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Sample records for bone turnover markers

  1. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  2. [Clinical usefulness of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a state of elevated risk for bone fracture due to depressed bone strength, which is considered to be the sum of bone mineral density and bone quality. Since a measure of bone quality has not been established, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are the only way to evaluate bone strength. Bone turnover markers are classified into bone formation marker and resorption marker, which are correlated with the bone formation rate and resorption rate, respectively, and bone matrix-related marker. Bone is always metabolized; old tissue is resorbed by acids and proteases derived from osteoclasts, whereas new bone is produced by osteoblasts. Bone formation and resorption rates should be balanced (also called coupled). When the bone resorption rate exceeds the formation rate(uncoupled state), bone volume will be reduced. Thus, we can comprehend bone metabolism by measuring both formation and resorption markers at the same time. Increased fracture risk is recognized by elevated bone resorption markers and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which reflects vitamin K insufficiency and bone turnover. These values and the time course give us helpful information to choose medicine suitable for the patients and to judge the responsiveness. If the value is extraordinarily high without renal failure, metabolic bone disorder or bone metastatic tumor should be considered. Bone quality may be assessed by measuring bone matrix-related markers such as homocystein and pentosidine. Since recent studies indicate that the bone is a hormone-producing organ, it is possible that glucose metabolism or an unknown mechanism could be assessed in the future. PMID:24369600

  3. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in patients with renal transplantation and regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir M. Ibrahim,. Khalid H Abdel-Mageed, Magdi M El-Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD is a known complication for the uremic state antedating dialysis / renal transplantation (RTx. The issue of stabilized versus continued decrease of BMD especially on long-term basis, continues to be unresolved. Patients and Methods: !"#"hemodialysis (HD-#" $% " &'( &'(-group had been evaluated for metabolic bone changes by calcium homeostasis parameters (serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase "ALP" and vitamin D "calcitriol", markers of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase "BAP", osteocalcin "OC", N-terminal propeptide of collagen type I "PINP", bone resorption markers (pyridoline "PYL" and deoxypyridoline "DPYL", and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Also, BMD had been assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA twice, at inclusion time and * ! "" Results: comparing both groups regarding calcium homeostasis, markers of bone turnover and iPTH showed non significant difference. However, there was a significant drop of BMD (as evidenced by T-score at follow up in the HD group, compared to stabilization of T-score for the RTx-group. Furthermore, annual T-score change was significantly more in HD-group, compared to RTx-group. Results also showed that, the best marker correlating with T-score annual changes and iPTH to be PINP. Irrespective of normal calcium homeostasis parameters, low BMD is a prevalent disorder among patients on regular HD and renal transplants.Conclusion: Follow up for * ! " %+ ,- ." % """"!to continued bone loss in patients on regular HD. This could raise recommendation for calcium and calcitriol supplementation, especially in the predialysis period, early post transplantation period, and continued guided replacement for those on maintenance HD. Serum PINP showed best correlations with BMD changes and iPTH and could be considered a reliable marker reflecting bone formation in those patients. Keywords: hemodialysis, renal transplantation, markers of bone

  4. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n......), and carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1). In F, BMD in PF increased up to 1.8% (P football, OC was 45% and 46% higher (P ... football for elderly men had an osteogenic effect, which was further developed after 12 months, whereas resistance...

  5. Changes in Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mass with Reducing Levels of Jumping Exercise Regimens in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Foong Kiew; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Singh, Harbindar Jeet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To date, little is known about the effects of a reduced level of jumping exercise regimens on bone turnover markers and mass. This study investigates the effects of different jumping exercise regimens with varying exercise loads on serum bone turnover markers and bone mass in female rats. Methods A total of 144 female rats aged 12 weeks, were divided into 12 groups as follows: no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) consisting of 200 ju...

  6. Common bone turnover markers in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiffier, Guillaume; Bouvard, Béatrice; Chopin, Florance; Biver, Emmanuel; Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Garnero, Patrick; Guggenbuhl, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    We studied the impact of inflammatory rheumatism and its treatment on the most common bone turnover markers, based on six previously defined questions in a systematic literature review in order to define their place in daily clinical practice. The role of bone is currently considered of particular importance concerning cartilage damage in inflammatory rheumatism (rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) and the new concept of osteoimmunology has emerged. Some bone turnover markers are available in clinical practice. In spite of rich and extensive literature on bone turnover markers, their use in inflammatory rheumatism or even osteoporosis is not clear, and a systematic literature review became necessary. In spite of a large number of different markers used in literature, few of them that are useful in common practice have been studied in the field of inflammatory rheumatism such as rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Although their study enables understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms of osteoporosis in inflammatory rheumatism, their use in current common practice cannot be recommended. Interesting data on the forecast of the structural evolution of rheumatoid arthritis has been found within the framework of clinical research, without any real practical impact today.

  7. Correlation of Serum Leptin Level with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Chinese Adolescent Dancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-CHEN YANG; YAN LAN; JING HU; YAN-HUA YANG; QIAN ZHANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate plasma leptin concentrations in adolescent female dancers and to determine whether leptin has some effects on their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. Methods Sixty dancers aged 15-17 years and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Two bone turnover markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRACP), were determined by ELISA. Results The dancers had a lower fat mass and a lower leptin level than the controls, while they had a relatively higher BMD of the total body and legs after adjustment for BMI and age. The levels of bone resorption and formation of markers were higher in the dancers than in the controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, body weight, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. In dancers, Leptin was positively correlated with the BMD of the total body and the left leg. However, after adjustment for BMI, no correlation of serum leptin concentrations with BMD values was found in either dancers or controls. Nor correlation was found between leptin and bone turnover markers after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion The leptin profile is different between the controls and the dancers with a lower BMI and a lower fat mass. Circulating plasma leptin level depends on BMI and is not a direct determinant of BMD in Chinese adolescent dancers.

  8. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer;

    2007-01-01

    , dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...... with sBAP and sCTX. Further analyses showed that dairy protein decreased (P ¼ 0.05) sOC at a high meat protein intake (.0.8 g/kg), whereas meat protein increased (P ¼ 0.03) sOC at a low dairy protein intake (,0.4 g/kg). Total and meat protein intake was positively associated with sBAP (P # 0...

  9. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  10. Biochemical markers of bone turnover and their association with bone marrow lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, D.J.; LaValley, M.; Li, J.; Bauer, D.C.; Nevitt, M.; Groot, J. de; Poole, R.; Eyre, D.; Guermazi, A.; Gale, D.; Totterman, S.; Felson, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to determine whether markers of bone resorption and formation could serve as markers for the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Methods: We conducted an analysis of data from the Boston Osteoarthritis of the Knee Study (BOKS). Knee magnetic resonance images were

  11. Stanozolol Decreases Bone Turnover Markers, Increases Mineralization, and Alters Femoral Geometry in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, E; Aparicio, V A; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Martinez, R; Erben, R G; Kapravelou, G; Sánchez-González, C; De Teresa, C; Porres, J M; López-Jurado, M; Aranda, P; Pietschmann, P

    2016-06-01

    Stanozonol (ST) is a synthetic derivative of testosterone; it has anabolic/androgenic activity, increasing both the turnover of trabecular bone and the endocortical apposition of bone. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ST on bone status in rats by bone mineral content, markers of formation and resorption, bone density, and structural and microarchitectural parameters. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two experimental groups corresponding to placebo or ST administration, which consisted of weekly intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg body weight of ST. Plasma parameters were analyzed by immunoassay. Bone mineral content was determined by spectrophotometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) and structural parameters were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and trabecular and cortical microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography. Plasma Ca, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase were higher, and urinary Ca excretion, corticosterone, and testosterone concentrations lower in the ST group. Femur Ca content was higher and P content was lower in the ST, whereas osteocalcin, aminoterminal propeptides of type I procollagen, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen were lower. Total cross-sectional, trabecular, and cortical/subcortical areas were lower in the ST. No differences were observed on BMD and area parameters of the diaphysis as well as on trabecular and cortical microarchitecture. The use of ST increases bone mineralization, ash percentage, and Ca and Mg content in femur. In spite of an absence of changes in BMD, geometric metaphyseal changes were observed. We conclude that ST alters bone geometry, leads to low bone turnover, and thus may impair bone quality. PMID:26801156

  12. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Valizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  13. Correlation of the Levels of the Bone Turnover Markers BAP and β-CTX with Bone Metastasis Progress in Lung Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Qiong; Zhao, Hui; JIA, RUI; Liu, Linlin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Bone metastasis is common in lung cancer patients. The β isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphates (BAP) are regarded as important bone turnover markers in bone resorption and formation. Thus, the aims of this study are to determine the correlation of these bone turnover markers with the extent of bone metastasis of lung cancer. Methods A total of 92 patients with bone metastasis of lung cancer from Tianjin U...

  14. Bone turnover markers in medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a lack of data on the effects of prolactin on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in hyperprolactinemia of various origins. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia on bone turnover in female rats. Methods. Experimental animals (18 weeks old, Wistar female rats were divided as follows: the group P - 9 rats, 3 weeks pregnant; the group M3-10 rats that were intramuscularly administrated sulpirid (10 mg/kg twice daily for 3 weeks, the group M6 - 10 rats that were intramuscularly administrated with sulpirid (10 mg/kg twice daily for 6 weeks, and age matched nulliparous rats as the control group: 10 rats, 18-week-old (C1 and 7 rats, 24 weeks old (C2. Laboratory investigations included serum ionized calcium and phosphorus, urinary calcium and phosphorous excretion, osteocalcin and serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP. Results. Experimental animals in the group P compared to the control group, displayed lower mean serum ionized calcium (0.5 ± 0.2 vs 1.12 ± 0.04 mmol/L; p < 0.001; higher mean serum phosphorus (2.42 ± 0.46 vs 2.05 ± 0.2 mmol/L; p < 0.05; increased urinary calcium (3.90 ± 0.46 vs 3.05 ± 0.58; p < 0.01 and significantly increased P1NP (489,22 ± 46,77 vs 361.9 ± 53,01 pg/mL; p < 0.001. Experimental animals in the group M3 had significantly decreased P1NP, compared to the control group. Prolongated medicamentous hyperprolactinemia (the group M6 induced increased serum ionized calcium (1.21 ± 0.03 vs 1.15 ± 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001; decreased serum phosphorus (1.70 ± 0.13 vs 1.89 ± 0.32 mmol/L; p < 0.001; decreased osteocalcin and P1NP. Conclusions. Physiological hyperprolactinemia does not have such harmful effect on bone metabolism as medicamentous hyperprolactinemia. Chronic medicamentous hyperprolactinemia produces lower serum levels of bone formation markers. Assessment of bone turnover markers in prolongated medicamentous

  15. Biological and within-subject variability of calcium kinetics and biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone loss is a critical issue during space flight. Evaluating changes in bone and calcium metabolism in astronauts often requires multiple preflight data collection points. Bone turnover and calcium kinetics were measured in 4 healthy subjects, and the day-to-day and between-subject variations were ...

  16. Bone turnover markers in medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Radojković Danijela; Pešić Milica; Ristić Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. There is a lack of data on the effects of prolactin on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in hyperprolactinemia of various origins. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of medicamentous and physiological hyperprolactinemia on bone turnover in female rats. Methods. Experimental animals (18 weeks old, Wistar female rats) were divided as follows: the group P - 9 rats, 3 weeks pregnant; the group M3-10 rats that were intramuscula...

  17. The role of biochemical of bone turnover markers in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease: a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, E; Bergmann, P; Bruyère, O; Delanaye, P; Durnez, A; Devogelaer, J-P; Ferrari, S L; Gielen, E; Goemaere, S; Kaufman, J-M; Toukap, A Nzeusseu; Reginster, J-Y; Rousseau, A-F; Rozenberg, S; Scheen, A J; Body, J-J

    2016-07-01

    The exact role of biochemical markers of bone turnover in the management of metabolic bone diseases remains a topic of controversy. In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aimed to provide a state of the art on the use of these biomarkers in different clinical or physiological situations like in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, in elderly patients, in patients suffering from bone metastasis, in patients with chronic renal failure, in pregnant or lactating women, in intensive care patients, and in diabetics. We also gave our considerations on the analytical issues linked to the use of these biomarkers, on potential new emerging biomarkers, and on the use of bone turnover biomarkers in the follow-up of patients treated with new drugs for osteoporosis. PMID:27026330

  18. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  19. Serum bone turnover markers (PINP and ICTP) for the early detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer : A longitudinal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, N.; de Jong, I. J.; van der Veer, E.; Breeuwsma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An increase in bone turnover markers in patients with prostate cancer may predict bone metastases but it can also reflect the effects of androgen deprivation treatment. To assess the diagnostic efficacy of early detection of skeletal metastases we retrospectively performed serial measuremen

  20. Changes in bone turnover markers and menstrual function after short-term oral DHEA in young women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C M; Grace, E; Emans, S J; Goodman, E; Crawford, M H; Leboff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is a serious consequence of anorexia nervosa (AN). Subnormal levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are seen in patients with AN and may be causally linked to their low bone density. We hypothesized that oral DHEA would decrease markers of bone resorption (urinary N-telopeptides [NTx]), and increase markers of bone formation (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin [OC]). Fifteen young women (age 15-22 years) with AN were enrolled in a 3-month, randomized, double-blinded trial of 50, 100, or 200 mg of daily micronized DHEA. Blood and urinary levels of adrenal and gonadal steroids and bone turnover markers were measured. No adverse clinical side effects of DHEA were noted, and a 50 mg daily dose restored physiologic hormonal levels. At 3 months, NTx levels had decreased significantly in both the 50 mg (p = 0.018) and the 200 mg (p = 0.016) subgroups. OC levels simultaneously increased within treatment groups over time (p = 0.002). Eight out of 15 (53%) subjects had at least one menstrual cycle while on therapy. Short-term DHEA was well-tolerated and appears to normalize bone turnover in young women with AN. Resumption of menses in over half of subjects suggests that DHEA therapy may also lead to estradiol levels sufficient to stimulate the endometrium in this group of patients. PMID:9893076

  1. Relationship between Mandibular BMD and Bone Turnover Markers in Osteoporosis Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    SM Eshaghi; A Hossein-nezhad; Zh Maghbooli; Larijani, B

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The purpose of the present study was to determine mandible bone mineral density and evaluate its correlation with central BMD and bone turnover."nMethods: Two hundred and seven postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After receiving the tes­timonials, questionnaires were completed and physical exams were done. For all participants central BMD was measured through DXA method. In each women periapical radiography performed in two regions...

  2. Effect of phylloquinone supplementation on biochemical markers of vitamin K status and bone turnover in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Sorensen, A. Dorthe; Hels, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    While current intakes of phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) in many populations are believed to be sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation, these may be insufficient to cover the requirements for optimal bone metabolism. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect...... of increasing phylloquinone intakes above the usual dietary intake for 6 weeks on biochemical markers of vitamin K status and bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Thirty-one postmenopausal women completed this 3 X 6-week randomised cross-over study, in which volunteers were supplemented with 0 (placebo), 200......, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline) and urinary gamma-carboxyglutarnate were unaffected by phylloquinone supplementation. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 200 and 500 mu g phylloquinone/d for 6 weeks increased vitamin K status in postmenopausal women, it had no effect on bone turnover....

  3. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiering, E; Brüske, I; Kratzsch, J; Hofbauer, L C; Berdel, D; von Berg, A; Lehmann, I; Hoffmann, B; Bauer, C P; Koletzko, S; Heinrich, J

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. Linear regression was used to determine the association between bone turnover markers and 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D, OC, and β-CTx showed a clear seasonal variation. A 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with a 10.5 ng/l decrease (p < 0.001) in β-CTx after adjustment for design, sex, fasting status, time of blood drawn, BMI, growth rate, and detectable testosterone/estradiol. For OC alone no significant association with 25(OH)D was observed, whereas the β-CTx-to-OC ratio was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (-1.7% change, p < 0.001). When stratifying the analyses by serum calcium levels, associations were stronger in children with Ca levels below the median. This study in school-aged children showed a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and the bone turnover markers OC and β-CTx. Furthermore a negative association between 25(OH)D and the bone resorption marker β-CTx was observed. PMID:26667774

  4. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children

    OpenAIRE

    Thiering, E.; Brüske, I.; Kratzsch, J.; Hofbauer, L C; Berdel, D; von Berg, A.; Lehmann, I.; Hoffmann, B.; Bauer, C. P.; Koletzko, S.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. ...

  5. Clinical benefits of biochemical markers of bone turnover in Egyptian children with chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karam A Mahdy; Hanaa H Ahmed; Fathia Mannaa; Azza Abdel-Shaheed

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels with the etiology and clinical condition of patients with chronic liver disease.METHODS: Eighty children with hepatocellular damage were divided into 3 groups according to the etiology of disease infection: bilharziasis (9 patients), hepatitis B virus (HBV, 12 patients) and hepatitis C virus (HCV, 29 patients). The Child score index was found as A in 24 patients, B in 22 patients, C in 4 patients. Thirty healthy children served as control group. HBsAg, HBcAbIgM,HBcAbIgG, and anti-HCV were detected using ELISA technique. HCV-RNA was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Antibilharzial antibodies were detected by indirect haemagglutination test. Liver function tests were performed using autoanalyser. Serum IGF-1, osteocalcin and PTH levels were measured by ELISA technique. Abdominal ultrasonography was also conducted.RESULTS: Serum IGF-1 level was significantly lower in all patient groups with liver diseases, while serum osteocalcin and PTH levels were significantly elevated in patients with HBV and HCV infections compared with the control group. Serum osteocalcin and PTH concentrations were measured with the severity of liver disease from Child A to C. Child A patients unexpectedly showed significantly reduced IGF-1 levels in comparison to patients staged as Child B or C. Serum osteocalcin level was negatively correlated with albumin (14.7 ± 0.54 vs 3.6± 0.10, P < 0.05), while that for PTH was positively correlated with total protein (70.1 ± 2.17 vs 6.7 + 0.10,P < 0.05) in patients with HCV infection.CONCLUSION: Low serum IGF-1 level seems to play a critical role in the bone loss in patients with chronic liver disease. Elevated biochemical markers of bone remodeling suggest high-turnover in patients with viral infection and reflect severity of the clinical stage.

  6. Bone turnover markers are correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal uptake of 99mTc labelled methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) is used for producing images of pathological bone uptake due to its incorporation to the sites of active bone turnover. This study was done to validate bone turnover markers using total skeletal uptake (TSU) of 99mTc-MDP. 22 postmenopausal women (52–80 years) volunteered to participate. Scintigraphy was performed by injecting 520 MBq of 99mTc-MDP and taking whole body images after 3 minutes, and 5 hours. TSU was calculated from these two images by taking into account the urinary loss and soft tissue uptake. Bone turnover markers used were bone specific alkaline phosphatase (S-Bone ALP), three different assays for serum osteocalcin (OC), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (S-TRACP5b), serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (S-CTX-I) and three assays for urinary osteocalcin (U-OC). The median TSU of 99mTc-MDP was 23% of the administered activity. All bone turnover markers were significantly correlated with TSU with r-values from 0.52 (p = 0.013) to 0.90 (p < 0.001). The two resorption markers had numerically higher correlations (S-TRACP5b r = 0.90, S-CTX-I r = 0.80) than the formation markers (S-Total OC r = 0.72, S-Bone ALP r = 0.66), but the difference was not statistically significant. TSU did not correlate with age, weight, body mass index or bone mineral density. In conclusion, bone turnover markers are strongly correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99mTc-MDP. There were no significant differences in correlations for bone formation and resorption markers. This should be due to the coupling between formation and resorption

  7. Measurement of bone mineral density using DEXA and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To observe bone loss and bone metabolism status in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2∼L4) and femoral neck using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and analysis of biochemical markers of bone turnover, such as ostecalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked telo-peptide of type I collagen (ICTP), PTH and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D). These markers were measured in 31 5-year survivors after OLT, 34 patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) before OLT and 38 normal subjects. Results: Age-matched Z-score of BMD (Z-score) at L2∼L4 was significantly higher in 5-year survivors than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Incidence of osteoporosis (Z-score<-2.0) in 5-year survivors was significantly lower than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Although serum concentrations of bone formation and bone resorption markers in 5-year survivors were high than those of normal subjects, as compared to patients with CLF before OLT, serum OSC was increased, serum ICTP and BAP were reduced, serum PICP was unchanged. Serum PTH and 25-OH-D level was normal. Conclusions: In 5-year survivors following liver transplantation there was a reduction in bone loss and incidence of osteoporosis and an improvement of bone metabolism

  8. Relationship between Mandibular BMD and Bone Turnover Markers in Osteoporosis Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Eshaghi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of the present study was to determine mandible bone mineral density and evaluate its correlation with central BMD and bone turnover."nMethods: Two hundred and seven postmenopausal women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After receiving the tes­timonials, questionnaires were completed and physical exams were done. For all participants central BMD was measured through DXA method. In each women periapical radiography performed in two regions of mandible. The plain x-ray films were scanned using a standard film digitizer and standardized in size and intensity using a calibration step wedge phantom. The phantom was placed upper site in film cover. After the film digitized, the developed Matlab software was used to image proc­essing."nResults: Mean age and body mass index of participants were 54.6±6.3 years and 28.57±4.9 kg/m2 respectively. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in one of regions in central DXA were 17.4% and 48.2% respectively. There was strong cor­relation between mandible and total femur BMD (P= 0.001, r= 0.80.In osteoporotic patients bone loss in mandible BMD was more than central DXA (P= 0.02."nConclusion: The main advantage of the proposed mandible BMD is to help clinicians make more accurate evaluation of Bone loss. Based on developed the suggested system a routine dental X-ray could be used to screen for bone loss.

  9. Relationship among panoramic radiography findings, biochemical markers of bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent investigations have shown that panoramic radiography might be a useful tool in the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In addition, bone turnover biochemical marker might be valuable in predicting osteoporosis and fracture risks in the elderly, especially in post-menopausal women. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship among the radio morphometric indices of the mandible, biochemical markers of the bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in a group of post-menopausal women. Patients and Methods: Evaluations of mandibular cortical width, mandibular cortical index, panoramic index and alveolar crest resorption ration (M/M ration) were carried out on panoramic radiographs of 140 post-menopausal women with an age range of 44-82 years. Hip bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Bone mineral density values were divided into three groups of normal (T score>-1.0), Osteopenic (T score, -2.5 to -1.0) and Osteoporotic (T score<-2.5). Serum alkaline phosphatase and 25(OH) D3 were measured. Results: A decrease in mandibular cortical width by 1 mm increases the likelihood of osteopenia or osteoporosis up to 40%, having taken into consideration the effect of menopause duration. A 1 mm decrease in mandibular cortical width increased the likelihood of moderate or severe erosion of the lower cortex of the mandible up to 28% by taking age into consideration. The results did not demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between bone turnover markers and mandibular radio morphometric indices. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography gives sufficient information to make an early diagnosis regarding osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Panoramic radiographs may be valuable in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in elderly women.

  10. Effects of Low-Dose Testosterone Undecanoate Treatment on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Elderly Male Osteoporosis with Low Serum Testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Jiao Wang; Jun-Kun Zhan; Wu Huang; Yi Wang; Yuan Liu; Sha Wang; Pan Tan; Zhi-Yong Tang; You-Shuo Liu

    2013-01-01

    This prospective 2-year, single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose testosterone undecanoate (TU) treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly male osteoporosis with low serum testosterone. A total of 186 elderly male osteoporosis patients with low serum testosterone were randomized into three groups: low-dose TU (20 mg, per day), standard-dose TU (40 mg, per day), a...

  11. Pegvisomant-induced serum insulin-like growth factor-I normalization in patients with acromegaly returns elevated markers of bone turnover to normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkinson, C; Kassem, M; Heickendorff, Lene;

    2003-01-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with increased biochemical markers of bone turnover. Pegvisomant is a GH receptor antagonist that normalizes serum IGF-I in 97% of patients with active acromegaly. We evaluated the effects of pegvisomant-induced serum IGF-I normalization on biochemical markers...... of bone and soft tissue turnover, as well as levels of PTH and vitamin D metabolites, in 16 patients (nine males; median age, 52 yr; range, 28-78 yr) with active acromegaly (serum IGF-I at least 30% above upper limit of an age-related reference range). Serum procollagen III amino-terminal propeptide...

  12. Relation between body composition and biochemical markers of bone turnover among early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D;

    2000-01-01

    We studied the associations between body composition and biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption among 1600 postmenopausal women, ages 45-59. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the independent associations of fat mass, muscle strength (quadriceps strength), height......, the mean levels of osteocalcin decreased by 3% and 13%, respectively; NTX decreased by 5 and 21%. Fat mass and whole-body BMC were also significantly associated with decreases in the average of osteocalcin and NTX Z-scores. By contrast, the mean levels of serum osteocalcin increased by 2 and 11......%, respectively, per IQR increase in muscle strength and height; NTX increased by 4 (not significant) and 14%, respectively. Both muscle strength and height were significantly associated with increases in the average Z-scores. These exploratory analyses suggest that fat mass and whole-body BMC were associated...

  13. Biochemical Markers Of Bone Turnover in Egyptian Women at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat A Khalil &Kholoud S Ramadan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by bone remodeling .This study was done for the detection of some blood and urine markers in cases of osteoporosis among Egyptian women at different ages .The study included 100 women divided into three groups. The first group included 33 women their ages ranged between 35-45 years old, the second included 33 women their ages ranged between 45-55 years old and the third group included 34 women their ages were above 55 years old. Fore all subjects DEXA densitometry was performed. Serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, Osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline and creatinine were estimated. Results: In osteopenic and osteoporotic women there was elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin and in urinary pyridinoline and hydroxyproline, while there was decrease in serum calcium .Conclusion: The Egyptian women subjected to the study were suffering from osteopenia from the age of 35 years old or may be earlier Above the age of 55 (postmenopausal it was found that 50% of women were osteopenic and osteoporotic.

  14. Changes of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 following hormonal treatment for metastatic prostate cancer are related to survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) at the time of diagnosis are associated to poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the value of these biomarkers in monitoring the patients during hormonal treatment....

  15. [The effect of sodium fluoride on selected biochemical markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohatyrewicz, A

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fluoride on selected biochemical markers of bone remodelling in young growing rats and after ovariectomy performed on 12-weeks-old female Wistar rats. Seventy 6-weeks-old female Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups. The first baseline control group was sacrificed before the beginning of the experiment. Two groups served as controls receiving distilled water and the other groups received fluoridated water at different doses (two received 8 and two received 60 mgF-/l). 30 rats (ten from each group) were sacrificed after 6 weeks. Serum was then collected for measurement of fluoride concentration, serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and concentration of telopeptide of rat type I collagen (ICTP). Last three groups (ten rats each) were ovariectomized and received than only distilled water to drink. After following six weeks all rats were sacrificed. After six weeks of experiment the group receiving 8 mg F-/l showed the lowest ICTP values and the smallest decrease of serum ALP activity compared to the baseline control group. The rats with higher plasma fluoride concentrations after ovariectomy demonstrated lower ICTP concentrations and higher ALP activity than animals with lower fluoride concentrations. PMID:10101440

  16. Significance of CEA, CA15-3 and biochemical markers of bone turnover in the diagnosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of tumor markers CEA and CA15-3, and biochemical markers of bone turnover (total procollagen type Ⅰ amino-terminal propeptide (TP Ⅰ NP), β-isomerized carboxyterminal propeptide (β-CTx), ALP and PTH) in the diagnosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer. Methods: A total of 78 patients (all females) with mean age (56.72 ± 10.76) years, who were diagnosed with breast cancer, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups based on radionuclide bone imaging: with bone metastasis (n=32) and without bone metastasis (n=46). The serum concentrations of CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH, ALP were measured. Gleason scores were evaluated. The diagnostic value was evaluated by ROC curve.The two groups were compared using two-sample t test. The correlations between bone metastasis and tumor markers, bone metastasis and biochemical markers of bone turnover were analyzed with Pearson correlation and logistic analysis. Results: The serum levels of CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH and ALP were significantly higher in the group with bone metastasis than those in the group without bone metastasis (t: 4.16-7.56, all P<0.05). For the diagnosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer, the AUC of CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, [β-CTx, PTH and ALP was 0.815, 0.887, 0.869, 0.852, 0.844, 0.731, respectively. Using the cut-off values of 4.18 μg/L for CEA, 0.04 U/L for CA15-3, 49.70 μg/L for TP Ⅰ NP, 0.47 pg/L for β-CTx,54.90 ng/L for PTH and 49.90 U/L for ALP, the sensitivities were 56.3% (18/32), 75.0% (24/32), 78.1% (25/32), 81.3% (26/32), 78.1% (25/32), 68.8% (22/32) and the specificities were 80.4% (37/46), 84.8% (39/46), 76.1% (35/46), 78.3% (36/46), 69.6% (32/46), 58.7% (27/46), respectively. CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH, ALP and Gleason score were positively correlated with the presence of bone metastasis (r: 0.267-0.636, all P<0.05). CEA, CA15-3, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, PTH and Gleason score were independent

  17. The effect of three years of TNF alpha blocking therapy on markers of bone turnover and their predictive value for treatment discontinuation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis : a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, S.; Spoorenberg, A.; Houtman, P.M.; Leijsma, M.K.; Bos, R.; Kallenberg, C.G.; Groen, H.; Brouwer, E.; van der Veer, E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three years of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blocking therapy on bone turnover as well as to analyze the predictive value of early changes in bone turnover markers (BTM) for treatment discontinuation in patients with anky

  18. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation. PMID:24869977

  19. Salivary bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: daily and seasonal rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M S; Fajardo, Maria A; Ponce, Graciela M; Toyos, Gloria I; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2012-04-01

    No studies had investigated circadian and circannual rhythms of bone biomarkers in whole saliva. We evaluated the salivary daily and seasonal rhythm of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP). Forty clinical and oral healthy ambulatory pre- and postmenopausal women from two southern Argentine cities: Comodoro Rivadavia (latitude 45º S) and Ushuaia (latitude 54º S) were included in the study. CTX levels were evaluated in serum, urine, and saliva, and b-ALP levels were measured in serum and saliva. In both groups of women, salivary CTX showed a maximum percentage of change early in the morning (80%) and a minimum in the late afternoon (45%), similarly to the pattern observed in urinary samples. No daily rhythm was observed in serum or salivary b-ALP. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased in winter vs. summer (p < 0.01) without differences between the two studied groups. Conversely, parathormone reached higher levels in winter (p < 0.05) which induced a slight non-significant increment in salivary CTX and b-ALP levels. The results showed that, as in serum and urinary samples, salivary CTX exhibits daily and a slight seasonal rhythmicity. Whole non-stimulated saliva is a useful tool to detect several oral and systemic diseases because it has important advantages compared to serum and urinary samples. Then, it may also be a promising sample to test changes in bone metabolism contributing to diagnose and to monitor the therapy of several metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21431857

  20. Common Genetic Variation in the DKK1 Gene is Associated with Hip Axis Length but not with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Young Adult Men: Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piters, Elke; Balemans, Wendy; Nielsen, Torben Leo;

    2010-01-01

    signaling. Using HapMap, we selected three SNPs covering the genetic variation in a 13.53-kb region comprising DKK1. The Odense Androgen Study is a population-based study comprising 783 Caucasian men aged 20-29 years. BMD and hip structural parameters were available for study. Bone turnover markers were...... used as a secondary end point. All analyses were repeated after adjusting for covariables and in subgroups according to physical activity. We found no significant association between DKK1 and BMD or markers of bone turnover; however, a significant association (P = 0.012) was found for rs1569198...

  1. Effects of Low-Dose Testosterone Undecanoate Treatment on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Elderly Male Osteoporosis with Low Serum Testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jiao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective 2-year, single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose testosterone undecanoate (TU treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly male osteoporosis with low serum testosterone. A total of 186 elderly male osteoporosis patients with low serum testosterone were randomized into three groups: low-dose TU (20 mg, per day, standard-dose TU (40 mg, per day, and placebo group with a 24-month followup. Since the 6th month in standard-dose TU group or since the 12th month followup in low-dose TU group and throughout the study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and serum levels of free testosterone, estradiol, and bone alkaline phosphatase significantly increased. There were no significant differences between groups of low-dose TU and standard dose TU in the percentage of changes of these data since the 18th month followup and throughout the study. No side effects on prostate glands including prostate specific antigen were found. In conclusion, low-dose TU (20 mg, per day may be a cost effective and safe protocol for treating elderly male osteoporosis with low serum testosterone.

