxieties revealed through drawings and interviews. We recommend drawings for establishing children's views of radiology. (orig.)

  18. Combination of BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with autologous bone marrow for bone regeneration of X-ray-irradiated rabbit ulnar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Hokugo, Akishige; Takahashi, Yoshitake; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules (gelatin/β-TCP sponges) to enhance bone regeneration at a segmental ulnar defect of rabbits with X-ray irradiation. After X-ray irradiation of the ulnar bone, segmental critical-sized defects of 20-mm length were created, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with or without autologous bone marrow were applied to the defects to evaluate bone regeneration. Both gelatin/β-TCP sponges containing autologous bone marrow and BMP-2-releasing sponges enhanced bone regeneration at the ulna defect to a significantly greater extent than the empty sponges (control). However, in the X-ray-irradiated bone, the bone regeneration either by autologous bone marrow or BMP-2 was inhibited. When combined with autologous bone marrow, the BMP-2 exhibited significantly high osteoinductivity, irrespective of the X-ray irradiation. The bone mineral content at the ulna defect was similar to that of the intact bone. It is concluded that the combination of bone marrow with the BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponge is a promising technique to induce bone regeneration at segmental bone defects after X-ray irradiation.

  19. Direct X-ray radiogrammetry versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: assessment of bone density in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Wittenberg, Rianne [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke; Sluis, Inge M. van der; MuinckKeizer-Schrama, Sabine M.P.F. de [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten H. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, Cornelis Van [University Medical Centre ' Radboud' , Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    In recent years interest in bone densitometry in children has increased. To evaluate the clinical application of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and compare the results with those of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 41 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 26 children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were included in this longitudinal study. Radiographs of the left hand were obtained and used for DXR. DXA of the total body and of the lumbar spine was performed. In both study populations significant correlations between DXR and DXA were found, and, with the exception of the correlation between DXR bone mineral density (DXR-BMD) and bone mineral apparent density in the GHD population, all correlations had a P-value of <0.001. During treatment a change in DXR-BMD was found in children with GHD. Our study showed that DXR in a paediatric population shows a strong correlation with DXA of the lumbar spine and total body and that it is able to detect a change in BMD during treatment. (orig.)

  20. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  1. Hard X-ray Full Field Nano-imaging of Bone and Nanowires at SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero; Meirer, Florian; Chen, Jie; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C. H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Cathy; Zhu, Jia; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    A hard X-ray full field microscope from Xradia Inc. has been installed at SSRL on a 54-pole wiggler end station at beam line 6-2. It has been optimized to operate from 5–14 keV with resolution as high as 30 nm. High quality images are achieved using a vertical beam stabilizer and condenser scanner with high efficiency zone plates with 30 nm outermost zone width. The microscope has been used in Zernike phase contrast, available at 5.4 keV and 8 keV, as well as absorption contrast to image a variety of biological, environmental and materials samples. Calibration of the X-ray attenuation with crystalline apatite enabled quantification of bone density of plate-like and rod-like regions of mouse bone trabecula. 3D tomography of individual lacuna revealed the surrounding cell canaliculi and processes. 3D tomography of chiral branched PbSe nanowires showed orthogonal branches around a central nanowire. PMID:20871736

  2. Strontium localization in bone tissue studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Stahl, Kenny

    2014-02-01

    Strontium has recently been introduced as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. We determined the localization of strontium incorporated into bone matrix from dogs treated with Sr malonate by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A new approach for analyzing the X-ray absorption spectra resulted in a compositional model and allowed the relative distribution of strontium in the different bone components to be estimated. Approximately 35-45% of the strontium present is incorporated into calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) by substitution of some of the calcium ions occupying highly ordered sites, and at least 30% is located at less ordered sites where only the first solvation shell is resolved, suggesting that strontium is surrounded by only oxygen atoms similar to Sr(2+) in solution. Strontium was furthermore shown to be absorbed in collagen in which it obtains a higher structural order than when present in serum but less order than when it is incorporated into CaHA. The total amount of strontium in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the amount of Sr was found to increase with increasing dose levels and treatment periods, whereas the relative distribution of strontium among the different components appears to be independent of treatment period and dose level.

  3. On the effect of x-ray irradiation on the deformation and fracture behavior of human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Holly D.; Launey, Maximilien E.; McDowell, Alastair A.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2010-01-10

    In situ mechanical testing coupled with imaging using high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction or tomography imaging is gaining in popularity as a technique to investigate micrometer and even sub-micrometer deformation and fracture mechanisms in mineralized tissues, such as bone and teeth. However, the role of the irradiation in affecting the nature and properties of the tissue is not always taken into account. Accordingly, we examine here the effect of x-ray synchrotron-source irradiation on the mechanistic aspects of deformation and fracture in human cortical bone. Specifically, the strength, ductility and fracture resistance (both work-of-fracture and resistance-curve fracture toughness) of human femoral bone in the transverse (breaking) orientation were evaluated following exposures to 0.05, 70, 210 and 630 kGy irradiation. Our results show that the radiation typically used in tomography imaging can have a major and deleterious impact on the strength, post-yield behavior and fracture toughness of cortical bone, with the severity of the effect progressively increasing with higher doses of radiation. Plasticity was essentially suppressed after as little as 70 kGy of radiation; the fracture toughness was decreased by a factor of five after 210 kGy of radiation. Mechanistically, the irradiation was found to alter the salient toughening mechanisms, manifest by the progressive elimination of the bone's capacity for plastic deformation which restricts the intrinsic toughening from the formation 'plastic zones' around crack-like defects. Deep-ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy indicated that this behavior could be related to degradation in the collagen integrity.

  4. Comparison of the data of X-ray microtomography and fluorescence analysis in the study of bone-tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadchikov, V. E.; Senin, R. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Buzmakov, A. V.; Gulimova, V. I.; Zolotov, D. A.; Orekhov, A. S.; Osadchaya, A. S.; Podurets, K. M.; Savel'ev, S. V.; Seregin, A. Yu.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Chukalina, M. V.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of localizing clusters of heavy atoms is substantiated by comparing the data of X-ray microtomography at different wavelengths, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The proximal tail vertebrae of Turner's thick-toed gecko ( Chondrodactylus turneri) have been investigated for the first time by both histological and physical methods, including X-ray microtomography at different wavelengths and elemental analysis. This complex methodology of study made it possible to reveal the regions of accumulation of heavy elements in the aforementioned bones of Turner's thick-toed gecko.

  5. Engineered bone from bone marrow stromal cells: a structural study by an advanced x-ray microdiffraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedola, A [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-CNR, V Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); Medical Physics Specialisation School, University of Milan (Italy); Mastrogiacomo, M [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Biologia e Genetica, Universita' di Genova, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro-Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Burghammer, M [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Komlev, V [INFM, Department of Sciences Applied to Complex Systems, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Ranieri 65, I60131 Ancona (Italy); Institute for Physical Chemistry of Ceramics, Russian Academy of Science, Ozernaya 48, 119361 Moscow (Russian Federation); Giannoni, P [Biorigen Srl, Via Peschiera 16, 16122 Genova (Italy); Favia, A [Dipartimento di Anatomia Umana e Istologia, Universita degli Studi di Bari, P.le Giulio Cesare Policlinico, 70122 Bari (Italy); Cancedda, R [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Biologia e Genetica, Universita' di Genova, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro-Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Rustichelli, F [INFM, Department of Sciences Applied to Complex Systems, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Ranieri 65, I60131 Ancona (Italy); Lagomarsino, S [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-CNR, V Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); Medical Physics Specialisation School, University of Milan (Italy)

    2006-03-21

    The mechanism of mineralized matrix deposition was studied in a tissue engineering approach in which bone tissue is formed when porous ceramic constructs are loaded with bone marrow stromal cells and implanted in vivo. We investigated the local interaction between the mineral crystals of the engineered bone and the biomaterial by means of microdiffraction, using a set-up based on an x-ray waveguide. We demonstrated that the newly formed bone is well organized inside the scaffold pore, following the growth model of natural bone. Combining wide angle (WAXS) and small angle (SAXS) x-ray scattering with high spatial resolution, we were able to determine the orientation of the crystallographic c-axis inside the bone crystals, and the orientation of the mineral crystals and collagen micro-fibrils with respect to the scaffold. In this work we analysed six samples and for each of them two pores were studied in detail. Similar results were obtained in all cases but we report here only the most significant sample. (note)

  6. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  7. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L

    2004-03-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18 x 7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186+/-8 mm and 147+/-8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209+/-40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of approximately 60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is approximately 20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors.

  8. Bone mineral change during experimental calcination: an X-ray diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Sergio; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz

    2014-11-01

    The effects of calcination (400-1200°C) on pig bones have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary modifications, such as color change and weight loss. The characterisation by powder XRD confirmed the presence of the crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite, and comparison of the results obtained at different temperatures suggested that at 650°C, all the organic components and carbonate substitutions were completely removed. Accordingly, these samples were white. In addition, the crystallinity degree and the crystallite size progressively increased with the calcination temperature until 650°C, remaining stable until 1200°C. Below 650°C, bone samples presented organic compounds, resulting in background noise in the diffractogram and gray or black color. In addition, impurities in the lattice correspond to low crystallite sizes.

  9. Trends in Radiation Doses to Patients from Medical X-ray Examinations in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olga Iacob; Irina Anca Popescu [Institute of Public Health, Iassy (Romania); Mihai Radu Iacob [University ' Al. I. Cuza' Iassy (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Even if the doses received by patients during 2005 survey are lower than those estimated in the 2000 national survey on diagnostic medical radiation exposure by 27 percent, on average, their values still indicate an urgent need to develop radiation protection and optimization activities for X ray examinations, especially in pediatrics radiology. The increasing attention given in last years to radiation protection for conventional examinations, with development of national patient dosimetry protocols and reference doses, new radiation protection legislation and norms have played a significant part in this substantial reduction in effective doses. (N.C.)

  10. Fundamental evaluation of bone densitometry using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu (Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamaho (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-02-01

    A newly developed instrument based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Hologic QDR-1000, was evaluated fundamentally and clinically. Image quality was quite satisfactory though radiation exposure was minimal, 780.2 nC/kg (3.024 mR) for lumbar measurement. Reproducibility of the repeated measurement of a phantom was fairly good; 0.343 CV% in a same day and 0.520 CV% in a long period. Accuracy determined by measurement of potassium phosphate solution was also satisfactory. Bone mineral densities measured by this instrument were fairly correlated with those measured by single energy quantitative CT; coefficient was 0.740 for 17 patients. Mix-DP plates of more than 10 cm thick overestimated the bone mineral densities of a phantom. Bone mineral densities of Japanese normal volunteers were in the normal range (mean {plus minus} 2SD) of the Americans though mostly lower than the mean. In patients with spondylosis deformans or prominent aortic calcification, bone mineral densities might be overestimated. Lateral view was obtainable though its reproducibility was not good. Positioning especially for measuring femoral neck was quite critical for reproducible measurement. In conclusion, this new instrument is quite accurate and satisfactory for clinical application to measuring bone mineral densities. (author).

  11. Study of strontium ranelate bone issues by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, I.; Taam, P.; da Costa, V.; Fleiuss, M. F.; Rosenthal, D.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive image technique that allows evaluation of inner structure of several kinds of materials, such as trabecular bone. The microarchitecture of osteoporosis bone becomes more fragile and susceptible to fractures. Strontium ranelate (Protos ®) is a current oral medication used in the treatment of osteoporosis diseases, which promises to act stimulating the proliferation of osteoblasts, as well as inhibiting the proliferation of osteoclasts. In the present work, two ways to administer strontium ranelate are studied in experiments with rats and mice: via oral and via intra-peritoneal injections. Intra-peritoneal injections are easier and not susceptible to gastrointestinal tract issues such as diarrhoea and absorption variations. However, the only method to administrate the strontium ranelate described in literature is still the gavage. In order to establish the best technique for future experiments, structural bone changes in rats were evaluated. The results show that bone porosity parameter at the femoral head decreased after 23 days of treatment when both oral and intraperitoneal routes of strontium ranelate administration were applied, suggesting an improved bone microarchitecture.

  12. Study of strontium ranelate bone issues by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy, IPRJ-UERJ, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Taam, P. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, V. da [Endocrine Physiologic Laboratory, CCS-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Fleiuss, M.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Rosenthal, D. [Endocrine Physiologic Laboratory, CCS-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive image technique that allows evaluation of inner structure of several kinds of materials, such as trabecular bone. The microarchitecture of osteoporosis bone becomes more fragile and susceptible to fractures. Strontium ranelate (Protos) is a current oral medication used in the treatment of osteoporosis diseases, which promises to act stimulating the proliferation of osteoblasts, as well as inhibiting the proliferation of osteoclasts. In the present work, two ways to administer strontium ranelate are studied in experiments with rats and mice: via oral and via intra-peritoneal injections. Intra-peritoneal injections are easier and not susceptible to gastrointestinal tract issues such as diarrhoea and absorption variations. However, the only method to administrate the strontium ranelate described in literature is still the gavage. In order to establish the best technique for future experiments, structural bone changes in rats were evaluated. The results show that bone porosity parameter at the femoral head decreased after 23 days of treatment when both oral and intraperitoneal routes of strontium ranelate administration were applied, suggesting an improved bone microarchitecture.

  13. Region of interest extraction for lossless compression of bone X-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeminia, S; Karimi, N; Soroushmehr, S M R; Samavi, S; Derksen, H; Najarian, K

    2015-01-01

    For few decades digital X-ray imaging has been one of the most important tools for medical diagnosis. With the advent of distance medicine and the use of big data in this respect, the need for efficient storage and online transmission of these images is becoming an essential feature. Limited storage space and limited transmission bandwidth are the main challenges. Efficient image compression methods are lossy while the information of medical images should be preserved with no change. Hence, lossless compression methods are necessary for this purpose. In this paper, a novel method has been proposed to eliminate the non-ROI data from bone X-ray images. Background pixels do not contain any valuable medical information. The proposed method is based on the histogram dispersion method. ROI is separated from the background and it is compressed with a lossless compression method to preserve medical information of the image. Compression ratios of the implemented results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of effective reduction of the statistical and spatial redundancies.

  14. Examining the angular resolution of the ASTRO-H's soft x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Mori, Hideyuki; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari

    2016-10-01

    The international x-ray observatory ASTRO-H was renamed "Hitomi" after launch. It covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to 600 keV. It is equipped with two soft x-ray telescopes (SXTs: SXT-I and SXT-S) for imaging the soft x-ray sky up to ˜12 keV, which focus an image onto the respective focal-plane detectors: CCD camera (SXI) and a calorimeter (SXS). The SXTs are fabricated in a quadrant unit. The angular resolution in half-power diameter (HPD) of each quadrant of the SXTs ranges between 1.1 and 1.4 arc min at 4.51 keV. It was also found that one quadrant has an energy dependence on the HPD. We examine the angular resolution with "spot scan" measurements. In order to understand the cause of imaging capability deterioration and to reflect it to the future telescope development, we carried out spot scan measurements, in which we illuminate all over the aperture of each quadrant with a square beam 8 mm on a side. Based on the scan results, we made "maps" of image blurring and a focus position. The former and the latter reflect figure error and positioning error, respectively, of the foils that are within the incident 8 mm×8 mm beam. As a result, we estimated those errors in a quadrant to be ˜0.9 to 1.0 and ˜0.6 to 0.9 arc min, respectively. We found that the larger the positioning error in a quadrant is, the larger its HPD is. The HPD map, which manifests the local image blurring, is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focus position is different from location to location in each telescope. It is also found that the difference in local performance causes energy dependence of the HPD.

  15. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Rio de Janeiro State Univ., Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy; Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Carvalho, A.C.B.; Henriques, H.N.; Guzman-Silva, M.A. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Pathology; Sales, E.; Lopes, R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Granjeiro, J.M. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2011-07-01

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  16. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  17. Excess Cancer Risk Assessment from Some Common X-Ray Examinations in Sabzevar County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays ionizing radiation has a considerable contribution in medical diagnostic and treatment. Using ionizing radiation is increasing rapidly, so biological effects of ionizing radiation should be considered more. X-rays in the range of diagnostic radiology have hazardous effects and risks that are defined as random effects. These effects obey the LNT hypothesis that occur at low doses and include many types of cancer and genetic mutations. So it is very important to assess the risk of exposure in medical examinations. Cancer is one of these hazardous risks caused by low dose ionizing radiation that may occur during life after exposure. According to BEAR 7, low dose radiation is defined as radiation that produces doses near zero up to 100 mSv. Materials and Methods: This work was carried out in eight radiology centers in the Sabzevar county of Iran for 485 patients in eight typical x-ray examinations chosen for the study: chest PA, chest AP, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT, pelvis AP, abdomen AP, skull AP and Lat. In order to estimate the excess cancer risk, we need to obtain collective effective dose caused by radiation in the study population. Usually effective dose offers precise assessment of radiography examination injuries in adult patients. In this study, we used the PCXMC Monte Carlo based software to obtain effective dose and organ dose. This software calculates organ and effective dose following input of patient and radiographic conditions. Results: Average patient weight and height, entrance surface dose, parameters used for each type of examination, and DAP values were entered. Effective dose, collective effective dose, number of radiographs per year and the excess cancer risk arising from these radiographic examinations were then calculated.  Discussion and Conclusion: Excess risk of fatal cancer due to x-ray examinations in the study population was calculated by collective effective dose. This risk in the

  18. Non-destructive X-ray examination of weft knitted wire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, M.; Ellouz, M.; Aumann, S.; Martens, Y.; Bartelt, P.; Klöcker, M.; Kordisch, T.; Ehrmann, A.; Weber, M. O.

    2016-07-01

    Conductive yarns or wires are often integrated in smart textiles to enable data or energy transmission. In woven fabrics, these conductive parts are fixed at defined positions and thus protected from external loads. Knitted fabrics, however, have relatively loose structures, resulting in higher impacts of possible mechanical forces on the individual yarns. Hence, metallic wires with smaller diameters in particular are prone to break when integrated in knitted fabrics. In a recent project, wires of various materials including copper, silver and nickel with diameters varying between 0.05 mm and 0.23 mm were knitted in combination with textile yarns. Hand flat knitting machines of appropriate gauges were used to produce different structures. On these samples, non-destructive examinations, using an industrial X-ray system Seifert x|cube (225 kV) equipped with a minifocus X-ray tube, were carried out, directly after knitting as well as after different mechanical treatments (tensile, burst, and washing tests). In this way, structural changes of the stitch geometry could be visualized before failure. In this paper, the loop geometries in the knitted fabrics are depicted depending on knitted structures, wire properties and the applied mechanical load. Consequently, it is shown which metallic wires and yarns are most suitable to be integrated into knitted smart textiles.

  19. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bones in the back of the neck (cervical vertebrae). During the examination, an X-ray machine sends ... or hand. It can detect fractures in the cervical vertebrae or dislocation of the joints between the vertebrae. ...

  20. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi [Ratoc System Engineering Co., Ltd, Toho Edogawabashi Bldg. 4F, 1-24-8 Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0014 (Japan); Dept. of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Lab. of Cell and Tissue Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-07-31

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  1. Pelvis x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - pelvis ... Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... hip joint Tumors of the bones of the pelvis Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the area where the sacrum ...

  2. The dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the technical condition of radiological equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bekas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implementation of X-ray dental examination is associated with the patient's exposure to ionizing radiation. The size of the exposure depends on the type of medical procedure, the technical condition of the X-ray unit and selected exposure conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examination and the assessment of the technical condition of medical equipment. Materials and Methods: The study included a total number of 79 dental X-ray units located in the region of Mazovia. The test methods for the assessment of the technical condition of dental X-ray units and measurement of radiation dose received by patients were based on the procedures elaborated in the Department of Radiation Hygiene and Radiobiology in the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland accredited for the certification of compliance with PN-EN 17025. Results: The research found that 69.6% fully meets the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 30.4% did not meet some of them. A tenfold difference in the size of the dose received by patients during dental X-ray examinations was discovered. For example, during a radiography of the canine teeth of a child, the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD ranged from 72.8 to 2430 μGy with the average value of 689.1 μGy. Cases where the dose reference level defined in Polish legislation of 5 mGy was exceeded were also found. Conclusions: It is essential to constantly monitor the situation regarding the technical condition of X-ray units which affects the size of the population's exposure to ionizing radiation as well as raising dentists' awareness about the effects of X-rays on the human body. Med Pr 2013;64(6:755–759

  3. Estimation of adult patient doses for selected X-ray diagnostic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Ofori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The caldose_x 5.0 software has been used to assess the entrance skin doses (ESD and effective doses (ED of adult patients undergoing x-ray examinations of the thorax/chest (PA/RLAT, pelvis (AP, cervical spine (AP/LAT, thoracic spine (AP and lumber spine (AP in three public hospitals each equipped with constant potential generators (no ripple, an x-ray emission angle of 17° and a total filtration of 2.5 mm Al. In all, 320 patients were surveyed with an average of over 100 patients per a hospital. The patients' data and exposure parameters captured into the software included age, sex, examination type, projection posture, tube potential and current-time product. The mean ESD and ED of seven different examinations were calculated using the software and compared with published works and internationally established diagnostic reference levels. The mean ESD calculated were 0.27 mGy, 0.43 mGy, 1.31 mGy, 1.05 mGy, 0.45 mGy, 2.10 mGy, 3.25 mGy and the mean effective doses were 0.02 mSv, 0.01 mSv, 0.09 mSv, 0.05 mSv, 0.03 mSv, 0.13 mSv, 0.41 mSv for thorax (PA, thorax/chest (RLAT, Pelvis (AP, cervical spine (AP, cervical spine (LAT, thoracic spine (AP and lumber spine (AP respectively.

  4. Pb distribution in bones from the Franklin expedition: synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and laser ablation/mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ronald Richard; Naftel, Steven; Macfie, Sheila; Jones, Keith; Nelson, Andrew [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence has been used to map the metal distribution in selected bone fragments representative of remains associated with the Franklin expedition. In addition, laser ablation mass spectroscopy using a 25 {mu}m diameter circular spot was employed to compare the Pb isotope distributions in small regions within the bone fragments. The X-ray Fluorescence mapping shows Pb to be widely distributed in the bone while the Pb isotope ratios obtained by laser ablation within small areas representative of bone with different Pb exchange rates do not show statistically significant differences. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that faulty solder seals in tinned meat were the principle source of Pb in the remains of the expedition personnel. (orig.)

  5. Superior spatial resolution in confocal X-ray techniques using collimating channel array optics: elemental mapping and speciation in archaeological human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, S.; Agyeman-Budu, D. N.; Woll, A. R.; Swanston, T.; Varney, T. L.; Cooper, D. M. L.; Hallin, E.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.; Coulthard, I.

    2017-01-01

    Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging (CXFI) and confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy (CXAS) respectively enable the study of three dimensionally resolved localization and speciation of elements. Applied to a thick sample, essentially any volume element of interest within the X-ray fluorescence escape depth can be examined without the need for physical thin sectioning. To date, X-ray confocal detection generally has employed a polycapillary optic in front of the detector to collect fluorescence from the probe volume formed at the intersection of its focus with the incident microfocus beam. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel Collimating Channel Array (CCA) optic in providing an improved and essentially energy independent depth resolution approaching 2 μm. By presenting a comparison of elemental maps of archaeological bone collected without confocal detection, and with polycapillary- and CCA-based confocal detection, this study highlights the strengths and limitations of each mode. Unlike the polycapillary, the CCA shows similar spatial resolution in maps for both low (Ca) and high (Pb and Sr) energy X-ray fluorescence, thus illustrating the energy independent nature of the CCA optic resolution. While superior spatial resolution is demonstrated for all of these elements, the most significant improvement is observed for Ca, demonstrating the advantage of employing the CCA optic in examining light elements. In addition to CXFI, this configuration also enables the collection of Pb L3 CXAS data from micro-volumes with dimensions comparable to bone microstructures of interest. Our CXAS result, which represents the first CCA-based biological CXAS, demonstrates the ability of CCA optics to collect site specific spectroscopic information. The demonstrated combination of site-specific elemental localization and speciation data will be useful in diverse fields.

  6. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaranta, Anna; Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were <1% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv for a member of the public. Albeit the relative shielding effect, the exposure-induced increase in the risk of breast cancer death for the pregnant patient (based on the breast dose only) and the exposure-induced increase in the risk of childhood cancer death for the unborn child are minimal, and therefore, need for foetal and breast lead shielding was considered irrelevant. Most important is that pregnancy is never a reason to avoid or to postpone a clinically justified dental radiographic examination.

  7. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Methods: Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. Results: The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. Conclusions: The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were shielding effect, the exposure-induced increase in the risk of breast cancer death for the pregnant patient (based on the breast dose only) and the exposure-induced increase in the risk of childhood cancer death for the unborn child are minimal, and therefore, need for foetal and breast lead shielding was considered irrelevant. Most important is that pregnancy is never a reason to avoid or to postpone a clinically justified dental radiographic examination. PMID:26313308

  8. Quality and operations of portable X-ray examination procedures in the emergency room: queuing theory at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujudeh, Hani; Vuong, Bill; Baker, Stephen R

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the operation of the portable X-ray machine in relation to examinations ordered by the Emergency Department at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, as well as to identify any bottlenecks hindering the performance of the aforementioned system. To do so, the activity of the portable X-ray was monitored in the period from 8 June 2004 to 24 June 2004, as well as from 6 July 2004 to 12 July 2004, yielding 11 days of data and 116 individual X-ray examinations. During observation times was noted for various checkpoints in the procedure. Using the data gathered, the average input, output, processing times, and variance were calculated. In turn, these values were used to calculate the response times for the Ordering Phase (5.502 min), traveling (2.483 min), Examination Phase (4.453 min), returning (3.855 min), Order Processing Phase (2.962 min), and the Development Phase (3.437 min). These phases were combined for a total of 22.721 min from the time the examination was placed to the time the X-ray films were uploaded to the PACS computer network. Based on these calculations, the Ordering Phase was determined to be the single largest bottleneck in the portable X-ray system. The Examination Phase also represented the second largest bottleneck for a combined total of 44% of the total response time.

  9. Long Bone X-ray Image Stitching Using C-arm Motion Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Benhimane, Selim; Euler, Ekkehard; Graumann, Rainer; Navab, Nassir

    In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate panoramic X-ray images intra-operatively by using the previously introduced camera augmented mobile C-arm by Navab et al. [1]. This advanced mobile C-arm system acquires registered X-ray and optical images by construction, which facilitates the generation of panoramic X-ray images based on the motion estimation of the X-ray source. Visual marker tracking is employed to estimate the camera motion and this estimated motion is also applied to the X-ray source. Our proposed method is suitable and practical for intra-operative usage generating panoramic X-ray images without the requirement of a fronto-parallel setup and overlapping X-ray images. The results show that the panoramic X-ray images generated by our method are accurate enough (errors less than 1%) for metric measurements and promise suitability for intra-operative clinical applications in trauma surgery.

  10. X-ray physics- and bone composition-based estimation of thickness characteristics from clinical mandibular radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Stefan; Hellmich, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Bonitz, Lars; Kober, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    In dentistry, clinical radiographs (also called X-ray images) reflect the intensity loss of an X-ray when being transmitted through the mandibular objects, and this loss is quantified in terms of grey values. While such images are standardly used for pathology detection by the experienced dentist, we here present a new method for getting more quantitative information out of such 2D radiographs, "extending" them into the third dimension. This "extension" requires consistent combination of X-ray physics (namely, X-ray intensity loss quantification along paths orthogonal to the panoramic clinical image and X-ray attenuation averaging for composite materials) with anatomically known upper and lower limits of vascular porosities in cortical and trabecular bone compartments. Correspondingly computed ranges of overall organ thicknesses are extremely narrow, suggesting adequate estimation of thickness characteristics from 2D radiographic panoramas used clinically, while predicted cortical and trabecular thickness ranges vary by ±8.47% and ±16.13%, respectively. The proposed method also identifies variations between thicknesses at similar anatomical locations left and right of the face's symmetry axis, and molar regions turn out to be thicker than those close to incisors. This paves the way to more detailed diagnostic activities, e.g. in combination with Finite Element simulations.

  11. Biodegradable X-ray markers of controlled radio-opacity. Temporary position measurements in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Hein P; Faber, Chris; Plokker, Herbert M; Wuisman, Paul I J M

    2005-02-01

    In order to analyze X-ray markers for potential use in biodegradable implants or radiostereogrammatic analysis (RSA), we combined iopromide contrast fluid with biodegradable calcium phosphate cement. The radio-opacity of 10 x 10 mm markers containing different iodine concentrations (0, 120, 240, 360 and 720 mg per gram cement) was compared to an aluminium wedge of increasing (1-10 mm) thickness. The addition of iopromide increased the radio-opacity in a dose-dependent manner, which was comparable to 9-mm aluminium at concentrations of 240-720 mg/g. Radiographs of markers placed in explanted rabbit and in human femora were made to investigate the clinical accuracy for position determination. Markers of 1 x 1 mm (120 mg/g) were clearly discernable in all femora, and could be used to adequately measure distances of 5-45 mm (accuracy 0.10-2.19 mm). These markers might be embedded in biodegradable implants or used as temporary markers in the bone to analyze postoperative position on radiographs.

  12. ESTIMATION OF AN X-RAY MACHINE’S WORKLOAD DURING ROUTINE RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Golikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray machine workload (W is defined as the integral of the anode current of the tube for a certain period of time. Information about the workload of an X-ray machine is needed in calculations ofthe structural shielding in the X-ray rooms and in comparing the results of radiation monitoring, conducted in the X-ray rooms, with the permissible levels of doses to different categories of exposed persons. In the Russian Federation, the calculations of the structural shielding in the X-ray rooms are currently based on the conservative approach developed in the 1970s. This approach assumes that a very high value of workload, Wsum = 1000 mA×min×week-1, is used in the calculatons. Additionally to this conservative assumption, the maximum value of 100kV for the anode voltage is used. The aim of this study was to collect and analyze the information concerning real workload values of the X-ray machines placed in the routine rooms. The total values of the weekly workload and its distribution as a function of the tube voltage were registered. The average and maximum values of workload among surveyed X-ray units were about 2–4 times lower than the value of 1000 mA×min×week-1 specified in the National sanitary norms SanPin2.6.1.1192-03. Demo calculations show that if one uses the actual distribution of medical procedures depending on the tube voltage instead of the single value of 100kV specified in the SanPiN2.6.1.1192-03, then the required thickness of the shielding construction in the X-ray rooms can be reduced with a factor of two.

  13. Doses to patients from medical X-ray examinations in the UK. 2000 review

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, D; Wall, B F

    2002-01-01

    In 1992 NRPB established a National Collation Centre for measurements of doses to patients made by x-ray departments throughout the UK. This report is the second in a series of five-yearly reviews of the national patient dose database and analyses the information collected during the period January 1996 to December 2000. It includes the results of 28,000 entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements and 13,000 dose-area product (DAP) measurements for single radiographs, and 140,000 DAP measurements and 128,000 records of the fluoroscopy time for complete examinations, collected from 371 hospitals throughout the UK. Information on the patient dose distributions and exposure conditions for over 30 types of examination and radiograph is presented. National reference doses based on the rounded third quartile values of these dose distributions are recommended and are seen to be about 20% lower than corresponding values in the previous (1995) review. They have approximately halved since the original UK national referenc...

  14. Sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials examined by x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Nikhila N.; Kurtis, Kimberly E.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Jupe, Andrew C.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2004-10-01

    Sulfate ions present in soil, groundwater, seawater, decaying organic matter, acid rain, and industrial effluent adversely affect the long-term durability of portland cement concrete, but lack of complete understanding of the nature and consequences of sulfate attack hamper our ability to accurately predict performance of concrete in sulfate-rich environments. One impediment to improved understanding of sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials has been the lack of appropriate non-destructive characterization techniques. Laboratory x-ray microtomography affords an opportunity to study in situ the evolution of physical manifestations of damage due to sulfate exposure. The influence of materials selection and mixture parameters - including water-to-cement ratio, cement type, and presence or absence of aggregate, as well as the influence of sulfate exposure conditions, including sulfate and cation type (i.e., Na2SO4 and MgSO4) and concentration - have been examined by microtomography to determine their influence on the rate and character of the sulfate-induced deterioration.