  2. Normal Bone Turnover in Transient Hyperphosphatasemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutilek, Stepan; Cervickova, Barbora; Bebova, Pavla; Kmonickova, Marie; Nemec, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Transient hyperphosphatasemia of infancy and early childhood (THI) is characterized by a temporary isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), predominantly its bone or liver isoform, in either sick or healthy children under 5 years of age. Return to normal ALP levels usually occurs within four months. Spontaneous rise of ALP might concern the physician, especially when treating seriously ill children. However, THI is considered a benign biochemical disorder with no clinical consequences. Some existing reports support the hypothesis that THI is a result of increased bone turnover. We present evidence of normal bone turnover in two children with THI. In a one-year-old girl and a boy of the same age, high ALP levels (31 and 109 μkat/L, respectively) were accidentally detected. The children had no signs of metabolic bone disease or of liver disease. The high ALP levels returned to normal in two months, thus fulfilling the diagnosis of THI. In both patients, serum parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers, serum CrossLaps, and serum osteocalcin were neither elevated, nor did these markers follow the ALP dynamics, thus reflecting normal bone turnover in THI. Children with THI should be spared from extensive investigations and unnecessary vitamin D treatment. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22664360

  3. Non-invasive markers of bone turnover and plasma cytokines differ in osteoporotic patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignancy manifest by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells, the production of a paraprotein and lytic bone lesions. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is assumed to be the precursor of clinically apparent myeloma, with one or more additional genetic events being required for progression to MM. Elderly patients presenting with osteoporosis and skeletal fractures are not infrequently found to have elevated serum paraprotein concentrations suggestive of either MM or MGUS. Differentiating between these two clinical disorders may prove challenging, despite bone marrow biopsy evidence of plasmacytosis. The underlying pathogenesis of bone loss in these conditions is complex and may be attributed to cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis coupled with increased osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present study, various markers of bone turnover and plasma cytokines were measured in order to determine whether they may be of value in differentiating between these two disorders. It is concluded that the urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion rate is a sensitive marker of bone resorption and of underlying bone disease activity. It may also help to differentiate between MM and MGUS

  4. Healthy looking hospital nurses showing vitamin d deficiency: correlation of vitamin d levels with their levels of parathhyroid hormone and bone turnover markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the correlation of low vitamin D levels with parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and bone turn over markers among apparently healthy hospital nurses. Methods: Screening was done on 50 recruited healthy female nursing staff, aged between 18 to 35 years, for vitamin D levels. Among them 31 were found to be deficient in vitamin D. These 31 nurses were selected for further evaluation in trance. Their vitamin D levels were calculated by using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Blood samples were drawn to estimate serum PTH levels accordingly. Samples were also collected from these recruited subjects to evaluate their bone turn over markers, including, osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N propeptide and Beta-Crosslaps. Results: Out of 50 subjects, 31 subjects were found to have Vitamin D levels below 50 nmol/l. Out of these 31 subjects, 13 subjects, 41.9%, showed vitamin D levels below 20 nmol/l. Among these 13 subjects, all had significantly raised PTH levels (p-value: <0.001, r-value: -0.781). In rest of all the subjects, including those having Vitamin D levels above 20nmol/l, inordinately, PTH levels were normal. No reciprocity was found between low Vitamin D and raised PTH levels with bone turnover markers, except with P1NP (r-value 0.022). Conclusion: PTH levels show a steep augmentation in serum, when vitamin D levels hit the trough below 20 nmol/l. These are the subjects who should be treated prior to the development of complications of bone resorption. Moreover we could not find any significant correlation of Vitamin D and PTH with any bone turnover marker except P1NP. (author)

  5. Effect of the Medicinal Mushroom, Grifola gargal (Agaricomycetes), on Bone Turnover Markers and Serum Lipids in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Etsuko; Morizono, Toshihiro; Sumiya, Toshimitsu; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    A clinical study was performed to examine the effect of the edible mushroom, Grifola gargal, on bone turnover markers and serum lipids in middle-aged and elderly Japanese women. Postmenopausal women aged 51-73 years (mean age, 61 years) received daily oral administration of 5 g G. gargal fruiting bodies (hot air-dried and powdered; G. gargal powder [GGP]). Serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and lipids and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured before and 2 weeks after the start of GGP treatment. As a result, urinary DPD bone resorption marker levels in women treated with GGP decreased significantly. Serum levels of the BAP bone formation marker also tended to increase, but the difference was not significant. By contrast, the atherogenic index decreased and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio increased significantly. However, there were no statistically significant differences in serum lipids of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, this study demonstrated for the first time that G. gargal is safe for human consumption. PMID:27279439

  6. Effect of odanacatib on bone turnover markers, bone density and geometry of the spine and hip of ovariectomized monkeys: a head-to-head comparison with alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald S; McCracken, Paul J; Purcell, Mona; Pickarski, Maureen; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Szumiloski, John; Jayakar, Richa Y; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Krause, Stephen; Brown, Keenan; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Scott, Boyd B; Cook, Lynn; Motzel, Sherri L; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Cabal, Antonio; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; Duong, Le T

    2013-10-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective and reversible Cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor currently being developed as a once weekly treatment for osteoporosis. Here, effects of ODN compared to alendronate (ALN) on bone turnover, DXA-based areal bone mineral density (aBMD), QCT-based volumetric BMD (vBMD) and geometric parameters were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys. Treatment was initiated 10 days after ovariectomy and continued for 20 months. The study consisted of four groups: L-ODN (2 mg/kg, daily p.o.), H-ODN (8/4 mg/kg daily p.o.), ALN (15 μg/kg, twice weekly, s.c.), and VEH (vehicle, daily, p.o.). L-ODN and ALN doses were selected to approximate the clinical exposures of the ODN 50-mg and ALN 70-mg once-weekly, respectively. L-ODN and ALN effectively reduced bone resorption markers uNTx and sCTx compared to VEH. There was no additional efficacy with these markers achieved with H-ODN. Conversely, ODN displayed inversely dose-dependent reduction of bone formation markers, sP1NP and sBSAP, and L-ODN reduced formation to a lesser degree than ALN. At month 18 post-OVX, L-ODN showed robust increases in lumbar spine aBMD (11.4%, p<0.001), spine trabecular vBMD (13.7%, p<0.001), femoral neck (FN) integral (int) vBMD (9.0%, p<0.001) and sub-trochanteric proximal femur (SubTrPF) int vBMD, (6.4%, p<0.001) compared to baseline. L-ODN significantly increased FN cortical thickness (Ct.Th) and cortical bone mineral content (Ct.BMC) by 22.5% (p<0.001) and 21.8% (p<0.001), respectively, and SubTrPF Ct.Th and Ct.BMC by 10.9% (p<0.001) and 11.3% (p<0.001) respectively. Compared to ALN, L-ODN significantly increased FN Ct. BMC by 8.7% (p<0.05), and SubTrPF Ct.Th by 7.6% (p<0.05) and Ct.BMC by 6.2% (p<0.05). H-ODN showed no additional efficacy compared to L-ODN in OVX-monkeys in prevention mode. Taken together, the results from this study have demonstrated that administration of ODN at levels which approximate clinical exposure in OVX-monkeys had comparable efficacy to ALN in

  7. Supplementation with calcium and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides affects markers of bone turnover but not bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, Mary M; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Bonham, Maxine P; Naughton, Violetta R; Strain, J J; Duffy, Maresa E; Wallace, Julie M; Mc Sorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    This 24-mo randomized, double-blind, controlled trial aimed to examine whether supplementation with a natural marine-derived multi-mineral supplement rich in calcium (Ca) taken alone and in conjunction with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOSs) has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal women. A total of 300 non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca, 800 mg of Ca with 3.6 g of scFOS (CaFOS), or 9 g of maltodextrin. BMD was measured before and after intervention along with BTMs, which were also measured at 12 mo. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA identified that the change in BMD in the Ca and CaFOS groups did not differ from that in the maltodextrin group. Secondary analysis of changes to BTMs over time identified a greater decline in osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in the Ca group compared with the maltodextrin group at 12 mo. A greater decline in CTX was observed at 12 mo and a greater decline in osteocalcin was observed at 24 mo in the CaFOS group compared with the maltodextrin group. In exploratory subanalyses of each treatment group against the maltodextrin group, women classified with osteopenia and taking CaFOS had a smaller decline in total-body (P = 0.03) and spinal (P = 0.03) BMD compared with the maltodextrin group, although this effect was restricted to those with higher total-body and mean spinal BMD at baseline, respectively. Although the change in BMD observed did not differ between the groups, the greater decline in BTMs in the Ca and CaFOS groups compared with the maltodextrin group suggests a more favorable bone health profile after supplementation with Ca and CaFOS. Supplementation with CaFOS slowed the rate of total-body and spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia-an effect that warrants additional investigation. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN63118444. PMID

  8. Bone mass and turnover in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Gam, A; Egsmose, C;

    1993-01-01

    Physical inactivity accelerates bone loss. Since patients with fibromyalgia are relatively physically inactive, bone mass and markers of bone metabolism were determined in 12 premenopausal women with fibromyalgia and in healthy age matched female control subjects. No differences were found...... in lumbar bone mineral density, femoral neck bone mineral density, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, ionized calcium and phosphate. The urinary excretion of both hydroxyproline and calcium relative to urinary creatinine excretion was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia, p = 0.......01. This was linked to lower urinary creatinine excretion (p = 0.02) probably reflecting lower physical activity in the patients with fibromyalgia. We conclude that bone mass and turnover are generally not affected in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia....

  9. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  10. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p < 0.05) (RT: 64 ± 14 to 80 ± 17 kg; RT+DP: 72 ± 23 to 91 ± 20 kg) and lower (p < 0.05) (RT: 69 ± 20 to 87 ± 28 kg; RT+DP: 78 ± 19 to 100 ± 21 kg) body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p < 0.05) (4.55 ± 1.57 to 4.04 ± 1.63 U/L) and the RT+DP group (p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.

  11. Levels of serotonin, sclerostin, bone turnover markers as well as bone density and microarchitecture in patients with high bone mass phenotype due to a mutation in Lrp5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost; Andersen, Tom E.; Gossiel, F;

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with an activation mutation of the Lrp5 gene exhibit high bone mass (HBM). Limited information is available regarding compartment specific changes in bone. The relationship between the phenotype and serum serotonin is not well documented. Objective: to evaluate bone, serotonin...... and forearm and cortical thickness were positively and trabecular area negatively associated with age (r =0.49, 0.57, 0.74 and -0.61, respectively, p ...

  12. Correlation of the Levels of the Bone Turnover Markers BAP and β-CTX with Bone Metastasis Progress in Lung Cancer Patients%BAP和β-CTX与肺癌骨转移进展程度的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐琼; 赵辉; 贾锐; 刘林林

    2013-01-01

    背景与目的 肺癌易发生骨转移,Ⅰ型胶原羧基端肽β特殊序列(β isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen,β-CTX)和骨源性碱性磷酸酶(bone-specific alkaline phosphates,BAP)在骨质代谢中是重要的生化标记物,本研究旨在探讨骨代谢生化指标和肺癌骨转移进展程度的相关性,有助于早期判断是否有肺癌骨转移的发生.方法 天津市人民医院2009年7月-2012年7月共收治92例肺癌并发生骨转移患者,全部病例其原发灶均经细胞学检查证实,骨转移灶的数目及类型经ECT结合X线片、CT证实,采用ELISA方法检测血β-CTX、BAP的浓度水平.结果 收集的92例肺癌伴骨转移的患者中,转移灶<3处为58例,≥3处为34例;溶骨型68例,成骨型9例,混合型15例.血β-CTX、BAP水平在不同的骨转移数目组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),β-CTX在肺癌溶骨型骨转移患者中具有较高的敏感性.结论 骨代谢生化指标β-CTX、BAP对肺癌骨转移具有辅助诊断意义,是判断转移进展程度的良好指标.%Background and objective Bone metastasis is common in lung cancer patients. The β isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen (β-CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphates (BAP) are regarded as important bone turnover markers in bone resorption and formation. Thus, the aims of this study are to determine the correlation of these bone turnover markers with the extent of bone metastasis of lung cancer. Methods A total of 92 patients with bone metastasis of lung cancer from Tianjin Union Medicine Center were enrolled in this study between July 2009 and July 2012. The bone metastasis lesion was diagnosed by ECT combined with X-ray and CT imaging. Trie bone turnover marker levels of β-CTX and BAP were measured by ELISA. Results Among the 92 patients, 58 cases had 3; 68 cases had osteolytic bone metastasis, 9 had osteoblastic bone metastasis, and 15 had mixed bone metastases. The serum levels

  13. Estrogen inhibits Dlk1/FA1 production: A potential mechanism for estrogen effects on bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Srinivasan, Bhuma;

    2011-01-01

    -Dlk1FA1) and its correlation with bone turnover markers. s-Dlk1/FA1 and bone turnover markers (serum cross-linked C-telopeptide [s-CTX] and serum osteocalcin) were measured in two cohorts: a group of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 100) and a group of postmenopausal women, where half had received...

  14. Interrelationships between tooth properties and biochemical bone turnover markers investigated on six-month-old pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymczyna, Barbara; Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Tymczyna-Sobotka, Monika; Bachanek, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine interrelationships between bone tissue metabolism indices and morphological, biomechanical and densitometric properties of hard dental tissues. First primary maxillary incisor from 6-month-old pigs (N=27) was evaluated in terms of weight and length. Mean volumetric tooth mineral density, total tooth volume, enamel total volume, enamel volumetric mineral density, dentine total volume and dentine volumetric mineral density were estimated with the use of quantitative computed tomography and micro computed tomography techniques. Tooth mineral density and tooth mineral content were evaluated with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Microhardness of enamel was measured using Vicker's test. Evaluations of total calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone and parathyroid hormone were performed in plasma and serum samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients were determined between all the investigated variables, and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The obtained results have shown mainly mutual dependences between biochemical indicators of bone metabolism. Evaluation of CTX concentration in serum of pigs has shown the highest predictive value in relation to morphological, densitometric and biomechanical properties of teeth. PMID:23076035

  15. Biochemical Markers of Joint Tissue Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Sondergaard, Bodil Cecilie; Christiansen, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    available for the study of tissue turnover in each of the three compartments of the articular joint, that is the bone, the cartilage, and the synovium. Finally, we provide some perspective to future developments in biomarker discovery and discuss the potential impact such technologies could have on the drug...

  16. Clinical application value of bone turnover markers in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with bone metastases%骨转换标志物在非小细胞肺癌骨转移临床应用价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyu Wang; Chen Yang; Yumei Yang; Zan Shen; Hui Zhao; Yang Yao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical application value of bone turnover markers in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with bone metastases. Including diagnosing bone metastases, detecting bone metastatic spread. Methods: Alkaline phosphatase (AKP), β-C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen (β-CTx), osteocalcin (OST) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were measured in 76 patients with bone metastases from NSCLC and 44 normal people. Results: The level of AKP, β-CTx and BALP in patients with bone metastasis was significantly higher than in the normal people. Significant correlation was observed among bone turnover markers. The levels of BALP and OST were significantly correlated with the extent of bone metastasis. The patients with high-level CTx and low-level BALP had higher risk of pathologic fracture. Conclusion: In NSCLC patients with bone metastases, bone turnover markers can help to make diagnosis and evaluate the severity. It will have a wide range of use in clinical practice.

  17. The assessment of metabolism of bone tissue as changes in concentration of biochemical markers of bone turnover in inpatient alcohol dependent women [Ocena metabolizmu tkanki kostnej u kobiet uzależnionych od alkoholu z zastosowaniem markerów obrotu kostnego – osteokalcyny i ctx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiłkość, Monika

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was the assessment to of metabolism of bone tissue as changes in concentration of biochemical markers of bone turnover in inpatient alcohol dependent women. Methods. The studied group consisted of 50 alcohol dependent female patients who were divided in two groups: one with an activity of AST or ALT above referential values and level of bilirubin and the second one with the activity of transaminases and level of bilirubin within referential values. The level of sex hormones and markers of bone turnover such as osteocalcin and collagen cross laps (ctx were indicated. Results. In the group with an AST, ALT or BIL above referential values, the concentration of FSH in the ovulation phase and luteal phase as well as LH in luteal phase was significantly higher, while ctx and osteocalcin was lower compared to the group with AST, ALT or BIL within referential values. The mean concentrations of FSH in follicular phase and luteal phase as well as LH in the luteal phase and progesterone in the follicular phase were increased in the group of patients with AST, ALT or BIL above referential values. The positive correlation between levels of ctx and osteocalcin was found which suggests a balance between processes of bone formation and bone resorption in the whole group while a lack of such correlation was observed in patients with AST, ALT or BIL above referential values. Conclusions. The results obtained indicate the multidirectional and mutual relations between the alcohol abuse, liver function, bone turnover and activity of endocrine system.

  18. Low bone turnover phenotype in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Petersen, Janne; Ravn, Kirstine;

    2014-01-01

    Background:Patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at risk of having low bone mass and low-energy fractures.Methods:We characterised bone metabolism by both bone formation and resorption markers in blood in a RTT population of 61 girls and women and 122 well-matched healthy controls. Levels of N-te...

  19. Influence of moderate energy restriction and seafood consumption on bone turnover in overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, A.J. (Alice J.); Paschos, G.K. (George K.); Cashman, K. D.; J. A. Martinez; Thorsdottir, I; Kiely, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in young adults. However, moderate energy restriction aimed at lowering body weight may promote bone turnover and bone loss. Inclusion of fish or fish oils in a weight-loss diet may attenuate these adverse skeletal effects. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of incorporating fish or fish oil into an energy-restricted diet on bone turnover markers in young overweight adults. DESIGN: While following a strict hypoenergetic (-30%...

  20. Analysis on the relationship between renal osteodystrophy and the biochemical marker of bone turnover and other related factors in patients with chronic kidney diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between renal osteodystrophy and the biochemical marker of bone turnover in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Methods: A total of 102 patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and 52 healthy subjects (normal control) were included in this study. The level of total procollagen type Ⅰ amino-terminal propeptide of (TP Ⅰ NP), β-isomerized carboxyterminal propeptide (β-CTx), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), serum calcium (Ca2+), serum phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were detected. The correlations between renal osteodystrophy in the patients with chronic kidney diseases and other related factors were analyzed. Results: Compared with the normal control group, there were higher TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, iPTH, P, ALP, Cr, Bun and β2-MG, in the CKD group which were significantly different according to Mann-Whitney U test (P<0.05 or <0.01). The Ca2+ and 1, 25-OH Vitamin d3 [1, 25 (OH)2D3] in the CKD group were significantly decreased compared with the normal control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed TP Ⅰ NP was positively correlated with β-CTx, iPTH, P, CaxP, ALP, Cr, Bun, β2-MG (r was 0.790, 0.681, 0.573, 0.541, 0.550, 0.598, 0.793 respectively, P<0.01), Correlation analysis showed β-CTx was positively correlated with iPTH, P, CaxP, ALP, Cr, Bun, β2-MG (r was 0.803, 0.527, 0.449, 0.659, 0.672, 0.565, 0.624 respectively, P<0.01). TP Ⅰ NP was negatively correlated with Ca2+ and 1, 25 (OH)2D3 (r was -0.302, -0.582 respectively, P<0.01). β-CTx was negatively correlated with Ca2+ and 1, 25 (OH)2D3 (r was -0.265, -0.595 respectively, P<0.01). The iPTH was positively correlated with age, TP Ⅰ NP, β-CTx, P, CaxP, ALP, Cr, Bun and β2-MG (r was 0.485, 0.681, 0.803, 0.630, 0.541, 0.486, 0.690, 0.648, 0.531 respectively, P<0.05 or <0.01), but was negatively correlated with Ca2+ and 1, 25 (OH)2D3 (r was -0.318, -0.621 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: The application of total procollagen type

  1. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  2. Osteocalcin: an emerging biomarker for bone turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Rathore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin (OC is produced by osteoblasts during bone formation. OC is excreted into urine by glomerular filtration and can be found as fragments in urine. The presence of three vitamin K-dependent and #947;-carboxyglutamic acid residues is critical for osteocalcin's structure, which appears to regulate the maturation of bone mineral. Recent bone biology research have highlighted the importance of bone not only as a structural scaffold to support the human body, but also as a regulator of a metabolic processes that are independent of mineral metabolism. Circulating osteocalcin is present either as carboxylated or as undercarboxylated forms. Increased serum level of osteocalcin is linked with increased bone mineral density. The importance of the bone and ndash;kidney relation in physiologic regulation of mineral ion has also been extensively studied and documented. Several workers have uncovered the role of insulin as an additional factor involved in the skeletal remodelling process. Evidences are available which shows that osteoblastic insulin signalling is important for glucose metabolism. The measurement of OC in urine samples could be used as an index of bone turnover in monitoring bone metabolism. In this review, we have tried to explain different roles of OC, however further studies are required to elucidate the metabolic and hormonal role of OC in human body. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3670-3674

  3. Calcium phosphate cement delivering zoledronate decreases bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Wang, Chen-Chie; Lu, Dai-Hua; Hsu, Li-Ho; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2012-06-01

    Patients sustaining bony fractures frequently require the application of bone graft substitutes to fill the bone defects. In the meantime, anti-osteoporosis drugs may be added in bone fillers to treat osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The effects of zoledronate-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (ZLN/CPC) on ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated. OVX rats were implanted with ZLN/CPC, containing 0.025 mg ZLN in the greater omentum. Afterward the clinical sign of toxicity was recorded for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematology and serum bone turnover markers analyses. The four limbs of the rats were harvested and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) scanning and bone ash analyses were performed. No clinical toxicity was observed in the treated rats. Compared to the OVX rats, levels of bone resorption markers (fragments of C-telopeptides of type I collagen) and bone formation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) decreased significantly in the treated rats. Osteopontin, which mediates the anchoring of osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones, also decreased significantly. Micro-CT scanning and histologic examinations of the distal femoral metaphyses showed that the cancellous bone architectures were restored, with a concomitant decrease in bone porosity. The bone mineral content in the bone ashes also increased significantly. This study indicates that ZLN-impregnated CPC reduces bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in OVX rats. CPC may be an appropriate carrier to deliver drugs to treat osteoporosis, and this approach may also reduce rates of post-dosing symptoms for intravenous ZLN delivery.

  4. Calcium phosphate cement delivering zoledronate decreases bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients sustaining bony fractures frequently require the application of bone graft substitutes to fill the bone defects. In the meantime, anti-osteoporosis drugs may be added in bone fillers to treat osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The effects of zoledronate-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (ZLN/CPC) on ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated. OVX rats were implanted with ZLN/CPC, containing 0.025 mg ZLN in the greater omentum. Afterward the clinical sign of toxicity was recorded for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematology and serum bone turnover markers analyses. The four limbs of the rats were harvested and micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) scanning and bone ash analyses were performed. No clinical toxicity was observed in the treated rats. Compared to the OVX rats, levels of bone resorption markers (fragments of C-telopeptides of type I collagen) and bone formation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) decreased significantly in the treated rats. Osteopontin, which mediates the anchoring of osteoclasts to the mineral matrix of bones, also decreased significantly. Micro-CT scanning and histologic examinations of the distal femoral metaphyses showed that the cancellous bone architectures were restored, with a concomitant decrease in bone porosity. The bone mineral content in the bone ashes also increased significantly. This study indicates that ZLN-impregnated CPC reduces bone turnover rate and restores bone architecture in OVX rats. CPC may be an appropriate carrier to deliver drugs to treat osteoporosis, and this approach may also reduce rates of post-dosing symptoms for intravenous ZLN delivery. (paper)

  5. Indoxyl sulfate exacerbates low bone turnover induced by parathyroidectomy in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Junya; Hirai, Kazuya; Asai, Hirobumi; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato; Yamato, Hideyuki; Watanabe-Akanuma, Mie

    2015-10-01

    Low-turnover bone disease is one of the bone abnormalities observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recognized to be associated with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and skeletal resistance to PTH. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a representative uremic toxin that accumulates in the blood as renal dysfunction progresses in CKD patients. A recent in vitro study using an osteoblastic cell culture system suggests that IS has an important role in the pathogenesis of low bone turnover through induction of skeletal resistance to PTH. However, the effects of IS on the progression of low bone turnover have not been elucidated. In the present study, we produced rats with low bone turnover by performing parathyroidectomy (PTX) and fed these rats a diet containing indole, a precursor of IS, to elevate blood IS level from indole metabolism. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measuring histomorphometric parameters of secondary spongiosa of the femur. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant decreases in both bone formation-related parameters and bone resorption-related parameters in PTX rats. In indole-treated PTX rats, further decreases in bone formation-related parameters were observed. In addition, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation marker, and bone mineral density of the tibia tended to decrease in indole-treated PTX rats. These findings strongly suggest that IS exacerbates low bone turnover through inhibition of bone formation by mechanisms unrelated to skeletal resistance to PTH. PMID:26112820

  6. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  7. Role of Soy Protein on Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haghighian roudsari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone mass loss is one of the commonest menopause symptoms, resulting from cessation of estrogen production. Compounds which have estrogen – like biological activity similar to “Isoflavones” present in plants especially soy, may reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women, because as they are similar in structure to estrogens. This study, therefore, was undertaken to assess the effect of soy protein on bone metabolism biomarkers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. This “before and after” clinical trial was carried out, on 15 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, between 45 to 64 years of age. The subjects were asked to consume 35 gram/day of soy protein for 12 weeks. Blood and urine samples, were taken at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Anthropometric measurements and a 2-day dietary recall were done at the beginning of the study, and at the 6 and 12 weeks. The food consumption data were analyzed by “Food Proccessor” software. Repeated measurement analysis was utilized to determine the changes in biochemical indices, anthropometric and dietary data. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Comparison of weight, BMI, physical activity and dietary intake of subjects during the study did not show any significant differences. Soy protein consumption, showed significant reductions in deoxypyridinoline (biochemical marker of bone resorption and significant increase in total alkaline phosphatase ( biochemical marker of bone formation.There were no significant differences in serum osteocalcin, C- telopeptide, insulin- like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, and type-I- collagen telopeptides. Considering the beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone metabolism biomarkers, inclusion of this inexpensive and available food item in postmenopausal women diet, may reduce bone loss and could be recommended for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  8. Effect of Epimedium-derived Phytoestrogen on Bone Turnover and Bone Microarchitecture in OVX-induced Osteoporotic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin PENG; Renyun XIA; Huang FANG; Feng LI; Anmin CHEN; Ge ZHANG; Ling QIN

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the preventive effect of epimedium-defivod phytoestrogen (PE) on osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, 11-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly di- vided into Sham, OVX and PE groups. One week after OVX, daily oral administration of PE (0.4 g·kg-1·day·-1) started in PE group, and rats in Sham and OVX groups were given vehicle accordingly. The administrations lasted for 12 weeks. The biological markers including serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) for bone turnover were evaluated at the end of the 12th week. On the 13th week, all the rats were sacrificed. The right proximal tibiae were removed, subjected to micro CT for determination of trabeonlar bone structure and then bone histomorphometry was per- formed to assess bone remodeling. The OVX rats were in a high bone turnover status as evidenced by increased bone formation markers and bone resorption markers. Treatment with PE could suppress the high bone turnover rate in OVX rats. Micro CT data revealed that PE treatment could ameliorate the deterioration of the micro-architecture of proximal tibiae induced by OVX, as demonstrated by greater bone volume, increased trabecular thickness and less trahecular separation in PE group in comparison with OVX group. The static and dynamic parameters of bone histomorphometry indi- cated that there were significant increases in bone formation variables and significant decreases in bone resorption variables between PE and OVX groups. The findings suggest that PE has a beneficial effect on trabecular bone in OVX rat model and this effect is possibly associated with stimulation of bone formation as well as inhibition of bone resorption.

  9. Changes in biochemical bone markers during pregnancy and puerperium.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, B. K.; Lee, J.W.; Choi, D. S.; Roh, C. R.; Lee, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the changes in bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium, we measured serially the levels of serum osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline (Dpy) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively, in 22 healthy women with normal pregnancy. Nineteen non-pregnant women served as control. The Dpy levels increased significantly at 16 weeks of pregnancy and remained elevated thereafter. The levels of osteocalcin, however, were significantly decreased at 16 weeks of pre...

  10. A phase II clinical trial does not show that high dose simvastatin has beneficial effect on markers of bone turnover in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Teis Esben; Pedersen, PT; Levin Andersen, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    observed a transient increase in markers of osteoclast activity. This sign of a transient stimulation of osteoclast activity suggests that HD-Sim may be harmful rather than beneficial for MM patients. For this reason and because of gastro-intestinal side effects the study was stopped prematurely. Copyright...

  11. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Daniel S. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pienkowski, David [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Faugere, Marie-Claude [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center; Malluche, Hartmut H. [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  12. Graves病患者骨质疏松患病情况及骨转换指标特征%Osteoporosis in Graves′ disease and the characteristics of bone turnover markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄灵; 李晓牧; 凌雁; 高鑫

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate osteoporosis and the bone turnover markers in patients with Graves′ disease(GD) and the association of bone turnover markers including serum osteocalcin ( OCN ),I procollagen Nterminal propeptide( PINP),serum alkaline phosphatase ( ALP),and β- I collagen carboxyl-terminal peptide ( β-CTX)with thyroid hormone levels.Methods A total of 163 patients with Graves′ disease were enrolled.Serum thyroid hormone,OCN,PINP,and β-CTX levels were measured by the method of ethchemiluminescence.Serum ALP,calcium,phosphorus,and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were measured by automatic biochemical system.Bone mineral density ( BMD ) of lumbar spines 1-4 ( L 1-4 ) and the proximal left femur was detected by dual energy xray absorptiometry.Results GD cases enrolled were composed of 43 men (26.4% )and 120 women ( 73.6% ),with an average age of ( 47 ± 1 ) years.There were 126 cases ( 77.3% ) with normal BMD,and 37 cases ( 22.7% ) with osteoporosis.OCN,ALP,PINP,β-CTX,and free T3 levels were significantly higher in the group of osteoporosis than those in the group with normal BMD( P<0.05 or P<0.01 ) after adjusting for sex,age,and BMI.The levels of OCN,P1NP,and β-CTX were positively correlated with serum FT3 level ( all P<0.01 ) and were also progressively increased according to the quartile groups of FT3 levels ( P<0.01 ) after sex,age,and BMI were adjusted.Conclusion Patients with Graves′ disease had a high incidence of osteoporosis with characristic high rate of bone turnover,which is related to the raised thyroid hormone levels.%目的 探讨Graves病(GD)患者骨质疏松的患病情况,研究GD患者血清骨钙素、Ⅰ型前胶原氨基端前肽(PINP)、血清碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、β-Ⅰ型胶原羧基端肽(β-CTX)等骨转换指标的特征及其与甲状腺激素水平的相关性.方法 人选明确诊断GD患者163例,电化学发光法测定甲状腺相关激素水平、骨钙素、PINP、CTX,全自动生化仪测定ALP

  13. Arthritis induces early bone high turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vidal

    Full Text Available We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone.Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers.AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046. Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002 and bone volume (p = 0.0003 and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009 in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively in the arthritic group.We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness.

  14. New simulation model for bone formation markers in osteoporosis patients treated with once-weekly teriparatide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakae Tanaka; Taiji Adachi; Tatsuhiko Kuroda; Toshitaka Nakamura; Masataka Shiraki; Toshitsugu Sugimoto; Yasuhiro Takeuchi; Mitsuru Saito; John P Bilezikian

    2014-01-01

    Daily 20-mg and once-weekly 56.5-mg teriparatide (parathyroid hormone 1–34) treatment regimens increase bone mineral density (BMD) and prevent fractures, but changes in bone turnover markers differ between the two regimens. The aim of the present study was to explain changes in bone turnover markers using once-weekly teriparatide with a simulation model. Temporary increases in bone formation markers and subsequent decreases were observed during once-weekly teriparatide treatment for 72 weeks. These observations support the hypothesis that repeated weekly teriparatide administration stimulates bone remodeling, replacing old bone with new bone and leading to a reduction in the active remodeling surface. A simulation model was developed based on the iterative remodeling cycle that occurs on residual old bone. An increase in bone formation and a subsequent decrease were observed in the preliminary simulation. For each fitted time point, the predicted value was compared to the absolute values of the bone formation and resorption markers and lumbar BMD. The simulation model strongly matched actual changes in bone turnover markers and BMD. This simulation model indicates increased bone formation marker levels in the early stage and a subsequent decrease. It is therefore concluded that remodeling-based bone formation persisted during the entire treatment period with once-weekly teriparatide.

  15. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  16. Low bone turnover and low BMD in Down syndrome: effect of intermittent PTH treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan W Fowler

    Full Text Available Trisomy 21 affects virtually every organ system and results in the complex clinical presentation of Down syndrome (DS. Patterns of differences are now being recognized as patients' age and these patterns bring about new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment. Low bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in many studies of males and females with DS yet the specific effects of trisomy 21 on the skeleton remain poorly defined. Therefore we determined the bone phenotype and measured bone turnover markers in the murine DS model Ts65Dn. Male Ts65Dn DS mice are infertile and display a profound low bone mass phenotype that deteriorates with age. The low bone mass was correlated with significantly decreased osteoblast and osteoclast development, decreased bone biochemical markers, a diminished bone formation rate and reduced mechanical strength. The low bone mass observed in 3 month old Ts65Dn mice was significantly increased after 4 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment. These studies provide novel insight into the cause of the profound bone fragility in DS and identify PTH as a potential anabolic agent in the adult low bone mass DS population.

  17. BONE TURNOVER AND MINERAL DENSITY OF THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE IN WOMEN WITH PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Pronchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To elucidate the role of cholestasis and menopausal status in the development of osteoporosis in women with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC before and after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Methods and re- sults. There were fulfilled 74 estimations of biochemical markers of bone metabolism, estrogen (E2, parathy- roid hormone (PTH endogenous secretion so as mineral content of lumbar vertebras in 21 women with PBC (10 women before and 17 in different terms after OLT. Bone turnover disturbances were characterized by delay of bone formation associated with hyperbilirubinaemia before OLT while increased bone turnover following OLT. Bone resorption markers correlated inversely with E2 in postmenopausal women and positively with PTH in premenopausal women. Conclusion. Bone wastes degree depended on hard and duration of disease before OLT so as menopausal status after OLT. In postmenopausal women bone wastes were associated with degree of endogenous E2 decreasing, increased bone turnover, and graft dysfunction. 

  18. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  19. The clinical utility of bone marker measurements in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Gillian; Elshahaly, Mohsen; Tuck, Stephen P; Datta, Harish K; van Laar, Jacob M

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in increased fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Direct medical costs from such fractures in the UK are currently estimated at over two billion pounds per year, resulting in a substantial healthcare burden that is expected to rise exponentially due to increasing life expectancy. Currently bone mineral density is the WHO standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis, but poor sensitivity means that potential fractures will be missed if it is used alone. During the past decade considerable progress has been made in the identification and characterisation of specific biomarkers to aid the management of metabolic bone disease. Technological developments have greatly enhanced assay performance producing reliable, rapid, non-invasive cost effective assays with improved sensitivity and specificity. We now have a greater understanding of the need to regulate pre-analytical sample collection to minimise the effects of biological variation. However, bone turnover markers (BTMs) still have limited clinical utility. It is not routinely recommended to use BTMs to select those at risk of fractures, but baseline measurements of resorption markers are useful before commencement of anti-resorptive treatment and can be checked 3-6 months later to monitor response and adherence to treatment. Similarly, formation markers can be used to monitor bone forming agents. BTMs may also be useful when monitoring patients during treatment holidays and aid in the decision as to when therapy should be recommenced. Recent recommendations by the Bone Marker Standards Working Group propose to standardise research and include a specific marker of bone resorption (CTX) and bone formation (P1NP) in all future studies. It is hoped that improved research in turn will lead to optimised markers for the clinical management of

  20. Bone Density, Turnover, and Estimated Strength in Postmenopausal Women Treated With Odanacatib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Kim; Chapurlat, Roland; Cheung, Angela M;

    2013-01-01

    bone compartments and estimated strength at the hip and spine.Design:This was a randomized, double-blind, 2-year trial.Setting:The study was conducted at a private or institutional practice.Participants:Participants included 214 postmenopausal women with low areal BMD.Intervention:The intervention...... included odanacatib 50 mg or placebo weekly.Main Outcome Measures:Changes in areal BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (primary end point, 1 year areal BMD change at lumbar spine), bone turnover markers, volumetric BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and bone strength estimated by finite......-formation marker procollagen I N-terminal peptide initially decreased with odanacatib but by 2 years did not differ from placebo. After 6 months, odanacatib-treated women had greater increases in trabecular volumetric BMD and estimated compressive strength at the spine and integral and trabecular volumetric BMD...

  1. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  2. Biochemical markers for assessment of calcium economy and bone metabolism: application in clinical trials from pharmaceutical agents to nutritional products

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Kohrt, Wendy; Levasseur, Régis; Warren, Michelle; Whiting, Susan; Kraenzlin, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Substantial progress in both laboratory analyses and clinical use of biochemical markers has modified the strategy of anti-osteoporotic drug development. The present review examines the use of biochemical markers in clinical research aimed at characterising the influence of foods or nutrients on bone metabolism. The two types of markers are: (i) specific hormonal factors related to bone; and (ii) bone turnover markers...

  3. The effect of short-term low-energy ultraviolet B irradiation on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: A randomized single-blinded controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Micić Ivan; Jeon In-Ho; Park So-Hyun; Hwa Seo-Sung; Chun Jae-Myeung; Stojiljković Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The importance of vitamin D on bone health and osteoporosis was studied by many researchers. The main role of the Vitamin D is to absorb calcium and phosphate and increase bone mineralization. Older people are at an increased risk of the inadequate vitamin D production in the skin because of lower sun exposure and reduced ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D. Objective. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of short-term (2 wee...

  4. Interleukin-6 is not essential for bone turnover in hypothyroid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gorska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several bone diseases characterized by an imbalance between bone resorption and formation. The aim of the study was to estimate serum markers of bone turnover: osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5a (TRACP 5b and osteocalcin in IL-6-deficient mice to assess the role of IL-6 in bone metabolism in hypothyroidism in mice. C57BL/6J (wild-type; WT and C57BL/6J(IL6-/-Kopf (IL-6 knock-out; IL6KO mice randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 in each one: 1/ WT mice in hypothyroidism (WT-ht, 2/ WT controls, 3/ IL6KO mice with hypothyroidism (IL6KO-ht and 4/ IL6KO controls. Experimental model of hypothyroidism was induced by intraperitoneal injection of propylthiouracyl. The serum levels of TRACP 5b and osteocalcin were determined by ELISA. Serum concentrations of TRACP 5b (median and interquartile ranges were significantly decreased in both groups of mice with hypothyroidism: WT (3.2 (2.5-4.7 U/l and IL6KO (2.6 (1.8-3.5 U/l as compared to the respective controls. Similarly, serum osteocalcin levels were significantly reduced in both groups of mice in experimental hypothyroidism: WT (25.8 (23.0-28.2 ng/ml and IL6KO (21.5(19.0-24.6 ng/ml in comparison to the respective controls. There were no significant differences in bone turnover markers between IL6KO and WT mice both in hypothyroid and control animals. The results of the present study suggest that IL-6 does not play an important role in bone turnover in both euthyroid and hypothyroid mice.

  5. Elevated Bone Turnover in an Infantile Patient with Mucolipidosis II; No Association with Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otomo, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Shimotsuji, Tsunesuke; Ozono, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    This present report concerns an infantile patient with mucolipidosis II, who showed transient cortical bone hyperostosis followed by severe osteopenia. The diagnosis of mucolipidosis II was made based on the leakage of lysosomal enzymes in serum and conditioned media of the patient's skin fibroblasts, low activity of lysosomal enzymes of the fibroblasts and mutation of c.2086_2089insC (p.L697fs) and c.3565C>T (p.R1189X) in the GNPTAB gene. Bone X-ray analysis demonstrated a periosteal reaction and elevated bone resorption at the age of 2 mo. Bone markers, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline, also indicated a high turnover of bone metabolism; however, no apparent rickets-like changes and no increased levels of PTH were observed. Elevated bone resorption is possibly associated with the leakage of lysosomal enzyme from osteoclasts into bone matrices. Bone formation gradually reduced, and increased bone resorption persisted. This led to severe osteopenia at the age of 6 mo. Characteristic bone findings may contribute to early diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, but their pathogenesis remains to be clarified. PMID:23926388

  6. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  7. 新生适于胎龄儿骨转换标志物与骨声波传导速度的关系%Relationship between bone turnover markers and bone sound of speed in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺鸣凤; 陈平洋; 赵亚凡; 赵子艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of gestational age (GA) with carboxyterminal propeptide of type Ⅰ procollagen (PICP),deoxypyridinoline (DPD),and bone sound of speed (SOS) in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates,as well as the relationship between bone turnover markers and bone SOS.Methods Sixtyfive AGA neonates were included in the study.The neonates were divided into three groups:preterm infant (GA ≤ 34 weeks,14 cases),late preterm infant (34 weeks<GA<37 weeks,13 cases),and full-term infant (GA ≥ 37 weeks,38 cases).Birth weight and length were measured in all cases,and Ponderal index (PI) was used to estimate their nutritional status.Venous blood was collected within 7 days after birth to measure blood PICP concentration.Urine was collected to measure urinary DPD and creatinine (Cr) levels.Omnisense 7000P ultrasound bone sonometer was applied to measure the SOS of the left tibia in all cases within 7 days after birth.Results There were significant differences in GA (F=140.199,P<0.001),birth weight (F=47.042,P<0.001),birth length (F=46.877,P<0.001),and PI (F=11.898,P<0.001) between the three groups; the higher the GA,the higher the birth weigh,birth length,and PI.There were significant differences in PICP (F=30.384,P<0.001),DPD/Cr (F=21.761,P<0.001),and SOS (F=20.052,P<0.001) between the three groups; the higher the GA,the lower the PICP and DPD/Cr and the higher the bone SOS.PICP and DPD/Cr were negatively correlated with GA,birth weight and bone SOS (P<0.01),while bone SOS was positively correlated with GA and birth weight (P<0.01),which still held true after adjustment for GA and birth weight.Conclusions Among AGA neonates,bone turnover markers are negatively correlated with GA,birth weight and bone SOS.High bone turnover is bad for bone health in AGA neonates.%目的 研究新生适于胎龄儿Ⅰ型前胶原羧基端前肽(PICP)、尿脱氧吡啶啉(DPD)及骨声波的传导速度(SOS)随胎龄变化的规律,探

  8. Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract on bone turnover and calcium balance in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Lai, Wan-Ping; Leung, Ping-Chung; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), a kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal medicine, on the biochemical markers of bone turnover, calcium metabolism and balance in osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. Four weeks after surgical operation, animals were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments for 14 weeks: sham-operated control treated with vehicle (sham, n=8), ovariectomized group treated with vehicle (OVX, n=8), OVX group treated with 17beta-estradiol (E(2), n=10, 2 microg/kg/d) and OVX group treated with FLL extracts (FLL, n=10, 550 mg/kg/d). Serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were upregulated in rats in response to OVX, suggesting that the bone turnover rate was accelerated in these animals. Treatment of OVX rats with FLL extract could prevent OVX-induced increase in bone turnover by suppression of both serum osteocalcin (pcalcium in rats by increasing the intestinal calcium absorption rate (pcalcium content (pcalcium balance in OVX rats and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover but bone balance in ovariectomized rats is modulated by prevailing mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, K. C.; Wronski, T. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Luo, Z. P.; An, K. N.; Bell, N. H.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency induced bone loss is associated with increased bone turnover in rats and humans. The respective roles of increased bone turnover and altered balance between bone formation and bone resorption in mediating estrogen deficiency-induced cancellous bone loss was investigated in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy resulted in increased bone turnover in the distal femur. However, cancellous bone was preferentially lost in the metaphysis, a site that normally experiences low strain energy. No bone loss was observed in the epiphysis, a site experiencing higher strain energy. The role of mechanical strain in maintaining bone balance was investigated by altering the strain history. Mechanical strain was increased and decreased in long bones of ovariectomized rats by treadmill exercise and functional unloading, respectively. Functional unloading was achieved during orbital spaceflight and following unilateral sciatic neurotomy. Increasing mechanical loading reduced bone loss in the metaphysis. In contrast, decreasing loading accentuated bone loss in the metaphysis and resulted in bone loss in the epiphysis. Finally, administration of estrogen to ovariectomized rats reduced bone loss in the unloaded and prevented loss in the loaded limb following unilateral sciatic neurotomy in part by reducing indices of bone turnover. These results suggest that estrogen regulates the rate of bone turnover, but the overall balance between bone formation and bone resorption is influenced by prevailing levels of mechanical strain.

  10. The turnover of Ca47 and Sr85 in bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External counting measurements of local calcium-47 and strontium-85 uptakes and turnover in normal bones and in bone metastases were performed. In many studies serum samples and excretions were collected and assayed. Measurements on patients with bone lesions revealed abnormalities in tracer turnover. 4 figs

  11. Lanthanum carbonate stimulates bone formation in a rat model of renal insufficiency with low bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-09-01

    Control of phosphate is important in the management of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), for which lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate-binding agent, has recently been introduced; however, it remains to be determined whether it has any beneficial or deleterious effect on bone remodeling. In the present study, the effects of lanthanum carbonate were examined in an animal model that mimics low turnover bone disease in CKD, i.e., thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats undergoing a constant infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroxine injections (TPTX-PTH-5/6NX). Bone histomorphometry at the second lumbar vertebra and tibial metaphysis revealed that both bone formation and resorption were markedly suppressed in the TPTX-PTH-5/6NX model compared with the sham-operated control group, and treatment with lanthanum carbonate was associated with the stimulation of bone formation but not an acceleration of bone resorption. Lanthanum treatment caused a robust stimulation of bone formation with an activation of osteoblasts on the endosteal surface of femoral diaphysis, leading to an increase in cortical bone volume. Thus, lanthanum carbonate has the potential to stimulate bone formation in cases of CKD-MBD with suppressed bone turnover. PMID:24126694

  12. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  13. Bone turnover is adequately suppressed in osteoporotic patients treated with bisphosphonates in daily practice

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    Dijkmans Ben AC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring osteoporosis therapy by measurement of bone turnover markers (BTMs might detect non-compliance in an earlier stage of anti-osteoporosis treatment and improve persistence. Methods BTMs were measured in two groups. The first group consisted of patients newly diagnosed with osteoporosis and starting treatment. We observed which proportion of patients had a decrease of serum levels of procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP and C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTX greater than the least significant change (LSC after 3 months of treatment. Secondly, we determined which proportion of patients who were treated with bisphosphonates for ≥ 3 months reached the biological goal of therapy, BTMs in the lower half of the normal premenopausal range. P1NP and CTX were also measured in a reference population of 34 healthy premenopausal women. Results In the first group 31 patients were included, in 25 patients (81% levels of both markers decreased with ≥ LSC, in the other patients a possible explanation was found. In the second group 95 patients were included, in 95% the serum P1NP levels and CTX levels were in the lower half of the premenopausal range. In 6 of the 7 patients with a level above the premenopausal range a possible explanation was found. Conclusion A decrease in bone turnover ≥ LSC can be observed in the majority of newly treated patients. In chronically treated patients, 95% have a bone turnover in the premenopausal range. In most patients with inadequate suppression of BTMs during bisphosphonate treatment, an explanation was found. Monitoring treatment effect with BTMs in daily practice is feasible, and might be an additive tool in improving therapy compliance.

  14. Bone turnover and metabolism in patients with early multiple sclerosis and prevalent bone mass deficit: a population-based case-control study.

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    Stine Marit Moen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low bone mass is prevalent in ambulatory multiple sclerosis (MS patients even shortly after clinical onset. The mechanism is not known, but could involve shared etiological risk factors between MS and low bone mass such as hypovitaminosis D operating before disease onset, or increased bone loss after disease onset. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of the low bone mass in early-stage MS patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a population-based case-control study comparing bone turnover (cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen; NTX, bone alkaline phosphatase; bALP, metabolism (25-hydroxy- and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone, and relevant lifestyle factors in 99 patients newly diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS or MS, and in 159 age, sex, and ethnicity matched controls. After adjustment for possible confounders, there were no significant differences in NTX (mean 3.3; 95% CI -6.9, 13.5; p = 0.519, bALP (mean 1.6; 95% CI -0.2, 3.5; p = 0.081, or in any of the parameters related to bone metabolism in patients compared to controls. The markers of bone turnover and metabolism were not significantly correlated with bone mass density, or associated with the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia within or between the patient and control groups. Intake of vitamin D and calcium, reported UV exposure, and physical activity did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bone turnover and metabolism did not differ significantly in CIS and MS patients with prevalent low bone mass compared to controls. These findings indicate that the bone deficit in patients newly diagnosed with MS and CIS is not caused by recent acceleration of bone loss, and are compatible with shared etiological factors between MS and low bone mass.

  15. Correlations among biochemical markers of bone turnover,bone speed of sound and postnatal age in early infancy%婴儿早期骨代谢生化指标与声波速度值和出生后年龄间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖祥鹏; 张立; 卫雅蓉; 张伟利; 何稼敏; 孙建华; 黄萍

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨婴儿早期骨代谢生化指标与声波速度值和出生后年龄间的关系.方法 采用骨定量超声(QUS)仪对167例出生3月内的婴儿进行胫骨声波速度(SOS)测量.其中包括53例早产儿(胎龄:32.6±2.7周)和114例足月儿(胎龄:39.1±1.2周);同时在部分婴儿中测量血钙、磷、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和骨碱性磷酸酶(BALP).结果 ①早产儿和足月儿的血钙、磷、ALP和BALP值之间均差异无显著性.②婴儿骨SOS值与ALP呈显著负相关(n=167,r=-0.139,P=0.036)、与BALP也显著负相关(n=32,r=-0.410,P=0.010);SOS值与血钙、血磷及血钙磷乘积无显著性相关.在早产儿中,ALP和BALP与日龄均显著相关,相关系数r分别为0.286(n=53,P=0.019)和0.946(n=7,P=0.001);在足月儿中未发现显著相关性.血磷与日龄呈显著负相关(n=24,r=-0.509,P=0.005).③ALP与BALP高度相关(n=32,r=0.958,P=0.001),BALP占ALP活力的47.3%.早产儿在出生时BALP和Ⅰ型胶原羧基端肽(IcTP)显著正相关(n=36,r=0.768,P=0.001).结论 定量超声技术测量SOS有助于我们评估婴儿早期骨状况;在此横向研究中我们发现骨SOS与骨代谢生化指标之间存在相关性,然而,二者间的纵向关系有待于进一步研究.%Objective To examine the correlations among biochemical markers of bone turnover,bone speed of sound and postnatal age in early infancy. Materials and methods: A quantitative ultrasound bone sonometer was used to measure the bone speed of sound (SOS) of the tibia in 167 infants within 3 months of birth, including 53 preterm infants (gestational age 32.6±2.7 weeks) and 114 full-term infants (gestational age 39.1±1.2 weeks). Serum calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were examined at the same time among some of them. Results: 1) There were no significant differences of serum calcium, phosphorus, ALP and BALP between preterm infants and full-term infants. 2) There were significantly inverse

  16. Bone markers after total body irradiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Espérou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Souberbielle, J-C; Brauner, R

    2010-03-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can cause short stature because of decreased growth hormone (GH) and skeletal abnormalities. To evaluate the plasma concentrations of markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, P1NP) and resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, CTX), in patients (n=65) who had been given TBI at 6.6+/-0.4 years were evaluated at 9.8+/-0.4 years. Patients given single 10 Gy or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in those given a single 10 Gy. Seven had lower osteocalcin and two had higher CTX than controls. Bone markers (as zs) were positively correlated (osteocalcin with P1NP, rho=0.42, P=0.0007; osteocalcin with CTX, rho=0.3, Pirradiated when young (P=0.0002) or given single TBI lost more height between TBI and adult height. Most TBI patients had normal bone formation and resorption markers. Thus, impaired bone turnover is probably not the cause of their short stature and poor response to GH.

  17. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  18. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T.R.; McCarthy, D.; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of season on biochemical markers of bone turnover in 51-to 75-year-old Irish women and to investigate whether such changes are related to vitamin D status. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Setting: Cork, Ireland (52 degrees N). Subjects: 76 apparently...... healthy, free-living postmenopausal women (aged 51-75 years), not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] showed a clear seasonal variation with significantly higher (p ... during late summer than late winter. Both urinary pyridinoline (Ur-Pyr) (p seasonal variation with lowest values during late-summer. Stratifying women into those with S-25(OH)D levels...

  19. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    was the fU-OHpr/creat ratio, which increased from 12.0 to 20.1 in the OLS group but only from 10.9 to 1 3.2 in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: One year's treatment with OLS induces a lipid malabsorption which enhances a dietary weight loss without any significant deleterious effects on body composition. OLS......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...

  20. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

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    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  1. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat. PMID:21663694

  2. Study on de novo collagen biosynthesis and degradation markers of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out to study the performance of de novo biochemical markers of serum pro collagen type-1 amino terminal extension (PINP), as a marker of collagen biosynthesis, and urinary collagen crosslink free deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as a marker of collagen degradation. Moreover, urinary calcium C Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P), as markers of bone demineralization, in addition to urinary creatinine (Cr), to reflect status of renal function, were also studied in order to assess the activity of bone turnover in osteoporotic (OST), postmenopausal (POST), peri menopausal(PERI), premenopausal (PRE) women and also in young adult (YON) ones. The obtained results showed that urinary creatinine levels were within the normal ranges in all women even in the elderly osteoporotic and postmenopausal women. Serum PINP did not reflect osteoblastic activity. Urinary DPD proved to be a good marker in monitoring the postmenopausal bone resorption and urinary Ca was a reliable marker for bone loss in osteoporosis and bone turnover in the postmenopausal status

  3. Vitamin D status of 51-75-year-old Irish women: its determinants and impact on biochemical indices of bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, T. R.; O'Brien, M. M.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.;

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the vitamin D status of Irish postmenopausal women during wintertime, and to examine its relationship with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. In addition, the determinants of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) levels in these...

  4. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  5. Changes in bone turnover and bone loss in HIV-infected patients changing treatment to tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine.

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    Hila Haskelberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Those receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF-FTC had greater bone loss compared with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC-3TC in a randomized simplification trial (STEAL study. Previous studies associated increased bone turnover and bone loss with initiation of antiretroviral treatment, however it is unclear whether change in bone mineral density (BMD was a result of specific drugs, from immune reconstitution or from suppression of HIV replication. This analysis determined predictors of BMD change in the hip and spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in virologically suppressed participants through week 96. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bone turnover markers (BTMS tested were: formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP]; resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen [CTx]; and bone cytokine-signalling (osteoprotegerin, RANK ligand. Independent predictors of BMD change were determined using forward, stepwise, linear regression. BTM changes and fracture risk (FRAX® at week 96 were compared by t-test. Baseline characteristics (n = 301 were: 98% male, mean age 45 years, current protease-inhibitor (PI 23%, tenofovir/abacavir-naïve 52%. Independent baseline predictors of greater hip and spine bone loss were TDF-FTC randomisation (p ≤ 0.013, lower fat mass (p-trend ≤ 0.009, lower P1NP (p = 0.015, and higher hip T score/spine BMD (p-trend ≤ 0.006. Baseline PI use was associated with greater spine bone loss (p = 0.004. TDF-FTC increased P1NP and CTx through Wk96 (p<0.01. Early changes in BTM did not predict bone loss at week 96. No significant between-group difference was found in fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tenofovir/emtricitabine treatment, lower bone formation and lower fat mass predicted subsequent bone loss. There was no association between TDF-FTC and fracture risk.

  6. Exploring correlation between bone metabolism markers and densitometric traits in extended families from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Arranz, Laura; Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Brunel, Helena; Camacho, Mercedes; Malouf, Jorge; Sosa, Nerea Hernandez-de; Vila, Luis; Casademont, Jordi; Soria, Jose Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disorder characterized by low bone mass and reduced bone strength that may cause fragility fractures. In recent years, there have been substantial advancements in the biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism through the measurement of bone turnover markers. Currently, good knowledge of the genetics of such markers has become an indispensable part of osteoporosis research. In this study, we used the Genetic Analysis of Osteoporosis Project to study the genetics of the plasma levels of 12 markers related to bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Plasma phenotypes were determined through biochemical assays and log-transformed values were used together with a set of covariates to model genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation, thus estimating the heritability of each trait. In addition, we studied correlations between the 12 markers and a wide variety of previously described densitometric traits. All of the 12 bone metabolism markers showed significant heritability, ranging from 0.194 for osteocalcin to 0.516 for sclerostin after correcting for covariate effects. Strong genetic correlations were observed between osteocalcin and several bone mineral densitometric traits, a finding with potentially useful diagnostic applications. In addition, suggestive genetic correlations with densitometric traits were observed for leptin and sclerostin. Overall, the few strong and several suggestive genetic correlations point out the existence of a complex underlying genetic architecture for bone metabolism plasma phenotypes and provide a strong motivation for pursuing novel whole-genome gene-mapping strategies. PMID:27241279

  7. Dissociation of bone formation markers in bone metastasis of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, M; Maeda, H.; Yoshimura, K; Yamauchi, T.; Kawai, T.; Ogata, E

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the meaning and clinical value of bone formation markers in bone metastasis from prostate cancer, we investigated the bone formation markers carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BA1-p) and osteocalcin, so-called bone gla protein (BGP) in 43 prostate cancer patients with and 46 patients without overt bone metastasis. Patients with bone metastasis were evaluated repeatedly by bone scan at intervals of 3-6 months. The expression...

  8. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Giuliani, Alessandra; Brun, Francesco; Canciani, Barbara; Manescu, Adrian; Marozzi, Katia; Cilli, Michele; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Tasso, Roberta; Tromba, Giuliana; Rustichelli, Franco; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt) and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg) mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS) during the Mice Drawer System (MDS) mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days) in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN) in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  9. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.;

    2010-01-01

    and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured...... be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence...... at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Results: The S-25OHD concentration increased (p mean +/- SD; 11.0 +/- 10.3 nmol/l, baseline 41.9 +/- 17.6 nmol/l) or 10 mu g/day (13.3 +/- 11.8 nmol/l, baseline 44.4 +/- 16.6 nmol...

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in Paget's disease of bone-correlation of regional microcirculation and bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicher, M. [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet zu Koeln, Radiologische Klinik, Koeln (Germany); Kasperk, C. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Medicine, Division of Osteology, Heidelberg (Germany); Daniels, M.; Hosch, W. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U.; Delorme, S. [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional microcirculation in Paget's disease of bone (PD) with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI). Additionally, we correlated regional bone perfusion with alkaline phosphatase as serum marker of bone turnover. We examined 71 patients with PD (27 men, 44 women, 67{+-}10 years) localized at the axial and appendicular skeleton. Contrast uptake was analyzed using a two-compartment model with the output variables amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. Color-coded parametric images were generated to visualize microcirculation. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) were compared with DCE-MRI parameters. Amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep} were significantly increased in PD compared to unaffected bone (A{sub PD} 0.81{+-}0.24 vs. A{sub control} 0.34{+-}0.1 and k{sub ep} {sub PD} 4.0 {+-}2.86 vs. k{sub ep} {sub control} 1.73 {+-}0.88, p <0.001). There was a significant correlation (r{sub s}=0.5-0.7) of DCE-MRI parameters and AP at the axial (pelvis, spine) and appendicular skeleton (femur, tibia). The long bones showed increased circulation of the advancing peripheral zones and no vascularization of the central part, which had been replaced by fatty tissue. Regional microcirculation in PD is inhomogeneous with focal areas of excessive hypervascularity, especially in the advancing peripheral zone. There is a significant correlation of bone circulation and bone turnover in PD. DCE-MRI might therefore be a diagnostic tool for monitoring therapeutic effects of bisphoshonates in Paget's disease of bone. (orig.)

  11. Higher bone turnover is related to spinal radiographic damage and low bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis patients with active disease: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Arends

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive bone formation and bone loss. Our aim was to investigate the association of bone turnover markers (BTM with spinal radiographic damage and bone mineral density (BMD in AS patients with active disease. METHODS: 201 consecutive AS outpatients of the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included. Serum markers of bone resorption (C-telopeptides of type-I collagen, sCTX and bone formation (procollagen type-I N-terminal peptide, PINP; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BALP were measured. Z-scores were used to correct for the normal influence that age and gender have on bone turnover. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers according to modified Stoke AS Spinal Score (mSASSS. The presence of complete bridging (ankylosis of at least two vertebrae was considered as measure of more advanced radiographic damage. Low BMD was defined as lumbar spine and/or hip BMD Z-score ≤ -1. RESULTS: Of the 151 patients with complete data, 52 (34% had ≥ 1 complete bridge, 49 (33% had ≥ 1 syndesmophyte (non-bridging, and 50 (33% had no syndesmophytes. 66 (44% had low BMD. Patients with bridging had significantly higher sCTX and PINP Z-scores than patients without bridging (0.43 vs. -0.55 and 0.55 vs. 0.04, respectively. Patients with low BMD had significantly higher sCTX Z-score than patients with normal BMD (-0.08 vs. -0.61. After correcting for gender, symptom duration, and CRP, sCTX Z-score remained significantly related to the presence of low BMD alone (OR: 1.60, bridging alone (OR: 1.82, and bridging in combination with low BMD (OR: 2.26. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study in AS patients with active and relatively long-standing disease demonstrated that higher serum levels of sCTX, and to a lesser extent PINP, are associated with the presence of complete bridging. sCTX was also associated with low BMD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm that serum levels of s

  12. The Efect of Semelil (AngiparsW on Bone Resorption and Bone Formation Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of AngiparsW for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need toevaluate the effect of this new drug on different organs including bone resorption and bone formation markers.Methods: In this randomized, double- blind clinical trial, 61 diabetic patients were included. The subjects wererandomly divided into intervention and control groups. Subjects of intervention group received 100 mg of AngiparsW twice a day. Laboratory tests including bone resorption and bone formation markers were performed at baseline and after 3 months.Result: 31 patients in study group and 30 patients in control group finished the study. The mean age of the studypopulation and the mean disease duration was respectively 51.8 ± 6.2 and 7.5 ± 4.7 years with no significant differences between intervention and control patients. No statistically significant differences between patients and controls were observed in pyridinoline, osteocalcin, urine calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Only urine creatinine level significantly changed between two groups after 3 month of treatment (pvalue:0.029Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Semelil (AngiparsW had no beneficial or harmfuleffects on bone. It might be other effects of this new component on bone turnover process which need morestudies and more time to be discovered.

  13. The effect of semelil (angipars® on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani-Ranjbar Shirin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of Angipars® for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need to evaluate the effect of this new drug on different organs including bone resorption and bone formation markers. Methods In this randomized, double- blind clinical trial, 61 diabetic patients were included. The subjects were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Subjects of intervention group received 100 mg of Angipars® twice a day. Laboratory tests including bone resorption and bone formation markers were performed at baseline and after 3 months. Result 31 patients in study group and 30 patients in control group finished the study. The mean age of the study population and the mean disease duration was respectively 51.8 ± 6.2 and 7.5 ± 4.7 years with no significant differences between intervention and control patients. No statistically significant differences between patients and controls were observed in pyridinoline, osteocalcin, urine calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Only urine creatinine level significantly changed between two groups after 3 month of treatment (p-value: 0.029 Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Semelil (Angipars® had no beneficial or harmful effects on bone. It might be other effects of this new component on bone turnover process which need more studies and more time to be discovered.

  14. Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Thompson, Desmond E; Ross, Philip D;

    2003-01-01

    Short-term changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone markers) have been suggested as predictors of long-term response in bone mass during antiresorptive treatment. In the Danish cohort (n = 306) of the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study (n = 1609) of oral alendronate......)]. The specificity was 80% (uCTX), 75% (uNTX), 71% [total OC (ELISA)], and 55% [total OC (RIA)]. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 82% (uCTX), 80% (uNTX), 77% [total OC (ELISA)], and 71% [total OC (RIA)]. The negative predictive value (NPV) was 64% (uCTX), 70% (uNTX), 64% [total OC (ELISA)], and 71% [total OC...

  15. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....

  16. [Biochemical markers of bone remodeling: pre-analytical variations and guidelines for their use. SFBC (Société Française de Biologie Clinique) Work Group. Biochemical markers of bone remodeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnero, P; Bianchi, F; Carlier, M C; Genty, V; Jacob, N; Kamel, S; Kindermans, C; Plouvier, E; Pressac, M; Souberbielle, J C

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover have been developed over the past 20 years that are more specific for bone tissue than conventional ones such as total alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline. They have been widely used in clinical research and in clinical trials of new therapies as secondary end points of treatment efficacy. Most of the interest has been devoted to their use in postmenopausal osteoporosis, a condition characterized by subtle modifications of bone metabolism that cannot be detected readily by conventional markers of bone turnover. Although several recent studies have suggested that biochemical markers may be used for the management of the individual patient in routine clinical practice, this has not been clearly defined and is a matter of debate. Because of the crucial importance to clarify this issue, the Société Francaise de Biologie Clinique prompted an expert committee to summarize the available data and to make recommendations. The following paper includes a review on the biochemical and analytical aspects of the markers of bone formation and resorption and on the sources of variability such as sex, age, menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation, physical activity, seasonal variation and effects of diseases and treatments. We will also describe the effects of pre-analytical factors on the measurements of the different markers. Finally based on that review, we will make practical recommendations for the use of these markers in order to minimize the variability of the measurements and improve the clinical interpretation of the data.

  17. Associations between Serum Leptin Level and Bone Turnover in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Czira, Maria E.; Rudas, Anna; Ujszaszi, Akos; Rosivall, Laszlo; Szathmari, Miklos; Covic, Adrian; Keszei, Andras; Beko, Gabriella; Lakatos, Peter; Kosa, Janos; Mucsi, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Obesity is associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A direct effect of adipose tissue on bone turnover through leptin production has been suggested, but such an association has not been explored in kidney transplant recipients.

  18. A marker chromosome in post-transplant bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Morsberger, Laura; Powell, Kerry; Ning, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Detection of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in karyotype analysis represents a diagnostic challenge. While such markers are usually detected during cytogenetic studies of constitutional chromosome abnormalities, they have also been found in specimens submitted from patients with acquired malignancies. We report here the detection of a marker chromosome in a bone marrow specimen from a patient who received a bone marrow transplantation. We discuss the importance of proper characterizat...