  15. Doses to patients from medical X-ray examinations in the UK. 2000 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D.; Hillier, M.C.; Wall, B.F

    2002-07-01

    In 1992 NRPB established a National Collation Centre for measurements of doses to patients made by x-ray departments throughout the UK. This report is the second in a series of five-yearly reviews of the national patient dose database and analyses the information collected during the period January 1996 to December 2000. It includes the results of 28,000 entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements and 13,000 dose-area product (DAP) measurements for single radiographs, and 140,000 DAP measurements and 128,000 records of the fluoroscopy time for complete examinations, collected from 371 hospitals throughout the UK. Information on the patient dose distributions and exposure conditions for over 30 types of examination and radiograph is presented. National reference doses based on the rounded third quartile values of these dose distributions are recommended and are seen to be about 20% lower than corresponding values in the previous (1995) review. They have approximately halved since the original UK national reference doses were derived from a survey in the mid-1980s. In this review reference doses have been derived for a larger number of examinations on adults than previously and, for the first time, for three examinations on children, with specific values for five standard-sized patients corresponding to new born babies, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year olds. NRPB gratefully acknowledges the co-operation of hospital physicists and radiology department staff in supplying patient dose data. The continued provision of data to the National Patient Dose Database will be essential in order to monitor the progress of patient dose reduction measures in the UK and to extend and revise national reference doses in the future. (author)

  16. Bone mineral density in renal osteodystrophy: Comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography. Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit der quantitativen Computertomographie und der Dual-Energy-X-Ray-Absorptiometrie zur Knochendichte bei renaler Osteopathie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, M.; Maeurer, J.; Grabbe, E. (Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)); Scheler, F. (Abt. Nephrologie und Rheumatologie, Klinikum, Goettingen Univ. (Germany))

    1992-08-01

    Measurements of bone density were carried out in 25 patients on dialysis for terminal renal insufficiency, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike in subjects with normal kidneys, there was no significant correlation between these methods in this series. Ten patients showed an increase in bone density of the vertebral spongiosa on QCT measurements, which was interpreted as due to osteosclerotic bone changes in renal osteopathy. QCT showed advantages over DXA in demonstrating these changes. (orig.).

  17. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaru, E-mail: murata@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Akazawa, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido Research Organization, Nishi-11, Kita-19, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A titanium fixture is implanted into palatal bone of an 18-year-old patient as the unmoved anchorage for the orthodontic treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fixture is integrated with compact bone with cortical bone-like osteon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbeam X-ray diffraction denotes the crystallinity and orientation of HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray images of c-face in HAp reveal functionally graded distribution of bone quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth of c-face is caused by propagation of the continuous lateral stress. - Abstract: A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem{sup Registered-Sign }, Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the

  18. Dosimetric evaluation of X-ray examinations of paranasal sinuses in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantalupo, Beatriz de Lucena Villa-Chan; Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida; Barros, Vinicius Saito Monteiro de; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Xavier, Aline Carvalho da Silva [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Silva, Clemanzy Mariano Leandro da, E-mail: beatrizvillachan@gmail.com [Faculdade Integrada de Pernambuco (FACUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: to estimate the entrance surface air kerma (K{sub a,e}) and air kerma in the region of radiosensitive organs in radiographs of pediatric paranasal sinuses. Materials and methods: patient data and irradiation parameters were collected in examinations of the paranasal sinuses in children from 0 to 15 years of age at two children's hospitals in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. We estimated the K{sub a,e} using the X-ray tube outputs and selected parameters. To estimate the air kerma values in the regions of the eyes and thyroid, we used thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: the K{sub a,e} values ranged from 0.065 to 1.446 mGy in cavum radiographs, from 0.104 to 7.298 mGy in Caldwell views, and from 0.113 to 7.824 mGy in Waters views. Air kerma values in the region of the eyes ranged from 0.001 to 0.968 mGy in cavum radiographs and from 0.011 to 0.422 mGy in Caldwell and Waters views . In the thyroid region, air kerma values ranged from 0.005 to 0.932 mGy in cavum radiographs and from 0.002 to 0.972 mGy in Caldwell and Waters views. Conclusion: the radiation levels used at the institutions under study were higher than those recommended in international protocols. We recommend that interventions be initiated in order to reduce patient exposure to radiation and therefore the risks associated with radiological examination of the paranasal sinuses. (author)

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of X-ray examinations of paranasal sinuses in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Lucena Villa-Chan Cantalupo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the entrance surface air kerma (Ka,e and air kerma in the region of radiosensitive organs in radiographs of pediatric paranasal sinuses. Materials and Methods: Patient data and irradiation parameters were collected in examinations of the paranasal sinuses in children from 0 to 15 years of age at two children's hospitals in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. We estimated the Ka,e using the X-ray tube outputs and selected parameters. To estimate the air kerma values in the regions of the eyes and thyroid, we used thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: The Ka,e values ranged from 0.065 to 1.446 mGy in cavum radiographs, from 0.104 to 7.298 mGy in Caldwell views, and from 0.113 to 7.824 mGy in Waters views. Air kerma values in the region of the eyes ranged from 0.001 to 0.968 mGy in cavum radiographs and from 0.011 to 0.422 mGy in Caldwell and Waters views . In the thyroid region, air kerma values ranged from 0.005 to 0.932 mGy in cavum radiographs and from 0.002 to 0.972 mGy in Caldwell and Waters views. Conclusion: The radiation levels used at the institutions under study were higher than those recommended in international protocols. We recommend that interventions be initiated in order to reduce patient exposure to radiation and therefore the risks associated with radiological examination of the paranasal sinuses.

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of X-ray examinations of paranasal sinuses in pediatric patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Beatriz de Lucena Villa-Chan; Xavier, Aline Carvalho da Silva; da Silva, Clemanzy Mariano Leandro; Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida; de Barros, Vinícius Saito Monteiro; Khoury, Helen Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the entrance surface air kerma (Ka,e) and air kerma in the region of radiosensitive organs in radiographs of pediatric paranasal sinuses. Materials and Methods Patient data and irradiation parameters were collected in examinations of the paranasal sinuses in children from 0 to 15 years of age at two children's hospitals in the city of Recife, PE, Brazil. We estimated the Ka,e using the X-ray tube outputs and selected parameters. To estimate the air kerma values in the regions of the eyes and thyroid, we used thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results The Ka,e values ranged from 0.065 to 1.446 mGy in cavum radiographs, from 0.104 to 7.298 mGy in Caldwell views, and from 0.113 to 7.824 mGy in Waters views. Air kerma values in the region of the eyes ranged from 0.001 to 0.968 mGy in cavum radiographs and from 0.011 to 0.422 mGy in Caldwell and Waters views . In the thyroid region, air kerma values ranged from 0.005 to 0.932 mGy in cavum radiographs and from 0.002 to 0.972 mGy in Caldwell and Waters views. Conclusion The radiation levels used at the institutions under study were higher than those recommended in international protocols. We recommend that interventions be initiated in order to reduce patient exposure to radiation and therefore the risks associated with radiological examination of the paranasal sinuses. PMID:27141129

  1. submitter The X-ray machine for the examination of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Curceanu, Catalina; Bassi, Angelo; Bazzi, Massimiliano; Bertolucci, Sergio; Berucci, Carolina; Bragadireanu, Alexandru Mario; Cargnelli, Michael; Clozza, Alberto; De Paolis, Luca; Di Matteo, Sergio; Donadi, Sandro; D'uffizi, Alessandro; Egger, Jean-Pierre; Guaraldo, Carlo; Iliescu, Mihail; Laubenstein, Matthias; Marton, Johann; Milotti, Edoardo; Pichler, Andreas; Pietreanu, Dorel; Piscicchia, Kristian; Ponta, Titus; Scordo, Alessandro; Shi, Hexi; Sirghi, Diana; Sirghi, Florin; Sperandio, Laura; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Zmeskal, Johann

    2016-01-01

    By performing X-rays measurements in the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, LNGS-INFN, we test a basic principle of quantum mechanics: the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP). In the future, we aim to use a similar experimental technique to search for X-rays as a signature of the spontaneous collapse of the wave function predicted by continuous spontaneous localization theories. We present the achieved results of the VIP experiment and the future plans to gain two orders of magnitude in testing PEP with the recently VIP2 setup installed at Gran Sasso.

  2. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  3. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelaranta, Anna; Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    .... In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary...

  4. Electron Microscopy and Analytical X-ray Characterization of Compositional and Nanoscale Structural Changes in Fossil Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Elizabeth Marie

    The nanoscale structure of compact bone contains several features that are direct indicators of bulk tissue mechanical properties. Fossil bone tissues represent unique opportunities to understand the compact bone structure/property relationships from a deep time perspective, offering a possible array of new insights into bone diseases, biomimicry of composite materials, and basic knowledge of bioapatite composition and nanoscale bone structure. To date, most work with fossil bone has employed microscale techniques and has counter-indicated the survival of bioapatite and other nanoscale structural features. The obvious disconnect between the use of microscale techniques and the discernment of nanoscale structure has prompted this work. The goal of this study was to characterize the nanoscale constituents of fossil compact bone by applying a suite of diffraction, microscopy, and spectrometry techniques, representing the highest levels of spatial and energy resolution available today, and capable of complementary structural and compositional characterization from the micro- to the nanoscale. Fossil dinosaur and crocodile long bone specimens, as well as modern ratite and crocodile femurs, were acquired from the UC Museum of Paleontology. Preserved physiological features of significance were documented with scanning electron microscopy back-scattered imaging. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) revealed fossil bone compositions enriched in fluorine with a complementary loss of oxygen. X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that all specimens were composed of apatite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed preserved nanocrystallinity in the fossil bones and electron diffraction studies further identified these nanocrystallites as apatite. Tomographic analyses of nanoscale elements imaged by TEM and small angle X-ray scattering were performed, with the results of each analysis further indicating that nanoscale structure is

  5. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J M; Wood, J C; Lopes, N C; Poder, K; Abel, R L; Alatabi, S; Bryant, J S J; Jin, A; Kneip, S; Mecseki, K; Symes, D R; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z

    2015-08-18

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications.

  6. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. M.; Wood, J. C.; Lopes, N. C.; Poder, K.; Abel, R. L.; Alatabi, S.; Bryant, J. S. J.; Jin, A.; Kneip, S.; Mecseki, K.; Symes, D. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications. PMID:26283308

  7. ESTIMATION OF AGE BY X-RAY EXAMINATION OF DISTAL END OF HUMERUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of age of a person, whether living or dead, is vexing problem for medical jurist.1 The duty of Forensic medicine knowledge expert is not only to examine dead bodies but also to give his opinion in living individual for solving various medico-legal problems like determination of age, identification, sexual assault, sterility, impotency, pregnancy, criminal abortion, disputed paternity, alcoholic intoxication etc. Skeletal age, dental age, morphological age, secondary sex character age are other method in use for asserting age of individual. In medico legal practice a combined view is taken and opinion is expressed after considering all methods. However radiological examination is a must and the court of law did not believe any conclusion without it.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES: An extensive work has been carried out on the theme in different states of India and abroad as well. However, very little work has been reported with reference to Agra (U.P. population so the present study was conducted on Agra region population to study union of lower end of humerus for estimation of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out in 100 males and 100 females between the age group of 10-20 years of normal healthy individuals whose exact date of birth was known were included in the study and the cases were collected from college and institutions by obtaining the permission from their head of the institution. In all cases right side is X-rayed (AP and Lateral view. RESULTS: It is clear from the observations that fusion of different ossification centers occurs 2-3 year earlier in female subjects as compared to male subject studied. It was found from the study that in females at the of 16 years all the epiphysis of lower end of humerus are fused. Medial epicondyle is the last epiphysis to fuse at lower end of humerus in both male and female. In male all epiphysis of lower end of humerus are fused except medial epicondyle at age of 16 years. The

  8. X-ray micro-diffraction analysis of reconstructed bone at Zr prosthetic surface with sub-micrometre spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedola, A [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-CNR, V Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); Stanic, V [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita di Ancona, INFM-Unita di Ancona, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Burghammer, M [ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Lagomarsino, S [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie-CNR, V Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy); Rustichelli, F [Institute of Physical Sciences, University of Ancona, Via Ranieri 65, I60131 Ancona and INFM-Unita di Ancona (Italy); Giardino, R [Chair of Surgical Pathophysiology, University of Bologna Medical School, Bologna (Italy); Aldini, N Nicoli [Experimental Surgery Department, Research Institute Codivilla Putti-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136, Bologna (Italy); Fini, M [Experimental Surgery Department, Research Institute Codivilla Putti-Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136, Bologna (Italy); Komlev, V [Institute of Physical Sciences, University of Ancona, Via Ranieri 65, I60131 Ancona and INFM-Unita di Ancona (Italy); Fonzo, S Di [Sincrotrone Trieste, SS14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza - Trieste (Italy)

    2003-02-07

    The purpose of the present investigation is to demonstrate the power of the x-ray micro-diffraction technique in biological studies. In particular the reported experiment concerns the study of the interface between a Zr prosthetic device implanted in a rat femur and the newly-formed bone, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 {mu}m. The obtained results give interesting information on the Zr deformation and on the crystallographic phase, the grain size and the orientation of the new bone. Moreover the study reveals a marked difference in the structure of the reconstructed bone with respect to the native bone, which cannot be appreciated with other techniques. (note)

  9. Comparison of DXA Scans and Conventional X-rays for Spine Morphometry and Bone Age Determination in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Knoop, Kai; Semler, Oliver; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hellmich, Martin; Schoenau, Eckhard; Koerber, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Conventional lateral spine and hand radiographs are the standard tools to evaluate vertebral morphometry and bone age in children. Beside bone mineral density analyses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements with lower radiation exposure provide high-resolution scans which are not approved for diagnostic purposes. Data about the comparability of conventional radiographs and DXA in children are missing yet. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate whether conventional hand and spine radiographs can be replaced by DXA scans to diminish radiation exposure. Thirty-eight children with osteogenesis imperfecta or secondary osteoporosis or short stature (male, n=20; age, 5.0-17.0 yr) were included and assessed once by additional DXA (GE iDXA) of the spine or the left hand. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to express agreement between X-ray and iDXA assessment. Evaluation of the spine morphometry showed reasonable agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC for fish-shape, 0.75; for wedge-shape, 0.65; and for compression fractures, 0.70). Bone age determination showed excellent agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC, 0.97). IDXA-scans of the spine in a pediatric population should be used not only to assess bone mineral density but also to evaluate anatomic structures and vertebral morphometry. Therefore, iDXA can replace some radiographs in children with skeletal diseases.

  10. Examining the hard X-ray emission of the redback PSR J2129-0429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hind Al; Roberts, Mallory; McLaughlin, Maura; Hessels, Jason; Breton, Rene; 17077031498

    2016-06-01

    We present new NuStar data of the redback millisecond pulsar (MSP) system PSR J2129-0429. Redback systems are important when it comes to understanding the evolution of MSPs, in terms of pulsar recycling, as they have been observed to transition between a state of accretion, where emission is in the optical and X-ray regimes, and a state of eclipsed radio pulsation. This system is particularly interesting due to some peculiarities: it has a more massive companion as well as a stronger magnetic field than other redbacks, indicating that the system is in a fairly early stage of recycling. It’s X-ray lightcurve (as obtained from XMM-Newton data) has a very hard power-law component and exhibits an efficiency of a few percent in X-ray. With the NuStar data, the spectrum can be seen to extend to ~30 keV. Additionally, it shows strong orbital variation, about 5 times greater than is typical for other systems, and is also very clearly double peaked. Hints of similar peaks have been observed in the lightcurves of other redback systems; hence, this system can help in understanding the intrabinary shock of eclipsing MSPs.

  11. Investigation of errors by radiological technologists and evaluation of preventive measures: general and mobile X-ray examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shinoda, Naoki; Miyamoto, Akira; Hirata, Masaharu; Ishidate, Miyako; Kuraishi, Masahiko; Doi, Kunio

    2010-07-01

    The first objective in this study was to identify the errors of incidents and accidents that occurred in general and mobile X-ray examinations. Based on the analysis of results, the second purpose in this study was to propose useful measures to prevent such errors. As much as 553 radiological technologists in the Gunma Prefecture were surveyed on their experience with errors related to general and mobile X-ray examinations. The questionnaire asked for descriptions of errors experienced during examinations and the responses given (multiple answers possible), and evaluations of the degree of busyness on a five-point scale. A total of 115 questionnaires were returned. Analysis revealed that there was no significant relationship between errors and degree of busyness for either general or mobile examinations. The most frequent error both in general and in mobile examinations was to X-ray a patient mistakenly, the cause of which was cited as failure to confirm the patient's name. After the use of solution priority number to evaluate proposed preventive measures, such as finger-pointing and call, independent double-checks, and verbal self-confirmation would be the simplest and most easily implemented countermeasure.

  12. Lumbar and radial bone mineral density in children and adolescents with X-linked hypophosphatemia: evaluation with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, R.M.; Poznanski, A.K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Langman, C.B. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Objective. To evaluate the bone mineral status of children being treated for X-linked hypophosphatemia, including potential differences between cortical bone in the radial diaphysis and combined cortical and trabecular bone in the lumbar spine.Design and patients. Forty-four bone mineral evaluations were performed in 11 children and adolescents with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the radial diaphysis were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), second metacarpal cortical thickness was measured on hand radiographs, and these results were expressed as Z-scores (standard deviations from the mean). Results. For the 11 initial examinations, Z-scores (mean{+-}SD) were: radial BMD, -2.73{+-}1.15, lumbar BMD, +1.28{+-}1.53; and cortical thickness, -2.21{+-}0.95. Lumbar BMD Z-scores were significantly greater than those for radial BMD and cortical thickness. On follow-up examinations there was a mild increase in radial BMD and decrease in lumbar BMD. Although these changes were statistically significant, they were quite small and the discordance between radial and lumbar BMD was not corrected. Conclusions. Children and adolescents who are being treated for X-linked hypophosphatemia manifest a bone mineral disorder characterized by decreased BMD in the appendicular skeleton and increased BMD in the lumbar spine. Although current therapy is successful in its anti-rachitic effects, it does not correct this bone mineral disorder and additional therapeutic trials should be considered. (orig.)

  13. Deep learning for automated skeletal bone age assessment in X-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, C; Palazzo, S; Giordano, D; Aldinucci, M; Leonardi, R

    2017-02-01

    Skeletal bone age assessment is a common clinical practice to investigate endocrinology, genetic and growth disorders in children. It is generally performed by radiological examination of the left hand by using either the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) method or the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) one. However, both clinical procedures show several limitations, from the examination effort of radiologists to (most importantly) significant intra- and inter-operator variability. To address these problems, several automated approaches (especially relying on the TW method) have been proposed; nevertheless, none of them has been proved able to generalize to different races, age ranges and genders. In this paper, we propose and test several deep learning approaches to assess skeletal bone age automatically; the results showed an average discrepancy between manual and automatic evaluation of about 0.8 years, which is state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, this is the first automated skeletal bone age assessment work tested on a public dataset and for all age ranges, races and genders, for which the source code is available, thus representing an exhaustive baseline for future research in the field. Beside the specific application scenario, this paper aims at providing answers to more general questions about deep learning on medical images: from the comparison between deep-learned features and manually-crafted ones, to the usage of deep-learning methods trained on general imagery for medical problems, to how to train a CNN with few images.

  14. Segmental Musculoskeletal Examinations using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA: Positioning and Analysis Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Sophia Nimphius, Tania Spiteri, Jodie L. Cochrane, Robert U. Newton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal examinations provide informative and valuable quantitative insight into muscle and bone health. DXA is one mainstream tool used to accurately and reliably determine body composition components and bone mass characteristics in-vivo. Presently, whole body scan models separate the body into axial and appendicular regions, however there is a need for localised appendicular segmentation models to further examine regions of interest within the upper and lower extremities. Similarly, inconsistencies pertaining to patient positioning exist in the literature which influence measurement precision and analysis outcomes highlighting a need for standardised procedure. This paper provides standardised and reproducible: 1 positioning and analysis procedures using DXA and 2 reliable segmental examinations through descriptive appendicular boundaries. Whole-body scans were performed on forty-six (n = 46 football athletes (age: 22.9 ± 4.3 yrs; height: 1.85 ± 0.07 cm; weight: 87.4 ± 10.3 kg; body fat: 11.4 ± 4.5 % using DXA. All segments across all scans were analysed three times by the main investigator on three separate days, and by three independent investigators a week following the original analysis. To examine intra-rater and inter-rater, between day and researcher reliability, coefficients of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were determined. Positioning and segmental analysis procedures presented in this study produced very high, nearly perfect intra-tester (CV ≤ 2.0%; ICC ≥ 0.988 and inter-tester (CV ≤ 2.4%; ICC ≥ 0.980 reliability, demonstrating excellent reproducibility within and between practitioners. Standardised examinations of axial and appendicular segments are necessary. Future studies aiming to quantify and report segmental analyses of the upper- and lower-body musculoskeletal properties using whole-body DXA scans are encouraged to use the patient positioning and image analysis procedures

  15. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Holmberg, P. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V. [Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-12-31

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit`s technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author).

  16. Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Holly; Zimmermann, Elizabeth; Schaible, Eric; Tang, Simon; Alliston, Tamara; Ritchie, Robert

    2011-08-19

    Bone comprises a complex structure of primarily collagen, hydroxyapatite and water, where each hierarchical structural level contributes to its strength, ductility and toughness. These properties, however, are degraded by irradiation, arising from medical therapy or bone-allograft sterilization. We provide here a mechanistic framework for how irradiation affects the nature and properties of human cortical bone over a range of characteristic (nano to macro) length-scales, following x-­ray exposures up to 630 kGy. Macroscopically, bone strength, ductility and fracture resistance are seen to be progressively degraded with increasing irradiation levels. At the micron-­scale, fracture properties, evaluated using in-situ scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron x-ray computed micro-tomography, provide mechanistic information on how cracks interact with the bone-matrix structure. At sub-micron scales, strength properties are evaluated with in-situ tensile tests in the synchrotron using small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction, where strains are simultaneously measured in the macroscopic tissue, collagen fibrils and mineral. Compared to healthy bone, results show that the fibrillar strain is decreased by ~40% following 70 kGy exposures, consistent with significant stiffening and degradation of the collagen. We attribute the irradiation-­induced deterioration in mechanical properties to mechanisms at multiple length-scales, including changes in crack paths at micron-­scales, loss of plasticity from suppressed fibrillar sliding at sub-­micron scales, and the loss and damage of collagen at the nano-­scales, the latter being assessed using Raman and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and a fluorometric assay.

  17. Can the material properties of regenerate bone be predicted with non-invasive methods of assessment? Exploring the correlation between dual X-ray absorptiometry and compression testing to failure in an animal model of distraction osteogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monsell, Fergal; Hughes, Andrew William; Turner, James; Bellemore, Michael C; Bilston, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    ... accurately the structural properties of the regenerate. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a widely available non-invasive imaging modality that, unlike X-ray, can be used to measure bone mineral content (BMC...

  18. The study of in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique for gadolinium (Gd) measurements in human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, F.; Nie, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    An in vivo K x-ray fluorescence system, based on 109Cd source, for the detection of gadolinium has been investigated. Gd is of interest because of the extensive use of Gd-based contrast agents in MR imaging. A human simulating bone phantom set has been developed. The phantoms were doped with seven concentrations of Gd. Additional elements important for in vivo x-ray fluorescence, Na, Cl and Ca, were also included to create an overall elemental composition consistent with the Reference Man. A new 5 GBq 109Cd source was purchased to improve the source activity in comparison to the previous study (0.17 GBq). The previously published minimum detection limit (MDL) for Gd phantom measurements using KXRF system was 3.3 ppm. In this study the minimum detection limit for bare bone phantoms was found to reduce the MDL to 0.8, a factor of 4.1. The previous published data used only three layers of plastic as soft tissue equivalent materials and found the MDL of 4-4.8 ppm. In this study we have used the plastic with more realistic thicknesses to simulate a soft tissue at tibia. The detection limits for phantoms with Lucite as a tissue equivalent, using a new source, was determined to be 1.81 to 3.47 ppm (μg Gd per gram phantom). Our next study would be testing an in vivo K x-ray fluorescence system, based on 109Cd source on human volunteers who went through MR imaging and were injected by Gd.

  19. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment of postmenopausal women with vertebral fragility fracture and its relationship with serum bone turnover and bone metabolism indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between dual-energy X-ray bone mass density measurement results of postmenopausal women with vertebral fragility fracture and the serum bone turnover as well as bone metabolism indexes.Methods:A total of 158 postmenopausal women who received DXA tests in our hospital between April 2012 and December 2015 were selected, were divided into osteoporosis group, osteopenia group and normal bone mass group according to the bone mineral density measurement results, and were divided into no vertebral fracture group, thoracic vertebral fracture group, lumbar vertebral fracture group and thoracolumbar vertebral fracture group according to the thoracolumbar vertebral anterioposterior and lateral film results, and serum was collected to determine bone turnover and bone metabolism indexes.Results: Femoral neck, hip and lumbar vertebra L1-4 bone mineral density of subjects with thoracic vertebral fracture and thoracolumbar vertebral fracture were significantly lower than those of the subjects without vertebral fracture, and femoral neck, hip and lumbar vertebra L1-4 bone mineral density of subjects with lumbar vertebral fracture were not significantly different from those of the subjects without vertebral fracture; serum PINP, ICTP, CTX, TRACP-5b, MMP13, OPG and OPN content of osteoporosis group and osteopenia group were significantly higher than those of normal bone mass group while 25(OH)D, BGP and ON content were significantly lower than those of normal bone mass group; serum PINP, ICTP, CTX, TRACP-5b, MMP13, OPG and OPN content of osteoporosis group were significantly higher than those of osteopenia group while 25(OH)D, BGP and ON content were significantly lower than those of osteopenia group.Conclusions: Dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry has clear prediction value for postmenopausal women with thoracic vertebral fragility fracture and thoracolumbar vertebral fragility fracture, and is closely related to the changes of bone turnover and

  20. BONE MINERAL ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BODY IN 292 NORMAL SUBJECTS ASSESSED BY DUAL X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明伟; 余卫; 徐苓; 田均平; 邢小平; 孟迅吾

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study the whole body bone mineral changes in normal subjects.Methods. Bone mineral was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in 292 normal subjectsaged 10~79 years, including 152 females and 140 males. They were divided into age-groups by decade.Results. In males, the ages with peak value of total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone min-eral density (TBMD), anteroposterior spine BMD(L2-4 BMD) were in the 30~39,20~39, 20~29 age-groups respectively. In females, they were all in the 30~39 age-group. Peak values of TBMC, TBMD,L2-4 BMD were higher in males than those in females. Loss of bone mineral for females was more pro-nounced than that for males. Loss of L2-4 BMD was more pronounced than TBMD.Conclusion. This study provides the normal bone mineral data of whole body for males and females,and the characteristic of changes.

  1. Non-invasive predictors of human cortical bone mechanical properties: T(2-discriminated H NMR compared with high resolution X-ray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Adam Horch

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have enabled clinical imaging of human cortical bone, providing a potentially powerful new means for assessing bone health with molecular-scale sensitivities unavailable to conventional X-ray-based diagnostics. To this end, (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and high-resolution X-ray signals from human cortical bone samples were correlated with mechanical properties of bone. Results showed that (1H NMR signals were better predictors of yield stress, peak stress, and pre-yield toughness than were the X-ray derived signals. These (1H NMR signals can, in principle, be extracted from clinical MRI, thus offering the potential for improved clinical assessment of fracture risk.

  2. Relationship between bone strength and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Hald; McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography and a 3-point bending test were performed on the metacarpal bones of adult production pigs to test the hypothesis that bone strength is strongly correlated with areal bone mineral density (BMD) in this population. The aim of the study was to subject material from adult...... modulus, 108 N/mm2 (P relationship between BMD and bone strength and indicate that BMD screening can be used in fracture risk assessments in production pigs....

  3. A study of the x-ray image quality improvement in the examination of the respiratory system based on the new image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuichi; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Torii, Jun; Iwase, Takumi; Aso, Tomohiko; Ihara, Kanyu; Fujikawa, Mari; Takeuchi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Katsumi; Ishiguro, Takashi; Hara, Akio

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the double contrast technique in a gastrointestinal examination and the transbronchial lung biopsy in an examination for the respiratory system [1-3] have made a remarkable progress. Especially in the transbronchial lung biopsy, better quality of x-ray fluoroscopic images is requested because this examination is performed under a guidance of x-ray fluoroscopic images. On the other hand, various image processing methods [4] for x-ray fluoroscopic images have been developed as an x-ray system with a flat panel detector [5-7] is widely used. A recursive filtering is an effective method to reduce a random noise in x-ray fluoroscopic images. However it has a limitation for its effectiveness of a noise reduction in case of a moving object exists in x-ray fluoroscopic images because the recursive filtering is a noise reduction method by adding last few images. After recursive filtering a residual signal was produced if a moving object existed in x-ray images, and this residual signal disturbed a smooth procedure of the examinations. To improve this situation, new noise reduction method has been developed. The Adaptive Noise Reduction [ANR] is the brand-new noise reduction technique which can be reduced only a noise regardless of the moving object in x-ray fluoroscopic images. Therefore the ANR is a very suitable noise reduction method for the transbronchial lung biopsy under a guidance of x-ray fluoroscopic images because the residual signal caused of the moving object in x-ray fluoroscopic images is never produced after the ANR. In this paper, we will explain an advantage of the ANR by comparing of a performance between the ANR images and the conventional recursive filtering images.

  4. Study of lead accumulation in bones of Wistar rats by X-ray fluorescence analysis: aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Diana; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Geraldes, Vera; Rocha, Isabel; Santos, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of lead in several bones of Wistar rats with time was determined and compared for the different types of bones. Two groups were studied: a control group (n = 20), not exposed to lead and a contaminated group (n = 30), exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly through mother's milk, and then directly through a diet containing lead acetate in drinking water (0.2%). Rats age ranged from 1 to 11 months, with approximately 1 month intervals and each of the collections had 3 contaminated rats and 2 control rats. Iliac, femur, tibia-fibula and skull have been analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF). Samples of formaldehyde used to preserve the bone tissues were also analysed by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS), showing that there was no significant loss of lead from the tissue to the preservative. The bones mean lead concentration of exposed rats range from 100 to 300 μg g(-1) while control rats never exceeded 10 μg g(-1). Mean bone lead concentrations were compared and the concentrations were higher in iliac, femur and tibia-fibula and after that skull. However, of all the concentrations in the different collections, only those in the skull were statistically significantly different (p bones. Analysis of a radar chart also allowed us to say that these differences tend to diminish with age. The Spearman correlation test applied to mean lead concentrations showed strong and very strong positive correlations between all different types of bones. This test also showed that mean lead concentrations in bones are negatively correlated with the age of the animals. This correlation is strong in iliac and femur and very strong in tibia-fibula and skull. It was also shown that the decrease of lead accumulation with age is made by three plateaus of accumulation, which coincide, in all analysed bones, between 2nd-3rd and 9th-10th months.

  5. Entrance surface dose and image quality: comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, Ahmad Shariff; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Jamal, Noriah; Spelic, David C; Suleiman, Orhan H

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia.

  6. Examining molecular clouds in the Galactic Centre region using X-ray reflection spectra simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, M.; Chernyakova, M.; Terrier, R.; Goldwurm, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the centre of our Galaxy lies a supermassive black hole, identified with the radio source Sagittarius A⋆. This black hole has an estimated mass of around 4 million solar masses. Although Sagittarius A⋆ is quite dim in terms of total radiated energy, having a luminosity that is a factor of 1010 lower than its Eddington luminosity, there is now compelling evidence that this source was far brighter in the past. Evidence derived from the detection of reflected X-ray emission from the giant molecular clouds in the Galactic Centre region. However, the interpretation of the reflected emission spectra cannot be done correctly without detailed modelling of the reflection process. Attempts to do so can lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. In this paper, we present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation code we developed in order to fully model the complex processes involved in the emerging reflection spectra. The simulated spectra can be compared to real data in order to derive model parameters and constrain the past activity of the black hole. In particular, we apply our code to observations of Sagittarius B2, in order to constrain the position and density of the cloud and the incident luminosity of the central source. The results of the code have been adapted to be used in XSPEC by a large community of astronomers.

  7. Surface characterization of ginger powder examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ao, Qiang; Du, Fangling; Zhu, Junqing; Liu, Jie

    2010-09-01

    The surface composition of five types of ginger powders with the particle sizes of 300, 149, 74, 37 and 8.34 microm was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various types of physical-chemical characteristics regarding material particle size distributions, discoloration and chemical composition. The results show that the color differences are greater for superfine ground ginger than for conventional comminuted ones; the values of crude fibre, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) decrease with decreasing ginger particle size. However, no relationship with the surface fat, crude protein, ash and total solids exists. With superfine grinding the XPS O/C ratios of the five ginger powders were similar since the surfaces were not oxidized. Correlations were observed between the XPS N/C ratios and the high resolution XPS N 1s spectra. SEM observations revealed that the surface of ginger powder with a particle size of 300 microm is rougher, while superfine ground powders with particle sizes of 149, 74, 37 and 8.34 microm are similar to each other. This roughness difference between these surfaces correlates with the differences in their O/C ratios and the surface morphology of five ginger powders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining molecular clouds in the Galactic Centre region using X-ray reflection spectra simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, Michael; Terrier, Regis; Goldwurm, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the centre of our galaxy lies a super-massive black hole, identified with the radio source Sagittarius A*. This black hole has an estimated mass of around 4 million solar masses. Although Sagittarius A* is quite dim in terms of total radiated energy, having a luminosity that is a factor of $10^{10}$ lower than its Eddington luminosity, there is now compelling evidence that this source was far brighter in the past. Evidence derived from the detection of reflected X-ray emission from the giant molecular clouds in the galactic centre region. However, the interpretation of the reflected emission spectra cannot be done correctly without detailed modelling of the reflection process. Attempts to do so can lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. In this paper we present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation code we developed in order to fully model the complex processes involved in the emerging reflection spectra. The simulated spectra can be compared to real data in order to derive model parameters and...

  9. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones......-ray absoptiometry (r = 0.86, p Relative to this age-related loss, the reported short...... sites and a precision that potentially allows for relatively short observation intervals. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-null...

  10. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry better identifies osteoarthritis patients with a low bone mineral density than quantitative ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Gerhard W. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Frey, Diana; Studer, Annina; Hauser, Dagmar; Zilic, Nathalie [University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Hany, Thomas F. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland); Haeuselmann, Hans J. [Center for Rheumatology and Bone Disease, Klinik im Park, Zurich (Switzerland); Michel, Beat A.; Uebelhart, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Osteoporosis Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology and Institute of Physical Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Hans, Didier [University Hospital Geneva, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) to identify osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and sixty-one patients with painful knee OA (81 men, 80 women; age 62.6{+-}9.2 years, range 40-82 years) were included in this cross-sectional study and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of both hips and the lumbar spine, QUS of the phalanges and calcanei of both hands and heels, and DXR using radiographs of both hands. Unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, ROC analysis and Spearman's rank correlation were used for comparisons and correlation of methods. Using DXA as the reference standard, we defined a low bone mineral density (BMD) as a T-score {<=}-1.0 at the lumbar spine or proximal femur. In contrast to phalangeal or calcaneal QUS, DXR was able to discriminate patients with a low BMD at the lumbar spine (p<0.0001) or hips (p<0.0001). ROC analysis showed that DXR had an acceptable predictive power in identifying OA patients a low hip BMD (sensitivity 70%, specificity 71%). Therefore, DXR used as a screening tool could help in identifying patients with knee OA for DXA. (orig.)

  11. The value of calcaneal bone mass measurement using a dual X-ray laser calscan device in risk screening for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Kayalar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured by a dual energy X-ray laser (DXL correlates with bone mineral density in the spine and hip in Turkish women over 40 years of age and to determine whether calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser variables are associated with clinical risk factors to the same extent as axial bone mineral density measurements obtained using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DXA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,884 Turkish women, aged 40-90 years, living in Ankara were randomly selected. Calcaneal bone mineral density was evaluated using a dual energy X-ray laser Calscan device. Subjects exhibiting a calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T- score <-2.5 received a referral for DXA of the spine and hip. Besides dual energy X-ray laser measurements, all subjects were questioned about their medical history and the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Using a T-score threshold of -2.5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, dual energy X-ray laser calcaneal measurements showed that 13% of the subjects had osteoporosis, while another 56% had osteopenia. The mean calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score of postmenopausal subjects who were smokers with a positive history of fracture, hormone replacement therapy (HRT, covered dressing style, lower educational level, no regular exercise habits, and low tea consumption was significantly lower than that obtained for the other group (p<0.05. A significant correlation was observed between the calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score and age (r=-0.465, p=0.001, body mass index (BMI (r=0.223, p=0.001, number of live births (r=-0.229, p=0.001, breast feeding time (r=-0.064, p=0.001, and age at menarche (r=-0.050, p=0.008. The correlations between calcaneal DXL and DXA T-scores (r=0.340, p=0.001 and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.360, p=0.001 at the spine, and calcaneal DXL and DXA T- scores (r=0.28, p=0.001 and calcaneal

  12. Changes in bone macro- and microstructure in diabetic obese mice revealed by high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhofs, G.; Durand, M.; Vangoitsenhoven, R.; Marin, C.; van der Schueren, B.; Carmeliet, G.; Luyten, F. P.; Geris, L.; Vandamme, K.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions. At 2 μm scale, no change was observed in the intracortical structure. At 1 μm scale, a decrease in the cortical vascular porosity of the HFD bone was evidenced. The study of a group of 8 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the diet challenge revealed that the decreased vascular porosity was T2DM-dependant and not related to the ageing process. Our results offer an unprecedented ultra-characterization of the T2DM compromised skeletal micro-architecture and highlight an unrevealed T2DM-related decrease in the cortical vascular porosity, potentially affecting the bone health and fragility. Additionally, it provides some insights into the technical challenge facing the assessment of the rodent bone structure using HR-microCT imaging.

  13. Radial Quantitative Ultrasound and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Intermethod Agreement for Bone Status Assessment in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hau Chong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To validate a radial quantitative ultrasound (QUS system with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, a criterion technique in bone status assessment among children. Methods. Bone health was evaluated using a radial QUS system (Sunlight Omnisense 8000P to measure the speed of sound (SOS at one-third distal radius of the nondominant hand and DXA (Hologic QDR was used to assess whole body bone mineral density (BMD. Results. Some 29.9% of the children were grossly misclassified according to quartiles of BMD and radial SOS. Poor agreement was observed between Z-scores of radial SOS and whole-body BMD (mean difference = 0.6 ± 0.9; 95% limits of agreement = −1.4 to 2.6. With a cut-off value of −1.0, radial SOS yielded satisfactory sensitivity (80% and specificity (93% for the detection of children with low BMD. Conclusion. The observed poor agreement in the present study suggests that radial QUS and DXA are not comparable and hence are not interchangeable in evaluating bone status of the children.

  14. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  15. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  16. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bon...

  17. Two and three-dimensional morphometric analysis of trabecular bone using X-ray microtomography (μCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alessandro Marcio Hakme da; Silva, Orivaldo Lopes da; Silva Junior, Nelson Ferreira da, E-mail: alhakme@sc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/FMRP/IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Alves, Jose Marcos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: trabecular bones have a porous microstructure and can be modeled as linear elastic solids, heterogeneous and anisotropic. In the literature, few investigations have compared the two- dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric analyses of cancellous bone. Methods: In this investigation eighteen cylindrical samples of cancellous bone (10 mm of diameter and 20 mm of height) were obtained from six bovine head femurs, with similar values for the weight and age, of the same race and gender. The samples were harvested and freeze at - 20 °C before carrying out the micro CT analysis. The CT-Analyzer software was used to measure in three directions (superior-inferior, lateral-medial and anterior-posterior) parameters such as trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number and the eigenvalues of the fabric tensor (M). Results: the Comparison of 2D and 3D analyses for the parameters: 2D (plate model) trabecular thickness, trabecular separation and trabecular number were statistically different (p = 0) showing that measurements are not similar to the 3D ones. However, 2D (rod model) trabecular thickness and 3D trabecular thickness measurements presented no significant difference (p = 0.26). The eigenvalues show that the bovine trabecular microstructure has a tendency to transversally isotropic symmetry. Discussion: The method proved to be quite interesting for the characterization of the bone structure through 3D measurements of trabecular bone morphometric parameters in the three possible directions of loading. The results show that x-ray microtomography (μCT) is a technique of great potential for characterization and generating bone quality parameters for the diagnosis of bone metabolism diseases. (author)

  18. Estimation of population dose and risk to holding assistants from veterinary X-ray examination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Suganuma, Tunenori; Shida, Takuo (Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Veterinary Medicine)

    1989-09-01

    For the estimation of the population doses and risks of stochastic effects to assistants who hold animals during veterinary X-ray examination, a random survey of hospitals and clinics was carried out concerning age distribution of such assistants by groups of facilities. The average organ and tissue dose per examination was evaluated from the experimental data using mean technical factors such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and field size based on the results of a nationwide survey. The population doses to the assistants were calculated to be about 14 nSv per person per year for the genetically significant dose, 3.5 nSv per person per year for per caput mean marrow dose, 3.3 nSv for the leukemia significant dose and 4.5 nSv for the malignant significant dose, respectively. The total risk of stochastic effects to the Japanese population from holding assistants was estimated using population data and it was estimated to be less than one person per year, but the cancer risks to a number of the assistants were estimated to be more than 4 x 10{sup -5}. (author).

  19. 螺旋CT及X线平片在腕骨隐匿性骨折诊断中的比较分析%Spiral CT and X-ray plain film in the diagnosis of carpal bone occult fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the carpal bone occult fracture characteristics of spiral CT and X-ray plain film. Methods A retrospective analysis of 46 carpal bone occult fracture cases X-ray films, CT data. Including the review of the data. Results X-ray, suspicious 19 cases of fracture and CT examination all positive, typically characterized by bone cortex lifted, interruption of trabecular bone. Conclusion CT has important significance in avoiding misdiagnosis and carpal bone occult fracture.%目的 探讨螺旋CT及X线平片在腕骨隐匿性骨折检查中的特点.方法 回顾性分析46例腕骨隐匿性骨折的X线片、CT资料. 结果 X线检查阳性1例, 可疑骨折19例,CT阳性后复核X线阳性2例,CT检查44例阳性,典型表现为骨皮质掀起,骨小梁中断.结论 CT检查在避免腕骨隐匿性骨折漏诊中有重要作用,CT阴性应引起重视.

  20. The Effect of (99m)Tc on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Whether the γ-emission by radioisotopes influences the outcome of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antecedent administration of (99m)Tc on DXA measurements regarding body composition and bone mineral...... density (BMD) using a K-edge filter scanner. The phantom measurements were performed by placing a urinary bladder phantom containing 40mL of radioisotope solution on the pelvic region of a whole-body phantom. Twenty-seven patients attending our department for a routine examination involving...... the administration of a tracer marked with (99m)Tc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient...

  1. Preliminary Study to Test the Feasibility of Sex Identification of Human (Homo sapiens) Bones Based on Differences in Elemental Profiles Determined by Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Klinhom, Sarisa; Pitakarnnop, Tanita; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2016-09-01

    Sex assignment of human remains is a crucial step in forensic anthropological studies. The aim of this study was to examine elemental differences between male and female bones using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and determine if elemental profiling could be used for sex discrimination. Cranium, humerus, and os coxae of 60 skeletons (30 male, 30 female) from the Chiang Mai University Skeletal Collection were scanned by XRF and differences in elemental profiles between male and female bones determined using discriminant analysis. In the cranium, three elements (S, Ca, Pb) were significantly higher in males and five elements (Si, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ag) plus light elements (atomic number lower than 12) were higher in females. In humerus and os coxae, nine elements were significantly higher in male and one element was higher in female samples. The accuracy rate for sex estimation was 60, 63, and 61 % for cranium, humerus, and os coxae, respectively, and 67 % when data for all three bones were combined. We conclude that there are sex differences in bone elemental profiles; however, the accuracy of XRF analyses for discriminating between male and female samples was low compared to standard morphometric and molecular methods. XRF could be used on small samples that cannot be sexed by traditional morphological methods, but more work is needed to increase the power of this technique for gender assignment.

  2. Radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations in human medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine and border controls using ionizing radiation; Dosisermittlung bei der Anwendung von Roentgenstrahlung in der medizinischen Heilkunde, zahnmedizinischen Heilkunde, Tierheilkunde und bei Grenzkontrollen mit ionisierender Strahlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The report on radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations includes the following chapters: (1) Scope of the project. (2) Measuring instruments. (3) Part I: Radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations in human medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine. (4) Radiation dose evaluation during X-ray examinations during border controls using ionizing radiation. (5) Summary of results.

  3. X-ray, CT and DXA study of bone loss on medieval remains from North-West Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrè, Alda; Boano, Rosa; Di Stefano, Marco; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Giovannino; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo; Panattoni, Gian Luigi; Faletti, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the population differences in osteoporosis observed nowadays is a reflection of the times and modern lifestyle factors, or whether they were also present in the past. The study was performed on the skeletal remains of medieval and post-medieval populations from a burial ground in the North-West of Italy. Some individuals had been buried inside the church (privileged subjects), others outside in the parvis (members of rural population), and others still to the north of the church. X-ray, computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies were carried out on the lumbar spines and/or femurs of 27 male and 28 female individuals to determine any associations between cortical index, bone mineral density (BMD), gender, age and social status. No statistically significant differences were observed in cortical index values according to gender, age or place of burial. Conversely, statistically significant differences in average BMD values were observed according to place of burial; in particular, among those buried inside the church, a lower BMD was observed compared to the parvis group (1.09 vs. 1.42, p < 0.001) and the north group (1.09 vs. 1.49, p < 0.001). The differences observed in the BMD values may be related to the different lifestyle of the rural population, i.e. more dietary calcium intake, more sun exposure and vigorous physical activity, compared to that of the privileged individuals.

  4. Quantitative determination of anticonvulsant-induced bone demineralization by an improved x-ray densitometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolschendorf, K.; Vanselow, K.; Schulz, H.; Moeller, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    Quantitative studies of the influence of anticonvulsant drugs on bone mineral content of 88 epileptics were performed by a microcomputer-aided densitometer system. The results showed that the mineral content decreases significantly with the duration of the therapy. This decrease was found to be approximately 1.2% per year for a Diphenylhydantoin (DPH) monotherapy and 1.8% per year and 2.0% per year for a DPH plus Phenobarbital and DPH plus Carbamazepin combination therapy.

  5. Bilateral Variability of X-Ray Osteometric Parameters Of Human Metacarpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. A. Ryakhovskiy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Hand roentgenograms of men of mature age have been investigated. Parameters of metacarpal bones length and width of left and right hands have been measured. Displacement of maximal and minimal bilateral asymmetry on II and V rays of hand has been established. The obtained data have been considered from the point of view of fluctuating asymmetry, as an indicator of instability of morphogenesis which has been determined by HOX-genes defining structure of hand in mammals.

  6. Middle ear bones of a mid-gestation ruminant foetus extracted from x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The timing of ossification of middle ear ossicles has been extensively studied in humans. This is an exception since it is vastly unknown in the +5000 extant species of placentals. As a preliminary approach, a cow foetus (around 115 days of gestation) was visualized using X-ray microtomography (μCT) and the ossicles including stapes, incus, and malleus could be extracted from the data set. All three bones have already undergone substantial ossification, which allow comparison to adult middle ear bones. Their ossification at this stage parallels ossification in humans at a comparable stage of gestation. While full ossification is not yet achieved almost all the morphological characters of the ossicles are observed. Bone tissue is still very porous, the stapes does not have the characteristic plate-like footplate, the lenticular process of the incus is missing and the manubrium of the malleus is very thin and not yet complete. Despite all this, the ossicles are articulate with each other and perfectly with the bony labyrinth. The stapes footplate is positioned on the oval window but is smaller than the latter while it should perfectly fit to transmit sound vibrations to the cochlea. All ossicles, especially the stapes, have not yet reached adult size, while the bony labyrinth already has. This is the first detailed description of a set of middle ear bones in a placental at mid-gestation based on high-resolution μCT. Similarities in ossification timing with humans encourage more work to be done on foetuses to understand if a general rule for placental mammals exists.

  7. Evaluation of bone-mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in pediatric renal transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Boettcher, Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Pfeil, Alexander; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); John, Ulrike; Misselwitz, Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jena (Germany); Vollandt, Ruediger [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Loss of bone mass and increased fracture risk are known complications after renal transplantation in adults. Risk factors include donor source, dialysis status prior to transplantation, aetiology of renal disease, transplant rejection and drug therapy, particularly steroids. In this preliminary study of quantification of bone loss in children after renal transplantation, we evaluated the applicability of digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) of hand radiographs to estimate cortical bone mineral density (DXR-BMD). A total of 23 renal transplant recipients (9 girls, 14 boys; age 6.5-20 years, median 16.3 years) underwent DXR measurements for calculation of DXR-BMD and metacarpal index (DXR-MCI) using radiographs of the non-dominant left hand. The duration between transplantation and the DXR evaluation, the duration of dialysis and medication were considered. The results were compared to a local age-matched and gender-matched reference data base. Our study revealed a significant decrease in bone mineral density compared to an age-matched and sex-matched normal population (P<0.05). In three patients the DXR-BMD was reduced more than -2.5 SD. In 12 patients the DXR-BMD was between -1 and -2.5 SD, and in 7 patients the DXR-BMD was in the normal range. In one patient, evaluation was not possible. Fractures were documented in three patients following transplantation. Reduced DXR-BMD was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy or the duration of dialysis, and there was no significant correlation between DXR-BMD and the time between transplantation and DXR evaluation. (orig.)

  8. A reliable method for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Rolf, Marijn P.; Roos, Jan C.; Burcksen, Jos; Knol, Dirk L.; de Groot, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a standardized protocol for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Ten able-bodied individuals (7 males) participated in this study. During one measuremen

  9. A new implementation of digital X-ray radiogrammetry and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone for healthy European adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Böttcher, Joachim; Lomholt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    . PURPOSE: The digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method has been shown to be efficient for diagnosis of osteoporosis and for assessment of progression of rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this work is to present a new DXR implementation and reference curves of four indices of cortical bone and to compare...

  10. Bone mineral density assessment using the EOS low-dose X-ray device: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, E; Briot, K; Kolta, S; Gravel, P; Skalli, W; Roux, C; Mitton, D

    2008-11-01

    To predict bone strength in the case of osteoporosis, it could be a real benefit to assess the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and the bone mineral density (BMD) with a single low-dose X-ray device, such as the EOS system (Biospace Med, Paris, France). EOS 3D reconstructions of the spine have already been validated. Thus, this study aims at evaluating the accuracy of this low-dose system as a densitometer first ex vivo. The European Spine Phantom (ESP) (number 129) was scanned ten times using both the EOS and a Hologic device (Hologic, Inc., Massachusetts, USA). Accuracy was given by the sum of the systematic error (difference between BMDs assessed and true values given by the phantom manufacturer) and the random error (coefficient of variation). EOS BMDs and Hologic BMDs of 41 ex-vivo vertebrae were calculated and compared. The reproducibility of the method evaluating the EOS BMD was assessed giving the coefficient of variation of three measurements of the 41 vertebrae. The accuracy of the EOS system is below 5.2 per cent, versus 7.2 per cent for the Hologic system in the same conditions. EOS BMDs are significantly higher than Hologic BMDs, but they are strongly correlated. The reproducibility of the method of assessment is equal to 0.95 per cent. The EOS system is accurate for ex-vivo BMD assessments, which is promising regarding the use of this new system to predict vertebral strength.

  11. Bioabsorbable bone fixation plates for X-ray imaging diagnosis by a radiopaque layer of barium sulfate and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Yoon; Hur, Woojune; Kim, Byeung Kyu; Shasteen, Catherine; Kim, Myung Hun; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Chun Gwon; Park, Min; Min, Hye Sook; Kim, Sukwha; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choy, Young Bin

    2015-04-01

    Bone fixation systems made of biodegradable polymers are radiolucent, making post-operative diagnosis with X-ray imaging a challenge. In this study, to allow X-ray visibility, we separately prepared a radiopaque layer and attached it to a bioabsorbable bone plate approved for clinical use (Inion, Finland). We employed barium sulfate as a radiopaque material due to the high X-ray attenuation coefficient of barium (2.196 cm(2) /g). The radiopaque layer was composed of a fine powder of barium sulfate bound to a biodegradable material, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), to allow layer degradation similar to the original Inion bone plate. In this study, we varied the mass ratio of barium sulfate and PLGA in the layer between 3:1 w/w and 10:1 w/w to modulate the degree and longevity of X-ray visibility. All radiopaque plates herein were visible via X-ray, both in vitro and in vivo, for up to 40 days. For all layer types, the radio-opacity decreased with time due to the swelling and degradation of PLGA, and the change in the layer shape was more apparent for layers with a higher PLGA content. The radiopaque plates released, at most, 0.5 mg of barium sulfate every 2 days in a simulated in vitro environment, which did not appear to affect the cytotoxicity. The radiopaque plates also exhibited good biocompatibility, similar to that of the Inion plate. Therefore, we concluded that the barium sulfate-based, biodegradable plate prepared in this work has the potential to be used as a fixation device with both X-ray visibility and biocompatibility.

  12. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  13. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  14. Assessment of the effect of oral corticosteroids on bone mineral density in systemic lupus erythematosus: a preliminary study with dual energy x ray absorptiometry.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Dual energy x ray absorptiometry and a wide range of blood and urine tests were used to assess the propensity of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus to develop an impairment of bone mineral density. Surprisingly, in this preliminary study no significant differences in bone mineral density were found when patients taking 10 mg or more of prednisolone for six months or longer were compared with those who had never taken prednisolone.

  15. Assessment of the effect of oral corticosteroids on bone mineral density in systemic lupus erythematosus: a preliminary study with dual energy x ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, V B; Davies, M C; Hall, M L; Round, J M; Ell, P J; Jacobs, H S; Snaith, M L; Isenberg, D A

    1990-08-01

    Dual energy x ray absorptiometry and a wide range of blood and urine tests were used to assess the propensity of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus to develop an impairment of bone mineral density. Surprisingly, in this preliminary study no significant differences in bone mineral density were found when patients taking 10 mg or more of prednisolone for six months or longer were compared with those who had never taken prednisolone.

  16. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  17. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandirali, Michele; Di Leo, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Mai, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio M; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 × CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm(-1)) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤ 2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable.

  18. Dosimetry study for a new in vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) bone lead measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huiling; Chettle, David; Luo, Liqiang; O'Meara, Joanne

    2007-10-01

    A new 109Cd γ-ray induced bone lead measurement system has been developed to reduce the minimum detectable limit (MDL) of the system. The system consists of four 16 mm diameter detectors. It requires a stronger source compared to the "conventional" system. A dosimetry study has been performed to estimate the dose delivered by this system. The study was carried out by using human-equivalent phantoms. Three sets of phantoms were made to estimate the dose delivered to three age groups: 5-year old, 10-year old and adults. Three approaches have been applied to evaluate the dose: calculations, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and experiments. Experimental results and analytical calculations were used to validate MC simulation. The experiments were performed by placing Panasonic UD-803AS TLDs at different places in phantoms that representing different organs. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the organ dose and the whole body dose solely by experiments and traditional calculations, the equivalent dose and effective dose were calculated by MC simulations. The result showed that the doses delivered to the organs other than the targeted lower leg are negligibly small. The total effective doses to the three age groups are 8.45/9.37 μSv (female/male), 4.20 μSv, and 0.26 μSv for 5-year old, 10-year old and adult, respectively. An approval to conduct human measurements on this system has been received from the Research Ethics Board based on this research.

  19. Measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in patients with the Wisconsin hip, an uncemented femoral stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, B J; Checovich, M M; McBeath, A A; Wilson, M A; Heiner, J P

    1996-02-01

    Although qualitative evidence of femoral bone remodeling, secondary to total hip arthroplasty (THA), is apparent on radiographs, quantification of change in bone mass from radiographs is limited. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry overcomes many of the limitations and yields accurate and precise bone mineral density (BMD) data. In this study, regional changes in femoral BMD were examined in 89 THA patients with a 2-year follow-up period. Thirty-two patients were evaluated initially before surgery and followed through the first 2 postoperative years. A second group was comprised of 57 patients whose surgery had been performed 1 to 6 years prior to entry into the study; they were also followed for 2 years hence. Thus, both immediate and later bone responses were evaluated prospectively. Maximal bone remodeling was seen in the first 6 months after THA and with a near plateau by the end of the first year. A slow yearly decline in BMD appeared to occur as long as 8 years after THA, thus demonstrating the long-term effects of the introduction of a femoral stem. Variance in preoperative BMD was explained by disease only; no other factors (age, weight, sex) showed significant associations, and body weight was the only variable that affected rate of remodeling after THA (not age, weight, sex, prosthesis size, nor disease). All patients were healthy, relatively young individuals who were good candidates for uncemented implantation, and none showed evidence of clinical complications or surgical failure. It is therefore suggested that the patterns and results reported here be viewed as normative data, that is, the typical skeletal adaptation to THA. In future application, observation of disparate BMD results as compared with these "normal" data may be predictive of abnormal response to surgery and potential for later problems.

  20. Are adult patients with Laron syndrome osteopenic? A comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and volumetric bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Carlos A; Eshed, Varda; Kamjin, Moshe; Laron, Zvi

    2003-10-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in IGF-I is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been noted in LS patients examined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), this technique does not take volume into account and may therefore underestimate the true bone density in patients with small bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the BMD yielded by DEXA in our LS patients using estimated volumetric values. Volumetric density was calculated with the following formulas: bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) = bone mineral content (BMC)/(area)(3/2) for the lumbar spine and BMAD = BMC/area(2) for the femoral neck. The study sample included 12 patients (mean age, 43.9 yr; mean height, 123.7 cm). Findings were compared with 10 osteopenic subjects without developmental abnormalities (mean age, 56 yr; mean height, 164.8 cm) and 10 healthy control subjects matched for sex and age to the LS patients (mean height, 165.5 cm). BMAD in the LS group was 0.201 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3) at the lumbar spine and 0.201 +/- 0.04 g/cm(3) at the femoral neck; corresponding values for the osteopenic group were 0.130 +/- 0.01 and 0.140 +/- 0.01 g/cm(3), and for the controls, 0.178 +/- 0.03 and 0.192 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3). Although areal BMD was significantly lower in the LS and osteopenic subjects compared with controls (P < 0.02) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck, BMAD was low (P < 0.01) in the osteopenic group only. In conclusion, DEXA does not seem to be a reliable measure of osteoporosis in patients with LS.

  1. Accuracy and Reproducibility of Radiographic Images for Assessing Crestal Bone Height of Implants Using the Precision Implant X-ray Locator (PIXRL) Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Kyle A; Wadhwani, Chandur; McAllister, Bradley; Wang, Mansen; Katancik, James A

    Assessment of crestal bone levels around implants is essential to monitor success and health. This is best accomplished with intraoral radiographs exposed at 90 degrees to the long axis of the implant, but this can be challenging to achieve clinically. Radiographic paralleling devices produce orthogonal radiographs but traditionally have required access to the implant body for each exposure. This study was conducted to determine if use of the Precision Implant X-ray Locator (PIXRL), a radiographic paralleling device that indexes the implant at the time of surgical placement, can produce orthogonal radiographs of dental implants more accurately than traditional radiologic techniques for assessing crestal bone levels. Three dental implants were inserted in dry human skulls in supracrestal positions to simulate crestal bone loss (maxillary right first premolar [site 14], maxillary right central incisor [site 11], and mandibular left second premolar [site 35]). The implants were masked with a soft tissue moulage and restored with provisional restorations. Four dental assistants exposed six radiographs using their usual and customary technique and six using the PIXRL device for each implant. A single examiner measured crestal bone levels on the radiographs relative to the implant platform shoulder on the mesial and distal of each implant. Recorded measurements were compared to the known values. Statistical analysis was completed using a generalized linear regression model to analyze the differences, and post-hoc comparisons with pairwise adjustment were applied. The images produced using the PIXRL device were more accurate overall compared to traditional techniques and were also more consistent. The greater degree of accuracy was statistically significant for all sites with the exception of the mesial measurements of the implant at site 11. This study demonstrates that the use of the PIXRL device can assist clinicians in obtaining more accurate orthogonal radiographs

  2. Study of Mechanical Properties of Bone by Measuring Load Transfer via High-energy X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anjali

    Synchrotron high-energy X-ray scattering is used to investigate the in situ strains in hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and mineralized collagen fibrils in bovine cortical bone. Compressive load-unload tests at room temperature (27°C) and body temperature (37°C) show that the load transfer to the stiff nano-sized platelets from the surrounding compliant protein matrix does not vary significantly with temperature. This emphasizes that the stiffness of bone is controlled by the stiffness of the HAP phase, which remains unaffected by this change in temperature. Monotonic loading tests in compression and tension, conducted at 37°C, illustrate the spatial variation of properties within a single femur, which is correlated to the mineral content, porosity and microstructure of the samples. The average apparent modulus of HAP and fibrils (EappHAP and Eappfib, respectively), defined as the ratio of applied stress and phase strain, is obtained as 27.5 ± 6.6 and 18.5 ± 8.9 GPa, respectively, in compression. These values are significantly higher than the values of 20.0 ± 5.4 and 4.1 ± 2.6 GPa obtained for HAP and fibrils, respectively, in tension. The difference between the two types of loading is attributed to greater plastic deformation of collagen in tension, which results in greater strains in the collagen fibril, and concomitant greater load transfer to the HAP. Increasing synchrotron X-ray doses (5-3880 kGy) affect neither apparent HAP nor fibrillar modulus, up to stresses of -60 MPa (measured during in situ loading and unloading). However, the residual elastic strains in the HAP phase decrease markedly with increased irradiation, indicating damage at the HAP-collagen interface. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction peak widths shows that unit cells of HAP which are under the highest initial residual strains are most able to relax due to irradiation, resulting in a net decrease in the strain distribution (RMS strain). The constancy of apparent moduli is explained by

  3. CT-guided brachytherapy of prostate cancer: reduction of effective dose from X-ray examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Dmitriy B.; Biryukov, Vitaliy A.; Rusetskiy, Sergey S.; Sviridov, Pavel V.; Volodina, Tatiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most effective and informative diagnostic method. Though the number of CT scans among all radiographic procedures in the USA and European countries is 11% and 4% respectively, CT makes the highest contribution to the collective effective dose from all radiographic procedures, it is 67% in the USA and 40% in European countries [1-5]. Therefore it is necessary to understand the significance of dose value from CT imaging to a patient . Though CT dose from multiple scans and potential risk is of great concern in pediatric patients, this applies to adults as well. In this connection it is very important to develop optimal approaches to dose reduction and optimization of CT examination. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its publications recommends radiologists to be aware that often CT image quality is higher than it is necessary for diagnostic confidence[6], and there is a potential to reduce the dose which patient gets from CT examination [7]. In recent years many procedures, such as minimally invasive surgery, biopsy, brachytherapy and different types of ablation are carried out under guidance of computed tomography [6;7], and during a procedures multiple CT scans focusing on a specific anatomic region are performed. At the Clinics of MRRC different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer are used, incuding conformal CT-guided brachytherapy, implantation of microsources of I into the gland under guidance of spiral CT [8]. So, the purpose of the study is to choose optimal method to reduce radiation dose from CT during CT-guided prostate brachytherapy and to obtain the image of desired quality.

  4. Type and frequency of complications of X-ray examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Oesterreich, F.U.

    1983-03-01

    Aspiration of barium sulphate and of water-soluble iodine containing contrast media is associated by risks. The advantages and disadvantages of both agent groups must be compared. Barium peritonitis following after perforation is a severe complication with a high death rate. This is why the application of barium is contraindicated when perforation is suspected. After oral administration of barium sulphate, barolithes, barium appendicitis or perforations due to passage obstructions may develop in the large intestine. According to other studies, complications may occur when special roentgenological examinations are carried out with other probes. Water-soluble iodine-containing contrast media only very rarely lead to allergic reactions; they may precipitate in acidous environment; by aspiration a pulmonary edema may be provoked and continuous contact with the mucosae may lead to hemorrhages or necrosis. After the administration of pro-banthines a massive gastric dilatation may develop if a passage obstruction exists in the duodenum. It was observed that glucagone provoked an anaphylactic shock and a erythema exudativum multiforme. A detailed list of 162 references completed this paper. At request, the authors will send you this list.

  5. Assessing the dose values received by patients during conventional radiography X-ray examinations and the technical condition of the equipment used for this purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bekas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: X-ray examination is associated with patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Dose values depend on the type of medical procedure used, the X-ray unit technical condition and exposure conditions selected. The aim of this study was to determine the dose value received by patients during certain conventional radiography X-ray examinations and to assess the technical condition of medical equipment used for this purpose. Material and Methods: The study covered the total number of 118 conventional diagnostic X-ray units located in the Masovian Voivodeship. The methodology used to assess the conventional diagnostic X-ray unit technical condition and the measurement of the radiation dose rate received by patients are based on test procedures developed by the Department of Radiation Protection and Radiobiology of the National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland accredited for compliance with PN-EN 17025 standard by the Polish Centre for Accreditation. Results: It was found that 84.7% of X-ray units fully meet the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 15.3% of the units do not meet some of them. The broadest dose value range was recorded for adult patients. Particularly, during lateral (LAT lumbar spine radiography the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD values ranged from 283.5 to 7827 μGy (mean: 2183.3 μGy. Conclusions: It is absolutely necessary to constantly monitor the technical condition of all X-ray units, because it affects population exposure to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it is essential to raise radiographers’ awareness of the effects that ionizing radiation exposure can have on the human body. Med Pr 2014;65(6:715–721

  6. A NEW METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF REGENERATED BONE TISSUE ON X-RAY IMAGES OF ELONGATED BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Gądek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for quantification of bone regenerate on the basis of computer-aided analysis of digitized Xray images is presented and its applicability in bone lengthening using Ilizarov method is demonstrated. In contrary to classical methods the internal part of the bone image is taken into consideration instead of the bone edges. Theoretical background of this concept is presented and experimentally verified. Experimental results show that the method proposed allows us for assessment of the bone regenerate, precise choice of the moment of external fixator removal as well as prediction of abnormalities in the osteogenesis process (excluding overall decalcification. However, the rules of interpretation of the results are not discussed in details.