  19. A role for PERK in the mechanism underlying fluoride-induced bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it has been well-documented that excessive fluoride exposure caused the skeletal disease and osteoblasts played a critical role in the advanced skeletal fluorosis, the underlying mechanism that mediated these effects remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of fluoride on bone of rats and MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. Herein we found pathological features of high bone turnover in fluoride-treated rats, which was supported by an increase of osteogenic and osteoclastogenic genes expression in different stages of fluoride exposure. The skeletal toxicity of fluoride was accompanied by activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR). A novel finding of this study was that expression of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) was the same trend with receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL), and NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was the same trend with Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in bones of rats exposed to varied fluoride condition. Based on these data, we hypothesized that up-regulation of PERK probably played a role in mediating bone turnover induced by fluoride. Action of fluoride on MC3T3-E1 cells differentiation was demonstrated through analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodules formation. Meantime, an increase of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) expression indicated the active ER stress in cells exposed to various dose of fluoride. Blocking PERK expression using siRNA showed the obvious decrease of osteogenic and osteoclastogenic factors expression in MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to certain dose of fluoride that could positively stimulate osteoblastic viability. In conclusion these findings underscore the importance of PERK in modulating fluoride induced bone formation and bone resorption. Understanding the link between PERK and bone turnover could probe into the mechanism underlying different bone lesion of

  20. Alveolar bone grafting in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and bisphosphonate-induced abnormal bone turnover in a bilateral cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasumitsu; Ogose, Akira; Oguri, Yoshimitsu; Ubaidus, Sobhan; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-09-01

    A case is presented of extensive alveolar bone grafting in a patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The patient previously underwent bisphosphonate therapy. Because of an abnormal and often decreased bone turnover caused by the fibrous dysplasia and the bisphosphonate therapy, bone grafting in such a patient poses several potential difficulties. In addition, the histomorphometric analysis of the bone grafts showed markedly decreased bone turnover. However, alveolar bone grafting using the iliac crest was performed successfully. Sufficient occlusion was achieved by postoperative low-loading orthodontic treatment.

  1. The regulation of bone turnover in ameloblastoma using an organotypic in vitro co-culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tuula M; Day, Richard M; Fedele, Stefano; Salih, Vehid M

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm with benign histopathology, but extensive, local infiltrative capacity through the bone tissue it originates in. While the mechanisms of ameloblastoma invasion through the bone and bone absorption are largely unknown, recent investigations have indicated a role of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand regulatory mechanisms. Here, we present results obtained using a novel in vitro organotypic tumour model, which we have developed using tissue engineering techniques. Using this model, we analysed the expression of genes involved in bone turnover and detected a 700-fold increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand levels in the co-culture models with ameloblastoma cells cultured with bone cells. The model described here can be used for gene expression studies, as a basis for drug testing or for a more tailored platform for testing of the behaviour of different ameloblastoma tumours in vitro.

  2. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...

  3. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  4. Development of combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites for advanced cancers. The skeletal-related events caused by bone metastases could have a significant influence on patient's clinical outcome and quality of life. Currently, bone scintigraphy is the first choice for detecting bone metastases. Although the sensitivity is high, the specificity of bone scintigraphy is still very low. It has been reported that by combining bone scintigraphy and tumor markers, the specificity can be significantly increased. Meantime, the sensitivity and accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone metastases can be improved. We reviewed the literatures in the recent years to evaluate the potential value of combination with bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in the diagnoses of bone metastases. (authors)

  5. The Influence of Sunlight Exposure on Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Bone Turnover; a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ataie-Jafari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Sunlight exposure is one of the ways for vitamin D synthesis. However, its effect on vitamin D status via experimental studies is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to address the possibility that sunlight exposure may increase the levels of serum vitamin D, and alter bone turnover in healthy young girls."nMethods: In a controlled clinical trial, young girls were assigned to the test group (n= 45 or control group (n= 80. An out­door swimming pool was considered for this project and the test group was required to participate in these sessions at least for 8 sessions and to expose to direct sunlight at least for 20 minutes in each session. They were not allowed to use sun­screen during this time. Control group continued their usual manner of sun exposing. Serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, osteocalcin and crossLaps were measured before and after duration of the study in both groups and compared between them."nResults: Subjects aged 27.46±8.78 years. Serum levels of vitamin D and bone markers were constant during the study in both groups. Changes of these variables were not significant between the groups after the study. Serum vitamin D in sub­jects with white skin color correlated with total time of direct sun exposing after the study (P= 0.002."nConclusion: Sunlight exposure did not affect the serum vitamin D and bone turnover in healthy young girls. However, sub­jects with bright skin complexion benefit from sunlight exposing more than those with a dark skin color in the case of vita­min D improvement.  

  6. Peri-implant and systemic effects of high-/low-affinity bisphosphonate-hydroxyapatite composite coatings in a rabbit model with peri-implant high bone turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Shun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxyapatite (HA coatings composed with bisphosphonates (BPs which have high mineral-binding affinities have been confirmed to successfully enhance implant stability. However, few previous studies focused on HA coatings composed with low-affinity BPs or on systemic effects of locally released BPs. Methods In this long-term study, we developed two kinds of BP-HA composite coatings using either high-affinity BP (alendronate, ALN or low-affinity BP (risedronate, RIS. Thirty-six rabbits were divided into three groups according to different coating applications (group I: HA, group II: ALN-HA, and group III: RIS-HA. Implants were inserted into the proximal region of the medullary cavity of the left tibiay. At insertion, 2 × 108 wear particles were injected around implants to induce a peri-implant high bone turnover environment. Both local (left tibias and systemic (right tibias and lumbar vertebrae inhibitory effect on bone resorption were compared, including bone-implant integration, bone architecture, bone mineral density (BMD, implant stability, and serum levels of bone turnover markers. Results The results indicated that ALN-HA composite coating, which could induce higher bone-implant contact (BIC ratio, bone mass augmentation, BMD, and implant stability in the peri-implant region, was more potent on peri-implant bone, while RIS-HA composite coating, which had significant systemic effect, was more potent on non-peri-implant bone, especially lumbar vertebrae. Conclusions It is instructive and meaningful to further clinical studies that we could choose different BP-HA composite coatings according to the patient’s condition.

  7. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Lrp4, a novel receptor for Dickkopf 1 and sclerostin, is expressed by osteoblasts and regulates bone growth and turnover in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Y Choi

    Full Text Available Lrp4 is a multifunctional member of the low density lipoprotein-receptor gene family and a modulator of extracellular cell signaling pathways in development. For example, Lrp4 binds Wise, a secreted Wnt modulator and BMP antagonist. Lrp4 shares structural elements within the extracellular ligand binding domain with Lrp5 and Lrp6, two established Wnt co-receptors with important roles in osteogenesis. Sclerostin is a potent osteocyte secreted inhibitor of bone formation that directly binds Lrp5 and Lrp6 and modulates both BMP and Wnt signaling. The anti-osteogenic effect of sclerostin is thought to be mediated mainly by inhibition of Wnt signaling through Lrp5/6 within osteoblasts. Dickkopf1 (Dkk1 is another potent soluble Wnt inhibitor that binds to Lrp5 and Lrp6, can displace Lrp5-bound sclerostin and is itself regulated by BMPs. In a recent genome-wide association study of bone mineral density a significant modifier locus was detected near the SOST gene at 17q21, which encodes sclerostin. In addition, nonsynonymous SNPs in the LRP4 gene were suggestively associated with bone mineral density. Here we show that Lrp4 is expressed in bone and cultured osteoblasts and binds Dkk1 and sclerostin in vitro. MicroCT analysis of Lrp4 deficient mutant mice revealed shortened total femur length, reduced cortical femoral perimeter, and reduced total femur bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD. Lumbar spine trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV was significantly reduced in the mutants and the serum and urinary bone turnover markers alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and desoxypyridinoline were increased. We conclude that Lrp4 is a novel osteoblast expressed Dkk1 and sclerostin receptor with a physiological role in the regulation of bone growth and turnover, which is likely mediated through its function as an integrator of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways.

  9. The response to oestrogen deprivation of the cartilage collagen degradation marker, CTX-II, is unique compared with other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine C B; Sondergaard, Lene V;

    2009-01-01

    The urinary level of the type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomised rats, suggesting that oestrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to oestrogen is also true for other type II collagen tu...... turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue....

  10. Gender-Specific Changes in Bone Turnover and Skeletal Architecture in Igfbp-2-Null Mice

    OpenAIRE

    DeMambro, V. E.; Clemmons, D R; Horton, L. G.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Wood, T. L.; Beamer, W. G.; Canalis, E; C. J. Rosen

    2008-01-01

    IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is a 36-kDa protein that binds to the IGFs with high affinity. To determine its role in bone turnover, we compared Igfbp2−/− mice with Igfbp2+/+ colony controls. Igfbp2−/− males had shorter femurs and were heavier than controls but were not insulin resistant. Serum IGF-I levels in Igfbp2−/− mice were 10% higher than Igfbp2+/+ controls at 8 wk of age; in males, this was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in hepatic Igfbp3 and Igfbp5 mRNA transcripts compared with ...

  11. Effects of dietary protein and glycaemic index on biomarkers of bone turnover in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Müller, Martha; Ritz, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it has been debated whether high protein intake compromises bone mineralisation, but no long-term randomised trial has investigated this in children. In the family-based, randomised controlled trial DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity and Genes), we examined the effects of dietary protein and...... glycaemic index (GI) on biomarkers of bone turnover and height in children aged 5-18 years. In two study centres, families with overweight parents were randomly assigned to one of five ad libitum-energy, low-fat (25-30 % energy (E%)) diets for 6 months: low protein/low GI; low protein/high GI; high protein....../low GI; high protein/high GI; control. They received dietary instructions and were provided all foods for free. Children, who were eligible and willing to participate, were included in the study. In the present analyses, we included children with data on plasma osteocalcin or urinary N...

  12. TUMOR MARKERS IN BONE MARROW IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATIC CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, Akio; Ozono, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Yozo; Nagayoshi, Junichi; Hirayama, Akihide; Kumon, Toshihiko; Joko, Masanori; Hirata, Naoya; Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi; Tabata, Shoichi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Moriya, Akira; Kaneko, Yoshiteru; Okamoto, Shinji; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    1991-01-01

    We compared prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PAP), prostatic specificantigen (PA) and γ-seminoprotein (γ-SM) levels between bone marrow and serum for the purpose of assessing of the usefulness of these tumor markers in early detection ofbone metastasis in cases with prostatic cancer. Thirty-three patients were entered into this study. Of the patients, 20 had prostatic cancer including 11 with bone metastasis, and 13 patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) served as controls. It se...

  13. Vitamin D Receptor gene polymorphism may predict response to vitamin D intake and bone turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ahangari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study:The molecular and functional basis of the VDR polymorphisms is fundamental to appreciate their potential clinical implications. The rationale of this study was to determine the level of serum vitamin D response to vitamin D intake in different genotypes of VDR (FokI polymorphism and its effect on the bone turnover in postmenopausal women.  Methods:The subjects for the study were 312 pre and post-menopausal women aged between 20-75 year randomly selected from the participants of Iranian multicenter osteoporosis study. After an overnight fast, 4ml of peripheral blood was taken and centrifuged to separate serum for measurement of serum parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin and cross laps. The FokI polymorphism in exon 2 of the VDR gene was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism Results and major conclusion: FOKI genotype predicted serum cross laps after adjustment for age, menopausal status, serum vitamin D (p<0.001 but did not find significant prediction regarding serum osteocalcin (p=0.3.Also in this model FOKI genotype predicted serum vitamin D after adjustment for age, menopausal status, calcium and vitamin D intake (p<0.001.VDR gene polymorphism may modifies response to vitamin D intake and predicts bone turnover.   "n 

  14. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H;

    1997-01-01

    -eight women had a lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) above 0.860 g/cm2, and 278 women had a BMD below 0.860 g/cm2. Spinal fracture was diagnosed from lateral spine X-ray studies and defined as at least 20% height reduction (wedge, compression, or endplate fracture) in at least one vertebra (T4-L4). Bone...

  15. Biochemical Bone Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients with Local and Advanced Bone Metastates

    OpenAIRE

    AKSOY, Hülya

    2001-01-01

    In the present study involving patients with bone metastases arising from prostate cancer, we measured urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as a marker of collagen breakdown activity, serum total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). This study included 20 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 23 patients with carcinoma, 11 of had with bone metastases. DPD excretion in urine was significantly greater in prostate cancer patients w...

  16. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  17. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  18. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  19. Image findings and bone metabolic markers of bone involvement by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameta, Ayako; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Harada, Mikiko; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Hayama, Kazuhide [Nippon Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata

    2000-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that the circulating pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and carboxyl-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) are useful markers for detecting metastasis of malignancies to bone. Since ICTP and PICP are related to collagen metabolism, respectively breaking down and synthesizing type I collagen, elevated blood concentrations of these markers may reflect direct jaw bone destruction by oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between serum ICTP and PICP levels and bone invasion associated with oral cancer. Bone invasion was evaluated in 41 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by panoramic radiography and {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy. We also assayed serum levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and compared them with concentrations of bone metabolic markers and imaging findings. There was no significant relationship between serum ICTP and PICP levels and bone invasion. However, in three of the five cases that showed remarkably high serum ICTP levels, {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the lesion was intensely increased. This suggests that serum ICTP levels may be elevated when bone metabolic changes caused by cancer involving the bone are extensive. We could find no significant correlation among serum levels of ICTP, PICP, and PTHrP. ICTP and PICP do not appear to be good indicators of direct bone invasion by oral SCC in early stages. (author)

  20. Collagen-derived markers of bone metabolism in osteogenesis imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, A M; Hansen, M; Kollerup, Gina Birgitte;

    1998-01-01

    Markers of bone formation [C-terminal and N-terminal propeptides of procollagen I (PICP, PINP), osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase] and bone resorption [C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of collagen I (ICTP) and hydroxypyridinium cross-links, pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpyr......)] were measured in 78 osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) patients to investigate bone metabolism in vivo and relate marker concentrations to phenotype and in vitro collagen I defects, as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PICP and PINP were generally low, and the...... serum levels were lower in all children and adults with mild OI and a quantitative collagen defect than in patients with severe OI and a qualitative collagen I defect. ICTP, Pyr and Dpyr were generally normal or reduced, but elevated in severely affected adults with a qualitative collagen I defect. The...

  1. BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF BONE RESORPTION AND HORMONAL REGULATION OF BONE METABOLISM FOLLOWING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Buzulina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparative evaluation of two biochemical markers of bone resorption and hormonal regulation of bone metabolism in liver recipients. Methods and results. Bоne densitometry of L2–L4 and neck of femur, serum level of some hormones (PTH, vitamin D3, estradiol, testosterone regulating osteoclastogenesis as well as com- parative analyses of two bone resorption markers β-crosslaps and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5b (TRAP-5b were fulfilled in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. In 1 month after OLT bone density reduction of L2–L4 and neck of femur; decrease of vitamin D3, estradiol in women, testosterone in men and increase levels of bone resorption markers were observed. In 1 and 2 years after OLT the rise of bone density, increased levels of PTH, estradiol, testosterone and decreased β-crosslaps levels were revealed, while vitamin D3 and TRAP-5b levels remained stable. Conclusion. TRAP-5b was found to be a more speciffic marker of bone resorption, independent from collagen metabolism in liver. Osteoporosis defined in long-term period after OLT was associated with higher TRAP-5b and revialed in women with low estradiol level. 

  2. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  3. Markers for Characterization of Bone Marrow Multipotential Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. Boxall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the observed efficacy of culture-expanded multipotential stromal cells, also termed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, in the treatment of graft-versus host and cardiac disease, it remains surprising that purity and potency characterization of manufactured cell batches remains rather basic. In this paper, we will initially discuss surface and molecular markers that were proposed to serve as the indicators of the MSC potency, in terms of their proliferative potential or the ability to differentiate into desired lineages. The second part of this paper will be dedicated to a critical discussion of surface markers of uncultured (i.e., native bone marrow (BM MSCs. Although no formal consensus has yet been reached on which markers may be best suited for prospective BM MSC isolation, markers that cross-react with MSCs of animal models (such as CD271 and W8-B2/MSCA-1 may have the strongest translational value. Whereas small animal models are needed to discover the in vivo function on these markers, large animal models are required for safety and efficacy testing of isolated MSCs, particularly in the field of bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Tumor markers and bone scan in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of CA15-3 and CEA with the bone scan findings in patients with breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of 76 bone scans from 61 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the last 5 years was performed by two nuclear medicine specialists. All bone scans were performed after surgical treatment of the disease. Patients with loco-regional residual disease or distant metastases in the liver, lung or the brain were excluded from the study. According to the bone scan the patients were divided in 5 groups: normal bone scan (N), equivocal bone scan (E), single metastasis (1MS), three metastases (3MS) and multiple metastases (MMS). Tumor markers were determined within a month before or after the bone scan was performed. Cut-off value for CA 15-3 was 35 U/ml, and for CEA 3 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistic and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Bone metastases were revealed in 38% of the patients referred for bone scintigraphy out of which 26% had MMS, 7.8% had single MS and 4% had 3MS. The results of 6.5% of the patients were determined as equivocal. The values of CA15-3 were higher in all patient groups compared with the group that had normal bone scan, but this difference reached statistical significance only in groups with 3MS and MMS (p < 0.01). The values of CEA were significantly higher only in patients with multiple metastases when compared with group N (p < 0.01). Values higher than cut-off value for CA 15-3 was found in 9 patients out of 42 in the group with normal bone scan. The highest value of CA 15-3 in this group was 47 U/ml. Only one patient in this group showed elevated levels for CEA. Three patients in the group with single metastasis had normal CA 15-3, while CEA was elevated only in one patient. All patients in the group with 3MS had elevated levels of CA 15-3 while CEA was in the normal range. All patients with MMS had elevated CA 15-3 values while CEA was elevated in

  5. Natural history of markers of collagen turnover in patients with early diastolic dysfunction and impact of eplerenone.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mak, George J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of eplerenone on collagen turnover in preserved systolic function heart failure (HFPSF). BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in abnormal collagen metabolism as a feature of HFPSF with diastolic dysfunction, the natural history of markers of collagen turnover and the impact of selective aldosterone antagonism on this natural history remains unknown. METHODS: We evaluated 44 patients with HFPSF, randomly assigned to control (n = 20) or eplerenone 25 mg daily (n = 24) for 6 months, increased to 50 mg daily from 6 to 12 months. Serum markers of collagen turnover and inflammation were analyzed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months and included pro-collagen type-I and -III aminoterminal peptides, matrix metalloproteinase type-2, interleukin-6 and -8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Doppler-echocardiographic assessment of diastolic filling indexes and tissue Doppler analyses were also obtained. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 80 +\\/- 7.8 years; 46% were male; 64% were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, 34% an angiotensin-II receptor blocker, and 68% were receiving beta-blocker therapy. Pro-collagen type-III and -I aminoterminal peptides, matrix metalloproteinase type-2, interleukin-6 and -8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased with time in the control group. Eplerenone treatment had no significant impact on any biomarker at 6 months but attenuated the increase in pro-collagen type-III aminoterminal peptide at 12 months (p = 0.006). Eplerenone therapy was associated with modest effects on diastolic function without any impact on clinical variables or brain natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates progressive increases in markers of collagen turnover and inflammation in HFPSF with diastolic dysfunction. Despite high background utilization of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone modulators, eplerenone therapy prevents a progressive increase in pro-collagen type

  6. Short-term prolactin administration causes expressible galactorrhea but does not affect bone turnover: pilot data for a new lactation agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Patricia C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medications used to augment lactation increase prolactin secretion but can have intolerable side effects. We examined the biological activity of recombinant human prolactin (r-hPRL as preliminary data for its use to augment lactation. Methods Healthy, non-postpartum women (n = 21 with regular menstrual cycles underwent a seven day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of r-hPRL. Expressible galactorrhea, markers of bone turnover, calcium homeostasis and gonadal function were measured and side effects recorded. Results Prolactin levels increased during r-hPRL administration (20.0 ± 2.8 to 231.7 ± 48.9 μg/L at 6 hours; p Conclusion In summary, r-hPRL can cause expressible galactorrhea. Seven days of r-hPRL administration does not adversely affect bone turnover or menstrual cyclicity. Thus, r-hPRL may be a viable option for short-term lactation augmentation. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00438490

  7. Bone turnover and mineral density in adult thalassemic patients: relationships with growth hormone secretory status and circulating somatomedins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Danesi, Leila; Cattaneo, Agnese; Sciortino, Giovanna; Radin, Raffaella; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Vitale, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mirra, Nadia; Zanaboni, Laura; Arvigo, Marica; Boschetti, Mara; Ferone, Diego; Marzullo, Paolo; Baldini, Marina; Cassinerio, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Persani, Luca; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Previous evidence supports a role for growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I deficiency in the pathophysiology of osteopenia/osteoporosis in adult thalassemia. Moreover, serum IGF-II has never been studied in this clinical condition. Thus, we elected to study the GH secretory status and the levels of circulating somatomedins, correlating these parameters with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A hundred and thirty-nine normal weight adult thalassemic patients (72 men and 67 women) were studied. Lumbar and femoral neck BMD were measured in 106/139 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine testing. Measurement of baseline IGF-I and IGF-II was performed in all patients, while osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) were assayed in 95 of them. Femoral and lumbar osteoporosis/Z score below the expected range for age were documented in 61.3 and in 56.6 % of patients, respectively. Severe GH deficiency (GHD) was demonstrated in 27.9 % of cases, whereas IGF-I SDS was low in 86.3 %. No thalassemic patients displayed circulating levels of IGF-II below the reference range. GH peaks were positively correlated with femoral, but not lumbar, Z score. No correlations were found between GH peaks and osteocalcin, CTx and NTx. GH peaks were positively correlated with IGF-I values, which in their turn displayed a positive correlation with osteocalcin, CTx, and NTx. No correlations emerged between IGF-I values and either femoral or lumbar Z scores. No correlations were found between IGF-II and any of the following parameters: GH peaks, osteocalcin, CTx, NTx, femoral Z score, and lumbar Z score. Our study, besides providing for the first time evidence of a normal IGF-II production in thalassemia, contributes to a better understanding of the involvement of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in the

  8. Vitamin D status, dietary intake, and bone turnover in female Soldiers during military training: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91 during US Army basic combat training (BCT. Methods Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions. Results White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OHD levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OHD levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction  Conclusions These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training.

  9. Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum: a controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streym, Súsanna við; Møller, Ulla Kristine; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2012-01-01

    , plasma phosphate was increased, whereas calcium levels tended to be decreased which may stimulate PTH levels during and after prolonged lactation. CONCLUSION: The increased calcium requirements in early pregnancy are not completely offset by increased intestinal calcium absorption caused by high 1,25(OH......)(2)D since changes in bone markers indicated a negative bone balance. The rise in bone formation in late pregnancy may be initiated by a spike in IGF-I levels. The high bone turnover in lactating women may be related to high prolactin and PTH levels, low E(2) levels and perhaps increased parathyroid......Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation INTRODUCTION: We describe physiological...

  10. Is Gastrectomy-Induced High Turnover of Bone with Hyperosteoidosis and Increase of Mineralization a Typical Osteomalacia?

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Ueyama; Yuta Yamamoto; Kazuki Ueda; Aiji Yajima; Yoshimasa Maeda; Yasunobu Yamashita; Takao Ito; Yoshihiro Tsuruo; Masao Ichinose

    2013-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) is thought to result in osteomalacia due to deficiencies in Vitamin D and Ca. Using a GX rat model, we showed that GX induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis, prominent increase of mineralization and increased mRNA expression of both osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and osteocalcin. The increased 1, 25(OH)2D3 level and unchanged PTH and calcitonin levels suggested that conventional bone and Ca metabolic pathways were not involved or change...

  11. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  12. Hypercalcemia and altered biochemical bone markers in post-bone marrow transplantation osteopetrosis: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulpiya, Alisa; Mahachoklertwattana, Pat; Pakakasama, Samart; Hongeng, Suradej; Poomthavorn, Preamrudee

    2012-08-01

    Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is a rare disorder of bone resorption defect that results in generalized sclerotic bones and bone marrow failure. Allogeneic BMT is the only treatment for cure. One of the complications following a successful BMT is hypercalcemia that is a unique complication in this group of patients. We report a three-yr-old boy with osteopetrosis who developed hypercalcemia following the successful BMT. His maximal calcium level was 13.3 mg/dL. Markedly increased both bone formation and resorption markers were demonstrated along with hypercalcemia. These findings indicated an active donor-derived osteoclastic function and thus bone resorption following the successful donor engraftment in the patient. Treatment with hyperhydration, furosemide and bone resorption inhibitors, calcitonin, and bisphosphonate led to normalization of the serum calcium level. Bone resorption but not bone formation marker was persistently elevated despite having normocalcemia during a 16.5-month follow-up period. PMID:21323826

  13. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  14. Urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and clinical usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baris Simsek; (O)zgul Karacaer; inci Karaca

    2004-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review the urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline. Data Related researches published in 1985 -2000 were systematically reviewed. Results Bone markers could be used for early diagnosis of bone metabolic diseases. Biochemical markers of bone resorption that reflect osteoclast activity and/or collagen degradation provide a new and potentially important clinical tool for the assessment and monitoring of bone metabolism. Assessment of bone resorption can be achieved with measurement of urinary hydroxylysine glycosides, urinary excretion of the collagen pyridinium cross-links, urinary excretion of type I collagen telopeptide breakdown products (cross-linked telopeptides) and urinary hydroxyproline. Conclusion Urinary hydroxyproline has been in use as a marker of bone resorption, but it lacks sensitivity and specificity. It is a modified aminoacid that is a metabolic product of collagen breakdown.Hydroxyproline may be released either free or with fragments of the collagen molecule attached during bone resorption, and it is also liberated by the breakdown of complement and nonskeletal collagen.

  15. Effects of ibuprofen on molecular markers of cartilage and synovium turnover in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Gineyts, E; Mo, J.; Ko, A; Henriksen, D; Curtis, S; Gertz, B.; Garnero, P; Delmas, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on the urinary excretion of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and urinary glucosyl galactosyl pyridinoline (Glc-Gal-PYD), two new molecular markers of cartilage and synovial tissue metabolism, respectively, in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

  16. Relationship between serum leptin levels and bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokhlagha Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is the protein product of the obesity gene, which is produced in fat tissue. It was originally thought to be involved only in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We aimed to investigate the relationship of serum leptin levels with bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients on hemodialysis (HD. This study included 72 patients (43 males and 29 females, whose mean age was 55.1 ± 11.4 years, mean body mass index was 23.13 ± 2.75 kg/m 2 and mean duration on HD was 5 ± 3.4 years. The BMD values were calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Blood samples were taken for leptin, intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, calcium (Ca, phosphate (P and albumin. The leptin levels were higher in females than in males (22.3 ± 19.6 vs 20.8 ± 23, but this difference was not significant. The serum leptin level had a strong positive correlation with Ca levels in the female patients (r = 0.659 and P = 0.01 and a negative correlation with albumin levels (r = -0.461 and P = 0.01. No correlation was found with age, BMI, duration on dialysis, BMD and serum levels of PTH, BAP and P for the entire patient group or either gender separately. The serum leptin level was significantly lower in females with PTH >300 pg/mL when compared with patients with PTH = 100-300 pg/mL (86 ± 85 vs 47 ± 48 (P = 0.011.Women with BAP <300 IU/L had significantly higher serum leptin than those with BAP 300-600 IU/L (P = 0.024. Women with Ca <8.5 mg/dL had significantly lower serum leptin levels compared with those with Ca levels of 8.5-10.5 mg/dL (P = 0.011. There was no significant difference between the two genders among variables such as age, BMI, duration on dialysis, serum leptin, I-PTH, Ca, P, BAP, albumin and BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine.

  17. Is gastrectomy-induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis and increase of mineralization a typical osteomalacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueyama

    Full Text Available Gastrectomy (GX is thought to result in osteomalacia due to deficiencies in Vitamin D and Ca. Using a GX rat model, we showed that GX induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis, prominent increase of mineralization and increased mRNA expression of both osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and osteocalcin. The increased 1, 25(OH2D3 level and unchanged PTH and calcitonin levels suggested that conventional bone and Ca metabolic pathways were not involved or changed in compensation. Thus, GX-induced bone pathology was different from a typical osteomalacia. Gene expression profiles through microarray analysis and data mining using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that 612 genes were up-regulated and 1,097 genes were down-regulated in the GX bone. These genes were related functionally to connective tissue development, skeletal and muscular system development and function, Ca signaling and the role of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Network analysis indicated 9 genes (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1; Aquaporin 9; Interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein; Very low density lipoprotein receptor; Periostin, osteoblast specific factor; Aggrecan; Gremlin 1; Angiopoietin-like 4; Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B were hubs connected with tissue development and immunological diseases. These results suggest that chronic systemic inflammation might underlie the GX-induced pathological changes in bone.

  18. Effects of Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate on bone turnover and calcium balance in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, So-Young; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Goeun; Lee, Sun Hee; Bae, Dae Kwon; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Lee, Paul K; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Ill-Hwa; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Sigma Anti-bonding Molecule Calcium Carbonate (SAC) as therapy for ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Three weeks after surgery, fifteen ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: sham-operated group (sham), ovariectomized group (OVX) and SAC-treatment group (OVX+SAC). The OVX+SAC group was given drinking water containing 0.0012% SAC for 12 weeks. Bone breaking force and mineralization as well as blood parameters related to the bone metabolism were analyzed. In OVX animals, blood concentration of 17β-estradiol decreased significantly, while osteocalcin and type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides (CTx) increased. Breaking force, bone mineral density (BMD), calcium and phosphorus in femurs, as well as uterine and vaginal weights, decreased significantly following OVX. However, SAC treatment (0.0012% in drinking water) not only remarkably restored the decreased 17β-estradiol and increased osteocalcin and CTx concentrations, but also recovered decreased femoral breaking force, BMD, calcium and phosphorus, although it did not reversed reproductive organ weights. It is suggested that SAC effectively improve bone density by preventing bone turnover mediated osteocalcin, CTx and minerals, and that it could be a potential candidate for therapy or prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism reflect osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, N; Glerup, H; Rungby, Jørgen;

    2000-01-01

    with the histomorphometric findings. MARKERS OF BONE FORMATION: Serum C-terminal propeptide of procollagen I (PICP) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) showed significant correlations with the dynamic parameters of bone formation (r=0.57-0.58), whereas serum osteocalcin and serum total AP did not. CYTOKINES...

  20. The Effect of Alendronate Treatment on Bone Density and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akı

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this blind, randomized controlled study was to evaluate effect of 12 months alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and bone formation, resorption markers in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Women with BMD values at least 2 standard deviations (SD below BMD of adult premenopousal women were included in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups. The control group (n=ll2 received 500 mg daily elemental calcium, while the treatment group (n=l58 received 10 mg alendronate plus 500 mg daily elemental calcium for 12 months. Patient demographics were comparable in both groups before treatment. After 12 months, BMD of patients in alendronate group was increased significantly as compared to BMD before treatment and BMD in control group (p<0.001 . Increase in BMD was apparent in all measured sites but highest values were attained in the Ll-L4 region with 4.8 %. Bone formation and resorption parameters showed significant decrease in the 6 th and 12 th months of treatment as compared to control group and values before treatment (-23.1% to - 50.6 %. As a conclusion, twelve months treatment of alendronate (10 mg/day in postmenopausal osteoporotic women causes a significant increase of BMD in all measurement sites, as compared to BMD values before treatment and BMD of control group. Likewise bone formation and resorption markers showed significant decrease in the 6 th and 12 th months of treatment as compared to values in the control group and values before treatment.

  1. Diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: improved accuracy with the use of markers of collagen turnover.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martos, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) can be difficult to diagnose in clinical practice. Myocardial fibrosis is a major determinant of diastolic dysfunction (DD), potentially contributing to the progression of HF-PEF. The aim of this study was to analyse whether serological markers of collagen turnover may predict HF-PEF and DD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 85 Caucasian treated hypertensive patients (DD n=65; both DD and HF-PEF n=32). Serum carboxy (PICP), amino (PINP), and carboxytelo (CITP) peptides of procollagen type I, amino (PIIINP) peptide of procollagen type III, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of MMP levels were assayed. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, MMP-2 (AUC=0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.98), CITP (0.83; 0.72, 0.92), PICP (0.82; 0.72, 0.92), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (0.82; 0.73, 0.91), MMP-9 (0.79; 0.68, 0.89), and PIIINP (0.78; 0.66, 0.89) levels were significant predictors of HF-PEF (P<0.01 for all). Carboxytelo peptides of procollagen type I (AUC=0.74; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.86), MMP-2 (0.73; 0.62, 0.84), PIIINP (0.73; 0.60, 0.85), BNP (0.69; 0.55, 0.83) and PICP (0.66; 0.54, 0.78) levels were significant predictors of DD (P<0.05 for all). A cutoff of 1585 ng\\/mL for MMP-2 provided 91% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting HF-PEF and combinations of biomarkers could be used to adjust either sensitivity or specificity. CONCLUSION: Markers of collagen turnover identify patients with HF-PEF and DD. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 may be more useful than BNP in the identification of HF-PEF. This suggests that these new biochemical tools may assist in identifying patients with these diagnostically challenging conditions.