  7. 99mTc-MDP骨显像与X线、CT联合诊断SAPHO综合征%Combined diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome by 99mTC-MDP bone imaging, X-ray and CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中; 徐海青; 吴边; 宋烈晶; 李萌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the image characteristic of SAPHO syndrome by X-ray and CT findings as well as 99mTC-MDP bone imaging for accurate diagnosis of this entity. Methods The imaging prop⁃erty was examined on X-ray, CT and 99mTC-MDP bone imaging in 22 cases and compared with the advantag⁃es and disadvantages. Results SAPHO syndrome presented distinctive features by different imaging technique, and the nature appeared prominent on X-ray and CT images, yet was more sensitive to 99mTC-MDP. Conclu⁃sion Patients with suspected SAPHO syndrome may receive early examination by X-ray or CT, and addition⁃al nuclide bone imaging, as appropriate, may improve the diagnostic accuracy.%目的:比较分析SAPHO综合征X线、CT和核素骨显像影像特征,提高本病正确诊断率。方法通过对该病22例的X线、CT和核素骨显像图像分析,总结各自的影像学特性,并对比各自的优缺点。结果 SAPHO综合征在各种成像上都有特征性的表现,但X线、CT特征性更突出,而核素骨显像敏感性更高。结论对可疑SAPHO综合征患者,应及早行X线或CT检查,必要时加做核素骨显像来提高诊断准确率。

  8. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Charwat-Pessler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT, through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.

  9. Radiation dose and cancer risk in patients undergoing multiple radiographs in intravenous urography X-ray examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, I. I.; Al-Jabri, Amna J.; Badawi, A. A.; Halato, M. A.; Alzimami, K.; Sulieman, A.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the this study was to measure the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and body organs, and the effective doses in intravenous urography (IVU) X-ray examinations in Sudanese hospitals. Seventy-two patients who underwent IVU multiple radiographs from five hospitals (six rooms) were examined. ESAK was calculated from incident air kerma (Ki) using patient exposure parameters and tube output Y(d). Dose calculations were performed using CALDOSE X 5.1 Monte Carlo-based software. Risk of cancer induction (4-8) and mortality per million (2-4) varied. The gallbladder, colon, stomach, gonads and uterus received organ doses of 5.3, 3.6, 3.2, 0.61, and 0.8 mGy, respectively. ESAK values ranged from 6.6 to 15.3 mGy (effective doses: 0.70-1.6 mSv). Mean ESAK fall slightly above the diagnostic reference level. Several optimization strategies to improve dose performance were discussed. Reducing the number of radiographs and the use of technique charts according to patient sizes and anatomic areas are among the most important dose optimization tools in IVU.

  10. The performance of MRI in detecting subarticular bone erosion of sacroiliac joint in patients with spondyloarthropathy: A comparison with X-ray and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Libin [Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Huang, Zhenguo, E-mail: zhuang680911@163.com [Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Xuezhe [Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Yanyan [Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Guochun [Department of Rheumatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Wu [Department of Radiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • MRI 3D-WS-bSSFP sequence has high spatial resolution and short scanning time. • This is the first time this sequence was applied to detect bone erosion of SI joint. • Its performance was compared with other commonly used diagnostic methods. • Result shows that this sequence is better than X-ray and T1W in the detection of bone erosion. • This sequence can be considered an alternative to CT in showing erosion in SpA patients. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of detecting subarticular bone erosion of sacroiliac (SI) joint in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) using MRI three-dimensional water selective balanced steady-state free precession sequence (3D-WS-bSSFP) and T1-weighted (T1W) sequence. Materials and methods: Radiography, CT and MRI of SI joint from 43 SpA patients were retrospectively analyzed. MRI examination sequences include T1W, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and 3D-WS-bSSFP. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, independently determined bone erosion at bilateral sacral and iliac sides of the SI joint on radiography, CT, T1W and 3D-WS-bSSFP respectively. X{sup 2} test was used to compare the sensitivity of detecting bone erosion among different diagnostic methods. Results: Of the 86 sacral and 86 iliac articular surfaces from the 43 cases, radiography, CT, MRI T1W and 3D-WS-bSSFP showed the presence of bone erosion in 40, 74, 50 and 71 articular surfaces respectively. CT and MRI 3D-WS-bSSFP demonstrated similar sensitivity (x{sup 2} = 0.11, P = 0.74), and both were superior to radiography (x{sup 2} = 15.17, P < 0.01 and x{sup 2} = 12.78, P < 0.01, respectively) and T1W (x{sup 2} = 7.26, P < 0.01 and x{sup 2} = 5.62, P < 0.05). Using CT diagnosis as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of detecting bone erosion for MRI 3D-WS-bSSFP and T1W sequences were 91.8%, 96.9%, and 60.8%, 94.9% respectively. Conclusion: MRI 3D-WS-bSSFP sequence is associated with short scanning time

  11. Can routine trauma bay chest x-ray be bypassed with an extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soult, Michael C; Weireter, Leonard J; Britt, Rebecca C; Collins, Jay N; Novosel, Timothy J; Reed, Scott F; Britt, L D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using ultrasound (US) in place of portable chest x-ray (CXR) for the rapid detection of a traumatic pneumothorax (PTX) requiring urgent decompression in the trauma bay. All patients who presented as a trauma alert to a single institution from August 2011 to May 2012 underwent an extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST). The thoracic cavity was examined using four-view US imaging and were interpreted by a chief resident (Postgraduate Year 4) or attending staff. US results were compared with CXR and chest computed tomography (CT) scans, when obtained. The average age was 37.8 years and 68 per cent of the patients were male. Blunt injury occurred in 87 per cent and penetrating injury in 12 per cent of activations. US was able to predict the absence of PTX on CXR with a sensitivity of 93.8 per cent, specificity of 98 per cent, and a negative predictive value of 99.9 per cent compared with CXR. The only missed PTX seen on CXR was a small, low anterior, loculated PTX that was stable for transport to CT. The use of thoracic US during the FAST can rapidly and safely detect the absence of a clinically significant PTX. US can replace routine CXR obtained in the trauma bay and allow more rapid initiation of definitive imaging studies.

  12. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  13. Fundamental study of nanoDot OSL dosimeters for entrance skin dose measurement in diagnostic x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Tohru; Kobayashi, Ikuo [Nagase Landauer, Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroaki; Takegami, Kazuki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi [Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In order to manage the patient exposure dose in X-ray diagnosis, it is preferred to evaluate the entrance skin dose; although there are some evaluations about entrance skin dose, a small number of report has been published for direct measurement of patient. We think that a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, named nanoDot, can achieve a direct measurement. For evaluations, the corrections of angular and energy dependences play an important role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the angular and the energy dependences of nanoDot. Materials and Methods We used commercially available X-ray diagnostic equipment. For angular dependence measurement, a relative response of every 15 degrees of nanoDot was measured in 40-140 kV X-ray. And for energy dependence measurement, mono-energetic characteristic X-rays were generated using several materials by irradiating the diagnostic X-rays, and the nanoDot was irradiated by the characteristic X-rays. We evaluated the measured response in an energy range of 8.1-75.5 keV. In addition, we performed Monte-Carlo simulation to compare experimental results. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of Monte-Carlo simulation. The angular dependence of nanoDot was almost steady with the response of 0 degrees except for 90 and 270 degrees. Furthermore, we found that difference of the response of nanoDot, where the nanoDot was irradiated from the randomly set directions, was estimated to be at most 5%. On the other hand, the response of nanoDot varies with the energy of incident X-rays; slightly increased to 20 keV and gradually decreased to 80 keV. These results are valuable to perform the precise evaluation of entrance skin dose with nanoDot in X-ray diagnosis. Conclusion The influence of angular dependence and energy dependence in X-ray diagnosis is not so large, and the nanoDot OSL dosimeter is considered to be suitable dosimeter for direct measurement of entrance surface dose of patient.

  14. Osteopoikilosis: A Cause of Elevated Bone Mineral Density on Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement in a Young Woman: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asylbek Kaparov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis (OPK is an asymptomatic, rare bone dysplasia. It causes an increase in bone density. The etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. OPK is generally diagnosed incidentally on plain radiographies which were performed for other locomotor system symptoms. Diagnostic lesions of OPK are typically diffuse, round, symmetrically shaped sclerotic bone areas. Laboratory findings and bone scintigraphy are usually normal. OPK should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteoblastic bone disorders. OPK is a benign disease and invasive diagnostic procedures as well as aggressive treatment modalities should be avoided. In young individuals who have elevated scores on dual-energy X-Ray absoptiometry measurement, OPK as well as other sclerosing bone disorders would be considered. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:25-8

  15. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI and bone mineral density (BMD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93 and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87 for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women.

  16. Effects of metal implants on whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral content and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, L.M. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Kinesiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of metal implants on measurements of bone mineral content and body composition by x-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry. Four whole-body dual-photon absorptiometry scans were performed on 13 participants with metal rods either present or absent during the scans. The influence of the amount of metal (50 g, 100 g and 150 g), the proximity of the metal rod to the x-ray source and the reproducibility of any metal-induced effects were evaluated by altering the position or the size of the metal rod used, or both. The presence of metal rods weighing 100 g or 150 g significantly increased reported total body mass and bone mineral content (p < 0.034). Soft-tissue mass was increased when the scan included the 100-g rod (p < 0.003). The proximity of the metal to the x-ray source did not have a significant influence on the body composition changes induced by the metal. The effects of the metal rods on body composition variables were reproducible. The presence of metal rods inflated body composition variables measured by dual-photon absorptiometry; however, the effects are reproducible during repeat scans of an individual patient. Metal had the largest impact on whole-body bone mineral content, causing errors of 1.5%-3%. (author)

  17. Chest X Ray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Chest X Ray A chest x ray is a fast and painless imaging test ... tissue scarring, called fibrosis. Doctors may use chest x rays to see how well certain treatments are ...

  18. [Induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes of male mice after subchronic exposure to x-rays and bisphenol A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzikowska, Joanna; Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and xenoestrogens are widely present in the human environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, epoxy and polyester resins. BPA is present in a great variety of products including: baby bottles, compact disks, thermal paper, safety helmets, bullet resistant laminate, plastic windows, car parts, adhesives, protective coatings, powder paints, polycarbonate bottles and containers, the sheathing of electrical and electronic parts, dental fillings. Food and beverage cans are protected from rusting and corrosion by the application of epoxy resins as inner coatings. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive materials in industry, agriculture and research cause radiation exposure in addition to natural exposure coming from cosmic rays and naturally occurring radioactive substances. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of bisphenol A, X-rays and combined exposure to X-rays and bisphenol A on the induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood and in bone marrow reticulocytes of laboratory mice. Pzh-Sfis male mice were exposed for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with bisphenol A diluted in drinking water (5 mg/kg bw, 10 mg/kg bw, 20 mg/kg bw), irradiated 0.05 Gy of X-rays or exposed to a combination of both (0.05 Gy + 5 mg/kg bw BPA). The samples of peripheral blood were taken at 1, 4 and 8 week following the start of exposure, whereas the bone marrow after the end of experiment, only. The induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes were evaluated by using fluorescence microscope. Bisphenol A as well as ionizing radiation stimulated induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood and bone marrow reticulocytes. After the irradiation the level of micronuclei increased, whereas after exposure to BPA decreased related to time expired from beginning of experiment. Combined exposure of ionizing radiation and bisphenol A induced significantly higher frequency of micronuclei compared to the effect

  19. 浅谈基层部队X线检查的防护%Discussion on Protection of X-ray Examination in Primary Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志强; 田兴; 何湘

    2011-01-01

    Objective To put forward effective measures and methods to reinforce protection of X-ray examination in primary units. Methods Based on the damage principle and X-ray examination protection in primary units, some measures for X-ray examination protection in primary units were put forward. Results The measures included designing the machine room reasonably, improving the operation ability of the staff, controlling unnecessary X ray strictly and strengthening management and supervision. Conclusion Protection of X-ray examination in primary units should be reinforced and X-protection measures should be taken feasibly so as to ensure people's security.%目的:探讨有效加强基层部队X线检查防护的措施和方法.方法:通过分析X线对人体造成损害的具体原理以及基层部队的防护现状,根据X线防护的基本原则,针对性地提出基层部队的X线检查防护措施.结果:总结了包括合理设计布置机房、工作人员提高操作水平、严格控制不必要的射线、加强管理监督等在内的基层部队X线检查防护的具体措施.结论:基层部队要加强X线检查的防护,切实做好防护工作,确保人员安全.

  20. Analysis of Missed Diagnosis of Rib Fracture X-ray Examination%肋骨骨折X线检查漏诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印万庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of X-ray missed diagnosis of rib fracture of rib fracture, improve the detection rate of X-ray plain film. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2008 January to 2012 December in our hospital 410 cases of rib fractures in patients with clinical data. The Results of the first X-ray films showed no rib fracture in 19 cases, accounted for 4.63% of the total cases. Conclusion the X-ray examination is an important means of diagnosis of rib fracture, check the position clear, and proper posture and suitable projection condition is the key to reduce missed diagnosis.%目的:分析肋骨骨折X线漏诊的原因,提高肋骨骨折X线平片的检出率。方法回顾性分析2008年1月~2012年12月对我院410例肋骨骨折患者临床资料。结果首次X线平片未发现肋骨骨折19例,占总病例的4.63%。结论 X线检查是诊断肋骨骨折的重要手段,明确的检查部位,以及适当的体位和合适的投照条件是减少漏诊的关键。

  1. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that GBR bioactives increase bone density, which might be via the activation of zinc formation and increased calcium content, and that X-ray edge detection technique is effective in the measurement of bone density and can be employed effectively in this respect. PMID:24187491

  2. Bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in preterm newborns compared with full-term peers in the first six months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia S. Quintal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally assess bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, and whole-body lean mass obtained through bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in preterm newborns (PTNs and compare them with full-term newborns (FTNs from birth to 6 months of corrected postnatal age. METHODS: A total of 28 adequate for gestational age (AGA newborns were studied: 14 preterm and 14 full-term newborns. DXA was used to determine BMC, BMD, and lean mass in three moments: 40 weeks corrected post-conceptual age, as well as 3 and 6 months of corrected postnatal age. PTNs had gestational age ≤ 32 weeks at birth and were fed their mother's own milk or milk from the human milk bank. RESULTS: All infants had an increase in BMC, BMD, and lean body mass values during the study. PTNs had lower BMC, BMD, and lean mass at 40 weeks of corrected post-conceptual age in relation to FTNs (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.047, respectively. However, there was an acceleration in the mineralization process of PTNs, which was sufficient to achieve the normal values of FTNs at 6 months of corrected age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a good method for the assessment of body composition parameters at baseline, and at the follow-up of these PTNs.

  3. Bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in preterm newborns compared with full-term peers in the first six months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintal, Virginia S; Diniz, Edna M A; Caparbo, Valeria de F; Pereira, Rosa M R

    2014-01-01

    To longitudinally assess bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and whole-body lean mass obtained through bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in preterm newborns (PTNs) and compare them with full-term newborns (FTNs) from birth to 6 months of corrected postnatal age. A total of 28 adequate for gestational age (AGA) newborns were studied: 14 preterm and 14 full-term newborns. DXA was used to determine BMC, BMD, and lean mass in three moments: 40 weeks corrected post-conceptual age, as well as 3 and 6 months of corrected postnatal age. PTNs had gestational age ≤ 32 weeks at birth and were fed their mother's own milk or milk from the human milk bank. All infants had an increase in BMC, BMD, and lean body mass values during the study. PTNs had lower BMC, BMD, and lean mass at 40 weeks of corrected post-conceptual age in relation to FTNs (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.047, respectively). However, there was an acceleration in the mineralization process of PTNs, which was sufficient to achieve the normal values of FTNs at 6 months of corrected age. This study suggests that bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a good method for the assessment of body composition parameters at baseline, and at the follow-up of these PTNs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Examination of funnel chests by X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography: First results and experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raithel, H.J.; Hartung, M.; Gruennewig, B.; Willital, G.

    1983-01-01

    Funnel chest (pectus excavatum) is a congenital malformation of the thorax. Operative correction must presently be regarded as the treatment of choise. In addition to cosmetical and psychological reasons, there are mainly functional aspects justifying a surgery. The indication for surgery results mostly from the objective clinical-diagnostical findings. This article describes the efficiency of both X-ray computerized tomography and also nuclear magnetic resonance tomography (NMR-CAT) which has only recently been introduced to clinical diagnostics.

  5. Radiation dose to adult patients in LS spine X-ray examinations of health centres in one central hospital district in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innanmaa, L.; Petaejaejaervi, M. [Pirkanmaa Polytechnic, Tampere (Finland); Parviainen, T.; Servomaa, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    According to the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/Euratom), the radiation dose to the patient should be measured and the doses compared against to the national reference doses. The European Commission has issued quality criteria for x-ray examinations for adults. The criteria to be considered include clinical image quality, examination techniques and radiation dose. The radiation dose caused by x-ray examinations to adult patients should be measured or calculated for at least ten standard size patients (70 kg {+-} 15 kg). At every unit of the department, the radiation dose is determined, at regular intervals, for the most general examinations, at least in one projection. If the comparison dose levels are exceeded repeatedly, both the examination techniques and the radiological units in use must be checked and any corrective actions required must be carried out. The Nordic countries defined Nordic reference dose levels for some X-ray examinations in 1996. In Finland, dose reference levels for adults were given on 8 December 2000. (orig.)

  6. SU-E-T-143: Effect of X-Ray and Cone Beam CT Reconstruction Parameters On Estimation of Bone Volume of Mice Used in Aging Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M; Pang, M; Troen, B; Rudin, S; Ionita, C [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variations in bone volume calculations in mice involved in aging research when changing cone beam micro-CT x-ray and reconstruction parameters. Methods: Mouse spines were placed on an indexed turn table that rotated 0.5° per projection and imaged by a self-built micro CT machine containing a CCD-based high-resolution x-ray detector. After the full 360° rotation data set of object images was obtained, a standard filtered back-projection cone beam reconstruction was performed. Four different kVp's between 40–70 kVp in 10kVp increments were selected. For each kVp two mAs settings were used. Each acquisition was reconstructed using two voxel sizes (12 and 25μm) and two step angles, 0.5° and 1°, respectively. A LabView program was written to determine the total bone volume contained in the mouse's total spine volume (bone plus gaps) as a measure of spine health. First, the user selected the desired 512×512 reconstruction to view the whole spine volume which was then used to select a gray-level threshold that allowed for viewing of the bone structure, then another threshold to include gaps. The program returned bone volume, bone × gap volume, and their ratio, BVF. Results: The calculated bone volume fractions were compared as a function of tube potential. Cases with 25μm slice thickness showed trials with lower kVp's had greater image contrast, which resulted in higher calculated bone volume fractions. Cases with 12μm reconstructed slice thickness were significantly noisier, and showed no clear maximum BVF. Conclusion: Using the projection images and reconstructions acquired from the micro CT, it can be shown that the micro-CT x-ray and reconstruction parameters significantly affect the total bone volume calculations. When comparing mice cohorts treated with different therapies researchers need to be aware of such details and use volumes which were acquired and processed in identical conditions.

  7. Comparison of image quality using a X-ray stereotactical whole-body system and a direct flat-panel X-ray device in examinations of the pelvis and knee; Bildqualitativer Vergleich eines roentgenstereotaktischen Ganzkoerperaufnahmesystems mit der direkten Flachdetektor-Radiografie anhand von Untersuchungen des Beckens und des Knies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, K.B.; Weber, C.; Schwabe, H. [Klinikum der Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; and others

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The novel biplanar X-ray unit 'EOS', EOS Imaging, allows to acquire simultaneously 2 perpendicular planes of full-length spine and limbs and to measure spatially correct angles based on the acquired image data sets. This is to be seen alongside with a low spatial resolution, high investment costs and high operating expenses. The use of the biplanar X-ray unit in morphology based skeletal radiography might improve the cost-benefit-relation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare image quality of the EOS-unit and the flat panel (FP)-technology as reference in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: All 114 patients of the Orthopedic Hospital Dept., who had a biplanar full-length lower limb radiograph and a FP-examination of the pelvis and/or the knee with maximum time interval of 3 months without changes in the clinical and radiological findings were included in the study. All X-ray examinations had been carried out due to clinical indications. Secondary captures comparable to the FP-images were extracted from the electronic EOS-image data sets. 4 radiologists independently from each other compared the visualization of normal anatomical structures of the pseudonymous EOS- and FP-images in a randomized order. Results: In the overview of all readers and all skeletal regions image quality of the FP-images was considered being superior in a mean of 83 {+-} 13 % standard deviation of the pair comparisons (minimum 48 %, maximum 100 %). Image quality of the EOS-images was assessed as being superior in 2 {+-} 3 % of the cases (0 %, 10 %). Image quality of 0.8 {+-} 3 % of the FP-images (0 %, 17 %) and 30 {+-} 34 % (0 %, 100 %) of the EOS-images was estimated as diagnostically inadequate. 30 {+-} 33 % of the pair comparisons (0 %, 100 %) showed a diagnostically inadequate image quality of the EOS-images and a diagnostically good image quality of the FP-images. Conclusion: Image quality of biplanar full-length lower limb X-ray examinations is not

  8. [Comparison of quality on digital X-ray devices with 3D-capability for ENT-clinical objectives in imaging of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knörgen, M; Brandt, S; Kösling, S

    2012-12-01

    Comparison of dosage and spatial resolution of digital X-Ray devices with 3D-capability in head and neck imaging. Three on-site X-Ray devices, a general purpose multi-slice CT (CT), a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) and the CT-mode of a device for digital angiography (DSA) of the same generation were compared using paranasal sinus (PNS) and temporal bone imaging protocols. The radiation exposure was measured with a puncture measuring chamber on a CTDI head phantom as well as with chip-strate-dosimeters on an Alderson head phantom in the regions of the eyes and thyroid gland. By using the Alderson head phantom, the specific dosage of the X-Ray device with regard to different protocols was read out. For the assessment of the high-contrast resolution of the devices, images of a self-made phantom were qualitatively analysed by six observers. The three devices showed marked variations in the dosage and spatial resolution depending on the protocol and/or modus. In both parameters, CBCT was superior to CT and DSA using standard protocols, with the difference being less obvious for the investigation with PNS. For high-contrast investigations CBCT CT is a remarkable option in head and neck radiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Monte carlo simulation of pregnant female phantoms and dose assessment of fetus and pregnant female from diagnostics x-ray at abdomen examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. R.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    Mathematical phantoms of representing the adult female at 0,3,6 and 9 months of gestation were constructed, and organ doses and effective doses were calculated in standard irradiation environment and abdomen X-ray examination. Phantoms were based on the data set of ORNL and MCNP4B, a general-purposed Monte Carlo code was used for dose calculation. Firstly, organ doses and effective doses of pregnant female and fetus for 0.4 and 0.8MeV broad parallel beam incident from AP and PA direction were calculated. Then, the same calculations were performed in abdomen AP X-ray examination. As gestation period went by, effective doses of pregnant woman decreased because major organs were shielded by expanded uterus. Fetus of 9 month is lower than that of 6 month because of shielding effect of placement for AP irradiation.

  10. Usefulness of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound stiffness for the evaluation of bone health in HIV-1-infected subjects: comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantauzzi A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Fantauzzi,1 Marco Floridia,2 Fabrizio Ceci,3 Francesco Cacciatore,4 Vincenzo Vullo,5 Ivano Mezzaroma1 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza – University of Rome, 2Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS, 3Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 4U.O. of Cardiac Rehabilitation, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Istituto di Telese Terme, Benevento, 5Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza – University of Rome, Rome, Italy Objectives: With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the “gold standard” technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate bone mineral status in a group of 158 HIV-1-infected subjects. The primary endpoint was the feasibility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS as a screening tool for BMD. All subjects were receiving stable cART and were virologically suppressed (HIV-RNA <37 copies/mL from at least 12 months. Calcaneal QUS parameters were analyzed to obtain information on bone mass and microarchitecture. The results were compared with those obtained by DXA. Results: No correlations were found between DXA/QUS parameters and demographic or HIV-1-specific characteristics, also including cART strategies. In the univariate analyses BMD, QUS indexes, and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool scores conversely showed significant associations with one or more

  11. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography and histomorphometry for evaluation of chemotherapy effects in trabecular bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Almeida, A. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Braz, D.; Andrade, C. B. V.; Salata, C.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional microtomography has the potential to examine complete bones of small laboratory animals with very high resolution in a non-invasive way. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to bone changes. In the present work, the femur heads of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D histomorphometry using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur heads of rats in both analyzed groups.

  12. Preliminary determination of calcium, phosphorus, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in cortical bone of Chinstrap penguin using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zhouqing; Cheng Bangbo; Sun Liguang; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Zhao Sanping

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) approach was applied to analyzing of Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis Antarctica) cortical bone. The method enabled the in situ determination of Ca and P concentrations and the Ca/P ratio in cortical bone. The preliminary results show that: (1) there is the bone site-related difference for Ca and P concentrations. The mean values for the investigated parameters ( on a dry-weight basis) are: 30.7% (Ca) and 14.9% (P) for the femoral cortical bone, 21.4% (Ca) and 11.5% (P) for wing cortical bone. (2) The variation for the Ca/P ratio in cortical bone is lower than those for Ca and P separately.This is in agreement with the previous report that the specificity of the Ca/P ratio is better than that of Ca and P concentrations and is more reliable for the diagnosis of bone disorders. The authors suggest that further studies be conducted to establish normal values of Ca, P and Ca/P ratio for polar animals and provide a basis for the diagnosis of bone disorders.

  13. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  14. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  15. X-ray today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, U. [Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    The interest attracted by the new imaging modalities tends to overshadow the continuing importance of projection radiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, projection techniques still represent by far the greatest proportion of diagnostic imaging examinations, and play an essential role in the growing number of advanced interventional procedures. This article describes some of the latest developments in X-ray imaging technology, using two products from the Philips range as examples: the Integris Allura cardiovascular system with 3D image reconstruction, and the BV Pulsera: a high-end, multi-functional mobile C-arm system with cardiac capabilities. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of femur of orchiectomized Guinea pigs by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanislau, Cristiane de Abreu; Rahal, Sheila Canavese; Araujo, Fabio Andre Pinheiro de, E-mail: crisestanislau@hotmail.co, E-mail: sheilacr@fmvz.unesp.b, E-mail: fabioandre@fmvz.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinaria; Sergio Swain Muller, E-mail: diretoria@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino, E-mail: louzada@fmva.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Estanislau, Caroline de Abreu, E-mail: caestanis@hotmail.co

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of castration on bones in the male guinea pigs and to observe whether mechanical testing correlates with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twelve male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 21-27 days, and with average initial weight of 279 grams were used. The animals were equally allocated to two groups: GI - orchiectomized animals and GII - intact control animals. They underwent euthanasia at seven months following surgery. DXA measurement was performed at the mid third of the right femoral diaphysis in the cortical region and at the left femoral neck in order to verify its correlation with results of mechanical testing. Three-point bending test of right femur and axial compression test of left femur were performed. Bone mineral density of GI was significantly lower only at femoral neck. No differences were observed in the maximum load values between GI and GII for both bending and axial compression tests. The bending test revealed lower bone stiffness in GI compared to GII, but in the axial compression test no differences between groups were observed. Only left femur showed positive correlation coefficient between maximum load and bone mineral density according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggest that hormonal deprivation in guinea pigs induces reduction of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck area and reduction of bone stiffness in the mid-femoral diaphysis. (author)

  17. Characterization of very young mineral phases of bone by solid state 31phosphorus magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J E; Bonar, L C; Griffin, R G; Glimcher, M J

    1992-01-01

    The properties of bone mineral change with age and maturation. Several investigators have suggested the presence of an initial or "precursor" calcium phosphate phase to help explain these differences. We have used solid state 31P magic angle sample spinning (MASS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray radial distribution function (RDF) analyses to characterize 11- and 17-day-old embryonic chick bone and fractions obtained from them by density fractionation. Density fractionation provides samples of bone containing Ca-P solid-phase deposits even younger and more homogeneous with respect to the age of mineral than the calcium phosphate (Ca-P) deposits in the whole bone samples. The analytical techniques yield no evidence for any distinct phase other than the poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite phase characteristic of mature bone mineral. In particular, there is no detectable crystalline brushite [DCPD, CaHPO4 2H2O less than 1%] or amorphous calcium phosphate (less than 8-10%) in the most recently formed bone mineral. A sizeable portion of the phosphate groups exist as HPO4(2-) in a brushite (DCPD)-like configuration. These acid phosphate moieties are apparently incorporated into the apatitic lattice. The most likely site for the brushite-like configuration is probably on the surface of the crystals.

  18. Preliminary investigation of mercury in bone tissues of skua and penguin in Antarctica using AFS and Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zhouqing; Cheng Bangbo; Sun Liguang; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was investigated in bone tissues of skua ( Catharacta maccormick) and penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) collected in the maritime Antarctic using atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) method. The total levels of mercury in bone tissues of penguin and skua are much lower than those in other organs ( e. g. , kidney, liver). The toxic effects of mercury in bone tissues of seabirds in polar region are not known. We have used SR-XRF method to map the distribution of trace levels of mercury in bones. The levels of mercury are found to be enriched somewhere near the periosteal surface and/or endosteal surface. The distribution of mercury shows strongly correlation with that of some essential elements and probably poses negative effect on the bone metabolism inferring from the relationship of mercury with the other elements. These studies represent a first step toward understanding the toxic effects of mercury on bone of polar animals by suggesting the possible microscopic investigation.

  19. The estimation of the possibilities of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescent analysis and atomic specrometry for the bone's elemental composition determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, A. M.; Kolmogorov, U. P.; Gladkikh, E. A.; Shuvaeva, O. V.; Beisel, N. F.; Kolosova, N. G.

    2005-05-01

    Possibilities of multielemental highly sensitive techniques of analysis have been studied: synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR XFA), and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively bound plasma (ISP) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame (air-acetylene) atomization for assay of element composition of bone tissue with minimal preparation procedure. Results of comparative studies of elemental composition of bone tissue samples from experimental animals with inherited accelerated aging (rats of OXYS strain) using the SR XFA, ISP and AAS techniques are presented. It is shown that there exists in principle a possibility of assay of 22 biologically important essential macro- and trace elements within the range of 1.0-100,000 μg/g with a mean square analysis error of no more them 10-15% when using SR XFA.

  20. A combined NIR-CI, SEM, ESEM and X-ray nondestructive examination for the characterization of composite polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Loredana E.; Chiriac, Aurica P.

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto the surfaces of methyl methacrylate copolymer with 2,3 epoxypropyl methacrylate to obtain a biocompatibilized composite is evidenced. The polymeric matrix was prepared using β-cyclodextrin as tensioactive as well as with and without the presence of a continuous external magnetic field (MF) of 1,500-Gs intensity during synthesis. The coupling of BSA was made with or without the presence of MF. The presence of BSA on the polymer's surface is confirmed through the nondestructive techniques: near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), SEM, ESEM and X-ray studies. The ζ potential evaluation of the prepared biocompatibilized particles attests their stability. The study also underlines the assistance of the MF in the adsorption process, concretized in the growing of the BSA adsorbed amount onto polymeric matrices.

  1. Luminescence and Valence of Tb Ions in Alkaline Earth Stannates and Zirconates Examined by X-ray Absorption Fine Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Shimizu, Yuhei; Nagamizu, Kouta; Matsuo, Masashi; Honma, Tetsuo

    2017-10-03

    The difference in Tb(3+) green luminescence intensities in doped perovskite(ABO3)-type alkaline earth stannates, AeSnO3 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba), and the Mg codoping effect on the luminescence intensities in doped CaMO3 (M = Sn, Zr) were investigated utilizing the X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) of the Tb LIII absorption edge. It is considered that the local symmetry at A sites is responsible for the different Tb(3+) luminescence intensities in AeSnO3 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) doped with Tb ions at A sites. However, it was found from the XAFS spectra that some Tb ions are unintentionally stabilized at B sites as Tb(4+), especially in BaSnO3. Not only the central symmetry for Tb(3+) at A sites but also the presence of Tb(4+) at B sites were considered to bring about the absence of Tb(3+) luminescence in doped cubic BaSnO3. No obvious changes in the Tb(3+) local structure at A sites were detected between Tb single doped and Tb-Mg codoped CaMO3 (M = Sn, Zr) from the extended XAFS oscillation, but the trace of Tb(4+) at B sites in the Tb single doped sample was observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structures. It is, therefore, considered that the Tb(3+) luminescence enhancement by Mg codoping is primarily attributed to the charge compensation rather than the changes in the local structure around Tb(3+) at A sites.

  2. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Messina, Carmelo; Petrini, Marcello [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo [IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 x CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100 % LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8 % CoV and 2.1 % LSC for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.3 % for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 % for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.2 %, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 %, for BMD; 2.0 % and 5.4 % for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95 %) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98 %) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. (orig.)