  2. Are levels of bone turnover related to lower bone mass of adolescents previously fed a macrobiotic diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, T.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Seibel, M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dutch adolescents who consumed a macrobiotic (vegan-type) diet in early life, demonstrate a lower relative bone mass than their omnivorous counterparts. We investigated whether subjects from the macrobiotic group showed signs of catching up with controls in terms of relative bone mass, reflected by

  3. The Relation of Bone Turnover Markers to Estradiol, Lean Body Mass in Pubertal Girls around the Menarche%女性初潮前后骨代谢生化因子与雌激素、瘦体重相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑敏; 赵仁清; 陈明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changing characteristics of BAP (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) , OC (osteocalcin) , and TRAP (tartrat-resistant acid phosphatase) and the related regulating factors in girls around the menarche. Methods One hundred and fifteen girls voluntarily participated in this study. Their body height (H) , weigh (W) , fat mass (FM) , lean mass(LM) , serum estradiol (E2) > testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as BAP, OC and TRAP were determined. Results Increased serum BAP and OC before menarche decreased at menarche, and decreased serum TRAP before menarche continued to decrease at menarche. H closely correlated with BAP 0 = 0.22, P = 0.001) , OC 0 = 0.21, P = 0.002) and TRAP 0 = 0.14, P = 0.04) , while serum E2, LM significantly associated with BAP (E2: r = 0.2, P = 0.003; LM: r = 0.15, P = 0.029) and OC (E2: r = 0.34, P< 0.0001; LM: r = 0.30, P < 0.0001) without significant correlation to TRAP. Conclusion It was suggested that level of bone metabolism around the menarche decreased, and growth of body height was associated with bonemetabolism, in which estradiol and mechanical strains were the two important regulating factors.%目的:探讨女性骨代谢生化因子骨钙素(OC)、骨碱性磷酸酶(BAP)和抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶(TRAP)在初潮前后的变化特征及其相关影响因素.方法:以平均年龄(11.4±0.6)岁的115名小学女生为对象,测量其身高(H)、体重(W)、脂肪含量(FM)、瘦体重含量(LM),血清雌二醇(E2)、睾酮(T)、性激素结合蛋白(SHBG)及血清OC、BAP和TRAP.随访获得实验对象的初潮时间,以测量时相距初潮的时间作为自变量,拟合骨代谢生化因子及相关指标的回归曲线方程.采用偏相关方法检测骨代谢生化标志物与其影响因素之间的相关性.结果:初潮前呈上升趋势的OC、BAP在初潮时显著下降,而TRAP从初潮前至初潮一直下降.从初潮前至初潮,H与BAP (r=0.22,P=0.001)、OC (r=0

  4. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piert, Morand [Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich (Germany); Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A. [Radiopharmacy Section, PET Center, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T. [Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K{sub 1} values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f{sub H2O}) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K{sub 1} values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K{sub i}), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K{sub i} and k{sub 3} (P<0.05), which was mainly caused by an increase of the fraction of bound tracer in tissue (P<0.01). In contrast, f{sub H2O}, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [{sup 18}F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [{sup 18}F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f{sub H2O} and K{sub i} values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [{sup 18}F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease

  5. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K1 values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (fH2O) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [15O]H2O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [18F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K1 values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (Ki), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of Ki and k3 (PH2O, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [18F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [18F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean fH2O and Ki values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [18F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [18F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy is mainly related to an up-regulation of the amount of ionic exchange of [18F]fluoride with the bone matrix, while tracer delivery remains unchanged. (orig.)

  6. 骨生化指标在骨肿瘤中的临床应用进展%Clinical application progress of bone biochemical markers in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定; 张琪琪; 胡勇

    2014-01-01

    Bone tumors refer to benign and malignant tumors which originate from mesenchymal stem cells and occur in bone tissues and their accessory structures. The pathogenesis and etiology of bone tumors still remain unclear, and the diagnosis methods of bone tumors are stagnating now. X-ray, computed tomography ( CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) are important in diagnosing and evaluating bone tumors, but they cannot detect the lesions until the bone destruction reaches a certain degree. Isotope bone scan can detect the microscopic lesions of bone, whereas it is too expensive and the speciifcity is poor, with high false positive rates. At present, the golden standard for the diagnosis of bone tumors is the histopathological examination of bone. However, it is dififcult to achieve early diagnosis, and it is likely to miss the best treatment period. Every disease is inevitably accompanied by molecular biological changes in the body. Biochemical markers can promptly detect the property changes of bone tumor cells, including unlimited proliferation, apoptosis, active neoangiogenesis, inifltrative growth, metastatic growth and so on. Therefore, it is of great signiifcance for the diagnosis of bone tumors to detect appropriate biochemical markers in the patients. The normal bone metabolism is maintained by the dynamic balance of bone resorption and bone formation. When bone tumors occur, the balance will be disturbed. The bone biochemical markers which relfect bone resorption and bone formation are sensitive indicators of early abnormal bone metabolism. Recently, a large number of studies have explored the significance of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors. The functions of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors mainly include making an early detection of microscopic tumor lesions to start early treatment ( diagnostic effects ), evaluating the effects ( therapeutic monitoring ), evaluating the prognosis and predicting the risk of

  7. A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.;

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones to growing skeleton has not been established. We studied whether there exists a seasonal variation in calcitropic hormones, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone remodelling markers in early puberty girls. One hundred and ninety...... intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), serum osteocalcin, urinary pyridinoline and urinary deoxypyridinoline were analysed from fasting samples. The concentration of S-25-OHD and serum osteocalcin differed among months (P seasonal variation. The parathyroid hormone...... correlated negatively with S-25-OHD (r -0 center dot 325, P Seasonal variation in S-25-OHD...

  8. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir Benarba; Boumedienne Meddah; Aicha Tir Touil

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deo...

  9. Adequate dietary vitamin D and calcium are both required to reduce bone turnover and increased bone mineral volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice M C; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Moore, Alison J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies indicate that the combination of vitamin D and dietary calcium supplementation is more effective for reducing fracture risk than either supplement alone. Our previous dietary studies demonstrated that an adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) of 80nmol/L or more reduces bone RANKL expression, osteoclastogenesis and maintains the optimal levels of trabecular bone volume (BV/TV%) in young rats. The important clinical question of the interaction between vitamin D status, dietary calcium intake and age remains unclear. Hence, 9 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing varying levels of vitamin D (0, 2, 12 or 20IU/day) and dietary calcium (0.1% or 1%) for 6 months. At 15 months of age, animals were killed, for biochemical and skeletal analyses. While changes to serum 25D were determined by both dietary vitamin D and calcium levels, changes to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) were consistently raised in animals fed 0.1% Ca regardless of dietary vitamin D or vitamin D status. Importantly, serum cross-laps levels were significantly increased in animals fed 0.1% Ca only when combined with 0 or 2 IUD/day of vitamin D, suggesting a contribution of both dietary calcium and vitamin D in determining bone resorption activity. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were positively correlated with both femoral mid-diaphyseal cortical bone volume (R(2)=0.24, PTV% (R(2)=0.23, Pnegative determinant of CBV (R(2)=0.24, PTV% levels. These data support clinical data that reduced bone resorption and increased bone volume can only be achieved with adequate 25D levels in combination with high dietary calcium and low serum 1,25D levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24309068

  10. Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts lose significant bone mass during lengthy spaceflights. Although, no effective treatments or prophylactics have yet been defined, it is important to...

  11. Vitamin D and estrogen receptor-alpha genotype and indices of bone mass and bone turnover in Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cusack, S.; Mølgaard, C.; Michaelsen, K. F.;

    2006-01-01

    Peak bone mass is a major determinant of osteoporosis risk in later life. It is under strong genetic control; however, little is known about the identity of the genes involved. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in the genes encoding the vitamin D receptor...

  12. Development of Raman spectral markers to assess metastatic bone in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Sterling, Julie A.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Bi, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    Bone is the most common site for breast cancer metastases. One of the major complications of bone metastasis is pathological bone fracture caused by chronic bone loss and degeneration. Current guidelines for the prediction of pathological fracture mainly rely on radiographs or computed tomography, which are limited in their ability to predict fracture risk. The present study explored the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy to estimate pathological fracture risk by characterizing the alterations in the compositional properties of metastatic bones. Tibiae with evident bone destruction were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The carbonation level calculated by the ratio of carbonate/phosphate ν1 significantly increased in the tumor-bearing bone at all the sampling regions at the proximal metaphysis and diaphysis, while tumor-induced elevation in mineralization and crystallinity was more pronounced in the metaphysis. Furthermore, the increased carbonation level is positively correlated to bone lesion size, indicating that this parameter could serve as a unique spectral marker for tumor progression and bone loss. With the promising advances in the development of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for deep tissue measurement, this spectral marker can potentially be used for future noninvasive evaluation of metastatic bone and prediction of pathological fracture risk.

  13. Skeletal growth and long-term bone turnover after enterocystoplasty in a chronic rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerharz, E.W.; Gasser, J.A.; Mosekilde, Li.;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate skeletal growth and bone metabolism in a chronic animal model of urinary diversion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young male Wistar rats (120) were allocated randomly to four groups undergoing: ileocystoplasty, ileocystoplasty and resection of the ileocaecal segment, colocystopl...

  14. The effect of semelil (angipars®) on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hasani-Ranjbar Shirin; Jouyandeh Zahra; Qorbani Mostafa; Hemmatabadi Mahbubeh; Larijani Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of Angipars® for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need to evaluate the effect of this new drug on diff...

  15. The Efect of Semelil (AngiparsW) on Bone Resorption and Bone Formation Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar; Zahra Jouyandeh; Mostafa Qorbani; Mahbubeh Hemmatabadi; Bagher Larijani

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study: Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of AngiparsW for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need toevaluate the effect of this new drug on different org...

  16. On the influence of soft tissue coverage in the determination of bone kinematics using skin markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R; Ehrig, Rainald M; Duda, Georg N; Schell, Hanna; Seebeck, Petra; Heller, Markus O

    2005-07-01

    Accurate measurement of underlying bone positions is important for the understanding of normal movement and function, as well as for addressing clinical musculoskeletal or post-injury problems. Non-invasive measurement techniques are limited by the analysis technique and movement of peripheral soft tissues that can introduce significant measurement errors in reproducing the kinematics of the underlying bones when using external skin markers. Reflective markers, skeletally mounted to the right hind limb of three Merino-mix sheep were measured simultaneously with markers attached to the skin of each segment, during repetitions of gait trials. The movement of the skin markers relative to the underlying bone positions was then assessed using the Point Cluster Technique (PCT), raw averaging and the Optimal Common Shape Technique (OCST), a new approach presented in this manuscript. Errors in the position of the proximal joint centre, predicted from the corresponding skin markers, were shown to be phasic and strongly associated with the amount soft tissue coverage, averaging 8.5 mm for the femur, 2.8 for the tibia and 2.0 for the metatarsus. Although the results show a better prediction of bone kinematics associated with the Optimal Common Shape Technique, these errors were large for all three assessment techniques and much greater than the differences between the various techniques. Whilst individual markers moved up to 4 mm from the optimal marker set configuration, average peak errors of up to 16, 5 and 3 mm (hip, knee and tibio-metatarsal joints respectively) were observed, suggesting that a large amount of kinematic noise is produced from the synchronous shifting of marker sets, potentially as a result of underlying muscle firing and the inertial effects of heel impact. Current techniques are therefore limited in their ability to determine the kinematics of underlying bones based on skin markers, particularly in segments with more pronounced soft tissue coverage

  17. Handheld FRET-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts lose approximately 1-1.5% of their bone mass per month during space travel due to a lack of physical stress in the microgravity environment. Although, no...

  18. Usefulness of Bone Metabolic Markers in the Diagnosis of Bone Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae Ho; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Chang, Joon; Kim, Joo Hang; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Se Kyu

    2005-01-01

    Bone metastasis is common in lung cancer patient and the diagnosis of bone metastasis is usually made by using imaging techniques, especially bone scintigraphy. However, the diagnostic yield from bone scintigraphy is limited. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical usefulness of urinary pyridinoline cross-linked N-telopeptides of Type I collagen (NTx), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the assessment of bone metastasis in patients with lung cance...

  19. Effects of short-term combined treatment with alendronate and elcatonin on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Iwamoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa2, Yoshihiro Sato3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: The antiresorptive drug elcatonin (ECT is known to relieve pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A prospective open-labeled trial was conducted to compare the effects of short-term combined treatment with alendronate (ALN and ECT on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover with those of single treatment with ALN in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Two hundred and five postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age: 70 years were recruited in our outpatient clinic. Forty-six women with back pain were treated with ALN and ECT (intramuscular, 20 units a week, and 159 women without obvious back pain were treated with ALN alone. The lumbar BMD, urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured during the six-month treatment period. The baseline characteristics, except for age, body weight and number of patients with prevalent vertebral fractures, were not significantly different between the two groups. The mean increase rate in the lumbar BMD at six months was similar in the ALN (+4.41% and ALN+ECT (+5.15% groups, following similar reduction rates in urinary NTX levels (-40.2% and -43.0%, respectively, at three months and serum ALP levels (-19.0% and -19.7%, respectively, at six months. These results were consistent even after adjustments for age, body weight, and number of patients with prevalent vertebral fractures. The present study in postmenopausal osteoporotic women confirmed that the effects of short-term combined treatment with ALN and ECT on lumbar BMD and bone turnover in patients with back pain appeared to be

  20. Consumption of legumes improves certain bone markers in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Jin, Na; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Yongsoon

    2011-05-01

    Soybeans are known to protect against osteoporosis, but other legumes frequently consumed in Asia have not been studied to learn if they have a similar protective effect. This study investigated the hypothesis that consumption of soybean, mung bean, cowpea, and adzuki bean has beneficial effects on bone biomarkers in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham operated (sham; n = 7) or surgically ovariectomized and then fed a regular AIN-93M diet (OVX; n = 7) or AIN-93M containing soybean (n = 7), mung bean (n = 7), cowpea (n = 7), or adzuki beans (n = 7) for 10 weeks. No bean consumption significantly altered the body, subcutaneous fat, or uterus weight; however, consumption significantly increased the serum calcium/phosphorous ratio and decreased urinary calcium excretion compared with those of the OVX group. Serum concentration of 17β-estradiol was significantly lower in the OVX group compared with that of the sham group and was lowest in the group fed OVX diet containing soybean. Serum osteocalcin concentration was significantly higher in all OVX rats given a diet with beans compared with the same diet without, but urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was lowest in the group fed OVX diet containing cowpea. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density or bone mineral content of the right femur, tibia, or lumbar spine or in the trabecular bone volume of the tibia among the diet groups. In conclusion, the consumption of soybean, mung bean, cowpea, and adzuki bean in OVX rats improved osteocalcin, but only those fed cowpea showed decreased bone resorption biomarker, suggesting that cowpea may have the most protective effect on bone in OVX rats.

  1. Effects of denosumab, alendronate, or denosumab following alendronate on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, bone mass and bone strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenuik, Paul J; Smith, Susan Y; Samadfam, Rana; Jolette, Jacquelin; Zhou, Lei; Ominsky, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a chronic disease wherein increased bone remodeling reduces bone mass and bone strength. Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates are commonly used to mitigate bone loss and fracture risk. Osteoclast inhibition via denosumab (DMAb), a RANKL inhibitor, is a newer approach for reducing fracture risk in patients at increased risk for fracture. The safety of transitioning from bisphosphonate therapy (alendronate; ALN) to DMAb was examined in mature ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). One day after OVX, cynos (7-10/group) were treated with vehicle (VEH, s.c.), ALN (50 μg/kg, i.v., twice monthly) or DMAb (25 mg/kg/month, s.c.) for 12 months. Other animals received VEH or ALN for 6 months and then transitioned to 6 months of DMAb. DMAb caused significantly greater reductions in serum CTx than ALN, and transition from ALN to DMAb caused further reductions relative to continued ALN. DMAb and ALN decreased serum calcium (Ca), and transition from ALN to DMAb resulted in a lesser decline in Ca relative to DMAb or to VEH-DMAb transition. Bone histomorphometry indicated significantly reduced trabecular and cortical remodeling with DMAb or ALN. Compared with ALN, DMAb caused greater reductions in osteoclast surface, eroded surface, cortical porosity and fluorochrome labeling, and transition from ALN to DMAb reduced these parameters relative to continued ALN. Bone mineral density increased in all active treatment groups relative to VEH controls. Destructive biomechanical testing revealed significantly greater vertebral strength in all three groups receiving DMAb, including those receiving DMAb after ALN, relative to VEH controls. Bone mass and strength remained highly correlated in all groups at all tested skeletal sites, consistent with normal bone quality. These data indicate that cynos transitioned from ALN to DMAb exhibited reduced bone resorption and cortical porosity, and increased BMD and bone strength, without

  2. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  3. 骨转换率对大鼠正畸牙齿移动量及牙根吸收的影响%The Rate of Teeth Movement and the Roots Resorption is Influenced by Bone Turnover in Rat Orthodontic Treatment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红; 殷丽华; 李秀华; 李静

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study in a rat model, whether a state of high or low bone turnover had an effect on the incidence of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment. Methods: Design performing orthodontic teeth movement in 30, 180 - 220 gram male rats with: high(n=10), low bone turnover (n= 10) , and normal (n= 10)groups. The high and low bone turnover groups were obtained by induction of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, respectively. The upper left first molar was moved for 21 days. Bone markers were administered 15 and 2 days before killing. Results: The amount of teeth movement increased with longest tooth roots in high bone turnover group. Conclusion: Bone turnover affected the amount of teeth movement. High bone turnover increased the amount of teeth movement and decreased the the amount of teeth roots resorption.%目的:研究在不同骨转换率的条件下,大鼠牙齿移动过程中牙齿移动量及对牙根吸收的影响.方法:健康成年雄性威斯塔大鼠30只,体重180~220 g.随机分成3组:高骨转换率组,低骨转换率组,正常对照组.前2组通过20 d甲状腺片和丙硫氧嘧啶灌胃得到高骨转换率和低骨转换率组动物模型.左侧上颌第一磨牙加力21d.在处死动物前15d及2d添加骨标志物.拍X线片测量牙齿移动距离及牙根长度.结果:高骨转换率组的大鼠正畸牙齿移动的距离长,牙根最长.结论:骨转换率对正畸牙齿移动量及牙根吸收有影响.骨转换率高则大鼠牙齿移动量大,牙根吸收少,反之大鼠牙齿移动量小,牙根吸收多.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in bone turnover-related genes in Koreans: ethnic differences in linkage disequilibrium and haplotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tae-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is defined as the loss of bone mineral density that leads to bone fragility with aging. Population-based case-control studies have identified polymorphisms in many candidate genes that have been associated with bone mass maintenance or osteoporotic fracture. To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with osteoporosis, we examined the genetic variation among Koreans by analyzing 81 genes according to their function in bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling. Methods We resequenced all the exons, splice junctions and promoter regions of candidate osteoporosis genes using 24 unrelated Korean individuals. Using the common SNPs from our study and the HapMap database, a statistical analysis of deviation in heterozygosity depicted. Results We identified 942 variants, including 888 SNPs, 43 insertion/deletion polymorphisms, and 11 microsatellite markers. Of the SNPs, 557 (63% had been previously identified and 331 (37% were newly discovered in the Korean population. When compared SNPs in the Korean population with those in HapMap database, 1% (or less of SNPs in the Japanese and Chinese subpopulations and 20% of those in Caucasian and African subpopulations were significantly differentiated from the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, an analysis of the genetic diversity showed that there were no significant differences among Korean, Han Chinese and Japanese populations, but African and Caucasian populations were significantly differentiated in selected genes. Nevertheless, in the detailed analysis of genetic properties, the LD and Haplotype block patterns among the five sub-populations were substantially different from one another. Conclusion Through the resequencing of 81 osteoporosis candidate genes, 118 unknown SNPs with a minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.05 were discovered in the Korean population. In addition, using the common SNPs between our study and HapMap, an

  5. Effects of Glycemic Control on Bone Turnover in Older Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes: Data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, N.; Smith, S. M.; Lee, M.; Musgrave, P.; Nader, S.; Khosla, S.; Ambrose, C.; McCormick, J.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    High bone turnover, evidenced by high serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration, is indicated as risk of fracture in old age. However, low bone turnover has been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who also have high fracture risk. Poor glycemic control indicated by higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) has been associated with lower serum OC in older Caucasian and Asian patients with T2D. There remains a gap in knowledge about effects of T2D on bone turnover status in Hispanic populations. We report bone turnover in association with glycemic control in 72 older (greater than or equal to 50 years) men (N=21) and women (N=51) from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas. Prevalence of T2D is about 30 percent in this cohort who live in health disparity due to poor access to health care. Separate multivariable linear regression models were conducted to determine association between high/diabetic levels of HbA1c (less than 6.5 normal versus greater than or equal to 6.5 high) and serum OC after controlling for age, body mass index (BMI, greater than 30 obese versus less than 30 non-obese), visceral fat, femoral neck BMD and serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and vitamin D for men and women. Interaction effects were assessed while developing final multivariable model to identify factors that modify the association between HbA1c and OC. Subjects were 66 plus or minus 9 (mean plus or minus Standard Deviation) years for men and 67 plus or minus 8 years for women. HbA1c was 8.0 plus or minus 2.0 for men and 7.8 plus or minus 2.0 for women. There were no significant differences for BMI, femoral neck BMD, serum calcium or 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations between men and women. High HbA1c was significantly associated with lower OC levels in men in both age groups (mean difference in OC between high vs. low HbA1c [95 percent confidence interval] for older group (greater than or equal to 65 years) was minus 9.51 (minus 16.36 to minus 2.65) and

  6. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  7. Serum biomarkers of bone metabolism in castration resistant prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Prior studies suggest that elevated markers of bone turnover are prognostic for poor survival in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The predictive role of these markers relative to bone-targeted therapy is unknown. We prospectively evaluated the prognostic and predictive value ...

  8. ASDAS, BASDAI and different treatment responses and their relation to biomarkers of inflammation, cartilage and bone turnover in patients with axial spondyloarthritis treated with TNF{alpha} inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Garnero, Patrick;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relation between ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and treatment response and biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial...... growth factor (VEGF)), cartilage (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), total aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) and bone (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin) turnover in 60 patients with axial...

  9. ASDAS, BASDAI and different treatment responses and their relation to biomarkers of inflammation, cartilage and bone turnover in patients with axial spondyloarthritis treated with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Garnero, Patrick;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relation between ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and treatment response and biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial...... growth factor (VEGF)), cartilage (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), total aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) and bone (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin) turnover in 60 patients with axial...

  10. Measurement of serum marker for bone metastasis (1-CTP) in hepatobiliary and pancreas malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Tobinaga, Syuuichi; Araki, Masato; Sumida, Yorihisa; Kunizaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Abo, Takafumi; HIDAKA, SHIGEKAZU; Sawai, Terumitsu; Yasutake, Toru; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (1CTP) is a sensitive serum marker for metastatic bone carcinomas and may also be associated with invasiveness of various carcinomas. To clarify the significance of 1CTP in hepato-biliary pancreas malignancies, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological features and serum level of 1CTP. Methodology: The subjects were 75 patients who underwent surgical resections including 27 patients with l...

  11. Association of pioglitazone treatment with decreased bone mineral density in obese premenopausal patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Andersen, Mikael; Hagen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study at an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. PATIENTS......, sex hormones, and body composition. CONCLUSION: Pioglitazone treatment was followed by decreased lumbar and hip BMD and decreased measures of bone turnover in a premenopausal study population relatively protected from bone mineral loss Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  12. Effects of Resistive Vibration Exercise Combined with Whey Protein and KHCO3 on Bone Tturnover Markers in Head-down Tilt Bed Rest (MTBR-MNX Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Sonja; Baecker, Natalie; Buehlmeier, Judith; Fischer, Annelie; Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

    2014-01-01

    High protein intake further increases bone resorption markers in head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR), most likely induced by low-grade metabolic acidosis. Adding an alkaline salt to a diet with high protein content prevents this additional rise of bone resorption markers in HDBR. In addition, high protein intake, specifically whey protein, increases muscle protein synthesis and improves glucose tolerance, which both are affected by HDBR. Resistive vibration exercise (RVE) training counteracts the inactivity-induced bone resorption during HDBR. To test the hypothesis that WP plus alkaline salt (KHCO3) together with RVE during HDBR will improve bone turnover markers, we conducted a randomized, three-campaign crossover design study with 12 healthy, moderately fit male subjects (age 34+/-8 y, body mass [BM] 70 +/- 8 kg). All study campaigns consisted of a 7-d ambulatory period, 21days of -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR), and a 6-d recovery period. Diet was standardized and identical across phases. In the control (CON) campaign, subjects received no supplement or RVE. In the intervention campaigns, subjects received either RVE alone or combined with WP and KHCO3 (NEX). WP was applied in 3 doses per day of 0.6 g WP/kg BM together with 6 doses of 15 mmol KHCO3 per day. Eleven subjects completed the RVE and CON campaign, 8 subjects completed all three campaigns. On day 21 of HDBR excretion of the bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (CTX) was 80+/-28% (p<0.001) higher than baseline, serum calcium concentrations increased by 12 +/- 29% (p<0.001) and serum osteocalcin concentrations decreased by 6+/-12% (p=0.001). Urinary CTX excretion was 11+/- 25% (p=0.02) lower on day 21 of HDBR in the RVE- and tended to decrease by 3+/- 22% (p=0.06) in the NEX campaign compared to CON. Urinary calcium excretion was higher on day 21 in HDBR in the RVE and NEX (24+/- 43% p=0.01; 25+/- 37% p=0.03) compared to the CON campaign. We conclude that combination of RVE with WP/KHCO3 was not

  13. Palaeoenvironmental turnover across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition at the Agost section, Southastern Spain: In search of a marker event to define the Stratotype for the base of the Lutetian Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, S.; Gonzalvo, C.; Eustoquio, M.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.; Uchman, A; Vandenberghe, N.; Zeelmaekers, E.

    2008-01-01

    Marker events to define the stratotype for the base of the Lutetian Stage are poorly defined. To elucidate such markers and characterize palaeoenvironmental turnovers, we conducted an integrated study of the Ypresian–Lutetian (Y–L; early-middle Eocene) transition at the continuous Agost section (southeastern Spain). This 115-m-thick section, which consists of hemipelagic marls intercalated with hemipelagic limestones and turbidity sandstones, spans from planktic foraminiferal Zones P9 to P12 ...

  14. Use of monoclonal anti-actin as a megakaryocyte marker in paraffin wax embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Boqué, C; N. Pujol-Moix; Linde, M A; Murcia, C.; C. Guanyabens; Soler, J.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-actin was used as a marker of megakaryocytes in Zenker's fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow tissue, using an immunoperoxidase staining method. Twenty bone marrow samples were studied, including controls, and different myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic syndromes. The results were compared with those obtained using factor VIII related antigen (F VIII RAg) immunolabelling. Anti-actin is as good a marker for megakaryocytes as anti-FVIIIRAg and is potentially clinically ...

  15. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chro...

  16. p63 as a prognostic marker for giant cell tumor of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    kakizaki, Hiroshi; Okada, Kyoji; Torigoe, Tomoaki; Kusumi, Tomomi

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is sometimes difficult to distinguish from other giant-cell-rich tumors such as chondroblastoma (CHB) and aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). The usefulness of p63 as a diagnostic marker for GCT is controversial. While there have been no reports about p63 as a prognostic marker for local recurrence, various p63-positive rates in GCT have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively whether p63 is useful as a diagnostic marker and/or a prognostic marker for local recurrence of GCT. Methods This study included 36 patients diagnosed with either GCT (n = 16), CHB (n = 9), ABC (n = 7), or non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) (n = 4). p63 immunostaining was performed for all specimens. The mean p63-positive rate was compared with the four diseases and between the recurrent and non-recurrent cases of GCT. Results Although the mean p63-positive rate for GCT (36.3%) was statistically higher than that of all other diseases examined (CHB: 15.2%; ABC: 5.8%; NOF: 3.4%), p63 was not specific for GCT. The mean p63-positive rate for recurrent GCT cases (73.6%) was statistically higher than that for non-recurrent cases (29.1%). Conclusion In the diagnosis of GCT, p63 is a useful but not a conclusive marker. However, p63 did appear to indicate the biological aggressiveness of GCT. Therefore, p63 may help surgeons to estimate the risk of recurrence after surgery and help them to choose the best treatment for each GCT case. PMID:23033898

  17. Can tumour marker assays be a guide in the prescription of bone scan for breast and lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the current need to improve cost-effectiveness in cancer patient management, a prospective study was undertaken in order to define the optimal combination of bone scan and tumour marker assays in breast and lung cancer strategies, as has been done in the case of prostate cancer. All patients with breast or lung cancer referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Grenoble Teaching Hospital between December 1995 and April 1997 were included. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA15-3 or CEA and CYFRA 21-1) on the same day as the bone scan. Two hundred and seventy-five patients were included: 118 with lung cancer and 157 with breast cancer. With regard to lung cancer, no information useful for guiding bone scan prescription was obtained through CEA and CYFRA 21-1 assays. For breast cancer, the results suggest that in asymptomatic patients, a CA15-3 level of less than 25 U/ml (upper normal value chosen as the threshold) is strongly predictive of a negative bone scan; by contrast, high tumour marker levels are predictive of neoplastic bone involvement. When a doubtful bone scan is obtained in a patient with breast cancer, a normal marker level makes it highly probable that bone scan abnormalities are not related to malignancy. (orig.)

  18. Can tumour marker assays be a guide in the prescription of bone scan for breast and lung cancers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffaz, P.-D.; Gauchez, A.S.; Caravel, J.P.; Vuillez, J.P.; Cura, C.; Agnius-Delord, C.; Fagret, D. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble (France)

    1999-01-01

    Considering the current need to improve cost-effectiveness in cancer patient management, a prospective study was undertaken in order to define the optimal combination of bone scan and tumour marker assays in breast and lung cancer strategies, as has been done in the case of prostate cancer. All patients with breast or lung cancer referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Grenoble Teaching Hospital between December 1995 and April 1997 were included. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA15-3 or CEA and CYFRA 21-1) on the same day as the bone scan. Two hundred and seventy-five patients were included: 118 with lung cancer and 157 with breast cancer. With regard to lung cancer, no information useful for guiding bone scan prescription was obtained through CEA and CYFRA 21-1 assays. For breast cancer, the results suggest that in asymptomatic patients, a CA15-3 level of less than 25 U/ml (upper normal value chosen as the threshold) is strongly predictive of a negative bone scan; by contrast, high tumour marker levels are predictive of neoplastic bone involvement. When a doubtful bone scan is obtained in a patient with breast cancer, a normal marker level makes it highly probable that bone scan abnormalities are not related to malignancy. (orig.) With 3 figs., 21 refs.

  19. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We...... conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU......]. We determined naive CD4(+) and CD8(+), activated CD4(+) and CD8(+), and regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) T lymphocytes. Baseline levels of P1NP and CTx correlated (coefficient 0.5, p...

  20. A influência da deficiência estrogênica no processo de remodelação e reparação óssea Effect of estrogen deficiency on bone turnover and bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ungaro Amadei

    2006-02-01

    cellular activity and several studies focus on the factors able to modulate the bone functions. The increase of bone research is, in part, due to the establishment of osteoporosis as a healthy problem common in elderly. Osteoporosis is one of the most important osteopathy, characterized by the bone mass reduction, resulted from disequilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. OBJECTIVE: Based on the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism, the aim of this study is present a review of literature about the principal aspects of bone turnover and bone repair associated to estrogen deficiency. Bone turnover: Bone tissue is in continuous turnover, however, changes in this process can result in some disorders, such as osteoporosis. Bone repair: Involves a sequence of biological events. It is affected by local and external factors and regulated by interaction of several mechanisms, like bone turnover. Estrogen deficiency and bone metabolism: The capacity to repair has been associated to changes in bone turnover and repair. DISCUSSION: It is not known which bone repair stage is modified: the bone formation, the mineralization or the resorption stage. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of bone changes caused by estrogen deficiency are not completely clear, so, new studies are still necessary.

  1. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Pkd2 leads to low-turnover osteopenia and reduced bone marrow adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhousheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Polycystin-1 (Pkd1 interacts with polycystin-2 (Pkd2 to form an interdependent signaling complex. Selective deletion of Pkd1 in the osteoblast lineage reciprocally regulates osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. The role of Pkd2 in skeletal development has not been defined. To this end, we conditionally inactivated Pkd2 in mature osteoblasts by crossing Osteocalcin (Oc-Cre;Pkd2+/null mice with floxed Pkd2 (Pkd2flox/flox mice. Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null (Pkd2Oc-cKO mice exhibited decreased bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, cortical thickness, mineral apposition rate and impaired biomechanical properties of bone. Pkd2 deficiency resulted in diminished Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expressions in bone and impaired osteoblastic differentiation ex vivo. Expression of osteoblast-related genes, including, Osteocalcin, Osteopontin, Bone sialoprotein (Bsp, Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (Phex, Dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1, Sclerostin (Sost, and Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 were reduced proportionate to the reduction of Pkd2 gene dose in bone of Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/+ and Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null mice. Loss of Pkd2 also resulted in diminished peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ expression and reduced bone marrow fat in vivo and reduced adipogenesis in osteoblast culture ex vivo. Transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ and Yes-associated protein (YAP, reciprocally acting as co-activators and co-repressors of Runx2 and PPARγ, were decreased in bone of Oc-Cre;Pkd2flox/null mice. Thus, Pkd1 and Pkd2 have coordinate effects on osteoblast differentiation and opposite effects on adipogenesis, suggesting that Pkd1 and Pkd2 signaling pathways can have independent effects on mesenchymal lineage commitment in bone.