  3. X-Ray Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Immler, S; Immler, Stefan; Lewin, Walter H.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of X-ray observations of supernovae (SNe). By observing the (~0.1--100 keV) X-ray emission from young SNe, physical key parameters such as the circumstellar matter (CSM) density, mass-loss rate of the progenitor and temperature of the outgoing and reverse shock can be derived as a function of time. Despite intensive search over the last ~25 years, only 15 SNe have been detected in X-rays. We review the individual X-ray observations of these SNe and discuss their implications as to our understanding of the physical processes giving rise to the X-ray emission.

  4. Quantitative determinations and imaging in different structures of buried human bones from the XVIII-XIXth centuries by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - Postmortem evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, D; Dias, A A; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P; Henriques, F R; Curate, F; Pessanha, S

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a non-commercial triaxial geometry energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) setup and a benchtop µ-XRF system were used to identify postmortem contamination in buried bones. For two of the individuals, unusually high concentrations of Cu and Pb, but also Zn (in one individual) were observed. The pigments of the burial shroud coverings have been identified as the source of contamination. Accurate and precise quantitative results were obtained by nondestructive process using fundamental parameters method taking into account the matrix absorption effects. A total of 30 bones from 13 individuals, buried between the mid-XVIIIth to early XIXth centuries, were analyzed to study the elemental composition and elemental distribution. The bones were collected from a church in Almada (Portugal), called Ermida do Espírito Santo, located near the Tagus River and at the sea neighbourhood. The triaxial geometry setup was used to quantify Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb of powder pressed bone pellets (n=9 for each bone). Cluster analysis was performed considering the elemental concentrations for the different bones. There was a clear association between some bones regarding Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb content but not a categorization between cortical and trabecular bones. The elemental distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb were assessed by the benchtop μ-analysis, the M4 Tornado, based on a polycapillary system which provides multi-elemental 2D maps. The results showed that contamination was mostly on the surface of the bone confirming that it was related to the burial shroud covering the individuals.

  5. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  6. Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients. Comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dose-Schwarz, J.; Mahner, S.; Schirrmacher, S.; Mueller, V. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Gynaekologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Jenicke, L.; Brenner, W. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Habermann, C.R. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Distant metastases at primary diagnosis are a prognostic key factor in breast cancer patients and play a central role in therapeutic decisions. To detect them, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, and bone scintigraphy are performed as standard of care in Germany and many centers worldwide. Although FDG PET detects metastatic disease with high accuracy, its diagnostic value in breast cancer still needs to be defined. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of FDG PET with conventional imaging. Patients, methods: a retrospective analysis of 119 breast cancer patients who presented for staging was performed. Whole-body FDG-PET (n = 119) was compared with chest X-ray (n = 106) and bone scintigraphy (n = 95). Each imaging modality was independently assessed and classified for metastasis (negative, equivocal and positive). The results of abdominal ultrasound (n = 100) were classified as negative and positive according to written reports. Imaging results were compared with clinical follow-up including follow-up imaging procedures and histopathology. Results: FDG-PET detected distant metastases with a sensitivity of 87.3% and a specificity of 83.3%. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of combined conventional imaging procedures was 43.1% and 98.5%, respectively. Regarding so-called equivocal and positive results as positive, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET was 93.1% and 76.6%, respectively, compared to 61.2% and 86.6% for conventional imaging. Regarding different locations of metastases the sensitivity of FDG PET was superior in the detection of pulmonary metastases and lymph node metastases of the mediastinum in comparison to chest X-ray, whereas the sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of bone and liver metastases was comparable with bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen. Conclusions: FDG-PET is more sensitive than conventional imaging procedures for detection of distant breast cancer metastases and should be

  7. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric densitometry in osteoarthritis of the hip. Influence of secondary bone remodeling of the femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preidler, K.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); White, L.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Tashkin, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); McDaniel, C.O. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Brossmann, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Andresen, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sartoris, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of buttressing on bone densitometry measurements in the femoral neck, in Ward`s triangle, and in the greater trochanter. In addition, we attempted to establish the length of the femoral axis (FAL) and the true length of the femoral neck (FNL) as potential correlates with osteoarthritis (OA) or with buttressing. Material and Methods: Our study comprised 101 hips in 68 adult patients. Conventional radiographs of the hip joints were obtained in order to assess the presence and extent of OA by means of the 6-step grading system introduced in 1990 by CROFT et al., and in order to measure the cortical thickness at the medial aspect of the femoral neck. In addition, FAL and FNL were measured. All patients underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry so that bone density could be assessed in the femoral neck, in Ward`s triangle, and in the greater trochanter. The Spearman rank correlation was used to compare the measurements. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between cortical thickness and bone density in the femoral neck and in Ward`s triangle. No correlation was found between cortical thickness and bone density in the greater trochanter, nor between cortical thickness and OA, FNL, and FAL, nor between OA and bone density, FNL, and FAL. (orig.).

  8. Early Metacarpal Bone Mineral Density Loss Using Digital X-Ray Radiogrammetry and 3-Tesla Wrist MRI in Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Longitudinal One-Year Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Early change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is characterised by periarticular osteopenia. We investigated the relationship of early metacarpal digital X-ray radiogrammetry bone mineral density (DXR-BMD change rate (RC-BMD, mg/cm2/month to longitudinal changes in hand and feet radiographic and wrist MRI scores over 1 year. Materials and Methods. 10 RA patients completed the study and had wrist 3T-MRI and hand and feet X-rays at various time points over 1 year. MRI was scored by RAMRIS, X-ray was done by van der Heijde modified Sharp scoring, and RC-BMD was analysed using dxr-online. Results. There was good correlation amongst the two scorers for MRI measures and ICC for erosions: 0.984, BME: 0.943, and synovitis: 0.657. Strong relationships were observed between RC-BMD at 12-week and 1-year change in wrist marrow oedema (BME (r=0.78, P=0.035 but not with erosion, synovitis, or radiographic scores. Conclusion. Early RC-BMD correlates with 1-year wrist BME change, which is a known predictor of future erosion and joint damage. However, in our pilot study, early RC-BMD did not show relationships to MRI erosion or radiographic changes over 1 year. This may reflect a slower kinetic in the appearance of MRI/radiographic erosions, generating the hypothesis that RC-BMD may be a more sensitive and early structural prognostic marker in RA follow-up.

  9. Alignments? X-ray Diversions, Haptics, Credibility--With a 'Bone-Setting' Clinic in Hyderabad City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attewell, Guy

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I engage with the diversions of technologies conventionally used for diagnostic scanning among practitioners who perform fracture-reduction and related manual interventions around bodily pain, ostensibly outside the mainstream orthopedic sector, in the city of Hyderabad, south central India. I attend to the performative dimensions of a technology-practice assemblage, and show how enactments of fracture reduction as viable and credible, targeted at establishment orthopedic surgeons, have been enabled through a distributive agency, afforded by scanning technologies. The use of X-rays and other medical scanning technologies by nonbiomedical practitioners have not displaced haptic and other technics of embodied knowledge, but they have been mobilized in order to create wider recognition of the practitioners' skills. This is a process in which a new configuration of medical practice is constituted.

  10. The Study on Bone Mineral Density Measurement Error in Accordance with Change in ROI by Utilizing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medicine Physics, The Graduate School of Biomedical Science Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA) is commonly used to diagnose Osteoporosis. The errors of DEXA bone density operation are caused by operator, bone mineral density meter, blood testing, patient. We focus on operator error then study about how much influence operator's region of intest(ROI) in bone testing result. During from March to July in 2011. 50 patients ware selected respectively from 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 age groups who came to Korea University Medical Center(KUMC) for their Osteoporosis treatment. A-test was performed with usually ROI and B-test was performed with most widely ROI. Then, We compare A-test and B-test for find maximum difference of T-score error which occurred operator ROI controlling. Standard deviation of T-score of B-test showed 0.1 higher then A-test in femur neck. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0.2 higher then A-test in Ward's area which in Greater trocanter and Inter trocanter. Standard deviation of B-test showed 0,1 lower then A-test in L-1. Bone density testing about Two hundred patients results are as follow. When operator ROI was changed wider than normal ROI, bone density of femur was measured more higher but bone density of L-spine was measured more lower then normal bone density. That means, sometime DEXA bone density testing result is dependent by operator ROI controlling. This is relevant with the patient's medicine and health insurance, thus, tester always keep the size of ROI for to prevent any problem in the patient.

  11. A combined NIR-CI, SEM, ESEM and X-ray nondestructive examination for the characterization of composite polymeric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nita, Loredana E.; Chiriac, Aurica P., E-mail: achiriac1@yahoo.com [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto the surfaces of methyl methacrylate copolymer with 2,3 epoxypropyl methacrylate to obtain a biocompatibilized composite is evidenced. The polymeric matrix was prepared using {beta}-cyclodextrin as tensioactive as well as with and without the presence of a continuous external magnetic field (MF) of 1,500-Gs intensity during synthesis. The coupling of BSA was made with or without the presence of MF. The presence of BSA on the polymer's surface is confirmed through the nondestructive techniques: near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), SEM, ESEM and X-ray studies. The {zeta} potential evaluation of the prepared biocompatibilized particles attests their stability. The study also underlines the assistance of the MF in the adsorption process, concretized in the growing of the BSA adsorbed amount onto polymeric matrices.Graphical abstractNear-infra red chemical imaging was used for information about the spatial distribution of the components comprising the bioactive system.

  12. Dose conversion coefficients calculated using tomographic phantom, KTMAN-2, for X-ray examination of cardiac catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Lee, J K; Lee, C

    2008-01-01

    In this study, organ-absorbed doses and effective doses to patient during interventional radiological procedures were estimated using tomographic phantom, Korean Typical Man-2 (KTMAN-2). Four projections of cardiac catheterisation were simulated for dose calculation by Monte Carlo technique. The parameters of X-ray source and exposure conditions were obtained from literature data. Particle transport was simulated using general purposed Monte Carlo code, MCNPX 2.5.0. Organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were normalised to dose area product (DAP). The effective doses per DAP were between 0.1 and 0.5 mSv Gy(-1) per cm2. The results were compared with those derived from adult stylised phantom. KTMAN-2 received up to 105% higher effective doses than stylised phantom. The dose differences were mainly caused by more realistic internal topology of KTMAN-2 compared to stylised phantom that are closely positioned organs near the heart and shift of abdominal organs to the thoracic region due to supine position. The results of this study showed that tomographic phantoms are more suitable for dose assessment of supine patients undergoing the interventional radiology. The results derived from KTMAN-2 were the first radiation dose data based on non-Caucasian individuals for interventional procedures.

  13. Potential sources of quantification error when retrospectively assessing metacarpal bone loss from historical radiographs by using digital X-ray radiogrammetry: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvesten, Johan; Brismar, Torkel B; Persson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) has been used to measure metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is often measured in existing cohorts where X-ray images were not acquired in accordance with the DXR imaging protocol (DIP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze how deviations from DIP in historical radiographs may affect the reproducibility of DXR-BMD measurements. Cadaver hand phantoms were used to conduct repeat measurements of deviations from DIP with respect to voltage, exposure, lateral displacement, supination, combination of lateral displacement and supination or rotation, extension of the wrist, and edge enhancement. Direct digital radiography (Aristos; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was used for image acquisition and dxr-online (Sectra, Linköping, Sweden) for DXR-BMD measurements. The influence of the tested deviations from DIP ranged from 0 to 32.5 mg/cm(2) (0-6.8%). On repetition with the same specimen, none of the deviations resulted in a within-specimen reproducibility error greater than 2 mg/cm(2) (0.4%, equivalent to a T-score of 0.042). Among the tested deviations, all except tube voltage had a magnitude greater than the normal measurement noise for the technique and must therefore be considered when planning a study based on historical images.

  14. Comparison of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, E; Akram, M; Pi Sunyer, F X

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with the measurement of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by high-resolution peripheral computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) in subjects with a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). We scanned the arms and legs of 49 premenopausal women, aged 21-45 years, with BMI from 18.5 to 46.5, by HR-pQCT and found that there was a nonsignificant change in vBMD associated with increased BMI, whereas aBMD (DXA) was associated with a positive significant increase. HR-pQCT scans a slice at the extremity of the tibia and radius, whereas DXA scans the entire leg and arm. The correlation coefficients (r) of BMD (DXA) of the legs with BMI were 0.552, PD100) of legs and arms measured by HR-pQCT with BMI, W and %fat were not significant. Although HR-pQCT and DXA scan different parts of the bone, the high r of BMD with BMI and low r of bone density measured by HR-pQCT with BMI suggest that BMD measured by DXA is artifactually increased in the presence of obesity.

  15. A technique for evaluating bone ingrowth into 3D printed, porous Ti6Al4V implants accurately using X-ray micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Anders; Shah, Furqan A; Emanuelsson, Lena; Omar, Omar; Suska, Felicia

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to accurately evaluate bone formation within 3D printed, porous Ti6Al4V implants manufactured using Electron Beam Melting (EBM), retrieved after six months of healing in sheep femur and tibia. All samples were scanned twice (i.e., before and after resin embedding), using fast, low-resolution scans (Skyscan 1172; Bruker micro-CT, Kontich, Belgium), and were analysed by 2D and 3D morphometry. The main questions posed were: (i) Can low resolution, fast scans provide morphometric data of bone formed inside (and around) metal implants with a complex, open-pore architecture?, (ii) Can micro-CT be used to accurately quantify both the bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC)?, (iii) What degree of error is introduced in the quantitative data by varying the threshold values?, and (iv) Does resin embedding influence the accuracy of the analysis? To validate the accuracy of micro-CT measurements, each data set was correlated with a corresponding centrally cut histological section. The results show that quantitative histomorphometry corresponds strongly with 3D measurements made by micro-CT, where a high correlation exists between the two techniques for bone area/volume measurements around and inside the porous network. On the contrary, the direct bone-implant contact is challenging to estimate accurately or reproducibly. Large errors may be introduced in micro-CT measurements when segmentation is performed without calibrating the data set against a corresponding histological section. Generally, the bone area measurement is strongly influenced by the lower threshold limit, while the upper threshold limit has little or no effect. Resin embedding does not compromise the accuracy of micro-CT measurements, although there is a change in the contrast distributions and optimisation of the threshold ranges is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  17. Doses to patients from x-ray examinations in Sweden - 1999 and 2006; Patientstraaldoser vid roentgendiagnostik i Sverige - 1999 och 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitz, Wolfram; Almen, Anja

    2008-02-15

    At two occasions, 1999 and during the time period 2003-2006, the health care services in Sweden reported standard patient doses for a number of specified x-ray examinations to the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority. Compared to 1999, the doses had decreased by 30% for conventional x-ray examinations but remained almost unchanged for computed tomography. For mammography a slight decrease of the doses had been observed. For conventional examinations diagnostic reference levels (DRL) had been applied in 1999, and the effect of the related dose reduction measures was seen in the later dose measurements. For computed tomography, DRL was not applied in 1999. For mammography, DRL has been established for more than 20 years, and therefore the margins for further dose reduction were small. The conclusion is that the concept of DRL can give large dose reductions. However, the reference levels must be adapted to the changes that occur in the dose distributions with time. There is a danger that further optimisation is not continued when the doses are below the DRL. Complementary additional effort is needed to stimulate that optimisation work is continued

  18. X-Ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band soft X-ray polarimeters based on Bragg reflection. Developments in scintillator and solid-state hard X-ray detectors facilitate construction of both modular, large area Compton scattering polarimeters and compact devices suitable for use with focusing X-ray telescopes.

  19. X-ray Examination of the Breast Quality Control Explore%乳腺X线检查的质量控制探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学勤; 汪秀玲; 刘洪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality control of X-ray examination of the breast. Methods Summed up the work of the breast X-ray examination of the process, position, quality control. Result The photographic work of preparation, position selection, patient notes and post-image processing and other mat ers is essential to the quality of management control. Conclusion Establishing quality assurance standards, diagnosis and treatment of breast disease is the basic guarantee.%目的:探讨乳腺X线检查的质量控制。方法总结了作者工作中的乳腺X线检查的流程,体位,注意事项等质控事项。结果工作中的摄影准备,体位选择,患者注意事项及图像后处理等事项对乳腺X线的质量管理控制至关重要。结论建立乳腺质量保证标准,是乳腺疾病的诊治工作基本保证。

  20. 乳腺X线检查的质量控制探究%Quality Control of Breast X-ray Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学勤; 汪秀玲; 刘洪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality control of X-ray examination of the breast. Methods Summed up the work of the breast X-ray examination of the process, position, quality control.Results The photographic work of preparation, position selection, patient notes and post-image processing and other mat ers is essential to the quality of management control.Conclusion Establishing quality assurance standards, diagnosis and treatment of breast disease is the basic guarantee.%目的探讨乳腺X线检查的质量控制。方法总结了作者工作中的乳腺X线检查的流程,体位,注意事项等质控事项。结果工作中的摄影准备,体位选择,病人注意事项及图像后处理等事项对乳腺X线的质量管理控制至关重要。结论建立乳腺质量保证标准,是乳腺疾病的诊治工作基本保证。

  1. A study on the effects of a calcium drug on the bone mineral density (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of osteoporosis might contain errors caused by the calcium drug used in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. This study conducted a lumbar spine phantom experiment to examine whether a calcium drug can influence the measured values of the bone mineral density (BMD) because of the drug taken by a real patient remaining undigested in the stomach. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure the BMD for a calcium-drug in an equipment-dedicated lumbar spine phantom and 10 patients selected for the BMD measurement. Three types of drugs that are prescribed in actual clinical practice calcium drugs were used for the phantom experiment, and the drugs were divided into a fixed dose, 1/2 of the fixed dose, 1/4 of the fixed dose and 1/8 of the fixed dose. Without the drugs included, the phantom was scanned 60 times continuously to calculate the baseline BMD. The BMD was measured as the calcium drug coated with paraffin was placed in the lumbar vertebra 2 and the soft tissue region of the phantom. To determine when the drug was invisible to the naked eye are measured, the BMD at different drug dilutions. The measurements were conducted three times to calculate the mean. In the patient experiment, patients were selected who visited hospital after taking the drug before measuring the BMD. After a certain time had passed, the BMD was measured again to examine the difference in images and the change in BMD values due to the calcium-drug intake. The BMD measurements of lumbar 1-4 in the phantom were higher, with statistical significant, than the least significant change (LSC) in the bone region for all three drugs (Ca carbonate, Ca citrate and Ca cholecalciferol), showing a significant increase. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the soft tissue. When Ca Cholecalciferol was used in a fixed dose, the BMD of L2 increased by 11.6%, showing the largest increase among the drugs examined, but only a 2.8% increase in the BMD of L1

  2. Combined bilateral idiopathic necrosis of the humerus and femur heads: Bone scan, X-ray, CT, and MRI findings. Kombinierte beidseitige idiopathische Nekrose der Humerus- und Femurkoepfe: Skelettszintigraphie, Roentgen-, CT- und MRT-Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenburg, R.; Hahn, K. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Doll, G. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik); Grimm, J. (Mainz Univ. (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik)

    1992-12-01

    Untreated aseptic bone necroses close to a joint commonly leads to severe secondary arthrosis and destruction of the joint within a short time. Therefore, only a diagnosis in an early stage of the disease offers the chance of a successful joint- preserving therapy. In cases of clinically suspected aseptic bone necrosis but still negative or doubtful X-ray findings, bone scans or MRI are reliable methods of verifying the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  3. Accuracy of lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the determination of bone mineral content in the thoracic and lumbar spine: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondston, S.J. (Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Singer, K.P. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia) Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Price, R.I. (Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia)); Breidahl, P.D. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia))

    1993-04-01

    Lateral scanning with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was undertaken on 153 thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from nine individuals (mean age 67; range 34-92 years) to establish their bone mineral content (BMC). All specimens were subsequently de-fatted and ashed to compare ash weight with BMC of the T1 to L5 segments. Linear regression analysis indicated a higher correlation between BMC and measured ash weights for each vertebral column (range: r = 0.97-0.99), with error analysis for all vertebrae tested showing a standard error of 0.40 g, or 10.8%. For the L2-4 segments the accuracy error was 0.50 g or 7.9%. In both cases there was a mean trend towards underestimation of ash weight. Mean BMC values of the T1 to T5 segments were similar before a progressive increase caudally. These data affirm the utility of DXA for determining bone mineral content in the vertebral column across wide ranges of age, and segmental and bone density. (Author).

  4. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K E M [FIOCRUZ-Escola Nacional de Saude Publica-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rosa, L A R da [Departamento de FIsica Medica, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Azevedo, A C P [FIOCRUZ-Escola Nacional de Saude Publica-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Guebel, M R N [Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira, UFRJ, 21490-910 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Boechat, M C B [FIOCRUZ-Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Habani, F [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Khartoum University, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-03-21

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 {mu}Gy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira-IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 {mu}Gy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira-IFF Hospital), 161 {mu}Gy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 {mu}Gy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 {mu}Gy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 {mu}Sv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 {mu}Sv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 {mu}Sv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 {mu}Sv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 {mu}Sv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  5. Dose evaluation for paediatric chest x-ray examinations in Brazil and Sudan: low doses and reliable examinations can be achieved in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadain, K. E. M.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Azevedo, A. C. P.; Guebel, M. R. N.; Boechat, M. C. B.; Habani, F.

    2004-03-01

    Radiation protection in paediatric radiology deserves special attention since it is assumed that children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. The aim of this work is to estimate the entrance skin dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) for chest x-ray exposure of paediatric patients in five large units, three in Sudan and two in Brazil, and to compare the results obtained in both countries with each other and with other values obtained by some European countries. Two examination projections have been investigated, namely, postero-anterior (PA) and antero-posterior (AP). The age intervals considered were: 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results have been obtained with the use of a software called DoseCal. Results of mean ESD for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection are: 66 µGy (Instituto de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagão Gesteira—IPPMG Hospital), 41, 86 and 68 µGy (Instituto Fernandes Figueira—IFF Hospital), 161 µGy (Omdurman Hospital), 395 µGy (Khartoum Hospital) and 23 µGy (Ahmed Gasim Hospital). In the case of the IFF Hospital, the results refer, respectively, to rooms 1, 2 and for the six mobile equipments. The reference dose values given by the European Guidelines were exceeded in the Khartoum Hospital whilst in all the other hospitals results obtained were below CEC reference values and comparable with the results found in Sweden, Germany, Spain and Italy. The mean E for the same age interval was 11 µSv in the IPPMG, 6, 15 and 11 µSv in the IFF, respectively for rooms 1, 2 and the 6 mobiles, 25 µSv in the Omdurman Hospital, 45 µSv in the Khartoum Hospital and 3 µSv in the Ahmed Gasim Hospital. These are some examples of the large discrepancies that have been detected in this survey.

  6. Diagnosis of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison between low-field magnetic resonance imaging, 3-phase bone scintigraphy and conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, S.; Dresel, S.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany); Treitl, M.; Krolak, C.; Becker-Gaab, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany); Schattenkirchner, M. [Rheumaeinheit der Medizinischen Poliklinik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Innenstadt, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Besides conventional X-rays, in the diagnostic work up of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3-phase bone scintigraphy (3P-Sz) is as well established as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the newly developed low field MRI with the proven methods X-rays and 3P-Sz. Methods: 65 patients (47f, 18m; 20-86 yrs) were studied on a one day protocol with 3P-Sz (550 MBq Tc-99m DPD), MRI and X-rays of the hands. Images were visually analysed by two blinded nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists and classified as a) RA-typical, b) inflammatory, non-RA-typical and c) non inflammatory changes. All methods were compared to 3P-Sz as golden standard. Results: In comparison to 3P-Sz, low field MRI presents with almost equal sensitivity and specificity in rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes. Conventional X-rays revealed in arthritis-typical changes as well as in inflammatory changes a significantly lower sensitivity and also a lower negative predictive value while specificity equals the one of MRI. Quantitative analysis of 3P-Sz using ROI-technique unveiled significantly higher values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in those with no inflammatory changes. Conclusion: MRI represents an equally sensitive method in the initial diagnosis of rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes in the region of the hands as compared to the 3P-Sz. Besides the basic diagnosis with conventional X-rays, 3P-Sz is still the recommended method of choice to evaluate the whole body when RA is suspected. Additionally, quantitative analysis of the 3P-Sz using the ROI technique in the region of the hands reveals statistically significant results and should therefore be taken into account in the assessment of inflammatory changes. (orig.) [German] Zur Diagnostik initialer Veraenderungen bei rheumatoider Arthritis (RA) werden neben der Projektionsradiographie (PR) im bilddiagnostischen

  7. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be allowed to remain with your child during the test. If you remain in the room during the X-ray exposure, you'll likely be asked to wear a lead apron to shield you from unnecessary exposure. After the X-ray ...

  8. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-rays are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation. The x-rays penetrate the body to form ... for detecting cavities, unless the decay is very advanced and deep. Many ... The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than ...

  9. X-Ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M

    1998-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of X-ray surveys, especially in the hard (2-10 and 5-10 keV) bands, is given. A new detailed comparison between the measurements in the hard band and extrapolations from ROSAT counts, that takes into proper account the observed distribution of spectral slopes, is presented. Direct comparisons between deep ROSAT and BeppoSAX images show that most hard X-ray sources are also detected at soft X-ray energies. This may indicate that heavily cutoff sources, that should not be detectable in the ROSAT band but are expected in large numbers from unified AGN schemes, are in fact detected because of the emerging of either non-nuclear components, or of reflected, or partially transmitted nuclear X-rays. These soft components may complicate the estimation of the soft X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of AGN.

  10. X-ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.

    In spite of the recent advances in X-ray instrumentation, polarimetry remains an area which has been virtually unexplored in the last 20 years. The scientific motivation to study polarization has increased during this time: emission models designed to repro- duce X-ray spectra can be tested using polarization, and polarization detected in other wavelength bands makes clear predictions as to the X-ray polarization. Polarization remains the only way to infer geometrical properties of sources which are too small to be spatially resolved. At the same time, there has been recent progress in instrumen- tation which is likely to allow searches for X-ray polarization at levels significantly below what was possible for early detectors. In this talk I will review the history of X-ray polarimetry, discuss some experimental techniques and the scientific problems which can be addressed by future experiments.

  11. Pelvic X-ray examinations in follow-up of hip arthroplasty or femoral osteosynthesis – Dose reduction and quality criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, Jost Karsten, E-mail: jost.kloth@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rickert, Markus, E-mail: markus.rickert@ortho.med.uni-giessen.de [Department of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Klinikstrasse 33, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gotterbarm, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.gotterbarm@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Stiller, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.stiller@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, Iris, E-mail: stabil@burkholder.de [Department of Nursing and Health, University of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Goebenstrasse 40, D-66117 Saarbruecken (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ewerbeck, Volker, E-mail: volker.ewerbeck@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, Marc-André, E-mail: marcandre.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Pelvic radiographs with speed class 400 and 800 in follow-up of hip arthroplasty were compared. • Radiographs with reduced dose (800) were not inferior to those with standard dose (400). • We recommend speed class 800 as new reference parameter in these examinations. - Abstract: Objective: Digital plain radiographs of the pelvis are frequently performed in follow-up examinations of patients who received total hip arthroplasty (THA) or osteosynthesis (OS). Thus, the purpose was to reduce the radiation dose and to determine objective quality control criteria to ensure accurate assessment. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained. In this prospective randomized study, 289 patients underwent X-ray examination of the pelvis as follow up after receiving THA or OS with standard and reduced dose. The evaluation of the plain radiographs was conducted using the following criteria: bone–implant interface, implant–implant discrimination, implant–surface character and periarticular heterotopic ossification. Two radiologists evaluated these criteria using a score ranging from 1 (definitely assessable) to 4 (not assessable). If a single criterion had been evaluated with a score of 3 or more or more than 2 criteria with 2 points, the radiograph was scored as “not assessable“. The study was designed as non-inferiority-trial. Results: Seven (2.4%) examined X-rays were scored as not assessable. There was no statistical inferiority between the examinations with standard (0.365 mSv) or reduced dose (0.211 mSv). Reduced dose only led to limitations in the evaluation of ceramic components with low clinical impact in most scenarios. Conclusion: Plain radiography of the pelvis in patients with THA or OS can be performed with a dose reduction of about 42% without a loss of important information. The obtained quality control criteria were clinically applicable.

  12. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Messina, Carmelo; Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Petrini, Marcello; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Di Leo, Giovanni; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 × CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100% LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8% CoV and 2.1% LSC for BMD, 1.9% and 5.3% for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7% and 2.0% for BMD, 1.9% and 5.2%, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7% and 2.0%, for BMD; 2.0% and 5.4% for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95%) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98%) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. • TBS is an emerging tool for assessing BMD. • TBS reproducibility is lower than that of BMD. • Differences between imaging modes are not significant for either TBS or BMD.

  13. Diagnosis of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Two years follow up control with a low-field magnetic resonance scanner, 3-phase bone scintigraphy and conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, S. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Klinikum der Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen (Germany); Treitl, M.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Krolak, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Weiss, M.; Tiling, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Besides conventional X-ray, in the diagnostic work up of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3-phase bone scintigraphy (3P-Sz) is as well established as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of a newly developed low field MRI with proven methods such as conventional X-ray and 3P-Sz. Patients, methods: 42 patients were studied using a one day's protocol with 3P-Sz, MRI, and X-ray of the hands with yearly follow up examinations. Images were visually assessed by two blinded nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists and classified as RA-typical and non-RA-typical changes. All methods were compared to the summarised findings interpreted by a rheumatologist in consideration of the Ritchie articular index as gold-standard. Results: 24/42 patients presented with clinical symptoms of initial changes by rheumatoid arthritis. Conventional X-ray revealed in 20/24 patients within the correct diagnosis in the study period. On the other hand 3P-Sz and low field MRI concordantly showed all 24 patients with initial changes due to RA. Time of detection showed variations with a tendency to later findings by conventional X-ray. Conclusions: In the diagnostic work up of initial changes conventional X-ray should be the first choice in imaging. Our findings suggest that MRI represents an equally sensitive method for the diagnosis of initial changes due to RA in the region of the hands as compared to the 3P-Sz. The limitation of the low field MRI is the small field of view, so we prefer 3P-Sz or high field MRI in the diagnosis of patients with suspected RA. (orig.) [German] In der Initialdiagnostik bei rheumatoider Arthritis (RA) werden neben der Projektionsradiographie (PR) auch die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und die 3-Phasen-Skelettszintigraphie (3P-SZ) eingesetzt. Ziel dieser Studie war es, bei Patienten mit Verdacht auf RA die Wertigkeit der PR, der 3P-SZ und der MRT anhand von

  14. Reduction of radiation risks in patients undergoing some X-ray examinations by using optimal projections: A Monte Carlo program-based mathematical calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chaparian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were calculation and comparison of the effective doses, the risks of exposure-induced cancer, and dose reduction in the gonads for male and female patients in different projections of some X-ray examinations. Radiographies of lumbar spine [in the eight projections of anteroposterior (AP, posteroanterior (PA, right lateral (RLAT, left lateral (LLAT, right anterior-posterior oblique (RAO, left anterior-posterior oblique (LAO, right posterior-anterior oblique (RPO, and left posterior-anterior oblique (LPO], abdomen (in the two projections of AP and PA, and pelvis (in the two projections of AP and PA were investigated. A solid-state dosimeter was used for the measuring of the entrance skin exposure. A Monte Carlo program was used for calculation of effective doses, the risks of radiation-induced cancer, and doses to the gonads related to the different projections. Results of this study showed that PA projection of abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis radiographies caused 50%-57% lower effective doses than AP projection and 50%-60% reduction in radiation risks. Also use of LAO projection of lumbar spine X-ray examination caused 53% lower effective dose than RPO projection and 56% and 63% reduction in radiation risk for male and female, respectively, and RAO projection caused 28% lower effective dose than LPO projection and 52% and 39% reduction in radiation risk for males and females, respectively. About dose reduction in the gonads, using of the PA position rather than AP in the radiographies of the abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis can result in reduction of the ovaries doses in women, 38%, 31%, and 25%, respectively and reduction of the testicles doses in males, 76%, 86%, and 94%, respectively. Also for oblique projections of lumbar spine X-ray examination, with employment of LAO rather than RPO and also RAO rather than LPO, demonstrated 22% and 13% reductions to the ovaries doses and 66% and 54% reductions in the

  15. Reconstructing the 3D shape and bone mineral density distribution of the proximal femur from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; De Craene, Mathieu; Del Rio Barquero, Luis M; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-12-01

    The accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis has gained increasing importance due to the aging of our society. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established criterion in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. This measure, however, is limited by its two-dimensionality. This work presents a method to reconstruct both the 3D bone shape and 3D BMD distribution of the proximal femur from a single DXA image used in clinical routine. A statistical model of the combined shape and BMD distribution is presented, together with a method for its construction from a set of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans. A reconstruction is acquired in an intensity based 3D-2D registration process whereby an instance of the model is found that maximizes the similarity between its projection and the DXA image. Reconstruction experiments were performed on the DXA images of 30 subjects, with a model constructed from a database of QCT scans of 85 subjects. The accuracy was evaluated by comparing the reconstructions with the same subject QCT scans. The method presented here can potentially improve the diagnosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment from the low radiation dose and low cost DXA devices currently used in clinical routine.