  2. Effect of short-term upper-body resistance training on muscular strength, bone metabolic markers, and BMD in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in

  3. Radiocalcium Measurement of Bone Turnover in Disorders of Calcium Metabolism Using a Model Based on an Expanding Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine bone mineralization rate the patient eats a constant daily diet for the duration of the study. 10 μCi of 47CaCl2 are injected intravenously on day one of the investigation. Blood samples are taken at 5, 10, 20, 40 and 90 minutes, 3, 5, 9 and 22 hours and 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 days. 47Ca radioactivity is measured in all the plasma and daily faecal and urine samples. Bone mineralization is determined using a model based on the concept that the exchangeable calcium pool is continuously expanding according to a power function and that activity is lost from the pool into faeces, urine and bone (by mineralization) in direct proportion to the specific activity of the plasma (S*). The power function can be determined graphically from a log/log plot of the S* data over the first 15 hours. Extrapolation of this line to day 7 permits calculation of the pool size at that time (reciprocal of the calculated Sp*7) and the product of the calculated pool and actual S7* yields the amount of activity in the pool at day 7. This is deducted from the activity retained at day 7 to give the activity attributable to bone mineralization which is then divided by the integrated S* over the 7 days to yield the bone mineralization rate. Usually the whole calculation is performed by curve fitting the data points with the aid of a computer. In contrast to previously published methods for the determination of the bone mineralization rates the results presented are independent of the portion of the S* curve that is analysed and thus bone mineralization can be determined in 7 days, previous methods requiring 14 days or more. The normal mineralization rate is 4-6 mg Ca/kg per day. High values of bone mineralization are found in groups of patients with Paget' s disease, osteomalacia, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Low values for bone mineralization have been found in some patients with crush fracture osteoporosis and in hypoparathyroidism. Changes in bone

  4. Effects of local delivery of BMP2, zoledronate and their combination on bone microarchitecture, biomechanics and bone turnover in osteoporotic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Hao, Xuguang; Xu, Fang; Liu, Jian; Xu, Fei; Luo, Erping; Meng, Guolin

    2016-01-01

    The hip fracture is one major clinical challenge associated with osteoporosis, resulting in heavy socioeconomic burdens and high mortality. Systemic therapies of anti-osteoporosis drugs are expensive, time-consuming and also evoke substantial side effects, which fails to provide early protection from fractures. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the high bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of local drug delivery in accelerating facture healing and bone defect repair. This study aims at investigating the effects of local delivery of BMP2 and zoledronate (two promising anabolic/anti-catobolic reagents) encapsulated by fibrin sealants into femoral necks on regulating bone quality and remodeling in osteoporotic rabbits subjected to combined ovariectomy and glucocorticoid injection. We show that 6-week BMP2 delivery exhibited more prominent effect on mitigating trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration and mechanical strength reduction of femoral necks than local zoledronate treatment. BMP2 plus zoledronate showed more significant improvement of bone microstructure, mechanical strength and bone formation rate at 12 weeks post injection than single BMP2 or zoledronate delivery via μCT, biomechanical, histomorphometric and serum biochemical analyses. This study enriches our knowledge for understanding the availability of local drug delivery for improving bone quantity and quality, which may lead to earlier, safer and more efficient protection from osteoporosis-induced fractures in clinics. PMID:27329730

  5. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation lowers bone turnover and calcium excretion in older men and women a randomized dose-finding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bic...

  6. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    : A total of 122 patients were included (84% women; x +/- SD age: 70 +/- 11 y); 68% completed the study. In an intention-to-treat analysis, LBMD increased in the intervention group and decreased in the placebo group, and the difference between the groups was significant after 12 mo: 0.931 +/- 0.211 compared...... with 0.848 +/- 0.194 (Pturnover. PTH was significantly lower in the intervention group (P... significantly related to physical performance. CONCLUSIONS: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance....

  7. Research on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone metabolism markers in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Jun Meng; Qing Hua; Ting-Ting Dai

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relevance between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone metabolism markers in children.Methods:A total of 167 children who visited the Growth and Development Clinic due to growth retardation, dysphoria, night terrors, and hyperhidrosis from September, 2012 to September, 2013 were enrolled in the study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)VitD],BAP and OC levels were measured by enzyme-linked immune method (ELSIA), while IGF-Ⅰ was measured by chemiluminescence. The relevance of 25 (OH) VitD with BAP, OC and IGF-Ⅰ was analyzed.Results: Serum 25 (OH) VitD level was decreased gradually with increasing age. There were significant differences between infancy group and adolescence group. With increasing age, serum OC level increased gradually.With decreasing 25 (OH)VitD level, serum OC level increased gradually,serum IGF-Ⅰ level decreased gradually, whereas BAP had no significant change. 25 (OH)VitD level showed a negative positive linear correlation with OC, a positive linear correlation with IGF-Ⅰ, and no significant linear correlation with BAP in children.Conclusions:The level of 25 (OH)VitD, BAP, OC and IGF-Ⅰ vary in children with different ages. Adolescence and school-age children have severer vitamin D deficiency than infants. Vitamin D level may be correlated with BMD within a certain range. 25 (OH)VitD level showed a negative positive linear correlation with OC, a positive linear correlation with IGF-Ⅰ, and no significant linear correlation with BAP in children. Diagnosis of the body's VitD nutritional status by bone metabolism markers needs further study.

  8. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is

  9. Association between the stress fracture and bone metabolism/quality markers in lacrosse players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakamatsu K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenta Wakamatsu,1 Keishoku Sakuraba,1 Yoshio Suzuki,2 Asako Maruyama,2 Yosuke Tsuchiya,3 Jiro Shikakura,2 Eisuke Ochi31Department of Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan; 3Laboratory of Health and Sports Sciences, Meiji Gakuin University, Kanagawa, JapanBackground: Overuse injury including stress fracture is a serious problem for athletes. Recently, the importance of bone metabolism and quality as factors preventing overuse injury has been increasingly recognized. Hence, we hypothesized that markers of bone metabolism and quality are related to overuse injuries.Methods: The subjects, which were elite university lacrosse players (male, n = 35; age, 19.8 ± 1.1; female, n = 49; age, 20.0 ± 1.0, were divided into a stress fracture group and a control group. We measured the subjects’ physical characteristics (height, weight, body mass index, and body fat and bone architecture was evaluated using quantitative ultrasound. Bone alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide cross-link of type I collagen, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b, homocysteine, and pentosidine were measured from blood samples obtained from all subjects.Results: No significant difference was observed between groups with respect to height, weight, body mass index, and body fat, as well as quantitative ultrasound. Further, there were no significant differences in the levels of bone alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide cross-link of type I collagen, or TRAP-5b between stress fracture and control groups in all subjects and in male subjects. However, a significant increase in TRAP-5b level was observed in the stress fracture group compared with the control in the female subjects (409.9 ± 209.3 and 318.6 ± 81.6 mU/dL, respectively; P < 0.05. Homocysteine and pentosidine did not differ between groups.Conclusion: These results suggest that osteoclast activity of

  10. 绝经后妇女维生素D缺乏伴不同PTH水平对骨转换和骨量影响的相关性研究%The effects of vitamin D deficiency on bone turnover and bone mineral density in patients with different PTH responses in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳萍; 朱汉民; 李慧林; 朱晓颖; 洪维; 张雪梅; 薛思红; 程群

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of vitamin D deficiency on bone turnover and bone mineral density in patients with a blunted PTH response as compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism.Method A total of 542 postmenopausal women [mean age (64.0 ± 10.8) years] were evaluated by assessing serum calcium,phosphate,alkaline phosphatase,25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD),PTH,bone turnover markers such as osteocalcin,C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen(CTX) and procollagen type Ⅰ amino-terminal propeptide(PINP),and bone mineral density of lumber spine,total hip and femur neck etc.Result (1) The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this cohort was 24%.Mean 25-OHD varied across seasons (P =0.023) ; women who paid visits during winter and spring yielded significantly lower levels of 25-OHD than those who had their visit during the fall (P =0.012 and P =0.039).Serum PTH and bone turnover markers did not vary by season.(2) All subjects could be divided into four groups occording to their serum 25-OHD and PTH levels.Group 1:25-OHD< 10 ng/ml and PTH ≥ 65 pg/ml (7.0%),group 2:25-OHD < 10 ng/ml and PTH < 65 pg/ml (17.0%),group 3:25-OHD ≥ 10 ng/ml and PTH<65 pg/ml (73.6%),group 4:25-OHD ≥ 10 ng/ml and PTH ≥ 65 pg/ml (2.4%).Blunted PTH response was found in 70.8% of patients with vitamin D deficiency.Patients with vitamin D deficiency and a blunted PTH response were characterized by a lowered serum calcium,a reduction in bone turnover (serum CTX and serum osteocalcin),but protection in bone density as compared to those with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism.(3) As for spine bone mineral density,the significant independent predictors were body mass index(r2 =0.370,P<0.01),age(r2 =-0.158,P<0.01),PTH(r2 =-0.121,P<0.05),and serum CTX(r2 =-0.118,P<0.05).For femoral neck bone mineral density,the significant independent predictors were years since menopause(r2 =-0.201,P<O.01) and body

  11. Bone density as a marker for local response to radiotherapy of spinal bone metastases in women with breast cancer: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We designed this study to quantify the effects of radiotherapy (RT) on bone density as a local response in spinal bone metastases of women with breast cancer and, secondly, to establish bone density as an accurate and reproducible marker for assessment of local response to RT in spinal bone metastases. We retrospectively assessed 135 osteolytic spinal metastases in 115 women with metastatic breast cancer treated at our department between January 2000 and January 2012. Primary endpoint was to compare bone density in the bone metastases before, 3 months after and 6 months after RT. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU) in computed tomography scans. We calculated mean values in HU and the standard deviation (SD) as a measurement of bone density before, 3 months and 6 months after RT. T-test was used for statistical analysis of difference in bone density as well as for univariate analysis of prognostic factors for difference in bone density 3 and 6 months after RT. Mean bone density was 194.8 HU ± SD 123.0 at baseline. Bone density increased significantly by a mean of 145.8 HU ± SD 139.4 after 3 months (p = .0001) and by 250.3 HU ± SD 147.1 after 6 months (p < .0001). Women receiving bisphosphonates showed a tendency towards higher increase in bone density in the metastases after 3 months (152.6 HU ± SD 141.9 vs. 76.0 HU ± SD 86.1; p = .069) and pathological fractures before RT were associated with a significantly higher increase in bone density after 3 months (202.3 HU ± SD 161.9 vs. 130.3 HU ± SD 129.2; p = .013). Concomitant chemotherapy (ChT) or endocrine therapy (ET), hormone receptor status, performance score, applied overall RT dose and prescription of a surgical corset did not correlate with a difference in bone density after RT. Bone density measurement in HU is a practicable and reproducible method for assessment of local RT response in osteolytic metastases in breast cancer. Our analysis demonstrated an excellent local response within

  12. Marker of Bone Resorption in Acute Response to Exogenous or Endogenous Parathyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Zikan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH changes morphology of osteoclasts within minutes after its systemic administration. The aim of our study was to test in healthy men whether both exogenous and endogenous PTH could change acutely (minutes to hours the serum cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (beta CTX, which is released during osteoclastic resorption of bone. Twelve healthy men (age range 24–34 yr were each studied during 180 min on a control period, after a single subcutaneous injection of teriparatide, and after 30 min EDTA infusion to stimulate endogenous PTH secretion. The tests were started after overnight fast, 3 h after a standard calcium load. The EDTA infusion induced a significant decrease in serum ionized calcium (by 8.5% at 33 min and a significant increase in plasma PTH (by 305% at 33 min. Both the EDTA and teriparatide resulted in a significant increase in beta CTX (p < 0.001 with maximum increases of 64% and 80%, respectively. A mild, but significant decrease in beta CTX was observed during the control test period. In conclusion, single-dose teriparatide injection as well as a stimulation of endogenous PTH in healthy men results in an acute increase of the bone resorption marker.

  13. Acute effects of plyometric jumping and intermittent running on serum bone markers in young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Fu; Huang, Tsang-hai; Tu, Kuo-Cheng; Lin, Linda L; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different modes of single-bout exercise would cause different responses in short-term bone metabolism. 24 untrained male college students (19.1 ± 0.1 years old) were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups: (1) a single-bout plyometric exercise group (the PL group, n = 8), (2) a 200-meter × 10 intermittent running group (the IR group, n = 8) and (3) a sedentary control group, which followed the same time schedule of experimentation without performing any exercise (the CON group, n = 8). Serial blood samples were collected before (baseline) and 5 min, 15 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after exercise trials. Within 15 min of exercise, the PL and IR groups showed significantly higher serum phosphorus than did the control group (P < 0.05). Osteocalcin levels were significantly higher in the PL group at 5 min and 1 h after exercise (P < 0.05), while serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) showed no differences among groups. Exercises with different mechanical impact levels responded differently in serum bone formation markers as shown by osteocalcin. Because the increase in osteocalcin in the PL group was revealed shortly after the exercise bout, the changes might due to an exercise-induced mechanical impact rather than bone cellular activities. PMID:21837450

  14. [Biological profile of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of bone resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Iritia, M; Arribas, I; Revilla, M

    1990-12-01

    Tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase was measured in 123 subjects, 80 of which were normal and the rest pathologic, in order to define the profile and value of this parameter as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. Normal subjects were divided into age groups based on the period where skeletal growth ends (under 20 years), at the age of menopause in women (50 years, between 20 and 50 years) and those over 50 years. There was an increase in tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase coinciding with puberty and no sex differences were observed after the 50 year mark, when women showed higher values than men (p less than 0.001). Such tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase increase, is reflected as higher values in the 50 year group than in the 20 to 50 year group (p less than 0.001), the only age limit where a negative significant correlation between tartrate-resistant serum acid phosphatase values and age could be observed (p less than 0.05). Values were higher up to the age of 20 years (p less than 0.001) than in any other older age group. Levels increased significantly (p less than 0.001 for both groups) in post-menopausal osteoporosis (n = 20) and in Paget's disease of bone (n = 15), and decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in imperfect osteogenesis (n = 8), thus revealing its value as a biological marker of osteoclastic activity. PMID:2099535

  15. The CD271 expression could be alone for establisher phenotypic marker in Bone Marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carrasco-Yalan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are of great interest for their potential use in cellular therapies. To define the population more precisely, diverse surface markers have been used. We propose here to use CD271 as the sole marker for MSCs in fresh bone marrow. We compared CD271+ populations to the presence or absence of five defined markers for MSCs: CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, CD34- and CD79. The correlations between markers were evaluated and analyzed with a Pearson's correlation test. We found that the average percentage of cells expressing the combination of markers CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, CD34- and CD79- was 0.54%, and that the average percentage average of CD271+ cells was 0.53%. The results were significant (p<0.05. The exclusive use of CD271 as a marker for MSCs from fresh samples of bone marrow appears to be highly selective. Using CD271 as the sole identification marker for MSCs could reduce costs and accelerate the process of identifying MSCs for the field of cellular therapy.

  16. The CD271 expression could be alone for establisher phenotypic marker in Bone Marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Flores-Torales

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are of great interest for their potential use in cellular therapies. To define thepopulation more precisely, diverse surface markers have been used. We propose here to use CD271 as the sole marker forMSCs in fresh bone marrow. We compared CD271+ populations to the presence or absence of five defined markers forMSCs: CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, CD34- and CD79. The correlations between markers were evaluated and analyzed with aPearson's correlation test. We found that the average percentage of cells expressing the combination of markers CD90+,CD105+, CD45-, CD34- and CD79- was 0.54%, and that the average percentage average of CD271+ cells was 0.53%. Theresults were significant (p<0.05. The exclusive use of CD271 as a marker for MSCs from fresh samples of bone marrowappears to be highly selective. Using CD271 as the sole identification marker for MSCs could reduce costs and acceleratethe process of identifying MSCs for the field of cellular therapy.

  17. Calvarial doughnut lesions associated with high-turnover osteoporosis presenting in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J L; Coderre, J A; Overdorf, J H; Fitzpatrick, L A; Shapiro, J R

    1999-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta and juvenile osteoporosis are two well-described syndromes of osteoporosis presenting in childhood. There are also several references in the radiology literature to calvarial doughnut lesions (CDLs), areas of radiolucency surrounded by a dense and well-defined area of sclerotic bone, either as an incidental finding or associated with childhood fracture. We have characterized the metabolic abnormalities in a 13-yr-old boy with CDLs and multiple fractures and followed him during his progression through puberty. The patient's paternal grandmother; father; and paternal aunt, uncle, and first cousin were similarly affected, and a mandibular lesion in the uncle was pathologically described as fibrous dysplasia. The subject's physical examination was significant for bony protuberances of the skull and normal hearing, sclearal hue, dentition, and joint flexibility. Radiographs revealed calvarial CDLs and osteopenia which was confirmed by bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption were elevated compared to normal adult and a transiliac crest bone biopsy confirmed high-turnover osteoporosis. Over 6 yr, with no specific therapy, BMD gradually normalized, but the CDLs increased in size, bone turnover remained elevated by biochemical markers, and he continued to fracture. The subject's affected father and maternal grandmother had normal BMD and no history of adult fracture. CDLs with high-turnover osteoporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis. During puberty the BMD normalizes but the high-turnover state persists, and the propensity to fracture eventually decreases in older affected adults. The CDLs may be a variant of fibrous dysplasia, and further study is necessary in order to elucidate the stimulus for increased bone turnover and the familial nature of this syndrome. PMID:23547313

  18. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E;

    1998-01-01

    intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...

  19. Marcadores do metabolismo ósseo em gatos Bone metabolism markers in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro José Lahm Cardoso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A formação e reabsorção óssea são processos contínuos no organismo e uma das maneiras de avaliar as alterações, a intensidade ou alterações desse processo é pela mensuração dos marcadores do metabolismo ósseo no soro ou na urina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar se os testes comerciais para detectar osteocalcina (OC, peptídeo aminoterminal do procolágeno tipo I (PINP e telopeptídeo carboxiterminal do colágeno tipo I (ICTP em seres humanos podem ser utilizados em gatos; e mensurar os valores de OC, PINP e ICTP e correlacioná-los com a densitometria mineral óssea (DMO em gatos adultos jovens. As médias das concentrações séricas da OC e do ICTP obtidas foram, respectivamente, 0,15±0,03ng mL-1 e 8,59±5,78ng mL-1. A média (±DP da DMO apresentada foi 1,40±0,23mmAl. Os marcadores do metabolismo ósseo apresentaram baixa correlação entre si e com a DMO. Este estudo concluiu que o teste comercial para mensuração da OC e ICTP em seres humanos podem ser utilizados em gatos, e o teste comercial para mensuração do PINP em seres humano não é viável para essa espécie.Bone formation and resorption are continuous processes and a tool to evaluate alterations these activities is to measure seric or urinary markers of bone metabolism. The aims of this study were to identify if commercial sets available to detect human osteocalcin, (OC amino-terminal propeptides of procollagen type I (PINP, type-I collagen carboxi-terminal telopeptide (ICTP are also available for usage in domestic cats; measure seric levels of OC, PINP and ICTP; correlate findings with bone mineral density (BMD in young adult cats. OC and ICTP means (±SD was 0.15±0.03ng mL-1 and 8.59±5.78ng mL-1, respectively. BMD while 1.40±0.23mm Al. Bone metabolism markers showed low correlation between then and also BMD. This paper concludes that commercial sets designed for OC and ICTP measures in humans may be used for same purpose in cats to evaluate bone

  20. Comparison of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Surface Markers from Bone Marrow Aspirates and Adipose Stromal Vascular Fraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Fredericks, Lisa Page; Kiefer, Kristina; Conzemius, Michael G; Griffon, Dominique J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to subjectively evaluate the harvest of two areas of adipose collection and three areas of bone marrow collection as potential sites for clinical harvest of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and bone marrow concentrate for clinical use by quantifying the amount of tissue harvested, subjective ease of harvest, the variation of each site, and determining the cell surface marker characteristics using commercially available antibodies. Bone marrow and adipose tissue samples were collected from 10 adult mixed breed dogs. Adipose tissue was collected from the caudal scapular region and falciform fat ligament. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from the ilium, humerus, and tibia. Tissues were weighed (adipose) or measured by volume (bone marrow), processed to isolate the SVF or bone marrow concentrate, and flow cytometry was performed to quantitate the percentage of cells that were CD90, CD44 positive, and CD45 negative. Sites and tissue types were compared using matched pairs t-test. Subjectively subcutaneous fat collection was the most difficult and large amounts of tissue dissection were necessary. Additionally the subcutaneous area yielded less than the goal amount of tissue. The bone marrow harvest ranged from 10 to 27.5 ml. Adipose tissue had the highest concentration of cells with CD90(+), CD44(+), and CD45(-) markers (P adipose collection yielded more consistent results. These results describe the relative cellular components in the SVF of adipose tissue and bone marrow as defined by the biomarkers chosen. Although bone marrow yielded higher absolute cell numbers on average, adipose tissue yielded more consistent results. Fat from the falciform ligament was easily obtained with less dissection and therefore created less perceived relative patient trauma.

  1. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values. PMID:24604866

  2. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  3. Neural differentiation potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: misleading marker gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montzka Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to pluripotent embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells have been considered to be multipotent, being somewhat more restricted in their differentiation capacity and only giving rise to cell types related to their tissue of origin. Several studies, however, have reported that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are capable of transdifferentiating to neural cell types, effectively crossing normal lineage restriction boundaries. Such reports have been based on the detection of neural-related proteins by the differentiated MSCs. In order to assess the potential of human adult MSCs to undergo true differentiation to a neural lineage and to determine the degree of homogeneity between donor samples, we have used RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry to investigate the basal expression of a range of neural related mRNAs and proteins in populations of non-differentiated MSCs obtained from 4 donors. Results The expression analysis revealed that several of the commonly used marker genes from other studies like nestin, Enolase2 and microtubule associated protein 1b (MAP1b are already expressed by undifferentiated human MSCs. Furthermore, mRNA for some of the neural-related transcription factors, e.g. Engrailed-1 and Nurr1 were also strongly expressed. However, several other neural-related mRNAs (e.g. DRD2, enolase2, NFL and MBP could be identified, but not in all donor samples. Similarly, synaptic vesicle-related mRNA, STX1A could only be detected in 2 of the 4 undifferentiated donor hMSC samples. More significantly, each donor sample revealed a unique expression pattern, demonstrating a significant variation of marker expression. Conclusion The present study highlights the existence of an inter-donor variability of expression of neural-related markers in human MSC samples that has not previously been described. This donor-related heterogeneity might influence the reproducibility of transdifferentiation protocols as

  4. Turnover Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems contain energy and materials such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water, and are open to their flow-through. Turnover time refers to the amount of time required for replacement by flow-through of the energy or substance of interest contained in the system, and is ...

  5. The evaluation of Tracp5b as a marker for monitoring treatment results of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyun Huang; Yan Si; Jia Zhao; Qiang Ding

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b(Tracp5b) activity in monitoring bisphosphonate treatment results of bone metastasis in breast cancer(BC) patients. Methods:The serum activities of Tracp5b, CEA, CA153 were measured in 58 BC patients, including 26 without bone metastasis, 32 with bone metastasis. The serum activities of Tracp5b, CEA, CA153 were also measured in 19 patients with bone metastasis after 3 months of bisphosphonate treatment. Eighteen healthy women with age from 34 to 70 served as control. Results:Serum Tracp5b was significantly elevated in patients with bone metastasis compared with that in all any other groups(P< 0.05). The sensitivity of TracpSb was 78.13% and the specificity was 86.36%. The sensitivity of CA153 was 37.50% and the specificity was 77.27%. The sensitivity of CEA was 21.88% and the specificity was 84.09%. The serum activity of Tracp5b decreased significantly(P < 0.05) after 3 months of bisphosphonate treatment, while the levels of CA153 and CEA were unchanged. Conclusion:Serum TracpSb activity is a useful diagnostic marker for bone metastasis in BC patients and can be used to evaluate the treatment results of bisphosphonate.

  6. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, HAIYING; MOLINA, JULIAN; JIANG, JOHN; FERBER, MATTHEW; PRUTHI, SANDHYA; JATKOE, TIMOTHY; DERECHO, CARLO; RAJPUROHIT, YASHODA; ZHENG, JIAN; WANG, YIXIN

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  7. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  8. Handheld Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts lose significant bone mass during lengthy space flights. NASA wishes to monitor this bone loss in order to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures. Operational Technologies Corporation (OpTech) has developed a handheld device that quantifies bone loss in a spacecraft environment. The innovation works by adding fluorescent dyes and quenchers to aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step bind-and-detect FRET assays that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantify bone loss.

  9. An informative constitutional cytogenetic marker found in a patient post bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaslav, A.L.; Graziano, J.; Ebert, R. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    It is cytogenetically difficult to distinguish between host and donor cells in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) individuals of the same sex. Here we describe a patient with a cytogenetic marker found after BMT. A 7-month-old male presented with leukemia which was CD7+, CD33+, HLADR+, and CD4-, CD8-, indicating a diagnosis of acute stem cell leukemia (ASCL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed an abnormal clone in all of the cells analyzed: 46,XY,t(2;8)(p11.2;q24),inv(9)(p13p24). This translocation is associated with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); thus, it was possible for this patient to develop B-cell ALL. The abnormal clone persisted along with normal 46,XY cells, and evolved in several of seven additional analyses. The patient was treated with two courses of chemotherapy and failed to attain cytogenetic remission. While in relapse, the patient received a BMT from his 3-year-old brother. Two weeks later, a different translocation was seen in all cells: 46,XY,t(3;12)(p21;q21). This result could be interpreted in two ways: (1) the structural abnormality was indicative of a newly evolved clone related to the patient`s disease; or (2) the donor was a balanced translocation carrier. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood from the donor revealed the same translocation seen in the patient. Parental blood chromosomes were normal indicating that the donor carried a de novo balanced translocation. Subsequent chromosome analysis of both peripheral blood and BM from the patient revealed the presence of the translocation in all cells. De novo balanced translocations are rare and occur with a frequency of 1/2,000 live borns. The family received genetic counseling and was informed of the possible reproductive risks to translocation carriers. This unusual finding will serve as a useful cytogenetic marker to assist in monitoring the patient`s clinical course, i.e., chimerism and remission status.

  10. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  11. Short-term administration of glucagon-like peptide-2. Effects on bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in short-bowel patients with no colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haderslev, K V; Jeppesen, P B; Hartmann, B;

    2002-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a newly discovered intestinotrophic hormone. We have recently reported that a 5-week GLP-2 treatment improved the intestinal absorptive capacity of short-bowel patients with no colon. Additionally, GLP-2 treatment was associated with changes in body composition ...

  12. Conventional and novel peripheral blood iron markers compared against bone marrow in Malawian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.A.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.; Leenstra, T.; Vet, R.J.; Brabin, B.J.; Maseko, N.; Gushu, M.B.; Emana, M.; Kraaijenhagen, R.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Calis, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Iron deficiency is an important child health problem. Its diagnosis in areas of high infection exposure remains complicated as inflammation may interfere with the accuracy of peripheral iron markers. With this study, we aimed to validate the conventional iron markers and two novel iron markers,

  13. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  14. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-10-28

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients.

  15. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  16. Establishing quiescence in human bone marrow stem cells leads to enhanced osteoblast marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rumman, Mohammad; Kassem, Moustapha;

    expression profiling of the cells demonstrated down-regulation of cyclin (CCNA2, CCND1, CCNE1, CCNB1) and proliferation markers (Ki67) markers during G0 and up-regulation of the osteogenic genes RUNX2 and OPN. RT-PCR analysis of osteogenic differentiation of cells post G0 demonstrated an increase...

  17. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  18. An Evaluation of Collagen Metabolism in Non Human Primates Associated with the Bion 11 Space Program-Markers of Urinary Collagen Turnover and Muscle Connective Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailas, Arthur C.; Martinez, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Patients exhibiting changes in connective tissue and bone metabolism also show changes in urinary by-products of tissue metabolism. Furthermore, the changes in urinary connective tissue and bone metabolites precede alterations at the tissue macromolecular level. Astronauts and Cosmonauts have also shown suggestive increases in urinary by-products of mineralized and non-mineralized tissue degradation. Thus, the idea of assessing connective tissue and bone response in spaceflight monkeys by measurement of biomarkers in urine has merit. Other investigations of bone and connective histology, cytology and chemistry in the Bion 11 monkeys will allow for further validation of the relationship of urinary biomarkers and tissue response. In future flights the non-invasive procedure of urinary analysis may be useful in early detection of changes in these tissues. The purpose of this grant investigation was to evaluate mineralized and non-mineralized connective tissue responses of non-human primates to microgravity by the non-invasive analysis of urinary biomarkers. Secondly, we also wanted to assess muscle connective tissue adaptive changes in three weight-bearing skeletal muscles: the soleus, media] gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior by obtaining pre-flight and post-flight small biopsy specimens in collaboration with Dr. V. Reggie Edgerton's laboratory at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  19. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Density, Microarchitecture, and Estimated Bone Strength Assessed by HR-pQCT in Adult Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    -resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the ultradistal radius and tibia, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were performed in all participants. There were no significant differences in HR-pQCT parameters between MVD- and CoMVD- subjects. In contrast, MVD+ patients had larger total...

  20. Effect of hyperbilirubinaemia on neurocognitive, renal, bone and cardiovascular markers in HIV infection treated with boosted protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Barber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of some protease inhibitors (PI is associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia (HBR, due to inhibition of UGT1A1. As observed in Gilbert's syndrome, HBR may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammation may be relevant to neurocognitive (NC impairment, cardiovascular, renal and bone co-morbidities in HIV infection. This study aimed to analyse correlations between antiretroviral associated HBR and NC impairment as well as renal, bone and cardiovascular parameters. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 101 HIV-1-infected individuals stable (>6 months on antiretroviral regimens including tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine plus a ritonavir-boosted PI. Patients with >grade 2 HBR were compared to patients with normal bilirubin on NC data collected using CogState. An overall composite score was calculated for each subject. Two-tail P-values were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test. We measured the following parameters in all participants: Bone – Calcaneal Stiffness Index (CSI, blood bone markers, calculated FRAX score; CV – vascular endothelial function markers (iCAM, vCAM, lipid fractions and sub fractions (Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, ApoB, Carotid Intimal Thickness (CIT, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV, glucose and insulin for calculation of HOMA-IR, IL-6, d-dimer, uric acid, and hsCRP; Renal – urea and electrolytes (U&E, urinary protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR, urinary retinal binding protein (RBP/creatinine ratio. Results: Forty-three participants had normal bilirubin (NBR levels and 35 had high bilirubin (HBR; >2.5 times upper limit; the remaining 23 patients had intermediate bilirubin levels or violated the protocol. The mean age of participants was 48 years; 93% were male and 84% Caucasian. Mostly no significant differences were seen in any of the markers when comparing the NBR and HBR groups. Two component tests of the CogState were seen to be different

  1. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16...

  2. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  3. Serum thymidine kinase--a marker of bone marrow toxicity during treatment with zidovudine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Ingeberg, S; Teglbjaerg, L S

    1989-01-01

    0.01) in the zidovudine group, whereas it remained stable in the placebo (control) group. On the basis of this observation, the value of S-TK measurements as a predictor of bone marrow toxicity during zidovudine therapy was investigated in 42 patients with AIDS or ARC who received zidovudine as part...... of their usual treatment. There was a significant association between S-TK, haemoglobin and neutrophil counts measured after the first 4 weeks of therapy and the risk of developing bone marrow toxicity during the following 6 months. Combined, measurements of S-TK and neutrophil counts seem to be well...... suited for the identification of patients who have a high probability for developing bone marrow toxicity during zidovudine treatment....

  4. Kinetics of lymphocyte reconstitution after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: markers of graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinöcker, Severin; Sviland, Lisbet; Dressel, Ralf; Rolstad, Bent

    2011-07-01

    GVHD causes extensive morbidity and mortality in patients who receive alloHCT. Predictive and reliable markers for GVHD are currently lacking but required to improve the safety and accessibility of alloHCT. We present an experimental rat model of myeloablative total body irradiation and fully mismatched major and minor histoincompatible, T cell-depleted BMT, followed by delayed infusion of donor lymphocytes. This treatment, in contrast to marrow transplantation alone, resulted in severe aGVHD and 100% lethality within 2-6 weeks. We investigated the reconstitution kinetics and phenotypes of donor leukocyte subpopulations as well as the histopathology of selected organs that may correlate with GVHD, with the goal to find potential disease-related markers. We observed histological changes mainly confined to the skin, with degenerative changes in the basal layer. LNs and spleen showed deranged architecture with markedly increased accumulation of lymphocytes, whereas the gut, liver, and lungs appeared normal. Of the lymphocyte markers tested, donor-derived CD62L(+) T cells were markedly decreased in animals suffering from GVHD. Furthermore, we observed peripheral depletion of CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) T(reg), which was in contrast to controls. The relative frequency of these lymphocyte subpopulations in blood may therefore serve as accessible cellular markers of aGVHD. We propose that the animal model presented is instructive for the identification of clinically relevant markers of GVHD, which could improve disease diagnosis and management in alloHCT.