  16. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  17. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  18. Factors influencing uncertainties of in vivo bone lead measurement using a (109)Cd K X-ray fluorescence clover leaf geometry detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behinaein, Sepideh; Chettle, David R; Marro, Leonora; Malowany, Morie; Fisher, Mandy; Fleming, David E B; Healey, Norm; Inskip, Mike; Arbuckle, Tye E; McNeill, Fiona E

    2014-12-01

    A (109)Cd K X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) measurement system consisting of four detectors in clover-leaf geometry is a non-invasive, low-radiation-dose method of measuring bone lead concentration. Its high precision in estimating the bone lead content makes it a promising tool for the determination of the low levels of lead currently found in the general population. After developing the clover-leaf geometry system, the system was used for the first time in a major survey in 2008 to measure the lead levels of 497 smelter employees (an occupationally exposed group with high lead levels). Since the delivered effective dose of the bone lead system in clover-leaf geometry is small (on the order of nSv), the technique can be used to measure the bone lead of sensitive populations such as the elderly and children. This detector system was used from 2009 to 2011, in a pilot study that measured the bone lead concentration of 263 environmentally exposed individuals (termed the EG group) residing in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In this paper, the factors that influence uncertainties in lead content in tibia (cortical bone) and calcaneus (trabecular bone) are discussed based on gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression models. Results from the two study groups (the EG group versus the occupationally exposed smelter employees) are compared where appropriate (i.e. for males older than 20). Results from univariate analyses showed that females have higher tibia uncertainty compared to males. We observed significant differences for both calcaneus and tibia uncertainty measures (p < 0.0005) among different age groups, where the uncertainties were highest in the lowest age group (<11 years). Lastly, and perhaps most significantly, we found that the product of source activity and measurement time influenced the precision of measurements greatly, and that this factor alone could account for the higher uncertainties observed for

  19. Evaluation of the entrance skin dose due to paediatric chest X-rays examinations carried out at a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M. [Sudan Univ. of Science and Technology, Khartoum (Sudan). Faculty of Sciences. Physics Dept.; Azevedo, A.C.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Mota, H.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica; Goncalves, O.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Guebel, M.R.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pediatria e Puericultura Martagao Gesteira

    2001-07-01

    A dosimetric survey in paediatric radiology is currently being carried out at the paediatric unit of a great hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, aiming the assessment of patient doses and image quality. The aim of this work was to estimate the entrance skin dose for frontal and lateral chest X-rays exposure to paediatric patients. Three examination techniques were investigated, namely PA, AP and lateral positions. For entrance skin dose evaluation, two different TL dosimeters were used, namely LiF:Mg,Ti and CaSO4:Dy. The age intervals considered were 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The results obtained with both dosimeters are similar and the entrance skin dose values evaluated for the different age intervals considered are compared with previous values found in Brazil and also in Europe. (author)

  20. Survey of doses and frequency of X-ray examinations on children at the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa de Azevedo, Ana Cecilia [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca, Centro de Estudos da Saude do Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos 21041-210, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: acpa@ensp.fiocruz.br; Osibote, Adelaja Otolorin [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca, Centro de Estudos da Saude do Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos 21041-210, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bastos Boechat, Marcia Cristina [Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ (Brazil)

    2006-12-15

    Objective: This work aims to evaluate the entrance surface dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) resulting from pediatric radiological procedures with the use of portable X-ray equipments. Materials and methods: The software DoseCal was used to evaluate the doses imparted to patients. The children were classified according to their weight and age groups, and the study included three sectors of the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: A total of 518 radiographs have been performed (424 for chest and 94 for abdomen). The statistical data were compared with previously published results. The BOD is presented for the most exposed organs. Conclusion: The mean value of ESD and E varied widely among neonates. The highest number of radiographs per infant peaked 33 for chest examination in the age group 0-1 year.

  1. Improvements in the estimation of doses to patients from 'complex' conventional X ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzado, A.; Vano, E.; Moran, P.; Gonzalez, L.; Ruiz Sanz, S. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). School of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    A numerical method to estimate organ doses and effective dose equivalent for patients undergoing three 'complex' examinations -barium meal, barium enema and intraveneous urography - has been used. The separation of radiological procedures into a set of standard calculation views is based on the use of Monte Carlo conversion factors and measurements within a Remab phantom. The in-phantom measured radiation doses from such examinations were compared with predictions of the numerical method. Organ doses and effective dose equivalents have been estimated from dosimetric measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters along with measurements of dose x area product during examination performance. Mean values of dose to organs and effective dose equivalent in the area of Madrid are reported. Application of the method is discussed when the values of dose x area product are the only information available from examinations. Estimated organ doses and effective dose equivalents are compared for different levels of simplicity in data recording. (author).

  2. X线与CT诊断骨巨细胞瘤的对比分析%Comparative Analysis of X-ray and CT Diagnosis of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 王玉清; 刘忠岐

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析X线与CT诊断骨巨细胞瘤的临床效果。方法随机抽取44例骨巨细胞瘤患者,均给予X线与CT诊断。结果44例患者以长骨病变居多,占72.7%;X线显示囊状膨胀性溶骨性骨破坏;CT显示骨囊状膨胀性骨破坏,18例病灶液-液平面,软组织密度不均,骨质破坏边缘清晰。结论 X线与CT对骨巨细胞瘤均具有各自诊断特征,结合多种影像学诊断方法,提高确诊率。%Objective To analyze the clinical effect of X-ray and CT diagnosis of giant cell tumor of bone. Methods Randomly selected 44 cases of giant cell tumor of bone were treated patients, X-ray and CT diagnosis. Results 44 patients with long bone lesions are the most common, accounting for 72.7%; X-ray showed cystic expansile osteolytic bone destruction; CT showed bone cystic and expansive bone destruction, 18 cases were liquid-liquid plane, soft tissue density showed bone destruction, clear edge. Conclusion X-ray and CT had their respective diagnostic features of bone giant cell tumor, diagnosis method combining multiple images, improve the correct diagnosis rate.

  3. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, Henry; Jenkins, Mark; Lodwick, Jeffrey [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Full text. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape and radiological characteristics of the midshaft of the human leg and includes tissue substitutes for cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle which have been formulated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to provide the desired characteristics of density x-ray attenuation, and calcium content. The phantom includes a set of simulated tibia bones, each containing a precisely known concentration of stable lead, that can be easily inserted into the leg. Formerly, of a set of plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster of-paris, each containing a known lead content, was the consensus standard calibration phantom. Tissue substitute materials used in the new anthropometric calibration phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the plaster-of-paris phantoms and its realistic appearance provides a practical means of evaluating the variability in measurements results due to the changes in subject-detector positioning. Use of the new anthropometric calibration phantom results in a energy spectrum that closely resembles the spectrum observed when measuring a human subject. The energy spectrum produced by the plaster-of-paris phantom lacks the substantial Compton Scattering component produced by the leg muscle mass which leads to unrealistic estimates of in vivo measurement sensitivity. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for in vivo measurement of stable lead in bone, using an efficiency derived from the new anthropometric phantom, ranges from 18,6 parts per million (ppm) to 26,3 ppm using the K{sub {beta}1,3}/Elastic ratio or the K{sup 1}/Elastic ratio, respectively. These values are significantly greater than the MDL cited in the literature obtained using a efficiency derived the conventional cylindrical plaster-of-paris phantom. Likewise, the realistic shape of

  4. Validation of quantitative computed tomography-derived areal bone mineral density with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in an elderly Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Wang Ling; Wang Qianqian; Ma Yimin; Su Yongbin; Li Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background The performance of computed tomography X-ray absorptiometry (CTXA) against the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as standard has not been studied in Chinese population.The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of this measurement and validate the value of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) by comparing CTXA results with DXA results in an elderly Chinese population.Methods One hundred and three females of 46 to 76 years old and 49 males of 52 to 76 years old were recruited from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study.All subjects underwent hip scans by both QCT and DXA on the same day.For precision determination,30 subjects had duplicate DXA hip scans.The hip QCT data of a subset of 27 subjects were separately analyzed by two observers and reanalyzed by one observer at a different time.The inter-and intra-observer variations of CTXA measurement were assessed,and the difference and correlation between CTXA and DXA results were analyzed.Results The inter-and intra-observer variations of CTXA were 0.070 and 0.024 g/cm2 in the femoral neck (FN),and 0.030 and 0.012 g/cm2 in the total hip (TH),which were comparable to the DXA inter-scan variations (0.013 g/cm2 for FN and 0.014 g/cm2 for TH).The results of CTXA bone mineral density (BMD) were highly correlated with those of DXA (R2 =0.810 for FN and R2=0.878 for TH).The BMD values of CTXA in FN and TH were lower than those of DXA by 21.0% and 17.8% (P<0.05),respectively.However,after appropriate transformation,the difference was eliminated and a comparable T score could be obtained.Conclusions CTXA shows good agreement with DXA for the measurement of BMD in the proximal femur,which makes QCT suitable for the quantification of bone mineral content in the hip and helpful for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Medical Imaging Costs Magnetoencephalography ( ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  8. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... x-ray particles pass through the body. A computer or special film records the images. Structures that ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  11. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... CT Angiography Video: Myelography Video: CT of the Heart Video: Radioiodine I-131 Therapy Radiology and You ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  14. Estimation of doses to patients from ''complex'' conventional X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzado, A.; Vano, E.; Moran, P.; Ruiz, S.; Gonzalez, L. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Catedra de Fisica Medica); Castellote, C. (Hospital Militar Central ' ' Gomez Ulla' ' , Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Radiologia)

    1991-06-01

    A numerical method has been developed to estimate organ doses and effective dose-equivalent for patients undergoing three 'complex' examinations (barium meal, barium enema and intravenous urography). The separation of radiological procedures into a set of standard numerical views is based on the use of Monte Carlo conversion factors and measurements within a Remab phantom. Radiation doses measured in a phantom for such examinations were compared with predictions of the ''numerical'' method. Dosimetric measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters attached to the patient's skin along with measurements of the dose-area product during the examination have enabled the derivation of organ doses and to estimate effective dose-equivalent. Mean frequency weighted values of dose-area product, energy imparted to the patient, doses to a set of organs and effective dose-equivalent in the area of Madrid are reported. Comparisons of results with those from similar surveys in other countries were made. (author).

  15. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry of Both Hips Helps Appropriate Diagnosis of Low Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Garding, Mette-Marie; Molsted, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Controversy still remains regarding the use of bilateral hip scanning when bone mineral density (BMD) is measured, and bilateral hip scanning is not mandatory in international guidelines for screening of osteoporosis. BMD of both hips and the lumbar spine was analyzed in 133 consecutive individuals...... there were no differences in the femoral neck area of the dominant and the non-dominant leg (p = 0.754). When classified by Z- or T-scores, there was consistency in 60 cases (45%) and inconsistency in 59 cases (44%). In 14 cases (11%), T- or Z-scores were the same, and it did not matter whether the non......-dominant hip or the dominant hip had been chosen. A diagnostic discordance of 11% between the left and the right hip was observed when the lumbar spine was evaluated. The lowest Z- and T-scores of the hips were, in 44% of the cases, found in the hip of the assumed dominant leg. BMD measurements of both hips...

  16. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study of the early hydration of α-tricalcium phosphate/tricalcium silicate composite bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, Loreley; Correa, Jose Raul, E-mail: lmorejon@fq.uh.cu [Departamento de Quimica General, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, UH (Cuba); Motisuke, Mariana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carrodeguas, Raul Garcia [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Desenvolvimento de Biomateriais do Nordeste; Santos, Luis Alberto dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais

    2015-01-15

    Bioactivity, osteogenicity and mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) based phosphates cements can be improved by adding tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S); however, the addition of C{sub 3}S delays the precipitation and growth of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Thus, the aim of this work was the study of in situ setting reaction of α-TCP/C{sub 3}S composite bone cement under high energy X-ray generated by a synchrotron source within the first 72h. The results showed that the addition of C{sub 3}S induces the precipitation of nanosized CDHA at early times depending on the added content. Calculated crystallite sizes showed that the higher the content of C{sub 3}S, the smaller the crystal size at the beginning of the precipitation. These results are different from those obtained by conventional XRD method, suggesting that the proposed technique is a powerful tool in determining the composition and extent of reaction of CPCs surfaces in real time. (author)

  17. Cross-calibration of Lunar DPX-IQ and DPX dual-energy x-ray densitometers for bone mineral measurements in women: effect of body anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelainen, J; Honkanen, R; Vanninen, E; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Niskanen, L; Jurvelin, J S

    2005-01-01

    When dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments are replaced, it is essential to determine if systematic differences in measurements occur. As a part of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study (N=14,220), a group of women, aged 36 to 69 yr underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2 to L4 (n=89) and proximal femur scans (n=88) by the Lunar DPX and DPX-IQ, respectively, during the same visit. A high linear association (r from 0.944 to 0.989, p<0.001) between the two scanners was established for lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The average DPX values for BMD were 1.1% and 2.0% higher than those of DPX-IQ for the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and Ward's triangle (p=0.001), respectively. Femoral neck BMD values by the DPX were 1.4% lower (p<0.001) compared to DPX-IQ. The difference between trochanter BMD results (0.1%) was not significant (p=0.809). In the femoral neck and trochanter, but not in the lumbar spine or Ward's triangle, the differences in BMD values of the two machines were found to depend on body mass index. After linear formulas based on simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were calculated, the differences were negligible, enabling objective comparison of longitudinal measurements.

  18. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  19. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  20. Study by X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy of human bones of the pre hispanic and colonial epoch; Estudio por Difraccion de rayos X y Espectroscopia infrarroja de huesos humanos de la epoca prehispanica y colonial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, A.B.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado G, J. [Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso km. 6, Apdo. Postal 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tiesler, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Antropologicas, UADY, 97000 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Diaz F, L.L. [Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    This paper explores the structure of bony remains obtained from different Pre hispanic and colonial Mayan burial contexts and sites. This study was conducted using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy in order to identify the phases and impurities present in the archaeological bones and to measure the degree of hydroxyapatite crystallinity. With it, we aim at examining the potential structural influence that different burial spaces (chamber as opposed to filled burial space), and soil properties (karstic soil, marshland and cenote) had on the bone samples. The sites were chosen from two different time periods: Pre hispanic (before 1519 d.C.) and Colonial (after 1519 d.C.). Some samples were collected from Siho, Mayapan y Oxkintok in the Puuc area. Other come from Calakmul, in Campeche's southeast, from Xcambo on the north coast of the Peninsula, and from the city of Campeche. Additional remains were recovered from the site of Palenque, Chiapas, where the soil contains higher contents of clay mineral than the karstic substrates that characterize the Peninsula of Yucatan. (Author) 40 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. High Energy Vision: Processing X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    DePasquale, Joseph; Edmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature a visual science. The high quality imagery produced by the world's observatories can be a key to effectively engaging with the public and helping to inspire the next generation of scientists. Creating compelling astronomical imagery can, however, be particularly challenging in the non-optical wavelength regimes. In the case of X-ray astronomy, where the amount of light available to create an image is severely limited, it is necessary to employ sophisticated image processing algorithms to translate light beyond human vision into imagery that is aesthetically pleasing while still being scientifically accurate. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of X-ray astronomy leading to the deployment of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, followed by an examination of the specific challenges posed by processing X-ray imagery. The authors then explore image processing techniques used to mitigate such processing challenges in order to create effective public imagery for X-ray astronomy. ...

  2. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  3. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and micro-computed tomography techniques are discordant for bone density and geometry measurements in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ivy L; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to examine agreement among bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) estimates obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and micro-computed tomography (μCT) against high-resolution μCT and bone ash of the guinea pig femur. Middle-aged (n = 40, 86 weeks) male guinea pigs underwent in vivo followed by ex vivo DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A) scanning for intact and excised femur BMC and areal density. To assess bone architecture and strength, excised femurs were scanned on pQCT (Stratec XCT 2000L) as well as on two μCT scanners (LaTheta LCT-200; Skyscan 1174), followed by three-point bending test. Reproducibility was determined using triplicate scans; and agreement assessed using Bland-Altman plots with reference methods being high-resolution μCT (Skyscan) for BMD and bone ashing for BMC. All techniques showed satisfactory ex vivo precision (CV 0.05-4.3 %). However, bias compared to the reference method was highest (207.5 %) in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) measured by LaTheta, and unacceptable in most total femur and cortical bone measurements. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BV/TV derived by LaTheta and pQCT at the distal metaphysis were biased from the Skyscan by an average of 49.3 and 207.5 %, respectively. Variability of vBMD, BV/TV and cross-sectional area at the diaphysis ranged from -5.5 to 30.8 %. LaTheta best quantified total femur BMC with an upper bias of 3.3 %. The observed differences among imaging techniques can be attributable to inherent dissimilarity in construction design, calibration, segmentation and scanning resolution used. These bone imaging tools are precise but are not comparable, at least when assessing guinea pig bones.

  5. X-Ray Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    15,000. • When developed In Kodak liquid X-ray developer for 5 min at a temperature of 200 C. b Film sensitivities vary with photon energy by the...for example temporomandibular -joint exposures where a skin dose of 25 r or more may be obtained during a single exposure with 65 kvp, 1.5 mm aluminum...communication. W. J. Updegrave, Temporomandibular articulation-X-ray examina- tion, Dental Radiography and Photography 26, No. 3, 41 (1953). H. 0. Wyckoff, R. J

  6. X-ray Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Material irradiated by X-rays produces backscattered radiation which is commonly known as the Reflection Spectrum. It consists of a structured continuum, due at high energies to the competition between photoelectric absorption and electron scattering enhanced at low energies by emission from the material itself, together with a complex line spectrum. We briefly review the history of X-ray reflection in astronomy and discuss various methods for computing the reflection spectrum from cold and ionized gas, illustrated with results from our own work reflionx. We discuss how the reflection spectrum can be used to obtain the geometry of the accretion flow, particularly the inner regions around black holes and neutron stars.

  7. Assessment of the effects of laser photobiomodulation on peri-implant bone repair through energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence: A study of dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R. F.; Araújo, N. C.; Carneiro, V. S. M.; Moreno, L. M.; Guerra, L. A. P.; Santos Neto, A. P.; Gerbi, M. E. M.

    2016-03-01

    Bone neoformation is essential in the osteointegration of implants and has been correlated with the repair capacity of tissues, the blood supply and the function of the cells involved. Laser therapy accelerates the mechanical imbrication of peri-implant tissue by increasing osteoblastic activity and inducing ATP, osteopontin and the expression of sialoproteins. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess peri-implant bone repair using the tibia of dogs that received dental implants and laser irradiation (AsGaAl 830nm - 40mW, CW, f~0.3mm) through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Methodology: Two groups were established: G1 (Control, n=20; two dental implants were made in the tibia of each animal; 10 animals); G2 (Experimental, n=20, two dental implants were made in the tibia each animal + Laser therapy; 10 animals). G2 was irradiated every 48 hours for two weeks, with a total of seven sessions. The first irradiation was conducted during the surgery, at which time a point in the surgical alveolus was irradiated prior to the placement of the implant and four new spatial positions were created to the North, South, East and West (NSEW) of the implant. The subsequent sessions involved irradiation at these four points and at one infra-implant point (in the direction of the implant apex). Each point received 4J/cm2 and a total dose of 20J/cm2 per session (treatment dose=140J/cm2). The specimens were removed 15 and 30 days after the operation for the EDXRF test. The Mann- Whitney statistical test was used to assess the results. Results: The increase in the calcium concentration in the periimplant region of the irradiated specimens (G2) was statistically significant (p < 0.05), when compared with the control group (G1). Conclusion: The results of the present study show that irradiation with the AsGaAl laser promoted an acceleration in bone repair in the peri-implant region.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a physician with ... not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... any possibility you are pregnant. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient for both ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... on a patient. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

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  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  9. Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David T.; Langer, William H.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural background levels of Libby-type amphibole in the sediment of the Libby valley in Montana have not, up to this point, been determined. The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary findings of a study designed by both the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and performed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The study worked to constrain the natural background levels of fibrous amphiboles potentially derived from the nearby Rainy Creek Complex. The material selected for this study was sampled from three localities, two of which are active open-pit sand and gravel mines. Seventy samples were collected in total and examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. All samples contained varying amounts of feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, quartz, clay minerals, pyroxene minerals, and non-fibrous amphiboles such as tremolite, actinolite, and magnesiohornblende. Of the 70 samples collected, only three had detectable levels of fibrous amphiboles compatible with those found in the rainy creek complex. The maximum concentration, identified here, of the amphiboles potentially from the Rainy Creek Complex is 0.083 percent by weight.

  10. Surface characterization of 7S and 11S globulin powders from soy protein examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Qingjun; Du, Fangling; Ao, Qiang; Liu, Jie

    2011-09-01

    In this study the surface composition of 7S and 11S globulin powders from soybean proteins by aqueous buffer and reverse micelle extractions had been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by XPS revealed that the O and N atomic percentage of 7S and 11S globulin surfaces from bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelle was higher than from aqueous buffer, but the C atomic percentage was lower. The O/C ratio of the 7S globulin powder from aqueous buffer and reverse micelle was similar while significant differences were obtained in the O/C ratio of the 11S globulin powder, N/C atom ratios of the 7S and 11S globulin powders and high-resolution XPS C 1s, N 1s, O 1s spectra. Powder microstructure after reverse micelle treatment showed the presence of small pores, indicating the effect of reverse micelle on the 7S and 11S globulin structure. The obtained results indicated that the reverse micelle could affect the C, O and N components on the surface of soybean proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative study of X-ray photographic feature in bone injuries between industrial and endemic fluorosis%工业性和地方性氟病骨损伤X线征象的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文朋; 徐建; 刘克俭; 李长城; 刘晓利; 崔彩岩

    2012-01-01

    Objective Through the skeleton X-ray detection on industrial and endemic fluorosis patients, to explore the differences and its reasons of X-ray photographic features in two different types of fluorosis. Methods All 60 cases of industrial fluorosis from a large aluminum plant in Hubei province and 39 cases of endemic fluorosis in fluorosis high-risk region of Enshi area in Hubei province were selected as the subjects. The questionnaire was used for investigation of general situation, past history, present illness history, etc. , biological saimples were also taken, meantime, the X-ray examination on the forearms of the patients was made as well. The data was analyzed with SPSS software system, version 18.0 (SPSS Inc, 2003 ). Results The results showed that the fluorine levels in blood and urine of industrial fuorosis patients were higher than that of endemic fluorosis patients (P < 0. 05 ) ; the clinical manifestations of industrial fluorosis were lighter mainly were joint pain and stiffness while endemic fluorosis always had heavier manifestations, might appear limb-joints activities limitation and limbs slight deformation. The X-ray examination showed that there mainly were osteosclerosis and peripheral osseous ossification, osteoporosis and osteomalacia were seldom, but three types all could be seen in endemic fluorosis (P <0. 01). As for scale division in X-ray examination , there were only slight or mild degree in industrial fluorosis, no severe could be seen, while endemic fluorosis were severe relatively (P <0. 01). Conclusion The results showed that there were some differences in X-ray photographs between two types of fluorosis, the bone injuries in industrial fluorosis mainly were the mild osteosclerosis and peripheral osseous ossification types, however, the endemic fluorosis, bone injuries mianly were mixed types.%目的 通过对工业性和地方性氟病患者进行骨骼X线检测,探究两种不同类型骨损伤X线的

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy November 8 is the International Day of Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  13. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, J.S.; Dobritz, M.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Baum, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wolf, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD{sub MDCT} values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. (orig.)

  14. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    every six months. RESULTS: DXR BMD decreased significantly only in patients with RA from month 6 and was associated with the mean disease activity. Patients with RA and erosive as well as non-erosive disease showed a significant decrease in the rate of bone loss, greatest in those with erosive disease...... is better than DXA for detecting and monitoring periarticular osteoporosis of the metacarpal bone. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Jan...

  15. Clinical importance of digitized chest X-ray for detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia; Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion von Lungeninfiltraten knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.; Maas, R.; Steiner, P.; Kramer, J.; Bumann, D.; Buecheler, E. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Zander, A.R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Knochenmarktransplantation

    1999-10-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of digitized chest X-ray for the detection of pulmonary infiltrations in bone marrow transplant patients during aplasia. Methods: Digitized chest X-rays of 40 patients (21 female, 19 male) with 'Fever of unknown origin' (FUO) were evaluated concerning radiological signs of pulmonary infiltrations and correlated to clinical findings, blood chemistry, microbiology and bronchoscopy. Additionally, an individual risk profile was established. Results: In 11/40 patients pulmonary infiltrations were detected in digitized chest X-rays (group 1). 10/11 developed an infectious pulmonary infiltration. 29/40 patients developed no pulmonary infiltration (group 2). When fever increased for the first time (initial chest X-ray) a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 46%, 86%, 56%, 81% and for the chest X-rays in process of 61%, 79%, 68% and 73% was found. C-reactive protein and temperature increase occured statistically significantly earlier (p<0.05) in group 1 compared to group 2. The average latency of digital chest X-rays in comparison to c-reactive protein and temperature increase was 6 days. The incidence of risk factors was significantly higher in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Digitized chest X-rays are not a reliable method for primary detection of pulmonary infiltrations after bone marrow transplantation. Individual risk factors have to be taken into consideration to indicate further diagnostic methods such as computed tomography at an earlier time. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Wertigkeit der digitalen Thoraxaufnahme bei der Detektion pulmonaler Infiltrate bei knochenmarktransplantierten Patienten in der Aplasie. Methoden: Digitale Thoraxaufnahmen von 40 Patienten (21 Frauen, 19 Maenner) in Aplasie mit Fieber unklarer Genese wurden nach Zeichen pulmonaler Infiltrate ausgewertet und mit klinischen, laborchemischen, mikrobiologischen und bronchoskopischen Befunden korreliert. Zusaetzlich wurde ein

  16. Development of a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value; Erarbeitung eines Konzepts zur Ermittlung der Strahlenexposition von Patienten bei zahnmedizinischen Roentgenuntersuchungen und Erhebung von statistischen Daten zur Erstellung diagnostischer Referenzwerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, C.; Sering, M. [Oekoinstitut Freiburg e.V., Freiburg (Germany); Poppe, B.; Poplawski, A.; Looe, H.K.; Beyer, D.; Pfaffenberger, A.; Chofor, N.; Eenboom, F. [Pius Hospital, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The research project on the development a concept for radiation patients exposure assessment during dental X-ray examinations and statistical data acquisition for the determination of a diagnostic reference value includes the following issues: Fundamental facts: dental X-ray examination techniques, dose relevant factors and characteristics during X-ray examinations, radiation exposed organs during dental X-ray examinations, dose assessment based on phantoms. Materials and methodologies of the project: TLD measurements using the phantom, calculation of the effective dose during dental X-ray examinations, properties and settings of the reference facilities for the determination of radiation exposure, selection of dental offices, dosimetric measurements, data acquisition and statistical evaluation. Results of dosimetric examinations: results of dosimetric measurements at reference facilities, results of dosimetric measurements in dental offices. Discussion of the concept for the determination of the radiation exposure during dental X-ray examinations.

  17. 骨纤维异常增殖症影像诊断对比分析%Analysis of manifestations of Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone on X - ray and CT Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦林森; 韦东风; 张克池

    2011-01-01

    目的对骨纤维异常增殖症的X线与CT诊断分析.方法回顾性分析54例由病理证实的骨纤维异常增殖症的X线与CT征象特点.结果54例中单骨型33例,多骨型19例,Albright综合症2例.X线表现比较复杂,常见有囊状改变、毛玻璃样改变、丝瓜瓤样改变及虫蚀样改变4种骨改变.CT表现有囊状低密度影、毛玻璃样改变、斑块样硬化.结论骨纤维异常增殖症的影像诊断以X线平片为首选,头颅等较复杂部位的影像诊断以CT为佳.%Objective To analyze the manifestations of fibrous dysplasia of bone(FDB) on X - ray and CT.Methods Fifty - four cases with FDB confirmed by pathology were enrolled in the study and their manifestations of FDB on X - ray and CT were reviewed.Results Out of 54 cases, 33 showed fibrous dysplasia of single bone, 19 showed fibrous dysplasia of multi - bones and the rest two showed Albright syndrome.X - ray performance was more complex with common signs of pouch shape change, rough hyalo- like change, sponge groud- flesh type and moth- eaten type.CT features of lesions were pouch shape low density shade, rough hyalo - like change and motting type hardening.Conclusion X - ray film should be the first choice in diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia.CT is highly sensitive in displaying lesions of more complex parts, like skull.

  18. X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  19. From Trioleoyl glycerol to extra virgin olive oil through multicomponent triacylglycerol mixtures: Crystallization and polymorphic transformation examined with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2017-09-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and transformation behavior of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction with both laboratory-scale (XRD) and synchrotron radiation source (SR-XRD). The complex behavior observed was studied by previously analyzing mixtures composed by its main 2 to 6 triacylglycerol (TAG) components. Thus, component TAGs were successively added to simulate EVOO composition, until reaching a 6 TAGs mixture, composed by trioleoyl glycerol (OOO), 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (PPO) and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO). Molten samples were cooled from 25°C to -80°C at a controlled rate of 2°C/min and subsequently heated at the same rate. The polymorphic behavior observed in multicomponent TAG mixtures was interpreted by considering three main groups of TAGs with different molecular structures: triunsaturated OOO and OOL, saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated POO, POL and SOO, and saturated-saturated-unsaturated PPO. As confirmed by our previous work, TAGs belonging to the same structural group displayed a highly similar polymorphic behavior. EVOO exhibited two different β'-2L polymorphic forms (β'2-2L and β'1-2L), which transformed into β'-3L when heated. Equivalent polymorphic pathways were detected when the same experimental conditions were applied to the 6 TAG components mixture. Hence, minor components may not exert a strong influence in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role for an invariant aspartic acid in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases is examined using saturation mutagenesis, functional analysis, and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyuk, B; Focia, P J; Eakin, A E

    2001-03-01

    The role of an invariant aspartic acid (Asp137) in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases (HPRTs) was examined by site-directed and saturation mutagenesis, functional analysis, and X-ray crystallography using the HPRT from Trypanosoma cruzi. Alanine substitution (D137A) resulted in a 30-fold decrease of k(cat), suggesting that Asp137 participates in catalysis. Saturation mutagenesis was used to generate a library of mutant HPRTs with random substitutions at position 137, and active enzymes were identified by complementation of a bacterial purine auxotroph. Functional analyses of the mutants, including determination of steady-state kinetic parameters and pH-rate dependence, indicate that glutamic acid or glutamine can replace the wild-type aspartate. However, the catalytic efficiency and pH-rate profile for the structural isosteric mutant, D137N, were similar to the D137A mutant. Crystal structures of four of the mutant enzymes were determined in ternary complex with substrate ligands. Structures of the D137E and D137Q mutants reveal potential hydrogen bonds, utilizing several bound water molecules in addition to protein atoms, that position these side chains within hydrogen bond distance of the bound purine analogue, similar in position to the aspartate in the wild-type structure. The crystal structure of the D137N mutant demonstrates that the Asn137 side chain does not form interactions with the purine substrate but instead forms novel interactions that cause the side chain to adopt a nonfunctional rotamer. The results from these structural and functional analyses demonstrate that HPRTs do not require a general base at position 137 for catalysis. Instead, hydrogen bonding sufficiently stabilizes the developing partial positive charge at the N7-atom of the purine substrate in the transition-state to promote catalysis.

  1. X-ray lithography masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  2. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  3. 医用X射线检查中的防护问题及对策%Protection problems and Countermeasures in medical X - ray examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄志年; 房建宏; 崔涛

    2015-01-01

    According to the writer's work experience, we summarized the problems appeared in the protection of X - ray inspection, and puts forward the solving methods.%本文根据笔者工作发现,总结了X射线检查中出现的防护问题,并提出了解决方法。

  4. Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Examination of Artistic Pigments, Paints, and Paintings by Means of X-Ray Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Koen; Van der Snickt, Geert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Legrand, Stijn; Nuyts, Gert; Alfeld, Matthias; Monico, Letizia; Anaf, Willemien; De Nolf, Wout; Vermeulen, Marc; Verbeeck, Jo; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies are concisely reviewed, in which X-ray beams of (sub)micrometre to millimetre dimensions have been used for non-destructive analysis and characterization of pigments, minute paint samples, and/or entire paintings from the seventeenth to the early twentieth century painters. The overview presented encompasses the use of laboratory and synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation and deals with the use of several variants of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a method of elemental analysis and imaging, as well as with the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Microscopic XRF is a variant of the method that is well suited to visualize the elemental distribution of key elements, mostly metals, present in paint multi-layers, on the length scale from 1 to 100 μm inside micro-samples taken from paintings. In the context of the characterization of artists' pigments subjected to natural degradation, the use of methods limited to elemental analysis or imaging usually is not sufficient to elucidate the chemical transformations that have taken place. However, at synchrotron facilities, combinations of μ-XRF with related methods such as μ-XAS and μ-XRD have proven themselves to be very suitable for such studies. Their use is often combined with microscopic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and/or Raman microscopy since these methods deliver complementary information of high molecular specificity at more or less the same length scale as the X-ray microprobe techniques. Since microscopic investigation of a relatively limited number of minute paint samples, taken from a given work of art, may not yield representative information about the entire artefact, several methods for macroscopic, non-invasive imaging have recently been developed. Those based on XRF scanning and full-field hyperspectral imaging appear very promising; some recent published results are discussed.

  5. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... show: Arthritis Fractures Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... dysplasia of the hip Fungal arthritis Gout Osteoarthritis Osteomyelitis Psoriatic arthritis Reactive arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Septic arthritis ...

  6. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. Information entered here ...

  7. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  8. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small dose ... to produce pictures of the inside of the abdominal cavity. It is used to evaluate the stomach, liver, ...

  9. Measurement of bone mineral density at proximal femur by dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry%股骨近端骨密度的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华俦

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry can be regarded as "gold standard" for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up. The measurement of BMD at proximal femur can not only predict an occurrence of the hip fracture but also in the other part of body fracture. The elderly population with high incidence of osteoporosis often combine with many degenerative disease, such as degenerative scoliosis, osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc herniation etc. These pathological changes in the lumbar spine might reduce the accuracy of BMD in anterposterior position. So the measurement of BMD at proximal femur become more and more popular in the clinical trial or diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Europen and American areas in recently. This article reviews the anatomy characteristics of proximal femur, method and purport of measurement of BMD at proximal femur, and refers to some matters must be paid more attention in the procedures of measurement of BMD and facilitate clinicians and technicians to assess the clinical meaning of measurement of BMD at proximal femur comprehensively.%双能X线骨密度仪检测骨密度是诊断骨质疏松症和疗效随访的金标准,特别是髋部骨密度的测量对于骨折的预测尤其测定部位本身骨折的预测作用较大.由于脊柱部位的骨密度测量值易受到脊柱退行性疾病的病理改变如退行性侧凸、骨赘增生、腰椎间盘突出等影响,测量的准确性下降.因而近年来欧美国家临床试验也好或者骨质疏松诊疗也好,大都以股骨近端的BMD测定为标准.本文就股骨近端解剖特点、骨密度测量的意义、方法以及测量的注意点作一个综述,以期帮助临床医生或技术员全面评估股骨近端骨密度测定的意义.

  10. Small animals bone density and morphometry analysis with a dual energy X-rays absorptiometry bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector; Analyse de la densite osseuse et de la morphometrie de petits animaux avec un osteodensitometre bi-energie utilisant un capteur 2D de radiographie numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudousq, V. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 (France); Bordy, T.; Gonon, G.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble (DTBS/STD), Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 38 (France)

    2004-07-01

    LEXXOS (DMS, Montpellier, France) is the first axial and total body cone beam bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector. In previous papers, technical principles and patients' Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement performances were presented. Bone densitometers are also used on small animals for drug development. In this presentation, we show how LEXXOS can be adapted for small animals' examinations and evaluate its performances. At first, in order to take advantage of the whole area of the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} digital radiographic detector, it has been made profit of X-Rays magnification by adapting the geometrical configuration. Secondly, as small animals present low BMD, a specific dual energy calibration has been defined. This adapted system has then been evaluated on two sets of mice: six reference mice and six ovariectomized mice. Each month, these two populations have been examined and the averaged total body BMD has been measured. This evaluation shows that the right order of BMD magnitude is obtained and, as expected, BMD increases on two sets until a period around puberty and the ovariectomized set presents a significant decrease after. Moreover, the bone image obtained by dual energy processing on LEXXOS presents a radiographic image quality providing useful complementary information on bone morphometry and architecture. This study shows that LEXXOS cone beam bone densitometer provides simultaneously useful quantitative and qualitative information for analysis of bone evolution on small animals. In the future, same system architecture and processing methodology can be used with higher resolution detectors in order to refine information on bone architecture. (authors)

  11. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  18. X-ray selected BALQSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Ceballos, M; Corral, A; Ebrero, J; Esquej, P; Krumpe, M; Mateos, S; Rosen, S; Schwope, A; Streblyanska, A; Symeonidis, M; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2016-01-01

    We study a sample of six X-ray selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey. All six objects are classified as BALQSOs using the classic balnicity index, and together they form the largest sample of X-ray selected BALQSOs. We find evidence for absorption in the X-ray spectra of all six objects. An ionized absorption model applied to an X-ray spectral shape that would be typical for non-BAL QSOs (a power law with energy index alpha=0.98) provides acceptable fits to the X-ray spectra of all six objects. The optical to X-ray spectral indices, alpha_OX, of the X-ray selected BALQSOs, have a mean value of 1.69 +- 0.05, which is similar to that found for X-ray selected and optically selected non-BAL QSOs of similar ultraviolet luminosity. In contrast, optically-selected BALQSOs typically have much larger alpha_OX and so are characterised as being X-ray weak. The results imply that X-ray selection yields intrinsically X-ray bright BALQSOs, but their X-ray sp...

  19. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  20. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and biological applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Lopes; I Lima; G R Pereira; C A Perez

    2011-02-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to study bone sites of human and animal samples with and without bone disorders.

  1. Characterization of Metalloproteins and Biomaterials by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl

    This thesis presents thework on combining complementary X-rays techniques for studying the structures of proteins and other biomaterials, and consists of three different projects: (i) Characterization of protein powders with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). (ii) The combination of X......-ray crystallography and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) applied to studying different hexameric insulin conformations. (iii) The structures of polymorphs of strontium ranelate and the distribution of strontium in bone tissue. A procedure for fast identification and verification of protein powders using XRPD...... was developed and tested on micro-crystals of lysozyme and insulin. Different protein crystal forms were identified by comparing experimental powder diffraction patternswith patterns calculated from PDB coordinates. The key factor to bring the calculated patterns in agreement with the observed patterns...

  2. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  3. First examination of CASCADE-X-ray-detector and measurement of neutron-mirrorneutron-oscillation; Erste Untersuchungen zum CASCADE-Roentgendetektor und Messung zur Neutron-Spiegelneutron-Oszillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.

    2007-02-07

    The detection of X-radiation is of utmost importance for both fundamental physics and medical diagnostics. This work investigates whether or not the CASCADE detector working principle, first developed for the detection of neutrons, can be adapted for the detection of X-rays. This modular detector concept combines the use of a solid neutron or X-ray converter with the advantages of a counting gas detector. Thus, it gives the possibility to optimize efficiency, dynamics and spatial resolution independently. Firstly, it is necessary to find a suitable converter material that allows for the best possible detector efficiency. In order to do so, a mathematical model of the complete detector system was developed that yields the total efficiency for any given material. Respecting technical constraints, gold and gadolinium showed to be favorable choices. Based on these theoretical considerations a prototype of a CASCADE X-ray detector was built, and measurements for the determination of this detector's efficiency were conducted. In the second part of this work a CASCADE neutron detector was used to conduct the first measurement the neutron-mirrorneutron oscillation time. Mirrormatter was proposed in 1956 by Lee and Yang to allow for symmetry in the description of the universe despite the existence of parity violation. By using neutrons it was possible to determine a lower limit for the oscillation time in this work. (orig.)

  4. X-ray lithography source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  5. Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and radiography system for archaeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna, E-mail: ariadna@mail.or [Archaeometry Laboratory, Colegio Universitario San Geronimo de La Habana, Obispo, entre San Ignacio y Mercaderes, Habana Vieja, cp 10 100, Havana (Cuba); Perez Gravie, Homero, E-mail: homero.perezgravie@mail.co [Archaeometry Laboratory, Colegio Universitario San Geronimo de La Habana, Obispo, entre San Ignacio y Mercaderes, Habana Vieja, cp 10 100, Havana (Cuba)

    2011-03-21

    Starting on a laboratory developed portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometer; three different analytical results can be performed: analysis of chemical elements, analysis of major chemical crystalline phase and structural analysis, which represents a contribution to a new, low cost development of portable X-ray analyzer; since these results are respectively obtained with independent equipments for X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and radiography. Detection limits of PXRF were characterized using standard reference materials for ceramics, glass, bronze and bones, which are the main materials requiring quantitative analysis in art and archeological objects. A setup for simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and diffraction (ED (XRF-XRD)) in the reflection mode has been tested for in situ and non-destructive analysis according to the requirements of art objects inspection. The system uses a single low power X-ray tube and an X-ray energy dispersive detector to measure X-ray diffraction spectrum at a fixed angle. Application to the identification of jadeite-jade mineral in archeological objects by XRD is presented. A local high resolution radiography image obtained with the same low power X-ray tube allows for studies in painting and archeological bones.

  6. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - a compilation of the results from the reports from the Swedish health care 1999; Patientdoser fraan roentgenundersoekningar i Sverige - sammanstaellning av resultaten fraan sjukvaardens rapportering 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitz, W.; Joensson, Helene

    2001-01-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) requested data on patient doses and frequency of x-ray examinations from the 30 licensees with the largest activities. This was comprising five conventional x-ray examinations, mammography and six computed tomography examinations. Patient doses and other relevant data from roughly 400 x-ray stands with an average of 20 patients each were reported. The average of the patient doses was calculated for each x-ray stand and examination type. The average values for the twelve types of examinations varied with a factor up to 15. It must be emphasized that a judgement of x-ray examinations based on one single parameter, the patient dose, is not fair. Low doses may imply poor diagnostic accuracy, high doses may be justified when the patient sample is representing many unusual clinical problems which are leading to more excessive examinations, which might be the case in e. g. university hospitals. Another problem is that the various examination types are not defined unambiguously, meaning that the clinical problem to be solved and hence the extent of the examination may differ between various clinics. Some parameters that are directly influencing the spread in patient dose have been identified, e. g. different sensitivities of the image receptors, different numbers of projections, differences in patient anatomy and different fluoroscopy times. It became obvious that the large dose variations cannot be accounted for by merely medical reasons. This is supported by the response from clinics after being informed that their doses were high. Straight forward countermeasures for dose reduction could be taken as e. g. changing the (insensitive) image receptor, increasing the filtration or modifying the examination methodology. Based on these results SSI will continue with the work of introducing diagnostic reference levels. In addition to numerical values and instructions on how and how often assessments have to be

  7. Bone marrow examination in pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, M; Prabhu; Nandini, N M; Manjunath, G V

    2012-08-01

    Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia. Other causes were nutritional anaemia (16%), aplastic anaemia (14%), hypersplenism (10%), sepsis (9%) and leukaemia (5%). Less common causes were alcoholic liver disease, haemolytic anaemia, HIV, dengue, systemic lupus erythematosus, viral hepatitis, disseminated TB and multiple myeloma. Most of the patients were in the age group of 11-30 years with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1.Generalised weakness and fatigue (88%) were the commonest presenting complaints. Haemoglobin level varied from 1-10 g/dl with majorIty (70%) of them in the range of 5.1-10 g/dI. TLC was in the range of 500-4000 cells/cmm. Most (34%) of them had 3100-4000 cells/cmm. Platelet count was in the range of 4000-1,40,000 cells/cmm. Reticulocyte count varied from 0.1%-15% with majority (82%) of them ranging from 0.1%-2%. The bone marrow cellularity was hypocellular in 14%, hypercellular in 75%, and normocellular in 11% of the patients. Pancytopenia is a relatively common entity with inadequate attention in Indian subcontinent. A comprehensive clinical and haematological study of patients with pancytopenia will usually help in the identification of the underlying cause. However in view of wide array of aetiologies, pancytopenia continues to be a diagnostic challenge for haematologists.

  8. Characteristics of specifications of transportable inverter-type X-ray equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Asano, H

    2003-01-01

    Our X-ray systems study group measured and examined the characteristics of four transportable inverter-type X-ray equipments. X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current were measured with the X-ray tube voltage and the X-ray tube current measurement terminals provided with the equipment. X-ray tube voltage, irradiation time, and dose were measured with a non-invasive X-ray tube voltage-measuring device, and X-ray output was measured by fluorescence meter. The items investigated were the reproducibility and linearity of X-ray output, error of pre-set X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current, and X-ray tube voltage ripple percentage. The waveforms of X-ray tube voltage, the X-ray tube current, and fluorescence intensity draw were analyzed using the oscilloscope gram and a personal computer. All of the equipment had a preset error of X-ray tube voltage and X-ray tube current that met Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) standards. The X-ray tube voltage ripple percentage of each equipment conformed to the tendenc...

  9. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IV: Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy analyses of impact features in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Anna L.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gainsforth, Zack; Stodolna, Julien; Frank, David R.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Burghammer, Manfred; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tresseras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Solé, Vicente A.; Srama, Ralf; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle J.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; von Korff, Joshua; Wordsworth, Naomi; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    We report the quantitative characterization by synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy of 31 potential impact features in the aerogel capture medium of the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Samples were analyzed in aerogel by acquiring high spatial resolution maps and high energy-resolution spectra of major rock-forming elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, and others. We developed diagnostic screening tests to reject spacecraft secondary ejecta and terrestrial contaminants from further consideration as interstellar dust candidates. The results support an extraterrestrial origin for three interstellar candidates: I1043,1,30 (Orion) is a 3 pg particle with Mg-spinel, forsterite, and an iron-bearing phase. I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook) is a 4 pg particle comprising an olivine core surrounded by low-density, amorphous Mg-silicate and amorphous Fe, Cr, and Mn phases. I1003,1,40 (Sorok) has the track morphology of a high-speed impact, but contains no detectable residue that is convincingly distinguishable from the background aerogel. Twenty-two samples with an anthropogenic origin were rejected, including four secondary ejecta from impacts on the Stardust spacecraft aft solar panels, nine ejecta from secondary impacts on the Stardust Sample Return Capsule, and nine contaminants lacking evidence of an impact. Other samples in the collection included I1029,1,6, which contained surviving solar system impactor material. Four samples remained ambiguous: I1006,2,18, I1044,2,32, and I1092,2,38 were too dense for analysis, and we did not detect an intact projectile in I1044,3,33. We detected no radiation effects from the synchrotron soft X-ray analyses; however, we recorded the effects of synchrotron hard X-ray radiation on I1043,1,30 and I1047,1,34.

  10. Examination of historical paintings by state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging methods: from scanning infra-red spectroscopy to computed X-ray laminography

    OpenAIRE

    S. Legrand; Vanmeert, F.; van der Snickt, G.; Alfeld, M.; de Nolf, W.; Dik, J.; K. Janssens

    2014-01-01

    The development of advanced methods for non-destructive selective imaging of painted works of art at the macroscopic level based on radiation in the X-ray and infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum are concisely reviewed. Such methods allow to either record depth-selective, element-selective or species-selective images of entire paintings. Camera-based ‘full field’ methods (that record the image data in parallel) can be discerned next to scanning methods (that build up distributions i...

  11. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  12. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  13. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM-EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  14. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  15. Soft X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Spiller, Eberhard A

    1993-01-01

    This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction.

  16. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  17. Preliminary report for using X-rays as verification and authentication tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Ernst Ingo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-06

    We examined x-rays for the use as authentication and verification tool in treaty verification. Several x-ray pictures were taken to determine the quality and feasibility of x-rays for these tasks. This document describes the capability of the used x-ray system and outlines its parameters and possible use.

  18. X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks after angiographic examinations of different anatomic regions; Strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche nach Angiografien verschiedener Koerperregionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuefner, M.A.; Schwab, S.A.; Azoulay, S.; Heckmann, M.; Heinrich, M.C.; Uder, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.; Grudzenski, S.; Lobrich, M. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Strahlenbiologie und DNA-Reparatur

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in blood lymphocytes as markers of the biological radiation effects in angiography patients. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the phosphorylation of the histone variant H 2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) after formation of DSBs. Blood samples were collected before and up to 24 hours after exposure of 31 patients undergoing angiographies of different body regions. Blood lymphocytes were isolated, fixed, and stained with a specific {gamma}-H2AX antibody. Distinct foci representing DSBs were enumerated using fluorescence microscopy. Additional in-vitro experiments (10 - 100 mGy) were performed for evaluation of DBS repair. Results: 15 minutes after the end of fluoroscopy values between 0.01 and 1.50 DSBs per cell were obtained. The DNA damage level normalized to the dose area product was 0.099 (cardiac angiographies), 0.053 (abdominal angiographies), 0.023 (pelvic/leg angiographies) and 0.004 excess foci/cell/mGym{sup 2} (cerebrovascular angiographies). A linear correlation was found between {gamma}-H2AX foci levels and the dose area product (abdomen: R2 = 0.96; pelvis/legs: R2 = 0.71). In-vivo on average 46 % of DSBs disappeared within 1 hour and 70 % within 2.5 hours. Conclusion: {gamma}-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a sensitive and reliable method for the determination of X-ray-induced DSBs during angiography. The DNA damage level depends on the dose, the exposed anatomic region, and the duration/fractionation of the X-ray exposure. (orig.)

  19. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  20. Cosmic X-ray background and solitars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    In this paper the authors has examined the observational consequences of a class of new astronomical objects proposed by Friedberg, Lee and Pang, called solitars which are degenerate vacuum states embedded with particles. A study is made to include finite temperature effect and pair creation. Quark is believed to be the only species that can exist in the interior of solitars. Massive quark solitars are primarily X-ray emitters and may account for the large unexplained thermal component of the cosmic X-ray background.

  1. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  2. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  3. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  4. Radiation exposure in X-ray-based imaging techniques used in osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Adams, Judith E. [University of Manchester, Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manchester Royal Infirmary, Radiology Department, Manchester (United Kingdom); Guglielmi, Giuseppe [Scientific Institute Hospital San Giovanni Rotondo, Department of Radiology, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Recent advances in medical X-ray imaging have enabled the development of new techniques capable of assessing not only bone quantity but also structure. This article provides (a) a brief review of the current X-ray methods used for quantitative assessment of the skeleton, (b) data on the levels of radiation exposure associated with these methods and (c) information about radiation safety issues. Radiation doses associated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry are very low. However, as with any X-ray imaging technique, each particular examination must always be clinically justified. When an examination is justified, the emphasis must be on dose optimisation of imaging protocols. Dose optimisation is more important for paediatric examinations because children are more vulnerable to radiation than adults. Methods based on multi-detector CT (MDCT) are associated with higher radiation doses. New 3D volumetric hip and spine quantitative computed tomography (QCT) techniques and high-resolution MDCT for evaluation of bone structure deliver doses to patients from 1 to 3 mSv. Low-dose protocols are needed to reduce radiation exposure from these methods and minimise associated health risks. (orig.)

  5. X-ray monitoring optical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvydko, Yury; Katsoudas, John; Blank, Vladimir D.; Terentyev, Sergey A.

    2016-12-27

    An X-ray article and method for analyzing hard X-rays which have interacted with a test system. The X-ray article is operative to diffract or otherwise process X-rays from an input X-ray beam which have interacted with the test system and at the same time provide an electrical circuit adapted to collect photoelectrons emitted from an X-ray optical element of the X-ray article to analyze features of the test system.

  6. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment.

  7. 腕骨脱位的X线平片及40层螺旋CT诊断比较%Diagnostic comparison of X-ray plain film and 40-multidetector CT in dislocation of carpal bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宝江; 曹立福; 骈文婷; 郭健; 宋伟兴; 白振武

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the imaging manifestations and detecting rates of dislocation of carpal bones on X- ray plain film and 40-multidetector CT (MDCT), to improve the diagnostic accuracy and to reduce the missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Materials and Methods The X -ray plain films, MDCT, volume rendering (VR) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) of 21 patients with dislocation of carpal bones were retrospectively studied. 19 cases were male and two were female, mean age 31±7 years old (19-45 years). Dislocation was in left side in 14 cases, in right in seven cases. Result Eight cases of lunate dislocation, 13 cases of perilunar dislocation, three cases of simple perilunar dislocation , four cases of perilunar dislocation per navicular bone, One case of perilunar dislocation per navicular and triangular bones, three cases of perilunar dislocation per triangular bones, two cases of perilunar dislocation per styloid process of radius. Among the cases with fracture of other carpal bones, the diagnosis of fractures of radial styloid process and navicular bones were correctly detected on X-ray plain film. But in three cases with fracture of triangular bone, the fractures were indetectable or the original place of the bone fragments were unable to determine on X-ray plain film, but could be correctly detected with MDCT and reconstruct technology. Conclusion Diagnosis of dislocation of carpal bones can be correctly made with X-ray plain film in the most cases. But for the cases with fracture of carpal bones, especially with tiny fracture, X-ray plain film produces high rate of missed diagnosis. MDCT, VR and MPR can accurately show dislocations and fractures in three-dimension having high clinical value.%目的 探讨腕骨脱位X线平片及多层螺旋CT的影像学表现,并对两者的检出情况进行比较,以提高对腕骨脱位的诊断水平,减少漏诊误诊.资料与方法对2006年8月-2009年11月共21例腕骨脱位病人的X线平片、多层螺旋CT薄

  8. X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome%艾滋病并发软组织骨骼感染的X线和CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江松峰; 刘晋新; 陈碧华; 张烈光; 甘清鑫; 黄德扬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Methods The data of X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections in 18 patients with AIDS were retrospectively collected and analyzed.Results Of 18 patients with AIDS,the CT features of soft tissue demonstrated that subcutaneous patchy high density in 1 case which considered as cellulitis,round low density lesions with ring enhancement in 6 cases which considered as soft tissue abscesses,heterogeneous density lesions with peripheral enhancement in 1 case which considered as pyomyositis.Of 18 patients with AIDS,septic arthritis was found in 4 cases involving knee lesion in 3 cases and hip lesion.In the 4 case,the X-ray films showed bony destruction in 2 cases and the CT showed bone destruction in 3 cases and arthroedema in 4 cases.Of 18 patients with AIDS,osteomyelitis was found in 9 cases of which tuberculosis was considered in 8 cases and vertebral involvement in 6 cases.In the 9 cases,the X-ray films and CT displayed bony destruction,hyperostosis,small sequestra,and intervertebral space narrowing.Of 18 patients with AIDS,costal lesions were found in 3 cases in which the CT showed expandable bony destruction.Of 18 patients with AIDS,ilium and cacroihac joint lesions were found in 1 case in which the X-ray films and CT showed bony destruction,sequestra,and joint widening.Of 18 patients with AIDS,chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis of femur was found in 1 case in which the X-ray films showed bony destruction,hyperostosis osteosclerosis,and periosteal reaction.Conclusion The X-ray and CT features of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS are characterized.The X-ray and CT are useful tools to early diagnose soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS.%目的 探讨艾滋病(AIDS)并发软组织骨骼感染的X线和CT表现.方法 回顾性分析18例AIDS并发软组织骨骼感染的X线和CT表现.结果 18

  9. X-Ray parameters of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otabek Ablyazov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of anatomic spinal structures, especially its relation-ship to the functions performed, is necessary to form a correct diagnosis. The anatomical structure of the vertebrae varies de-pending on the level of the spinal segment. Normal anatomical parameters, derived from bone structures of the spine, are roughly determined by X-ray method.This paper presents the results of the survey radiography of the lumbar spine in a straight line and lateral projections in 30 individ-uals without pathology spine, aged 21-60 years with frequently observed lumbar spinal stenosis stenosis. Applying X-ray method there were studied shape, height, and the contours of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc in the front (interpedicular and sagittal planes; there were measured dimensions of the lumbar canal and foramen holes in the same planes. Using X-ray method can fully identify the bone parameters of vertebral column. How-ever, the informativity of the method depends on knowledge of radiologist about topographic anatomical features of spine.

  10. Carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory examination of metal-carbon bonding in metallocene dichlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, Stefan G; Keith, Jason M; Batista, Enrique R; Boland, Kevin S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Martin, Richard L; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Vernon, Louis J

    2013-10-01

    Metal-carbon covalence in (C5H5)2MCl2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) has been evaluated using carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT and TDDFT). Differences in orbital mixing were determined experimentally using transmission XAS of thin crystalline material with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Moving down the periodic table (Ti to Hf) has a marked effect on the experimental transition intensities associated with the low-lying antibonding 1a1* and 1b2* orbitals. The peak intensities, which are directly related to the M-(C5H5) orbital mixing coefficients, increase from 0.08(1) and 0.26(3) for (C5H5)2TiCl2 to 0.31(3) and 0.75(8) for (C5H5)2ZrCl2, and finally to 0.54(5) and 0.83(8) for (C5H5)2HfCl2. The experimental trend toward increased peak intensity for transitions associated with 1a1* and 1b2* orbitals agrees with the calculated TDDFT oscillator strengths [0.10 and 0.21, (C5H5)2TiCl2; 0.21 and 0.73, (C5H5)2ZrCl2; 0.35 and 0.69, (C5H5)2HfCl2] and with the amount of C 2p character obtained from the Mulliken populations for the antibonding 1a1* and 1b2* orbitals [8.2 and 23.4%, (C5H5)2TiCl2; 15.3 and 39.7%, (C5H5)2ZrCl2; 20.1 and 50.9%, (C5H5)2HfCl2]. The excellent agreement between experiment, theory, and recent Cl K-edge XAS and DFT measurements shows that C 2p orbital mixing is enhanced for the diffuse Hf (5d) and Zr (4d) atomic orbitals in relation to the more localized Ti (3d) orbitals. These results provide insight into how changes in M-Cl orbital mixing within the metallocene wedge are correlated with periodic trends in covalent bonding between the metal and the cyclopentadienide ancillary ligands.

  11. PRELIMINARY IN-SITU X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE EXAMINATION OF PT/C AND PTCO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS IN AN OPERATIONAL POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, B.T.; Myers, D.J.; Smith, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art polymer electrolyte fuel cells require a conditioning period to reach optimized cell performance. There is insuffi cient understanding about the behavior of catalysts during this period, especially with regard to the changing environment of the cathode electrocatalyst, which is typically Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/C). The purpose of this research was to record preliminary observations of the changing environment during the conditioning phase using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XAFS was recorded for a Pt/C cathode at the Pt L3-edge and a PtCo/C cathode at both the Pt L3-edge and Co K-edge. Using precision machined graphite cell-blocks, both transmission and fl uorescence data were recorded at Sector 12-BM-B of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source. The fl uorescence and transmission edge steps allow for a working description of the changing electrocatalyst environment, especially water concentration, at the anode and cathode as functions of operating parameters. These features are discussed in the context of how future analysis may correlate with potential, current and changing apparent thickness of the membrane electrode assembly through loss of catalyst materials (anode, cathode, carbon support). Such direct knowledge of the effect of the conditioning protocol on the electrocatalyst may lead to better catalyst design. In turn, this may lead to minimizing, or even eliminating, the conditioning period.

  12. Examination of growth kinetics of copper rich Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-films using synchrotron energy dispersive X-ray diffractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissom, Thorsten; Mainz, Roland; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Caballero, Raquel; Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Solar Energy Research, Institute for Technology, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Efimova, Varvara; Hoffmann, Volker [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Komplexe Materialen, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Multistage evaporation processes are capable of producing state of the art Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-thin-films for use in solar cells. The morphology of films grown by this process changes in a rapid manner as soon as their composition becomes copper rich beyond stoichiometry. For investigation of the structural changes, synchrotron radiation energy-dispersive X-ray diffractometry was used. Cu-rich and Cu-poor absorbers with an in-depth gallium gradient were grown by physical vapor deposition. These were transferred to a thermal processing reaction chamber which allows in-situ characterization. In the Cu-rich case changes in energy and shape of the measured diffraction signals caused by heating the samples could be attributed to the leveling of indium and gallium gradients within the layer. As a secondary method glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy was used to confirm this result. Cu-poor reference samples did not show a similarly significant intermixing of indium and gallium during annealing. We conclude, that the presence of excess copper in the layer at elevated temperatures (>470 C) causes interdiffusion of indium and gallium. (author)

  13. Examination of the role of the $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F reaction rate in type I x-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, J; Parikh, A; Xu, S W; Yamaguchi, H; Kahl, D; Ma, P; Su, J; Wang, H W; Nakao, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Teranishi, T; Hahn, K I; Moon, J Y; Jung, H S; Hashimoto, T; Chen, A A; Irvine, D; Lee, C S; Kubono, S

    2014-01-01

    The $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F reaction is one of the key reactions involved in the breakout from the hot-CNO cycle to the rp-process in type I x-ray bursts (XRBs). The resonant properties in the compound nucleus $^{18}$Ne have been investigated through resonant elastic scattering of $^{17}$F+$p$. The radioactive $^{17}$F beam was separated by the CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator (CRIB) and bombarded a thick H$_2$ gas target at 3.6 MeV/nucleon. The recoiling light particles were measured by three ${\\Delta}$E-E silicon telescopes at laboratory angles of $\\theta$$_{lab}$$\\approx$3$^\\circ$, 10$^\\circ$ and 18$^\\circ$, respectively. Five resonances at $E_{x}$=6.15, 6.28, 6.35, 6.85, and 7.05 MeV were observed in the excitation functions, and their spin-parities have been determined based on an $R$-matrix analysis. In particular, $J^{\\pi}$=1$^-$ was firmly assigned to the 6.15-MeV state which dominates the thermonuclear $^{14}$O($\\alpha$,$p$)$^{17}$F rate below 2 GK. As well, a possible new excited state in $...

  14. Examination of arsenic(III) and (V) uptake by the desert plant species mesquite (Prosopis spp.) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, M V; Peralta-Videa, J R; Parsons, J G; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2007-07-01

    This study describes the effects of Arsenic(III) and (V) on the growth and their uptake by the desert plant mesquite (Prosopis spp.). Seedlings were sown in agar-based medium containing a modified Hoagland's nutrient solution. After 1 week, the seedlings were transplanted to arsenic (As) treated agar media that contained 5 mgL(-1) of As either As(III) (As(2)O(3)) or As(V) (As(2)O(5)). The plants were harvested after 14 days of growth and sectioned into roots, stems, and leaves. After digestion, As concentrations in the roots, stems, and leaves were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Our results showed that the As concentrations from As(V) were significantly higher than the As concentrations from As(III) in all portions of the plant. Plants exposed to As(V) concentrated (mg As kg(-1) d wt) about 770+/-191, 326+/-94, and 119+/-18 in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that As(V) was reduced to As(III) inside the mesquite plant. In addition, greater than 90% of the As(III) found in the mesquite plants was bound to sulfur ligands in the roots, stems and leaves.

  15. X射线和γ射线预处理对小鼠异基因骨髓移植后造血免疫重建的影响%Effects of X-rays and γ-rays on reconstitution of hematopoiesis and immunity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彬; 曾令宇; 程海; 宋国梁; 贾路; 闫志凌; 陈翀; 徐开林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the conditioning regimen suitable for mice allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).Methods Twelve BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 2 equal groups to undergo X-ray irradiation by linear accelerator at the dose of 7.0 Gy (pure X-ray group) or 60Co source irradiation at the dose of 7.0 Gy (pure γ-ray group).Thirty mice were randomly divided into 2 equal groups to undergo X-ray irradiation and then infusion of bone marrow from donor mice via caudal vein (X-ray + transplantation group) or γ-ray and then infusion of bone marrow via caudal vein (γ-ray + transplahtation group).3,5,7,10,15,20,and 30 d later peripheral blood samples were collected to calculate the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and detect the chimeric rates of lymphocytes by flow cytometry.5,10,and 20 d after irradiation 15 mice were killed with their lung,liver,small intestine,spleen,and femurs taken out to undergo pathological examination.Results The survival rates during the period 5-15 days of the γ-ray + transplantation group were all significantly higher than those of the X-ray + transplantation group.The pathological changes of organs of the X-ray +transplantation group were all more severe than those of the γ-ray + transplantation group.Since the fifth day after transplantation cells originating from the donor began to appear in the peripheral blood.The chimeric rate of the γ-ray + transplantation group 10 days after transplantation was (95.53± 2.57) %.The chimeric rates 5,10,and 20 days after transplantation of the γ-ray + transplantation group were all significantly higher than those of the X-ray + transplantation group (t = 15.263,3.256,P < 0.05).The WBC count of both irradiation groups decreased to the lowest level 5 d later and began to increase 10 days after transplantation and the WBC counts of the γ-ray + transplantation group 10 and 20 days aftertransplantation were both significantly higher than those of the X-ray

  16. X-ray insights into star and planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D

    2010-04-20

    Although stars and planets form in cold environments, X-rays are produced in abundance by young stars. This review examines the implications of stellar X-rays for star and planet formation studies, highlighting the contributions of NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Chandra X-ray Observatory. Seven topics are covered: X-rays from protostellar outflow shocks, X-rays from the youngest protostars, the stellar initial mass function, the structure of young stellar clusters, the fate of massive stellar winds, X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks, and X-ray flare effects on ancient meteorites. Chandra observations of star-forming regions often show dramatic star clusters, powerful magnetic reconnection flares, and parsec-scale diffuse plasma. X-ray selected samples of premain sequence stars significantly advance studies of star cluster formation, the stellar initial mass function, triggered star-formation processes, and protoplanetary disk evolution. Although X-rays themselves may not play a critical role in the physics of star formation, they likely have important effects on protoplanetary disks by heating and ionizing disk gases.