  5. Changes in biochemical markers and bone mass after withdrawal of ibandronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Christensen, J O; Baumann, M;

    1998-01-01

    with less reduced concentrations (p alkaline phosphatase (AP) returned to baseline values 12 months after discontinuation of treatment in all groups, whereas OC(N-MID) and bone-specific AP were still reduced 10%-25% in the groups previously treated...

  6. Turnover among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ben D

    2009-01-01

    Turnover among healthcare professionals is a costly consequence. The existing body of knowledge on healthcare professional turnover is correlated with job satisfaction levels. A landmark study differentiated 2 areas of job satisfaction categories: satisfiers and dissatisfiers (intrinsic and extrinsic motivators). The aim of this article is to examine existing research on precursors of turnover, such as burnout behaviors experienced by healthcare professionals, job satisfaction levels, employee organizational commitment, health complications which precede turnover, some current strategies to reduce turnover, and some effects CEO turnover has on employee turnover intentions.

  7. Assessment of soy phytoestrogens' effects on bone turnover indicators in menopausal women with osteopenia in Iran: a before and after clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Bagher

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is the gradual declining in bone mass with age, leading to increased bone fragility and fractures. Fractures in hip and spine are known to be the most important complication of the disease which leads in the annual mortality rate of 20% and serious morbidity rate of 50%. Menopause is one of the most common risk factors of osteoporosis. After menopause, sex hormone deficiency is associated with increased remodeling rate and negative bone balance, leading to accelerated bone loss and micro-architectural defects, resulting into increased bone fragility. Compounds with estrogen-like biological activity similar to "Isoflavones" present in plants especially soy, may reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women as they are similar in structure to estrogens. This research, therefore, was carried out to study the effects of Iranian soy protein on biochemical indicators of bone metabolism in osteopenic menopausal women. Materials and methods This clinical trial of before-after type was carried out on 15 women 45–64 years of age. Subjects were given 35 g soy protein per day for 12 weeks. Blood and urine sampling, anthropometric measurement and 48-h-dietary recalls were carried out at zero, 6 and 12 weeks. Food consumption data were analyzed using Food Proccessor Software. For the study of bone metabolism indicators and changes in anthropometric data as well as dietary intake, and repeated analyses were employed. Results Comparison of weight, BMI, physical activity, energy intake and other intervening nutrients did not reveal any significant changes during different stages of the study. Soy protein consumption resulted in a significant reduction in the urinary deoxypyridinoline and increasing of total alkaline phosphatase (p Conclusion In view of beneficial effect of soy protein on bone metabolism indicators, inclusion of this relatively inexpensive food in the daily diet of menopausal women, will probably delay bone

  8. Short-term lower-body plyometric training improves whole body BMC, bone metabolic markers, and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p basketball players.

  9. Prospective Isolation of Murine and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Based on Surface Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Mabuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are currently defined as multipotent stromal cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and can give rise to cells of multiple mesenchymal lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. The regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of MSCs have led to numerous clinical trials exploring their utility for the treatment of a variety of diseases (e.g., acute graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, and cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, conventionally cultured MSCs reflect heterogeneous populations that often contain contaminating cells due to the significant variability in isolation methods and the lack of specific MSC markers. This review article focuses on recent developments in the MSC research field, with a special emphasis on the identification of novel surface markers for the in vivo localization and prospective isolation of murine and human MSCs. Furthermore, we discuss the physiological importance of MSC subtypes in vivo with specific reference to data supporting their contribution to HSC niche homeostasis. The isolation of MSCs using selective markers (combination of PDGFRα and Sca-1 is crucial to address the many unanswered questions pertaining to these cells and has the potential to enhance their therapeutic potential enormously.

  10. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  11. [THE MARKERS OF BONE TISSUE METABOLISM. THE REFERENCE VALUES FOR THE KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG-YUGRA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchin, R V; Nenenko, N D; Tchernitsina, N V; Maksimova, T A

    2016-03-01

    The article defines reference values of particular markers of metabolism of bone tissue common to residents of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to analyze blood serum of 86 patients (43 males, 43 females) detecting concentration of C-tailed telopeptide of collagen type I, osteocalcin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D. The following reference values were derived. The C-tailed telopeptide (ng/ml): 0.111 (0.071-0.162) for females and 0.146 (0.066-0.255) for males. The osteocalcin (ng/ml): 20.6 (12.9-33.0) for females and 27.6 (12.0-61.9) for males. Calcitonin (pg/ml) - 2.55 (1.90-3.76); parathyroid hormone (pg/ml) - 39 (13-88); 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D (pg/ml) - 10.5 (3.9-46.4). It was also noted that decreasing of average indicators of vitamin D level and increasing of level of parathyroid hormone among residents of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra can cause increasing of intensity of accumulation of minerals in bone tissue as compared with residents of middle latitudes. PMID:27506104

  12. Serum BAP as the clinically useful marker for predicting BMD reduction in diabetic hemodialysis patients with low PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Misako; Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Maeno, Yoshifumi; Ishimura, Eiji; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2005-07-22

    With decrease of serum PTH in hemodialysis (HD) patients, other factors besides parathyroid hormone (PTH) become important in regulating bone metabolism. We investigated which serum bone metabolic marker is the best to predict the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction in HD patients with serum PTHBAP), intact osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), and the bone resorption markers, deoxypyridinoline (DPD), pyridinoline (PYD), and beta-crossLaps (beta-CTx) were measured in serum from 137 HD patients. BMD of all patients was measured twice, approximately 1.5 years before and 1.5 years after measurement of their markers of bone metabolism. In all 137 HD patients, serum BAP was the only marker significantly higher in those with BMD reduction than in those without. In 42 diabetes mellitus (DM) HD patients with serum PTHBAP was again the only marker to discriminate those with BMD reduction from those without. At serum PTHBAP retained tendency toward higher value. These findings suggest that serum BAP might be the most sensitive to identify small changes of bone metabolism in low bone turnover state. Retrospective study confirmed the usefulness of serum BAP in clinical practice by significantly higher values in those with bone loss at PTHBAP is a clinically useful bone formation marker to predict the BMD reduction in DM HD patients with low level of PTH.

  13. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Rigamonti; Kristen Brennand; Frank Lau; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–...

  14. Dietary Zinc Reduces Osteoclast Resorption Activities and Increases Markers of Osteoblast Differentiation, Matrix Maturation, and Mineralization in the Long Bones of Growing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional influence of zinc (Zn) on markers of bone extracellular matrix (ECM) resorption and mineralization was investigated in growing rats. Thirty male weanling rats were randomly assigned to consume AIN-93G based diets containing 2.5, 5, 7.5, 15, or 30 µg Zn/g diet for 24 d. Femur Zn incre...

  15. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  16. Dosing related effects of zoledronic acid on bone markers and creatinine clearance in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Jakobsen, Erik H;

    2014-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (Zol) is frequently used for the treatment of bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma and breast cancer with metastasis to bone. Therefore, there is also an interest in finding the optimal dosing regimen to optimize effects, minimize side effects and reduce costs. In our...... phase II clinical trial we investigated the effect of Zol treatment on the serum levels of the bone markers collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) as well as on creatinine clearance (kidney function) in response to dosing and duration of treatment...... for each individual patient. Methods. We enrolled 30 multiple myeloma (MM) and 30 breast cancer (BC) patients whereof 10 of each had never received bisphosphonate and 20 had received at least six prior Zol treatments. Results. We found that Zol treatment strongly reduced CTX (Spearman's correlation, rs...

  17. Peak Vertical Jump Power as a Marker of Bone Health in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, F; Mil-Homens, P; Carita, A I; Janz, K; Sardinha, L B

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of peak vertical jump power (VJP) to identify children with bone mineral density (BMD) below average, defined as BMD measured by DXA and adjusted for body height at the whole body less head≤- 1.0 standard deviation (SD). The sample included 114 boys and girls aged 8.5±0.4 years old. VJP was estimated from a countermovement jump performed on a contact mat using the measured flight time to calculate the height of rise of the center of gravity. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of having BMD≤1.0 SD decreased 1.2% per watt of power and the probability of BMD below average was 75.6% higher in boys than in girls with the same peak power jump. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity to identify children with BMDjump of 19.9 cm and 20.5 cm in 8-year-old boys and girls, respectively. The VJP showed a reasonable sensitivity and specificity as well good discriminant ability to identify children with BMD below average.

  18. Global Foreign Exchange Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal Ossolinski; Andrew Zurawski

    2010-01-01

    The most recent six-monthly data on global foreign exchange turnover show a rebound in activity between April and October 2009 across all markets and major currency pairs. The broad-based increase in turnover is in line with the improvement in global economic and financial conditions since early 2009. Despite the rebound, turnover remains below the peak in early 2008.

  19. Impact of NRTI backbone on renal, bone and cardiovascular markers in HIV-infected individuals receiving a boosted protease inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Barber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have previously shown in the SSAT 044 study that unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia in subjects receiving a boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r has limited impact on renal, cardiovascular (CV and bone biomarkers, as well as on neurocognitive performance, relative to those receiving PI/r with a normal bilirubin. We present here a secondary analysis comparing markers in those receiving abacavir- vs tenofovir- based antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 101 HIV-1 infected individuals stable (HIV RNA6 months on antiretroviral regimens including tenofovir (TDF/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine plus a ritonavir boosted PI. Results: Forty-three subjects had normal bilirubin (NBR levels and 35 had high bilirubin (>2.5 times upper limit; the remaining 23 patients had intermediate bilirubin levels or violated the protocol. The mean age of participants was 48 years; 93% were male and 84% Caucasian; 22 received ABC-based therapy and 78 TDF. No differences were seen in cardiovascular markers: Framingham (10-year risk % median, IQR: ABC 8.1, 5.6–15.3; TDF 9.5, 4.8–13.4 (p=ns; pulse wave velocity and carotid intimal thickness also showed no significant differences. No differences were seen in bone parameters: Calcaneal Stiffness Index (median score, IQR: ABC −0.5, −0.8 to 0.8; TDF −0.5, 1.4–0.4 (p=ns; 10 year FRAX score (% median, IQR: ABC 5.0, 2.4–6.2; TDF 3.6, 2.5–5.8 (p=ns. There were differences in renal parameters as shown in Table 1. We show statistically significant differences in urine protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR (10 vs 7; p=0.004 and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (uACR (15 vs 8; p=0.002, with both being higher in the TDF group. Conclusions: Tenofovir use is associated with excess loss of proteins including those typically resorbed in the renal tubule. Abacavir use was not associated with an increase in biomarkers of CV risk or vascular dysfunction.

  20. Bone biosensors: knowing the present and predicting the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashayar, Patricia; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Larijani, Bagher; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Bone is an active organ with the capacity of continuous remodeling throughout adult life. In view of the fact that the current gold standard to assess bone remodeling, bone mineral density, suffers from certain limitations, newer techniques are being developed. Currently enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is commonly used to assess bone turnover markers; the technique, however, is expensive, time consuming and needs trained personnel. Thus, there is a growing demand to fabricate different types of biosensors to provide low cost miniaturized platforms to assess the bone remodeling process more accurately. This review focuses on the latest advancements in the field of bone biosensing technologies. Its results might help provide possible solutions for translation of this technology for point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  1. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Sum Siu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing.

  2. Bone remodeling during pregnancy and post-partum assessed by metal lead levels and isotopic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan; Eisman, John

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling is normally evaluated using bone turnover markers/indices as indicators of bone resorption and formation. However, during pregnancy and post-partum, there have been inconsistent results between and within biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. These differences may relate to pregnancy-related changes in metabolism and/or hemodilution altering measured marker levels. An alternative approach to evaluating bone remodeling is to use the metal lead (Pb) concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions in blood. These measurements can also provide information on the amount of Pb that is mobilized from the maternal skeleton. Despite some similarities with accepted bone turnover markers, the Pb data demonstrate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy that further continues post-partum independent of length of breast-feeding, dietary intake and resumption of menses. Furthermore the isotopic measurements are not affected by hemodilution. These data confirm calcium balance studies that indicate increased bone resorption throughout pregnancy and lactation. They also indicate potentially major public health implications of the transfer of maternal Pb burden to the fetus and new born. PMID:27233973

  3. The Effect of Long-Term Exercise on the Production of Osteoclastogenic and Antiosteoclastogenic Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that the mechanical stresses associated with physical activity augment bone mineral density and improve bone quality, our understanding of how exercise modulates bone homeostasis at the molecular level is lacking. In a before and after trial involving 43 healthy adults, we measured the effect of six months of supervised exercise training on the spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines (interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, antiosteoclastogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukins 4 and 10, pleiotropic cytokines with variable effects on osteoclastogenesis (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and T cell growth and differentiation factors (interleukins 2 and 12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also measured lymphocyte phenotypes and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen, and bone homeostasis (25 (OH vitamin D, estradiol, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1. A combination of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises done on average of 2.5 hours a week attenuated the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and enhanced the production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. These changes were accompanied by a 16% reduction in collagen degradation products and a 9.8% increase in osteocalcin levels. We conclude that long-term moderate intensity exercise exerts a favorable effect on bone resorption by changing the balance between blood mononuclear cells producing osteoclastogenic cytokines and those producing antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02765945.

  4. Case of femoral diaphyseal stress fracture after long-term risedronate administration diagnosed by iliac bone biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Nagai, Keizo Sakamoto, Koji Ishikawa, Emi Saito, Takuma Kuroda, Katsunori Inagaki Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagwa-ku, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Bisphosphonate excessively inhibits bone resorption and results in pathological fracture of the femur or ilium. The subject of this study was administered risedronate for 7 years; we suspected an easy fracture of the femoral diaphysis. In this study, we report the results of this patient's bone biopsy and bone morphometric analysis. A 76-year-old female patient presented with right femoral pain. Bone mineral density of the anteroposterior surface of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4 was decreased and levels of bone turnover markers were high. Therefore, we initiated treatment with risedronate. As she continued the medication, urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase (bone-type isozyme were found to be within the normal ranges. After 7 years of administration, the patient experienced pain when she put weight on the right femur and right femoral pain while walking. Plain radiographic examination revealed polypoid stress fracture-like lesions on the right femoral diaphysis and on the slightly distal-lateral cortical bone. Similar lesions were observed on magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy. We suspected severely suppressed bone turnover. Bone biopsy was obtained after labeling with tetracycline, and bone morphometric analysis was performed. On microscopic examination, slight double tetracycline labeling was observed. The trabeculae were narrow, and the numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were decreased. Further, rates of bone calcification and bone formation were slow. Hence, we diagnosed fracture as a result of low turnover osteopathy. Risedronate was withdrawn, and Vitamin D3 was administered to improve the bone turnover. At 6 months, abnormal signals on magnetic resonance

  5. Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. Buckner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness, with eventual loss of ambulation and premature death. The approved therapy with corticosteroids improves muscle strength, prolongs ambulation, and maintains pulmonary function. However, the osteoporotic impact of chronic corticosteroid use further impairs the underlying reduced bone mass seen in DMD, leading to increased fragility fractures of long bones and vertebrae. These serious sequelae adversely affect quality of life and can impact survival. The current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal imaging, and treatment to optimize bone health in patients with DMD are discussed. Treatment with bisphosphonates offers a method to increase bone mass in these children; oral and intravenous bisphosphonates have been used successfully although treatment is typically reserved for children with fractures and/or bone pain with low bone mass by DXA.

  6. Bone Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastasis that are often osteolytic and cause substantial morbidity, such as pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The presence of bone metastasis in RCC is also associated with poor prognosis. Bone-targeted treatment using bisphosphonate and denosumab can reduce skeletal complications in RCC, but does not cure the disease or improve survival. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced changes in the bone microenvironment is needed to develop effective treatment. The “vicious cycle” hypothesis has been used to describe how tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment to drive bone destruction and tumor growth. Tumor cells secrete factors like parathyroid hormone-related peptide, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulate osteoblasts and increase the production of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). In turn, the overexpression of RANKL leads to increased osteoclast formation, activation and survival, thereby enhancing bone resorption. This review presents a general survey on bone metastasis in RCC by natural history, interaction among the immune system, bone and tumor, molecular mechanisms, bone turnover markers, therapies and healthcare burden. PMID:27338367

  7. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.......1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women....

  8. AGE-RELATED FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MARKERS IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL REMODELING OF BONE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Dvornichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities of total alkaline phosphatase (TALP and its bone isoform (BALP was greater in groups of children and adolescents in the late posttraumatic period (pattern of reparative bone remodeling and scoliosis (pathological bone remodeling, than in the control (healthy children and adolescents. The content of collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps peripheral blood practically was unchanged. Examined group with posttraumatic period had high activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form (TRACP. TALP activity reached minimum values in all the studied groups. In the process of children growing to 15–18 years old, as compared to 7–10 years old, reducing activity of remodeling was observed under physiological (healthy donors and reparative osteogenesis. It’s changes was recorded by significant decrease of the studied indicators. On the contrary, children 15–18 years old with scoliosis had maximum of the imbalance (activation/inhibition of various signs of osteogenesis of resorptive/synthetic bone processes. Also, for this group we discovered decrease osteocalcin concentration of 4 times in comparison with the group children of 7–10 years old. The detected growth of the correlations number in the correlation matrix of bone remodeling markers in case of scoliosis proposes the reduction of adaptation reserve of 15–18 years old adolescents, suffering from dysplasia of connective tissue. Thus, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of distant markers of bone metabolism screening in peripheral blood the is ambiguous. The interpretation of these indicators is difficult and largely depends on the clinical situation and age of patients. This requires improving the diagnostic approach to assess physiological and pathological remodeling of bone tissue by means of biochemical blood indicators. 

  9. Osteoporosis and Osteopathy Markers in Patients with Mastocytosis

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    Nilüfer Alpay Kanıtez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis, osteosclerosis, and lytic bone lesions have been observed in patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM. We examined bone mineral density (BMD biochemical turnover markers and serum tryptase levels in SM, which is considered a rare disease. METHODS: Seventeen adult patients (5 females, 12 males; median age: 33 years, range: 20-64 with mastocytosis were included in this study. We investigated the value of quantitative ultrasound (QUS of the calcaneus in the assessment of BMD in SM patients, as well as BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4, femoral neck, and distal radius using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and plasma tryptase levels, biochemical markers of bone turnover. RESULTS: At lumbar spine L1-L4, the femoral neck, and the distal radius or as calcaneus stiffness, 12 of 17 patients had T-scores of less than -1 at least at 1 site, reflecting osteopenia. Three of 17 patients had T-scores showing osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5. There was no relationship between DXA and bone lesion severity. We also found a significant positive correlation between tryptase levels and disease severity, as well as between disease severity and pyridinoline (p<0.01 by Spearman’s test. CONCLUSION: DXA and calcaneal QUS may not be appropriate techniques to assess bone involvement in SM patients because of the effects of osteosclerosis. This study further shows that the osteoclastic marker pyridinoline is helpful in patients with severe disease activity and sclerotic bone lesions to show bone demineralization.

  10. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  11. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  12. Evaluation of sequential FDG-PET/CT for monitoring bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Correlation between morphological and metabolic changes with tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings for evaluating the bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Forty-seven patients with bone metastases from breast cancer who underwent sequential 18F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT studies during therapy were enrolled. A total of 771 lesions were identified. The changes in the PET and CT findings were compared with the tumor marker levels in each patient by calculating the weighted kappa value. The correlation between the PET and CT findings was examined for each lesion by an adjusted Chi-square test. The change in the tumor marker levels was substantially correlated with the PET findings and moderately correlated with the CT findings (weighted kappa=0.780 and 0.585 for quadratic weighting, respectively). An increase in FDG uptake was correlated with lytic changes on the CT images (62/65, 95.4%, p<0.05). Sclerotic changes suggested improvement, but sclerosis and progression occurred at the same time in some lesions. Changes of FDG uptake are useful for evaluating individual bone metastases in cases of breast cancer during therapy. Lytic change on CT images suggests progression of bone metastasis. The lysis-progression/sclerosis-improvement pattern was observed in the majority of subjects, but a sclerosis-progression pattern was also observed. The hybrid pattern of increase of FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is most accurate to show progression of bone metastases. Assessments of these processes during therapy are necessary for the precise evaluation of bone metastases. (author)

  13. Compromised cortical bone compartment in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with microvascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Hansen, Stinus; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased fracture risk despite a normal or elevated bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess parameters of peripheral bone microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and bone......-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HR-pQCT) was used to assess bone structure at the non-dominant distal radius and tibia. Estimated bone strength was calculated using finite element analysis. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured in all participants. RESULTS: After adjusting for BMI, MVD......+ patients displayed lower cortical volumetric BMD (P=0.02) and cortical thickness (P=0.02) and higher cortical porosity at the radius (P=0.02) and a trend towards higher cortical porosity at the tibia (P=0.07) compared to controls. HR-pQCT parameters did not differ between MVD- and control subjects...

  14. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina;

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channel activity is essential for osteoclast function. Consequently, inhibition of the osteoclastic chloride channel should prevent bone resorption. Accordingly, we tested a chloride channel inhibitor on bone turnover and found that it inhibits bone resorption without affecting bone form...

  15. Modifications of histamine receptor signaling affect bone mechanical properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Pytlik, Maria; Śliwiński, Leszek; Wiercigroch, Marek; Brzęczek, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Histamine receptors are expressed on bone cells and histamine may be involved in regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of loratadine (an H(1) receptor antagonist), ranitidine (an H(2) receptor antagonist) and betahistine (an H(3) receptor antagonist and H(1) receptor agonist) on bone mechanical properties in rats. Loratadine (5 mg/kg/day, po), ranitidine (50 mg/kg/day, po), or betahistine dihydrochloride (5 mg/kg/day, po), were administered for 4 weeks to non-ovariectomized and bilaterally ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) 3-month-old rats, and their effects were compared with appropriate controls. Serum levels of bone turnover markers, bone mineralization and mechanical properties of the proximal tibial metaphysis, femoral diaphysis and femoral neck were studied. In rats with normal estrogen level, administration of loratadine slightly favorably affected mechanical properties of compact bone, significantly increasing the strength of the femoral neck (p < 0.05), and tending to increase the strength of the femoral diaphysis. Ranitidine did not significantly affect the investigated parameters, and betahistine decreased the strength of the tibial metaphysis (cancellous bone, p < 0.01). There were no significant effects of the drugs on serum bone turnover markers. In estrogen-deficient rats, the drugs did not significantly affect the investigated skeletal parameters. In conclusion, the effects of histamine H(1), H(2) and H(3) receptor antagonists on the skeletal system in rats were differential and dependent on estrogen status. PMID:24905313

  16. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin;

    2013-01-01

    recruited from the Danish Twin Registry. Serum vitamin D (25OHD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) P1NP, 1CTP, and CTX were quantified. Femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, and whole body bone mineral density (FN-BMD, TH-BMD, LS-BMD, and WB-BMD) were measured using DXA. Twins were studied as single...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  17. Expert consensus of clinical application of the bone metabolic and biochemical markers, by Osteoporosis Committee of Chinese Gerontological Society%中国老年学学会骨质疏松委员会骨代谢生化指标临床应用专家共识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌萌

    2014-01-01

    骨代谢生化指标包括:钙磷代谢调节指标、骨吸收标志物、骨形成标志物。骨代谢生化指标分别来源于骨、软骨、软组织、皮肤、肝、肾、小肠、血液及内分泌腺体等,是由成骨细胞或破骨细胞分泌的酶和激素,以及骨基质的胶原蛋白代谢产物或非胶原蛋白。骨代谢生化指标可及时反映骨转换状态,灵敏度高、特异性强,用于骨质疏松诊断分型、预测骨折风险、抗骨质疏松治疗疗效评价,以及代谢性骨病的鉴别诊断。并且在骨质疏松发病机制、骨质疏松药物的研究及流行病学研究方面具有重要临床意义。随着骨代谢生化指标检测技术逐渐成熟,临床应用日趋广泛,但不同来源的标本、不同方法、不同设备、不同试剂、人的不同年龄段、不同种族和不同性别等,检测结果存在差异。至今,骨代谢生化指标测定国内外尚无统一检测标准;为此,将骨代谢生化指标的生物学作用及临床意义、技术应用与质量控制,分别整理、凝炼成一篇为各位同仁可读、可用、可参考的文字材料。期待通过"共识"为推动临床骨代谢生化指标检测技术的提高,规范检测流程,建立科学的参考范围,使骨代谢生化指标在骨质疏松规范诊断、规范治疗、抗骨质疏松药物疗效评价及科研工作中发挥重要作用。%The bone metabolic and biochemical markers include calcium and phosphorus metabolic indicators, bone resorption markers, and bone formation markers.The bone metabolic and biochemical markers are derived from the bone, cartilage, soft tissue, skin, liver, kidney, small intestine, blood, endocrine glands, etc. They are enzymes and hormones secreted by osteoblasts or osteoclasts, and the metabolic products of collagen or non-collagen proteins from bone matrix.The bone metabolic and biochemical markers reflect the status of bone turnover promptly

  18. Effects of Nrf2 Deficiency on Bone Microarchitecture in an Experimental Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ibáñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Redox imbalance contributes to bone fragility. We have evaluated the in vivo role of nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, an important regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress, in bone metabolism using a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods. Ovariectomy was performed in both wild-type and mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2−/−. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed by μCT. Serum markers of bone metabolism were also measured. Reactive oxygen species production was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123. Results. Sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice exhibit a loss in trabecular bone mineral density in femur, accompanied by a reduction in cortical area in vertebrae. Nrf2 deficiency tended to increase osteoblastic markers and significantly enhanced osteoclastic markers in sham-operated animals indicating an increased bone turnover with a main effect on bone resorption. We have also shown an increased production of oxidative stress in bone marrow-derived cells from sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice and a higher responsiveness of bone marrow-derived cells to osteoclastogenic stimuli in vitro. Conclusion. We have demonstrated in vivo a key role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of bone microarchitecture.

  19. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  20. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:26319677

  1. Comparative morphology of the hominin and African ape hyoid bone, a possible marker of the evolution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Clegg, Margaret; Martelli, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Differences and similarities between the hyoids of these species are characterized and used to interpret the morphology and affi nities of the Dikika A. afarensis, Kebara 2 Neanderthal, and other fossil hominin hyoid bones. Humans and African apes are found to have distinct hyoid morphologies. In humans the maximum width across the distal tips of the articulated greater horns is usually slightly greater than the maximum length (distal greater horn tip to most anterior point of the hyoid body in the midline). A different pattern is usually found in the African ape hyoids, which have much greater maximum lengths. In humans, the hyoid body is also much more anteroposteriorly shallow in proportion to its height and width, and this is true for all age classes. The Dikika australopithecine hyoid body proportions are chimpanzeelike. A discriminant function analysis, using a larger subadult sample from the three extant species than that reported by Alemseged et al. (2006), confirms this finding. The Kebara hyoid dimensions (body alone, and articulated body and greater horns) are almost all within the observed range for human hyoids. Discriminant functions clearly distinguish human from African ape hyoids and classify the Kebara 2 hyoid as human (confirming the finding of Arensburg et al. 1989). Our virtual dissection of a chimpanzee air sac system shows its subhyoid extension into the dorsal hyoid body. Following Alemseged et al. (2006), the expanded bulla characteristic of the African ape and australopithecine hyoid body is therefore interpreted as refl ecting the presence of such a laryngeal air sac extension. Its absence in the human, Neanderthal, and H. heidelbergensis (Atapuerca SH) hyoids implicates the loss of the laryngeal air sacs as a derived Neanderthal and modern human trait, which evolved no later than the middle Pleistocene. If

  2. Comparative morphology of the hominin and African ape hyoid bone, a possible marker of the evolution of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Clegg, Margaret; Martelli, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Differences and similarities between the hyoids of these species are characterized and used to interpret the morphology and affi nities of the Dikika A. afarensis, Kebara 2 Neanderthal, and other fossil hominin hyoid bones. Humans and African apes are found to have distinct hyoid morphologies. In humans the maximum width across the distal tips of the articulated greater horns is usually slightly greater than the maximum length (distal greater horn tip to most anterior point of the hyoid body in the midline). A different pattern is usually found in the African ape hyoids, which have much greater maximum lengths. In humans, the hyoid body is also much more anteroposteriorly shallow in proportion to its height and width, and this is true for all age classes. The Dikika australopithecine hyoid body proportions are chimpanzeelike. A discriminant function analysis, using a larger subadult sample from the three extant species than that reported by Alemseged et al. (2006), confirms this finding. The Kebara hyoid dimensions (body alone, and articulated body and greater horns) are almost all within the observed range for human hyoids. Discriminant functions clearly distinguish human from African ape hyoids and classify the Kebara 2 hyoid as human (confirming the finding of Arensburg et al. 1989). Our virtual dissection of a chimpanzee air sac system shows its subhyoid extension into the dorsal hyoid body. Following Alemseged et al. (2006), the expanded bulla characteristic of the African ape and australopithecine hyoid body is therefore interpreted as refl ecting the presence of such a laryngeal air sac extension. Its absence in the human, Neanderthal, and H. heidelbergensis (Atapuerca SH) hyoids implicates the loss of the laryngeal air sacs as a derived Neanderthal and modern human trait, which evolved no later than the middle Pleistocene. If

  3. Serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, and its relationship to bone health indices in Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Eibhlis; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2007-01-01

    Recent cross-sectional data suggest that better vitamin K status in young girls (aged 3-16 years) is associated with decreased bone turnover, even though it is not associated with bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum...... status to modulate childhood bone health. Serum %ucOC and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were measured at baseline in a study of 223 healthy girls aged 11-12 years. Urinary pyridinium crosslinks of collagen and serum total osteocalcin as markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively...

  4. Disassociation of bone resorption and formation by GLP-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that a single subcutaneous injection of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) at 10 p.m. in postmenopausal women results in a dose-dependent decrease in the nocturnal serum and urine concentrations of fragments derived from the degradation of the C-terminal telopeptide region of...... collagen type I (s-CTX and u-CTX) and u-DPD, markers of bone resorption. In contrast, bone formation, as assessed by serum osteocalcin and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), appeared to be unaffected by treatment with exogenous GLP-2. These effects were further investigated in a 14-day study....... The aim was to demonstrate that a parenteral formulation of GLP-2 is safe and well tolerated after repeated dosing in healthy postmenopausal women for 14 days. It was further investigated whether the effects on bone turnover markers were sustained throughout the study period. The study was a double...

  5. Skeletal development of mice lacking bone sialoprotein (BSP--impairment of long bone growth and progressive establishment of high trabecular bone mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Bouleftour

    Full Text Available Adult Ibsp-knockout mice (BSP-/- display shorter stature, lower bone turnover and higher trabecular bone mass than wild type, the latter resulting from impaired bone resorption. Unexpectedly, BSP knockout also affects reproductive behavior, as female mice do not construct a proper "nest" for their offsprings. Multiple crossing experiments nonetheless indicated that the shorter stature and lower weight of BSP-/- mice, since birth and throughout life, as well as their shorter femur and tibia bones are independent of the genotype of the mothers, and thus reflect genetic inheritance. In BSP-/- newborns, µCT analysis revealed a delay in membranous primary ossification, with wider cranial sutures, as well as thinner femoral cortical bone and lower tissue mineral density, reflected in lower expression of bone formation markers. However, trabecular bone volume and osteoclast parameters of long bones do not differ between genotypes. Three weeks after birth, osteoclast number and surface drop in the mutants, concomitant with trabecular bone accumulation. The growth plates present a thinner hypertrophic zone in newborns with lower whole bone expression of IGF-1 and higher IHH in 6 days old BSP-/- mice. At 3 weeks the proliferating zone is thinner and the hypertrophic zone thicker in BSP-/- than in BSP+/+ mice of either sex, maybe reflecting a combination of lower chondrocyte proliferation and impaired cartilage resorption. Six days old BSP-/- mice display lower osteoblast marker expression but higher MEPE and higher osteopontin(Opn/Runx2 ratio. Serum Opn is higher in mutants at day 6 and in adults. Thus, lack of BSP alters long bone growth and membranous/cortical primary bone formation and mineralization. Endochondral development is however normal in mutant mice and the accumulation of trabecular bone observed in adults develops progressively in the weeks following birth. Compensatory high Opn may allow normal endochondral development in BSP-/- mice

  6. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone and markers of bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Relationship to disease activity and glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tonny Joran; Hansen, M; Madsen, J C;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of inflammatory activity and glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on serum parathyroid hormone (s-PTH) and bone metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, in patients with active RA, to examine the PTH secretion and Ca2+ set point before...... and after treatment with GC. METHODS: A range of biochemical markers of bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis were measured in 95 patients with definite RA stratified into groups according to disease activity and GC treatment. In a subgroup of 12 patients with active disease, initiating slow...... groups. The levels of urine pyridinoline (Pyr) and s-albumin-corrected calcium (s-AlbCorrCa2+) were elevated in patients with active disease and patients treated with GC. S-PTH and s-phosphate were within normal ranges. S-TAP, s-ICTP, Pyr and s-AlbCorrCa2+ correlated positively with indices of disease...