  17. Application value of molybdenum target X-ray examination in diagnosis of breast cancer%钼靶X线检查在乳腺癌诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺癌诊断中应用钼靶X线检查的价值,提高乳腺癌的早期诊断率。方法回顾性分析经手术病理确诊的66例乳腺癌患者的临床及钼靶X线检查影像资料。结果66例乳腺癌患者钼靶X线片大部分有较敏感的显影及直接征象和间接征象,均行乳腺癌根治术或改良根治术,钼靶诊断与术后病理诊断符合率为100%。结论钼靶X线检查可以大大提高乳腺癌的诊断准确率,对乳腺癌的早期明确诊断具有重要的意义,可作为早期乳腺癌诊断的首选方法。%Objective To explore the application value of molybdenum target X-ray examination in diagnosis of breast cancer, so as to improve the early diagnosis rate of breast cancer.Methods The clinical and molybdenum target X-ray examination imaging data of 66 breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were sensitive and direct and indirect signs in most of the molybdenum target X-ray imaging in 66 breast cancer cases. All the cases received radical mastectomy or improved mastectomy. The coincidence rate of molybdenum target diagnosis and postoperative pathological diagnosis was 100%.Conclusion Molybdenum target X-ray examination can remarkably improve the accuracy rate of breast cancer diagnosis, and it has important value for early diagnosis of breast cancer. This method can be use as the primary method in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  18. CELESTIAL X-RAY SOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    sources, (4) the physical conditions in the pulsating x-ray source in the Crab Nebula , and (5) miscellaneous related topics. A bibliography of all work performed under the contract is given. (Author)

  19. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  20. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  1. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  2. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  3. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    these published reports. There were two main types of X-ray detection methods: “indirect,” which uses a scintillation material coupled to a light...Reference 3), inorganic semiconductors (silicon [Si], cadmium zinc telluride [CdZnTe]) (Reference 4) and selenium (References 5 and 6), Ne-Xe...metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) X-ray dosimeters (Reference 24). Electrets may be charged by a range of methods

  4. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women...... with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61......-81 years). Correlation between the two methods was estimated using correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman plots. A moderate correlation between phalangeal BMD versus total hip (r = 0.47) and lumbar spine (r = 0.51), and an AUC on 0.80 was found. The mean difference between phalangeal T score...

  5. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year...... femur and a postmenopausal bone loss, which is influenced mainly by YSM within the first 10-15 years after menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming...

  6. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  7. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most ...

  8. X-ray microscopy of human malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magowan, C.; Brown, J.T.; Mohandas, N.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Associations between intracellular organisms and host cells are complex and particularly difficult to examine. X-ray microscopy provides transmission images of subcellular structures in intact cells at resolutions superior to available methodologies. The spatial resolution is 50-60nm with a 1 micron depth of focus, superior to anything achievable with light microscopy. Image contrast is generated by differences in photoelectric absorption by the atoms in different areas (i.e. subcellular structures) throughout the full thickness of the sample. Absorption due to carbon dominates among all the elements in the sample at 2.4 nm x-ray wavelength. Thus images show features or structures, in a way not usually seen by other types of microscopy. The authors used soft x-ray microscopy to investigate structural development of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in normal and genetically abnormal erythrocytes, and in infected erythrocytes treated with compounds that have anti-malarial effects. X-ray microscopy showed newly elaborated structures in the cytosol of unstained, intact erythrocytes, redistribution of mass (carbon) in infected erythrocytes, and aberrant parasite morphology. Better understanding of the process of intracellular parasite maturation and the interactions between the parasite and its host erythrocyte can help define new approaches to the control of this deadly disease.

  9. Bone mineral density determinations by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the management of patients with Marfan syndrome--some factors which affect the measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Philip F; Peterson, Margaret G E; Schneider, Robert; Davis, Jessica G; Burke, Stephen W; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Mueller, Charles M; Raggio, Cathleen L

    2007-02-01

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) was sporadically reported in patients with Marfan syndrome. This may or may not place the Marfan patient at increased risk for bone fracture. In comparing the BMDs of our patients with those reported in the literature, it seemed that agreement between values, and hence the degree of osteoporosis or osteopenia reported, was dependent on the instrumentation used. The objective of this study was to statistically assess this impression. Bone mineral density measurements from our previously published study of 30 adults with Marfan syndrome performed on a Lunar DPXL machine were compared with studies published between 1993-2000 measured using either Lunar or Hologic bone densitometry instruments. The differences of our measurements compared with those made on other Lunar machines were not statistically significant, but did differ significantly with published results from Hologic machines (P density determinations will be required along with considerations of height, obesity, age, and sex.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray dispersive spectrometry evaluation of direct laser metal sintering surface and human bone interface: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; Raspanti, Mario; Mangano, Francesco; Cassoni, Alessandra; Iezzi, Giovanna; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) produces structures with complex geometry and consequently that allow better osteoconductive properties. The aim of this patient report was to evaluate the early bone response to DLMS implant surface retrieved from human jaws. Four experimental DLMS implants were inserted in the posterior mandible of four patients during conventional dental implant surgery. After 8 weeks, the micro-implants and the surrounding tissue were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histomorphometric analysis to evaluate the bone-implant interface. The SEM and EDX evaluations showed a newly formed tissue composed of calcium and phosphorus. The bone-to-implant contact presented a mean of 60.5 ± 11.6%. Within the limits of this patient report, data suggest that the DLMS surfaces presented a close contact with the human bone after a healing period of 8 weeks.

  11. Periprosthetic bone density changes after MiniHipTM cementless femoral short stem: one-year results of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the reaction of the femur to the implantation of the MiniHipTM in terms of: (1 bone density change during one year; (2 correlations between stem length, CCD (caput-collum-diaphyseal, femoral offset, T-value, and bone density; (3 other co-variables that influence the change of bone density. Patients and methods: MiniHipTM implant was performed for 62 patients. The age range of the patients who underwent treatment was 25–78 years. Periprothestic bone density was determined within two weeks postoperatively, after three, six, and twelve months utilizing the DEXA scan. Results: The highest change was observed in the first three months post-implantation, while significant decrease in density was recorded at proximal Gruen zones 1, 2, and 7, and at distal Gruen zone 4. The decrease in density reached a plateau between the third and sixth months after operation. Afterwards, bone density recovered up to the 12th postoperative month. The correlation analysis showed significant difference between Gruen zone 1 and stem size and CCD. The same significant trend was not reached for Gruen zone 7. Femoral offset showed no correlation. Covariance analysis was unable to establish connection of the results with diagnosis, pairings, or gender. Discussion: MiniHipTM densitometric results are promising and comparable to good results of the other representatives of the femoral neck partially-sustaining short stem prostheses with a lower proximal bone density reduction. Periprosthetic bone resorption is a multifactorial process where stem size, CCD angle, and patient-specific variables such as T-value have an impact on the periprosthetic bone remodeling. In particular, this applies to Gruen zone 1.

  12. Calibration of the (125)I-induced x-ray fluorescence spectrometry-based system of in vivo bone strontium determinations using hydroxyapatite as a phantom material: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Eric; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2017-06-01

    The calibration of in vivo x-ray fluorescence systems of bone strontium quantification, based on (125)I excitation, is dependent on a coherent normalization procedure. Application of this procedure with the use of plaster of Paris (poP) as a phantom material requires the application of a coherent conversion factor (CCF) to make the calibration functions transferable between the phantom material and human bone. In this work we evaluate, with the use of Monte Carlo simulation, the potential benefit of employing a newly developed hydroxyapatite phantom material into the calibration protocol. Simulations being performed on bare bone phantoms, as the emission spectrum in this case is equivalent to an emission spectrum of an adequately corrected measurement for soft tissue attenuation of emitted strontium signal. We report that the application of hydroxyapatite phantoms does in fact remove the need for a coherent correction factor (CCF). The newly developed phantoms can thus be used for the calibration of in vivo bone strontium systems removing one step of the calibration protocol. Calibration is, however, limited to cases in which the concentration is relative to the amount of calcium in the specimen, which is, the most useful quantity in a clinical sense. Determining concentrations on a per-mass-of-material basis, that is, a concentration not normalized to the calcium content of the phantom/bone, results in large biases in estimated bone strontium content. The use of an HAp phantom material was found to remove the need for a CCF. It was also found that in the case of an incomplete conversion ratio when preparing the phantom material that there would be little effect on the differential coherent cross-section and thereby the coherent normalization-based calibration protocol.

  13. Experimental study on healing process of rat mandibular bone fracture examined by radiological procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iuchi, Yukio; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The healing process of rat mandibular fractures was stereoscopically observed daily, using plain roentgenography in the lateral-oblique and tooth axis directions and bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphoric acid (Tc-99m-MDP). The findings were compared with microradiograms of regional polished specimens. X-ray findings included the following. Up to 3 days after bone fracture, the fracture mesiodistally showed distinct radiolucency, with sharp and irregular fracture stump. Radiopacity of the fracture site gradually increased 7 days or later, and bone trabecular formation by callus and stump bridging started to occur at 14 days. Findings similar to those in the control group were observed 49 days or later. The inside was difficult to differentiate, irrespective of the observation time. Bone scans in the mesiodistal and buccolingual planes revealed tracer uptake in the areas of mandibular and soft tissue damage one day after bone fracture. Tracer uptake began to be seen in the fracture site 3 days later, and became marked at 14 days. Then Tc-99m DMP began to be localized and returned to the findings similar to those at 49 days. Bone scanning tended to show wider areas earlier than roentgenography. Microradiographic mesiodistal examination revealed distinct radiopacy of the fracture line for 3 days after bone fracture. Seven days later, bone resorption cavity occurred in the cortical bone around the fracture stump, along with neogenesis of callus. Neogenesis and calcification began to occur gradually, and 14 days later, the fracture osteoremodeling of the internal bone trabeculae was observed. Bone trabecular formation within the bone, however, occurred later. (N.K.).

  14. Pre-employment low back x-rays: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manny, E.F.; Rudolph, H.; Wollerton, M.A.

    1981-08-01

    This paper summarizes the literature and explores the issues related to the low back x-ray examination for screening purposes. The report reviews the objective, protocol, costs, efficacy, medicolegal aspects, and risks of the examination. (KRM)

  15. Measurement of bone mineral density in the tunnel regions for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan, and the immersion technique based on Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xin; Chen, Liaobin

    2012-10-01

    To determine, for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, whether the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral tunnel was higher than that of the tibial tunnel, to provide objective evidence for choosing the appropriate diameter of interference screws. Two groups were enrolled. One group comprised 30 normal volunteers, and the other comprised 9 patients with ACL rupture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions of the volunteers' right knees by choosing a circular area covering the screw fixation region. The knees were also scanned by spiral computed tomography (CT), and the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique was used to determine the circular sections passing through the longitudinal axis of the femoral and tibial tunnels. Grayscale CT values of the cross-sectional area were measured. Cylindrical cancellous bone blocks were removed from the femoral and tibial tunnels during the ACL reconstruction for the patients. The volumetric BMD of the bone blocks was measured using a standardized immersion technique according to Archimedes' principle. As measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions was 1.162 ± 0.034 g/cm(2) and 0.814 ± 0.038 g/cm(2), respectively (P < .01). The CT value of the femoral tunnel region was 211.7 ± 11.5 Hounsfield units, and the value of the tibial tunnel region was 104.9 ± 7.4 Hounsfield units (P < .01). The volumetric BMD of the bone block from the femoral tunnel (2.80 ± 0.88 g/cm(3)) was higher than the value from the tibial tunnel (1.88 ± 0.59 g/cm(3)) (P < .01). Comparing the data between male and female patients, we found no significant difference in both femoral and tibial tunnel regions. For ACL reconstruction, the BMD of the femoral tunnel is higher than that of the tibial tunnel. This implies that a proportionally larger-diameter interference screw should be used for fixation in the proximal tibia than that

  16. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  17. X-ray echo spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin-echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a point-like x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x-rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1--0.02-meV ultra-high-resolution IXS applications (resolving power $> 10^8$) with broadband $\\simeq$~5--13~meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than $10^3$ signal e...

  18. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  19. Cross calibration of QDR-2000 and QDR-1000 dual-energy X-ray densitometers for bone mineral and soft-tissue measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Gram, J; Hansen, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    ) and fan beam (FB) modes (n = 40-62) as a quality control measure. A total of 83 subjects (79 females and four males) with a wide range of bone mineral densities (BMD) were studied. There was a linear relationship between results with the QDR-1000W and QDR-2000 in SB mode, and between SB and FB mode...

  20. A Comparison of X-Ray Image Segmentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOLOJESCU-CRISAN, C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation operation has a great importance in most medical imaging applications, by extracting anatomical structures from medical images. There are many image segmentation techniques available in the literature, each of them having advantages and disadvantages. The extraction of bone contours from X-ray images has received a considerable amount of attention in the literature recently, because they represent a vital step in the computer analysis of this kind of images. The aim of X-ray segmentation is to subdivide the image in various portions, so that it can help doctors during the study of the bone structure, for the detection of fractures in bones, or for planning the treatment before surgery. The goal of this paper is to review the most important image segmentation methods starting from a data base composed by real X-ray images. We will discuss the principle and the mathematical model for each method, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses.

  1. A comparative study of dual-X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasonography for the evaluating bone status in subjects with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, C; Hayek, J; Tomai Pitinca, M D; Nuti, R; Gonnelli, S

    2014-09-01

    Rett syndrome, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is frequently characterized by a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) with an increased risk of fragility fractures. The aim of the study was to assess bone status by DXA technique and by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in subjects with Rett syndrome and to evaluate which DXA or QUS parameters better correlate with clinical features. In 156 Rett subjects (mean age 13.6 ± 8.2 years) and in 62 controls, we measured BMD at femoral neck (BMD-FN) and at total femur (BMD-TF). Apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMAD) was also calculated. In all subjects, QUS parameters at phalanges by Bone Profiler-IGEA (amplitude-dependent speed of sound: AD-SoS and bone transmission time: BTT) were evaluated. We found that both DXA parameters and QUS parameters were significantly lower in Rett subjects than in controls. All clinical characteristics were positively correlated to BMD-FN, BMD-TF, AD-SoS, and BTT (p Rett subjects BMD-FN was predicted primarily by weight and movement capacity, whereas vBMAD-FN was predicted by weight, height, and calcium intake. Moreover, AD-SoS was predicted by weight, height, and age, while BTT was predicted only by height. In conclusion, in our study the performance of QUS at phalanges was similar to those of BMD at femur, therefore, both areal BMD at femur and QUS at phalanges (AD-SoS and BTT) may be equally useful in the evaluation of skeletal status in Rett patients.

  2. X-ray Radio Correlation In Black Hole Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R

    2006-01-01

    We examine the X-ray - radio correlation in Galactic black hole sources. We highlight some of the results which extend the flux-flux relations to sources with very high accretion rates. Some of the recent results indicate that the synchrotron process is unlikely to be the mechanism responsible for the X-ray emission, particularly at high accretion rates. We present a truncated accretion disk scenario and argue that accretion rate and accretion disk geometry ultimately act as a driver of the X-ray - radio correlation. We stress the importance of wide-band X-ray spectral measurements to understand the disk-jet connection and briefly outline some attempts made in the Indian context to build instruments for wide-band X-ray spectroscopy.

  3. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  4. X-ray Photoevaporation-starved T Tauri Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Jeremy J; Flaccomio, Ettore; Micela, Giusi

    2009-01-01

    X-ray luminosities of accreting T Tauri stars are observed to be systematically lower than those of non-accretors. There is as yet no widely accepted physical explanation for this effect, though it has been suggested that accretion somehow suppresses, disrupts or obscures coronal X-ray activity. Here, we suggest that the opposite might be the case: coronal X-rays modulate the accretion flow. We re-examine the X-ray luminosities of T Tauri stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster and find that not only are accreting stars systematically fainter, but that there is a correlation between mass accretion rate and stellar X-ray luminosity. We use the X-ray heated accretion disk models of Ercolano et al. to show that protoplanetary disk photoevaporative mass loss rates are strongly dependent on stellar X-ray luminosity and sufficiently high to be competitive with accretion rates. X-ray disk heating appears to offer a viable mechanism for modulating the gas accretion flow and could be at least partially responsible for the o...

  5. POST TRAUMATIC KNEE FRACTURE ( X-RAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jalaja Prakash.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 51 year old male patient met with a road traffic accident on August 2010. On examination thepatient was unable to stand and walk. His right knee was swollen and complained of pain withinstability. The X-Ray of patient showed transverse fracture of patella along with comminutedfracture of lower end of femur. He was treated with “K” wire and internal fixation. The patient wasadvised early physiotherapy which include range of motion exercises, knee strengthening and gaittraining.

  6. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  7. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  8. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks; Roentgendiagnostik - Nutzen und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2016-10-15

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  9. X 线检查对于食管裂孔疝的诊断价值分析%Analysis of diagnostic value of X-ray examination in hiatus hernia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛岳志

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic value of X-ray examination in hiatus hernia.Methods 16 patients with hiatus hernia treated from January 2012 to January 2015 in our hospital were selected.The patients would respectively adopted X-ray examination and endoscopic examination.The accuracy in the diagnosis ofhiatusherniabasedontwomethodswascompared.Results 9caseswereconfirmedwiththereduciblehiatus hernia including 6 cases of compressed hernia (31.57%), 1 case of traction hernia (6.25%), 1 case of paraesophageal hiatus hernia (6.25%) and 1 case of congenital hiatal hernia caused by widening cavity (6. 25%).There were 7 cases of irreducible hiatus hernia (43.75%).16 cases were confirmed with hiatus hernia based on X-ray examination and endoscopic examination.The diagnosis accuracy rate based on two methods was 100%(P>0.05).Conclusions During the diagnosis process of hiatus hernia, X-ray examination improves the patient's compliance and diagnosis accuracy rate.%目的:探讨X线检查对于食管裂孔疝的诊断价值分析。方法选取2012年1月至2015年1月在我院就诊的食管裂孔疝患者16例,分别对其进行X射线检查和内镜检查,比较两种方法对于食管裂孔疝诊断的准确性。结果16例患者中,有9例患者检查出具有可恢复性食管裂孔疝,其中有6例患者为挤压性疝,占比例31.57%、1例患者为牵引性疝,占比例的6.25%、1例患者患有食管裂孔旁疝,占比例的6.25%、1例患者患有先天性裂孔增宽导致疝气,占比例的6.25%,有7例患者患有不可恢复性食管裂孔疝,占总比例的43.75%,X射线检查方法检测出16例食管裂孔疝患者,内镜检查检测也检测出16例食管裂孔疝患者,两种检测方法对于疾病诊断结果的准确率为100%,两种检测方法正确率比较结果显示,P>0.05,差异不具有统计学意义。结论 X射线对于食管裂孔疝的诊断具有较好的患者依从性和

  10. Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Senesi, Andrew J; Lee, Byeongdu

    2016-09-28

    X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and angstrom length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle's size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchical structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well as the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X-ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-ray scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

  11. Automated 3D-2D registration of X-ray microcomputed tomography with histological sections for dental implants in bone using chamfer matching and simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kathrin; Stauber, Martin; Schwarz, Frank; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel 3D-2D registration approach for micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histology (HI), constructed for dental implant biopsies, that finds the position and normal vector of the oblique slice from μCT that corresponds to HI. During image pre-processing, the implants and the bone tissue are segmented using a combination of thresholding, morphological filters and component labeling. After this, chamfer matching is employed to register the implant edges and fine registration of the bone tissues is achieved using simulated annealing. The method was tested on n=10 biopsies, obtained at 20 weeks after non-submerged healing in the canine mandible. The specimens were scanned with μCT 100 and processed for hard tissue sectioning. After registration, we assessed the agreement of bone to implant contact (BIC) using automated and manual measurements. Statistical analysis was conducted to test the agreement of the BIC measurements in the registered samples. Registration was successful for all specimens and agreement of the respective binary images was high (median: 0.90, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.89-0.91). Direct comparison of BIC yielded that automated (median 0.82, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.75-0.85) and manual (median 0.61, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.52-0.67) measures from μCT were significant positively correlated with HI (median 0.65, 1.-3. Qu.: 0.59-0.72) between μCT and HI groups (manual: R(2)=0.87, automated: R(2)=0.75, p<0.001). The results show that this method yields promising results and that μCT may become a valid alternative to assess osseointegration in three dimensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How x rays inhibit amphibian limb regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maden, M.; Wallace, H.

    1976-07-01

    The effects of an inhibiting dose of 2,000 rad of x-rays on the regenerating limbs of axolotl larvae have been examined in a histological and cytological study. Particular attention was paid to the mitotic indices of normal and irradiated epidermal and blastemal cells. Both the characteristic pattern of epidermal mitotic stimulation which normally follows amputation and the later increase in blastemal mitoses are suppressed by irradiation. In most cells the effects are permanent, but in a small proportion a mitotic delay is induced and upon subsequent division chromosome damage in the form of micronuclei is revealed. Thus irradiated cells which do divide almost certainly die. These results are discussed in relation to other theories of x-ray inhibition of regeneration with particular reference to the view that irradiated cells can be reactivated.

  13. X-rays and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  14. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  15. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  16. X-ray backscatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

  17. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  18. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  19. Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma: effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Gu; Lee, Yunjung

    2016-12-01

    Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influencing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also investigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examination. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US examination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical radiographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional fractures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more significant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiography (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography.

  20. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the complex of the first von Willebrand type C domain bound to bone morphogenetic protein 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Li-yan; Zhang, Jin-li [Lehrstuhl für Physiologische Chemie II, Theodor-Boveri-Institut (Biozentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Kotzsch, Alexander [Lehrstuhl für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie und Biophysik, Julius-von-Sachs Institut der Universität Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs Platz 2, D-97082 Würzburg (Germany); Sebald, Walter [Lehrstuhl für Physiologische Chemie II, Theodor-Boveri-Institut (Biozentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rudolf-Virchow-Zentrum (DFG Forschungszentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Strasse 9, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Mueller, Thomas D., E-mail: mueller@botanik.uni-wuerzburg.de [Lehrstuhl für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie und Biophysik, Julius-von-Sachs Institut der Universität Würzburg, Julius-von-Sachs Platz 2, D-97082 Würzburg (Germany); Rudolf-Virchow-Zentrum (DFG Forschungszentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Strasse 9, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Physiologische Chemie II, Theodor-Boveri-Institut (Biozentrum) der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2008-04-01

    Crystals of the complex of the first von Willebrand type C domain (VWC1) of crossveinless 2 (CV2) bound to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) exist in two tetragonal crystal forms belonging to either space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or I4{sub 1}, with one complete BMP2 dimer and two CV2 VWC1 domains per asymmetric unit, and diffract to 2.6 Å resolution. Crossveinless 2 (CV2) is a member of the chordin family, a protein superfamily that modulates the activity of bone morphogenetic proteins such as BMP2. The BMPs represent a large group of secreted proteins that control many steps during embryonal development and in tissue and organ homeostasis in the adult organism. The gene encoding the first von Willebrand type C domain (VWC1) of CV2 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The binary complex of CV2 VWC1 and BMP2 was purified and subjected to crystallization. Crystals of SeMet-labelled proteins were obtained in two different forms belonging to the tetragonal space groups P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and I4{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 86.7, c = 139.2 Å and a = b = 83.7, c = 139.6 Å, respectively. Initial analysis suggests that a complete binary complex consisting of one BMP2 dimer bound to two CV2 VWC1 domains is present in the asymmetric unit.

  2. X-ray phase Identification of Chocolate is Possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie,S.; Mazzanti, G.; Idziak, S.

    2005-01-01

    When examining chocolate samples by means of X-ray diffraction, it has become common practice for any sugar to be removed through repeated rinsing in cold water. While necessary in some cases, we show that it is possible to determine the phase of certain dark chocolate samples without sugar removal, through examination of distinctive X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to lattice spacings of 3.98 and 3.70 Angstroms.

  3. Application of X-ray synchrotron microscopy instrumentation in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperini, F. M. [Medical Science Program, Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi (Brazil); Pereira, G. R. [Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granjeiro, J. M. [Molecular and Cell Biology Dept., Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Calasans-Maia, M. D. [Oral Surgery Dept., Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rossi, A. M. [Biomaterials Laboratory, Brazilian Center of Physics Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perez, C. A. [Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lopes, R. T.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    X-ray micro-fluorescence imaging technique has been used as a significant tool in order to investigate minerals contents in some kinds of materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elemental distribution of calcium and zinc in bone substitute materials (nano-hydroxyapatite spheres) and cortical bones through X-Ray Micro-fluorescence analysis with the increment of Synchrotron Radiation in order to evaluate the characteristics of the newly formed bone and its interface, the preexisting bone and biomaterials by the arrangement of collagen fibers and its birefringence. The elemental mapping was carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil working at D09-XRF beam line. Based on this study, the results suggest that hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are biocompatible, promote osteo-conduction and favored bone repair. (authors)

  4. Practical method for determination of air kerma by use of an ionization chamber toward construction of a secondary X-ray field to be used in clinical examination rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehata, Itsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Takegami, Kazuki; Okino, Hiroki; Kanazawa, Yuki; Tominaga, Masahide

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new practical method for the construction of an accurate secondary X-ray field using medical diagnostic X-ray equipment. For accurate measurement of the air kerma of an X-ray field, it is important to reduce and evaluate the contamination rate of scattered X-rays. To determine the rate quantitatively, we performed the following studies. First, we developed a shield box in which an ionization chamber could be set at an inner of the box to prevent detection of the X-rays scattered from the air. In addition, we made collimator plates which were placed near the X-ray source for estimation of the contamination rate by scattered X-rays from the movable diaphragm which is a component of the X-ray equipment. Then, we measured the exposure dose while changing the collimator plates, which had diameters of 25-90 mm(ϕ). The ideal value of the exposure dose was derived mathematically by extrapolation to 0 mm(ϕ). Tube voltages ranged from 40 to 130 kV. Under these irradiation conditions, we analyzed the contamination rate by the scattered X-rays. We found that the contamination rates were less than 1.7 and 2.3 %, caused by air and the movable diaphragm, respectively. The extrapolated value of the exposure dose has been determined to have an uncertainty of 0.7 %. The ionization chamber used in this study was calibrated with an accuracy of 5 %. Using this kind of ionization chamber, we can construct a secondary X-ray field with an uncertainty of 5 %.

  5. Silicon avalanche photodiodes for direct detection of X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alfred Q R; Kishimoto, Shunji; Morse, John; Rigal, Jean Marie

    2006-03-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are discussed as fast X-ray detectors for synchrotron radiation. The emphasis is on ;direct' detection, where the X-ray is absorbed within the silicon APD itself, and, therefore, on use with medium-energy X-rays, <30 keV. The impact of APD structure on device performance is examined, and representative data from many different commercial devices are presented. Specific areas discussed include signal shapes, high-rate behavior, time resolution and pulse-height response. Data from several APD arrays are also presented, as is a detailed description of an integrated package system. Tables are included comparing commercially available devices, including arrays.

  6. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  7. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  8. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  9. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  10. Role and significance of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in measurement of bone mineral density in children with upper extremity fractures%双能X线吸收法检测儿童上肢骨折的骨密度及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦溦; 杨星华; 刘洋; 韦继刚; 陈辉; 郭元

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the bone mineral density in children with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and examine the relevance of bone mineral density with the risk of pediatric upper limb fracture.Methods A total of 864 children (8-14 years of age) admitted into our hospital in 2009 were involved in the study.The bone mass density (Z score) at the left radius was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Children were grouped according to their Z score and age to observe correlations of Z value and age with the incidence of fractures.Results Thirty-three children were lost to follow-up.For the other 831 children,the mean duration of follow-up was 2 years.Z sore was ≤-2 in 66 children and >-2 in 765 children.There was significant difference in fracture incidence between children with Z score of ≤-2 and >-2 (27.27% vs 5.49%,P <0.01).Furthermore,fracture incidence in children at age group of 8-10 years and 11-14 years revealed significant difference (10.83% vs 5.03%,P < 0.01).Conclusions Bone mineral density is closely related to upper limb fracture in children and increases with aging.Early application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to detect the bone density is an effective primary measure for prevention of fractures in children.%目的 探讨双能X线吸收法检测儿童上肢骨折的骨密度及其意义. 方法 选取2009年1-12月体检的8~14岁儿童864例,采用双能X线骨密度测试仪检测左桡骨骨密度Z值,根据Z值大小进行分组观察Z值与骨折的关系;根据年龄分组观察年龄与骨折的关系. 结果 864例患者中获得2年随访831例,失随访33例.Z值结果显示,Z值≤-2者66例,Z值>-2者765例.Z值≤-2组儿童骨折发生率为27.27%,Z值>-2组骨折发生率为5.49%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);8~10岁组儿童骨折发生率为10.83%,11 ~ 14岁组骨折发生率为5.03%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 骨密度与儿童上肢骨

  11. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  12. Imaging with parabolic refractive X-ray lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Boris

    2005-01-01

    When Wilhelm C. Roentgen discovered the x-ray radiation in 1895, he made use of its large penetration depth in matter to create projections of different opaque objects, and also of bones inside the body. The imaging of dense matter inside the body has rapidly found wide use in medicine and is nowadays an important diagnostic tool. But imaging with x-ray radiation is also used in research and technology. The development of 3 dimensional imaging by means of tomographic reconstruction in the lat...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: escoliosis What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless test ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Neck A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: cuello What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  16. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  17. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  18. In situ examination of oxygen non-stoichiometry in La0.80Sr0.20CoO3−δ thin films at intermediate and low temperatures by x-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Biegalski, M. D.

    2014-04-21

    Structural evolution of epitaxial La0.80Sr 0.20CoO3-δ thin films under chemical and voltage stimuli was examined in situ using X-ray diffraction. The changes in lattice parameter (chemical expansivity) were used to quantify oxygen reduction reaction processes and vacancy concentration changes in lanthanum strontium cobaltite. At 550 °C, the observed lattice parameter reduction at an applied bias of -0.6 V was equivalent to that from the reducing condition of a 2% carbon monoxide atmosphere with an oxygen non-stoichiometry δ of 0.24. At lower temperatures (200 °C), the application of bias reduced the sample much more effectively than a carbon monoxide atmosphere and induced an oxygen non-stoichiometry δ of 0.47. Despite these large changes in oxygen concentration, the epitaxial thin film was completely re-oxidized and no signs of crystallinity loss or film amorphization were observed. This work demonstrates that the effects of oxygen evolution and reduction can be examined with applied bias at low temperatures, extending the ability to probe these processes with in-situ analytical techniques. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Retroflexed holoprosencephaly. X-ray CT findings and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, N.; Ohno, K.; Masaoka, H.; Fukai, N.; Matsushima, Y.

    1987-02-01

    We report a case of holoprosencephaly with retroflexion and discuss the usefulness of X-ray CT in its diagnosis. A 2-month-old infant, admitted with severe hydrocephalus, underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The brain was retroflexed with subdural fluid collection after the procedure. The pathological condition was, however, gradually improved by the use of an additional subduro-peritoneal shunt. The shift and distortion of the brain were observed by means of serial X-ray CT scans. MRI revealed the brain stuck mainly to the frontal bone, monoventricle, the so-called dorsal sac, and probably the pituitary gland, but not the fourth ventricle nor the aqueduct. Sagittal and coronal sections of MRI and axial sections of X-ray CT proved to be useful in the diagnosis and classification of the holoprosencephaly, even without other invasive diagnostic procedures.

  20. X-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography: in vivo study of osteoarthritis in the finger joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by the damage of the articular cartilage, is the most common joint problem worldwide. In the effort of developing new clinical tools with the potential to alter the natural history of OA, near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has received much attention due to its unique advantages. For optical imaging in highly heterogeneous media such as the finger joints, prior information could improve the quality of optical imaging. We report a hybrid imaging system for early detection of OA in the finger joints by imposing the geometry information obtained by X-ray on three-dimensional near-infrared DOT. X-ray tomosynthesis was employed to recover the three-dimensional structure of the two bones based on 16 X-ray projections generated with a mini C-arm system at different directions within a range of 180 degrees. The interface was carefully designed to guarantee an accurate co-registration of the optical and x-ray modalities. The prior structural information of bones was incorporated into our multi-modality imaging reconstruction algorithm to enhance the recovery of the optical properties of joint tissues. Several healthy and OA finger joints were examined. The initial clinical results showed that this hybrid imaging system had the ability to provide much enhanced image resolution and contrast than DOT alone for OA detection.