  7. Serum procollagen 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in prostate cancer; pitfalls of its use as an early surrogate marker for bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procollagen 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) is a bone formation marker and has been shown to have a strong association with the extent of bone metastases (BM) in patients with advanced prostate cancer. More recently, its levels were found to be affected by androgen deprivation therapies and bisphosphonates. We investigated the role of P1NP as a surrogate marker of sub-radiological skeletal metastases in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure (BF). BePrepared is a prospective longitudinal substudy of RADAR trial in which serial P1NPs were collected at regular intervals for 123 patients who had completed RADAR protocol treatment. There was no trend identified in P1NP levels prior to diagnosis of BM. We found that there was no difference in P1NP concentrations at the time of diagnosis of BM in the group that developed BM compared with P1NP levels in groups with only nodal metastases or BF. In the group of patients who did not experience BF, P1NP was affected by previous luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-agonist and bisphosphonate therapy. Hence, patients who received an 18-month course of androgen deprivation without bisphosphonates had significantly higher P1NP values than patients with shorter androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) course combined with a course of bisphosphonates. P1NP is not a sensitive serum marker of early BM in high-risk prostate cancer patients with BF and low prostate-specific antigen levels as its levels are affected by prior history of bone remodelling therapies such as ADT and bisphosphonates.

  8. 短期 VLCD干预对超重肥胖患者骨代谢影响的研究%Effects of a short-term very low carbohydrate diet intervention on bone turnover ofoverweight and obese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晨; 郑和昕; 张微; 单晶; 赵小红; 王霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨短期极低碳水化合物饮食(VLCD )干预对超重肥胖患者骨代谢指标的影响。方法:将205例超重或肥胖受试者以1:3比例随机分配至“单纯生活方式干预组”(对照组)和“单纯生活方式加VLCD干预组”(干预组)。比较2种不同干预方式在干预前后体重、体重指数(BMI )、腰围及甲状旁腺素(PTH )、β胶原特殊序列(β-CTx )、总N端骨钙素(TNOC )、I型前胶原氨基端延长肽(P1NP )、25-羟化维生素D3[25-(OH )-D3]的变化。结果:2种不同干预方式在干预后体重、BM I、腰围均较干预前明显下降,但VLCD治疗组在干预后下降较对照组明显( P<0.01)。2组干预前后骨代谢指标变化差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论:短期VLCD护理对超重肥胖患者体重、BMI、腰围明显改善,对骨代谢指标总体无明显影响。%Objective] To investigate the effects of a short -term very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) intervention on bone turnover of overweight and obese subjects .[Method] A total of 205 overweight or obese subjects were recruited and random-ized into control group and treatmeat groupwith a ratio of 1:3 .The control group received medical lifestyle intervention ,while the intervention group received very low carbohydrate diet intervention in addition to medical lifestyle intervention .Body weight , waist circumstance ,BMI ,Parathyroid hormone(PTH) ,β-crosslaps(β-CTx) ,N-terminal osteocalcin (TNOC) ,total pro-collagen I type N-terminal propeptide (P1NP ) and 25-OH-D3of each subjectwere measuredbefore and after the interven-tion .[Result] The body weight ,BMI and waist circumstancewere significantly decreased in the both groups ,butshowed more significantdecreasein the VLCD intervention group ( P0.05) .[Conclusion]Short-term very low carbohydrate diet intervention can improve body weight ,BMI and waist circumstance in overweight or obese subjects

  9. Markers of type I collagen degradation and synthesis in the monitoring of treatment response in bone metastases from breast carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, C; Risteli, L; Risteli, J.; Virkkunen, P.; Sarna, S.; Elomaa, I.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with bone metastases included in a trial of supportive calcitonin on the treatment response to systemic therapy were monitored by conventional radiography, conventional indicators of bone metabolism [alkaline phosphatase (AP), osteocalcin (gla), urinary hydroxyproline excretion (OHP), urinary calcium (uCa), serum calcium (sCa)] and collagen metabolites (ICTP, the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen; PICP, the carboxy-terminal propeptid...

  10. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K;

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3...

  11. Importance of Biochemical Markers in Postmenopausal and Senile Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Evcik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the biochemical markers are widely used in order to evaluate the bone turnover. This study was planned to investigate the role of biochemical markers and Bone Mineral Density(BMD in postmenopausal (PMO and senile osteoporosis (SO patients. A total of 86 patients( 44 PMO, 42 SO, ages ranged between 39-79 were included in this study. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and osteocalcin levels were determined from blood samples. Urinary deoxypyridinoline(Dpd and creatinine(cr concentration were examined and the ratio of Dpd/cr was calculated. Also BMD of the patients were measured from L1-L4 and proximal femur and t score were determined. There was no statistical difference in ALP levels between two groups. Osteocalcine and Dpd/cr levels were statistically increased in PMO group(p<0.001. According to BMD t score which was measured from proximal femur was significantly higher in SO patients(p<0.05. Our results show that biochemical markers are useful for the assessment of high-turnover osteoporosis.

  12. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  13. Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower trabecular separation via increasing bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. These osteoprotective effects appear to be mediated through antioxidant or antiinflammatory pathways along with their downstream signaling mechanisms. A short-term clinical trial of green tea polyphenols has translated the findings from ovariectomized animals to postmenopausal osteopenic women through evaluation of bioavailability, safety, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, and quality of life. For future studies, preclinical animal studies to optimize the dose of tea polyphenols for maximum osteoprotective efficacy and a follow-up short-term dose-response trial in postmenopausal osteopenic women are necessary to inform the design of randomized controlled studies in at-risk populations. Advanced imaging technology should also contribute to determining the effective dose of tea polyphenols in achieving better bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which are critical steps for translating the putative benefit of tea consumption in osteoporosis management into clinical practice and dietary guidelines.

  14. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 IN METHYLPREDNISOLONE ACETATE (MPA INDUCED LOSS OF BONE METABOLISM MARKERS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN THE LUMBAR SPINE OF RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ragerdi-Kashani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some vitamins have been shown to prevent glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in short time, the magnitude of this effect remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of vitamin D3 on methylprednisolone acetate (MPA induced osteoporosis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (n = 6, was a base line control or normal animals. Group B (n = 6, was treated only normal saline, group C (n = 6, was treated MPA (0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks (3 times per a week and finally group D (n = 6 were administered MPA resemble to group C and treated by Vitamin D3 (0.1 µg/kg dissolved in ethanol daily. Level of calcium, osteocalcin and acid phosphatase in serum were measured before and after treatment. Also, bone mineral density (BMD of lumber vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results showed that the serum calcium level unaffected by MPA in all groups before and after treatment, but the serum osteocalcin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group C compared with groups A and B. In group D serum osteocalcin level increased again significantly (P < 0.05 but increasing of BMD and bone mineral content were not significant. The findings indicate that by using of vitamin D3 in MPA treated rats could increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption.

  15. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mineral density (125I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups

  16. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  17. Comparison of the effects of eldecalcitol with either raloxifene or bisphosphonate on serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-5b, a bone resorption marker, in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Junichi; Ikeda, Satoshi; Kusanagi, Tetsuya; Mizuno, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroshi; Iba, Kousuke; Yoshizaki, Takashi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective This study analyzes whether concomitant raloxifene (RLX) or bisphosphonates (BP) plus eldecalcitol (ELD) has excessive suppressive effects on a bone resorption marker during the first 6 months of treatment in postmenopausal women in real-world setting. Methods 285 postmenopausal osteoporotic patients who had been treated with RLX or BP plus ELD were evaluated the bone resorption marker, serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b), during the first 6 months of treatment. Results In drug-naïve group (not received osteoporosis medications before the administration, n=70), the concomitant RLX or BP with ELD significantly decreased levels of TRACP-5b without severe suppression. In vitamin D switch group [RLX or BP plus alfacalcidol (ALF) and then switched to RLX or BP plus ELD, n=215], the replacing ALF with ELD further and significantly decreased TRACP-5b and tertile analyses based on baseline values were significantly decreased far more in the highest, compared with the lowest tertile in the ELD+RLX and ELD+BP groups. Conclusion ELD combined with RLX or BP administered for 6 months to postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who were drug-naïve or who had switched medications significantly reduced and maintained TRACP-5b values within the reference range. PMID:27252739

  18. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute significantly to disease progression. However, the effect on tissue structure and turnover is not well described. There is an urgent clinical need for biomarkers of disease activity associated with disease...... progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  19. Effects of honey supplementation combined with different jumping exercise intensities on bone mass, serum bone metabolism markers and gonadotropins in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mosavat, Maryam; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of high and low jumping exercise intensities combined with honey on bone and gonadotrophins were investigated in eighty four 9 week-old female rats. Methods The experimental groups were 20 or 80 jumps per day combined with or without honey supplementation (HJ20, HJ80, J20 and J80), honey supplementation (H), sedentary without supplementation control (C), and baseline control (C0) groups. Results Study results showed that HJ80 elicited greatest beneficial effects on tibi...

  20. UNREMITTING EARLY STAGE HODGKIN’S DISEASE: REPORT OF 7 CASES AND BONE MARROW TISSUE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tamiolakis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow is infrequently implicated in early stages of Hodgkin’s disease. We studied the immunohistochemical bone marrow tissue of 7 out of 20 cases with early stage Hodgkin’s disease of the mixed cellularity variant, diagnosed by lymph node biopsy at initial presentation, not responding to radiotherapy alone, in order to examine possible marrow attack. A statistically significant prevalence of CD45, CD45RO, and CD4 positive infiltrates, to the advantage of unremitting hosts, was found. The predominance of CD4-positive cells in the bone marrow space might be suggestive of involvement in the process and could explain the abnormal cytokine production leading to reduced T-cell immunity and inefficient antitumor response despite the existence of a vast majority of reactive infiltrating immune cells.

  1. Effect of exercise combined with calcium carbonate vitamin D on bone markers in early postmenopausal women%运动联合碳酸钙维生素D对绝经早期女性骨标志物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎卓华; 吴学诗; 崔敏涛

    2016-01-01

    of the three types of bone markers ,there were negative phase ,and the changes in bone turnover markers were preference to BMD Treatment group three kinds of bone mark-ers had changed within three months ,fell by 25% ,12% and 10% respectively .Vitamin D and calcium carbonate effects on bone markers in monitoring ,and so ,three kinds of bone markers with different characteristics .Type Ⅰ collage carboxy-terminal peptide (β-CTX) in the early days could be a significant reduction in 3 months ,6 months after basic hadn′t changed much ;Type Ⅰ procol-lagen amino-terminal peptide (P1NP) and N-terminal osteocalcin (N-MID) reaction time was longer ,the heavy absorption resist-ance was remarkable changes after 6 months ,1 years maintained at a certain level ,and the change of bone mineral density(BMD) at least need more than 12 months .Conclusion Exercise and calcium carbonate and vitamin D supplement ,which could effectively re-duce the bone absorption and improve vitamin D levels ,prevent bone loose women in early menopause has great significance

  2. The rate of calcium turnover in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports an analysis of the clearance of calcium-47 tracer from the plasma of human patients. Nine subjects have so far been analysed, and the results all deviate somewhat from those predicted from the conventional simple kinetic scheme. 3 figs

  3. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-02-01

    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture.

  4. 唑来膦酸、降钙素对骨生化标志物BAP、N-MID、β-CTX的影响%Effect of zoledronic acid and calcitonin on bone metabolic biochemical markers, BAP, N-MID, and β-CTX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔西建; 吴丹; 叶进; 廉杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过监测绝经后骨质疏松症患者使用唑来膦酸、降钙素治疗前后骨代谢生化标志物的变化来分析二者对骨代谢的影响.方法 回顾性分析绝经后骨质疏松症病例115例,55例使用唑来膦酸(5mg静滴一次),60例使用鲑鱼降钙素(50IU隔日一次肌注,治疗90日),检测每个病例治疗前和开始治疗后4周、8周、12周的BAP、N-MID、β-CTX,并进行统计学分析.结果 降钙素组治疗4周后BAP、β-CTX与治疗前相比降低(P<0.05),骨转换率降低;治疗8周、12周后β-CTX仍明显降低(P<0.05),但BAP与治疗前相比变化无统计学意义;唑来膦酸组治疗4周、8周后BAP、N-MID、β-CTX与治疗前相比均明显降低(P<0.05),骨转换率明显降低;治疗后12周后BAP、β-CTX仍明显降低(P<0.05);与降钙素组相比,唑来膦酸组治疗后4周、8周BAP、N-MID、β-CTX降低更明显(P<0.05),骨转换率降低更明显;治疗后12周BAP、β-CTX仍明显降低(P<0.05).两种药物均具有较好的安全性.结论 降钙素组、唑来膦酸组均可有效抑制骨吸收,降低骨转换率;与降钙素相比,唑来膦酸抑制骨吸收的作用更迅速、更稳定,病人低骨转换持续时间更久.%Objective To analyze the effect of zoledronic acid or calcitonin on bone metabolism by monitoring the changes of bone metabolic markers before and after the treatment of zoledronic acid or calcitonin in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods The data of 115 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis was analyzed retrospectively. Fifty-five patients were treated with zoledronic acid ( 5mg intravenous drip once ). Sixty patients were treated with salmon calcitonin ( 50U intramuscular injection every other day, lasting for 90 days ). BAP, N-MID , and β-CTX was tested before and 4-, 8-, and 12-week after the treatment. All the results were analyzed statistically. Result BAP and β-CTX in patients in calcitonin treatment group after 4-week treatment were

  5. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  6. Effects of Long-Term Odanacatib Treatment on Bone Gene Expression in Ovariectomized Adult Rhesus Monkeys: Differentiation From Alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muise, Eric S; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Pickarski, Maureen; Loboda, Andrey; Tan, Yejun; Hu, Guanghui; Thomspon, John R; Duong, Le T

    2016-04-01

    Similar efficacy of the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) and the bisphosphonate alendronate (ALN) in reducing bone turnover markers and increasing bone mineral density in spine and hip were previously demonstrated in ovariectomized (OVX)-monkeys treated for 20 months in prevention mode. Here, we profiled RNA from tibial metaphysis and diaphysis of the same study using Affymetrix microarrays, and selected 204 probe sets (p < 0.001, three-group ANOVA) that were differentially regulated by ODN or ALN versus vehicle. Both drugs produced strikingly different effects on known bone-related genes and pathways at the transcriptional level. Although ALN either reduced or had neutral effects on bone resorption-related genes, ODN significantly increased the expression of osteoclast genes (eg, APC5, TNFRSF11A, CTSK, ITGB3, and CALCR), consistent with previous findings on the effects of this agent in enhancing the number of nonresorbing osteoclasts. Conversely, ALN reduced the expression of known bone formation-related genes (eg, TGFBR1, SPP1, RUNX2, and PTH1R), whereas ODN either increased or had neutral effects on their expression. These differential effects of ODN versus ALN on bone resorption and formation were highly correlative to the changes in bone turnover markers, cathepsin K (Catk) target engagement marker serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (1-CTP) and osteoclast marker tartrate resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) in the same monkeys. Overall, the molecular profiling results are consistent with the known pharmacological actions of these agents on bone remodeling and clearly differentiate the molecular mechanisms of ODN from the bisphosphonates. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26587671

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  8. Predicting Turnover Intentions and Turnover Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relative influence of personal, attitudinal, and behavioral variables on behavioral intentions and voluntary turnover among nonsupervisory plant workers. Results show that personal variables have little direct effect on turnover; rather, their influence on turnover is channeled through their effects on behavioral intentions. (Author)

  9. Reengineered graft copolymers as a potential alternative for the bone tissue engineering application by inducing osteogenic markers expression and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Muthukumar; R Narasimha, Raghavan; Adithan, Aravinthan; A, Chandrasekaran; Jong-Hoon, Kim; Thotapalli Parvathaleswara, Sastry

    2016-07-01

    Composite scaffolds of nano-hydroxyapatite with demineralized bone matrix were prepared and they were graft copolymerized for better bone regeneration and drug delivery applications. The graft copolymers were characterized for their physiochemical properties using conventional methods like FTIR, TGA, XRD and SEM. The scaffolds were seeded with 3T3 and MG63 cells for studying their biocompatibility and their temporal expression of ALP activity, the rate of calcium deposition and their gene expression of collagen type I (Coll-1), osteopontin (OP), osteonectin (ON), and osteocalcin (OC) were studied. In vivo studies were conducted using sub-cutaneous implantation models in male Wister rats for 6 months. Periodic radiography and post-autopsy histopathology was analysed at 15days, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The obtained in vitro results clearly confirm that the bone scaffolds prepared in this study are biocompatible, superior osteoinductivity, capable of supporting growth, maturation of MG 63 osteoblast like cells; the gene expression profile revealed that the material is capable of supporting the in vitro growth and maturation of osteoblast-like cells and maturation. The in vivo results stand a testimony to the in vitro results in proving the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the materials.

  10. Reengineered graft copolymers as a potential alternative for the bone tissue engineering application by inducing osteogenic markers expression and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Muthukumar; R Narasimha, Raghavan; Adithan, Aravinthan; A, Chandrasekaran; Jong-Hoon, Kim; Thotapalli Parvathaleswara, Sastry

    2016-07-01

    Composite scaffolds of nano-hydroxyapatite with demineralized bone matrix were prepared and they were graft copolymerized for better bone regeneration and drug delivery applications. The graft copolymers were characterized for their physiochemical properties using conventional methods like FTIR, TGA, XRD and SEM. The scaffolds were seeded with 3T3 and MG63 cells for studying their biocompatibility and their temporal expression of ALP activity, the rate of calcium deposition and their gene expression of collagen type I (Coll-1), osteopontin (OP), osteonectin (ON), and osteocalcin (OC) were studied. In vivo studies were conducted using sub-cutaneous implantation models in male Wister rats for 6 months. Periodic radiography and post-autopsy histopathology was analysed at 15days, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The obtained in vitro results clearly confirm that the bone scaffolds prepared in this study are biocompatible, superior osteoinductivity, capable of supporting growth, maturation of MG 63 osteoblast like cells; the gene expression profile revealed that the material is capable of supporting the in vitro growth and maturation of osteoblast-like cells and maturation. The in vivo results stand a testimony to the in vitro results in proving the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of the materials. PMID:26998863

  11. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  12. Negative Effects of Total Gastrectomy on Bone Tissue Metabolism and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) of Lumbar Spine in 1-Year Study in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Witold; Tatara, Marcin R; Bury, Pawel; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    Gastrectomy induces severe osteoporosis in humans but its quantitative scale within trabecular and cortical compartments was not estimated. The aim of the study was to determine changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) and biochemical bone metabolism markers in serum of patients 1 year after total gastrectomy. The control group consisted of patients (N = 8) subjected to abdominal surgery due to cardiospasmus. Total gastrectomy was performed in the experimental group (N = 6). Volumetric bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone of lumbar spine was measured before (baseline) and 1 year after the gastric surgery using the quantitative computed tomography method. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, tyroxine, interleukin-6, C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen and bone formation, and resorption markers were determined at baseline and 1 year later, using ELISA, EIA, and IEMA methods. Total gastrectomy induced significant decrease of vBMD values, up to 16.8% and 10.0%, within the trabecular and cortical bone compartments of lumbar spine (P < 0.05). These negative changes of vBMD were associated with significantly increased serum concentration of bone resorption markers such as deoxypyridinoline, pyridinoline, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, by 13.5%, 32.2%, and 121.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Neither vBMD nor biochemical bone turnover markers and hormone concentrations were influenced in the control patients. Dramatic bone loss during the first year in gastrectomized patients has proven dynamic osteoporosis progress indicating an importance of treatment interventions in these patients with emphasis on inhibition of intensive bone resorption processes. PMID:26886633

  13. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  14. Bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages have different inflammatory response to oxLDL and M1/M2 marker expression – implications for atherosclerosis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Line S.; Mogensen, Christina K.; Rosendahl, Alexander; Cucak, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Pedersen, Tanja X.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE−/− mice, their M1/M2 phenotype, inflammatory status, and lipid metabolism signatures were compared. oxLDL accumulation was similar in PEMs and BMDMs. On protein expression level, BMDMs showed an M2-like CD206highCD11clow profile, while cholesterol loading led to enhanced CD11c expression and reduced MCP-1 secretion. In contrast, PEMs expressed low levels of CD206 and CD11c, and responded to cholesterol loading by increasing CD11c expression and MCP-1 secretion. mRNA expression of M1/M2 markers was higher in PEMS than BMDMs, while lipid metabolism genes were similarly expressed. Whole aorta flow cytometry showed an accumulation of M2-like CD206highCD11clow macrophages in advanced versus early atherosclerotic disease in ApoE−/− mice. In isolated lesions, mRNA levels of the M2 markers Socs2, CD206, Retnla, and IL4 were downregulated with increasing disease severity. Likewise, mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes (SREBP2, ACSL1, SRB1, DGAT1, and cpt1a) was decreased in advanced versus early lesions. In conclusion, PEMs and BMDMs are phenotypically distinct and differ from macrophages in lesions with respect to expression of M1/M2 markers and lipid metabolism genes. PMID:27734926

  15. 肿瘤标志物对肺癌分期和骨转移诊断的价值%The diagnosis value of serum tumor marker for bone metastasis and stages of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何泽来; 王火强; 宋玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肿瘤标志物癌胚抗原(CEA)、细胞角蛋白19的片段(CYFRA21-1)、神经稀醇酶(NSE)、糖类抗原(CA153)血清水平对肺癌分期及肺癌骨转移的辅助诊断价值.方法 检测206例肺癌患者血清4种标志物水平,比较各期肺癌之间、骨转移组和无骨转移组之间的肿瘤标志物表达水平和阳性率的差异.结果 骨转移组4项标志物水平均高于无骨转移组(P均<0.05);肺癌分期越晚,4项标志物阳性率越高;4项联检时灵敏度、准确率等均优于单项检查.结论 肿瘤标志物水平的检测对肺癌骨转移的诊断、肺癌分期(特别是肺癌后期)诊断有辅助价值,联合检查优于单项检查.%Objective To approach the auxiliary diagnosis value of serum tumor markers CEA,CYFRA21-1 ,NSE and CA153 levels for bone metastasis and stages of lung cancer.Methods To collect the serum tumor markers levels of 206 lung cancer patients with whole bone scanning, to analysis the difference of the express level and positive ratio of every stage patients and between bone metastasis group and non-bone metastasis group.Results The four kinds markers levels of bone metastasis group were all higher than non-bone metas tasis group(P all <0.05 ).Four tumor markers positive ratio were increasing with lung cancer stage developing.The sensitivity and accuracy when unite four tumor markers were superior to single marker inspect.Conclusions To detect four kinds tumor markers serum levels for bone metastasis and stages of lung cancer( special later stage of lung cancer) have assist diagnosis value.

  16. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Babita; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek; Indap, Madhavi Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME) on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham) group and six ovariectomised (OVX) subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day); OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day). Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphatase (ACP), serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. PMID:24995144

  17. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham group and six ovariectomised (OVX subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX; OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day; OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day. Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum acid phosphatase (ACP, serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss.

  18. Biochemical Markers for Osteoarthritis: Is There any Promising Candidate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Aydın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative joint disease. OA affects millions of individuals each year and becoming the most important cause of pain in geriatric population. Progressive destruction of articular cartilage is one of the prominent features of the disease. The diagnosis of OA is generally based on clinical and radiographical findings, which are insufficient to determine early-stage OA and predict disease course. There is a need for biomarkers that help clinicians early diagnose, assess disease activity, predict prognosis and monitor response to therapy. There are a growing number of publications regarding candidate markers in this field. The aim of this paper was to review recent studies on biochemical markers that reflect cartilage, synovial and bone turnover and their clinical use in patients with OA.

  19. Reproductive performance and bone status markers of gilts and lactating sows supplemented with two different forms of vitamin D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Halekoh, U; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    of the 2 different vitamin D sources [200, 800, 1,400, and 2,000 IU•kg-1 from cholecalciferol or corresponding levels of 5, 20, 35 and 50 µg•kg-1 feed from 25(OH)D3 (Hy•D)]. In a concurrent experiment, the same 8 dietary treatments were provided to 160 multiparous sows from the first day of mating until......In swine nutrition, little is known about the requirements of vitamin D in reproductive processes and bone health. Vitamin D recommendation of sows during gestation and lactation is not consequently based on scientific reports. The current study was undertaken to obtain information on the dose...... weaning. The plasma concentration of 25(OH)D3 was influenced by a dose and form interaction (P sows. Irrespective of dietary dose and form of vitamin D for the sows, very little vitamin D was transferred to the progeny. Reproductive performance...

  20. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  1. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. PMID:27001278

  2. Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...

  3. Bone mineral mass and bone turnover parameters in osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Erdtsieck (Ronald)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decades osteoporosis has been recognized as an important public health problem. Several causes for this problem can be pointed out. The most probable cause for the development of osteoporosis is the loss of ovarian function in women and the increasing age of people, thereby i

  4. Voluntary turnover, volatility in voluntary turnover, and labor productivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beveren, Ilke; Vanormelingen, Stijn; De Winne, Sophie; Sels, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary turnover is a frequently studied employee outcome in articles on the relationship between HRM and firm performance. The main assumption underlying these articles is “less voluntary turnover is better”. Recent research questioned this assumption and showed that the relationship between turnover and firm performance might be more complex than assumed thus far in strategic HRM literature. The purpose of this article is to add to the discussion and unravel this complex relationship. Bas...

  5. Differences in vertebral, tibial, and iliac cancellous bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Aya; Takao-Kawabata, Ryoko; Isogai, Yukihiro; Kajiwara, Makoto; Murayama, Hisashi; Ejiri, Sadakazu; Ishizuya, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Bone histomorphometry is usually performed on the iliac bone in humans and the tibia or vertebrae in rats. Bone metabolism differences among skeletal sites may be problematic when translating experimental results from rats to humans, but data on such differences in rats are lacking. Therefore, we examined the differences in bone structure and metabolism among skeletal sites using the lumbar vertebra (LV), tibia, and iliac bone obtained from ovariectomized or sham-operated rats preoperatively and at various times from 3 days to 26 weeks postoperatively. The trabeculae were thicker in the LV, where bone metabolism was less active than at other sites, and numerous fine trabeculae were observed in the tibia, where bone metabolism was more active. The iliac bone structure and metabolism were intermediate between those of the tibia and LV. Ovariectomy induced lower bone volume and higher bone metabolism in all skeletal sites, but the changes were greatest and occurred earliest in the tibia, followed by the iliac bone and then LV. Ovariectomy caused changes in bone metabolic markers, which occurred earlier than those in bone tissue. Activation frequency (Ac.f) increased after ovariectomy. At week 26 in ovariectomized rats, Ac.f was highest in the tibia (3.13 N/year) but similar between iliac bone (0.87 N/year) and LV (1.39 N/year). Ac.f is reportedly 0.3-0.4 N/year in the iliac bone of postmenopausal women, suggesting that bone turnover in rats is several times higher than in humans. The reference values reported here are useful for translating experimental results from rats to humans. PMID:26082076

  6. Serum thymidine kinase, a possible marker for monitoring the effect of bone marrow transplant treatment in early recovery phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured serum thymidine kinase (TK) activity with a radioenzyme assay system employing [I-125]-iododeoxyuridine as the tracer on serial specimens from five bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients before and after transplantation. The serum level of TK activity in the 4 patients with effective BMT treatment ranged from 3.0 to 16.9 U/L (mean, 7.80 U/L) before transplantation and from 27.3 to 236.1 U/L (mean, 82.95 U/L) after the BMT treatment. Mean serum TK activity increased 13.17-fold (range, 1.68 to 29.14-fold). In contrast, the activity in the patient with ineffective BMT treatment was not significantly different during, before, or after BMT treatment. In addition, serum TK activity in BMT patients was well correlated with the change in the number of leukocytes before and after BMT treatment (r= + 0.709 (p<0.01), y=0.012x + 0.87)

  7. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA involves changes in both bone and cartilage. These processes might be associated under some circumstances. This study investigated correlations between bone and cartilage degradation in patients with OA as a function of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation. Methods This study was a 2-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study including 37 postmenopausal women and 36 men, aged 57-75 years, with painful knee OA, and a KL-score of I - III. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment arms: 0.6 mg or 0.8 mg oral sCT, or placebo given twice-daily for 14 days. Correlations between gender, KL score, or BMI and the bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I, or the cartilage degradation marker, urine C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II were investigated. Results At baseline, biomarkers indicated women with OA experienced higher bone and cartilage degradation than men. CTX-I levels were significantly higher, and CTX-II levels only marginally higher, in women than in men (p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively. Increasing KL score was not correlated with bone resorption, but was significantly associated with the cartilage degradation CTX-II marker in both men and women (p = 0.007. BMI was significantly and negatively correlated to the bone resorption marker CTX-I, r = -0.40 (p = 0.002, but showed only a borderline positive correlation to CTX-II, r = 0.25 (p = 0.12. Before morning treatments on days 1 and 14, no correlation was seen between CTX-I and CTX-II in either the sCT or placebo group. However, oral sCT and food intake induced a clear correlation between these bone and cartilage degradation markers. Four hours after the first sCT dose on treatment days 1 and 14, a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p p = 0.02, but not on day 14. Conclusion Bone resorption was higher in

  8. Reduction of nocturnal rise in bone resorption by subcutaneous GLP-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Byrjalsen, Inger;

    2004-01-01

    -CTX), a marker of bone resorption. In contrast, GLP-2 was found to have a neutral effect on bone formation, as assessed by serum osteocalcin. Since increased s-CTX levels are normally observed at night, we conducted bedtime studies in healthy postmenopausal women. The objective was to study the effect of GLP-2...... injection on bone turnover given at bedtime. A total of 81 postmenopausal women were included in two randomised placebo-controlled studies. In conclusion, we found a dose-related reduction of s-CTX after injection of GLP-2 (P levels was increased as compared to placebo (P = 0.......07) by the treatment, suggestive of a stimulative effect on bone formation. An area under the curve (AUC0-10 h) analysis for s-CTX after GLP-2 injection confirmed the dose-related decrease as compared to placebo (P

  9. Research progress in the correlation between bone resorption markers and joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis%类风湿关节炎骨吸收指标与关节破坏的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓萱; 周惠琼

    2014-01-01

    类风湿关节炎是以慢性对称性多关节滑膜炎、骨及软骨破坏为主要特征的自身免疫性疾病,其发展过程中的骨代谢异常可导致不同程度骨量丢失和骨破坏,骨破坏的相关指标可反映骨量丢失的严重程度,并可预测疾病发展和关节破坏程度。本文对类风湿关节炎患者骨吸收相关指标与关节破坏相关性的最新进展进行综述。%Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) is an autoimmune disease mainly characterized by chronic symmetric multi-joint synovitis and destruction of bone and cartilage .In the course of RA , abnormaI bone metaboIism may lead to bone loss of different degrees and bone destruction .Relevant variables for bone destruction can refIect the severity of bone loss, and predict the development of disease and joint destruction .This review focuses on the latest advances in the corre-lation between bone resorption markers and joint damage in RA .

  10. CEO Turnover in Reverse Splits

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hsun Wang; Chu-Hsiung Lin; Hsien-Ming Chen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the application of CEO turnover on reverse stock splits firms. Using Taiwanese samples, we find that non-CEO turnover firms receive negative long-term abnormal returns, and their financial performances continue to decline following reverse splits. These findings are consistent with prior studies. Contrarily, neither significantly negative long-term abnormal returns nor changes on financial performance were found for CEO turnover firms. This study concludes that applying CE...

  11. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Munno, O; Delle Sedie, A; Rossini, M; Adami, S

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of DMARDs (including biologic agents) on bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At present there is no evidence that methotrexate, at least at dosages ranging from 5 to 20 mg/week, negatively affects bone mass as measured by DXA (BMD) as documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Most studies of cyclosporine (CyA) use reporting a reduction in erosions and joint damage with no adverse effects on bone, did not measure BMD; CyA treatment is associated with a dose-dependent increase of bone turnover as well as a decrease in both animal and human studies; however, its use in RA setting at a dose < or =5 mg/Kg/ day has so far not been associated with clinical relevant adverse effects on bone metabolism. Anti-TNF-alpha agents, infliximab reduced markers of bone turnover in two longitudinal studies. Data on BMD are not available in RA; nevertheless, an increase in BMD has been documented in spondyloarthropathies with infliximab and etanercept. No clinical data concerning BMD are available on leflunomide as well as on the newer biologic agents (adalimumab, rituximab, anakinra).

  12. A comparative study of the effects of daily minodronate and weekly alendronate on upper gastrointestinal symptoms, bone resorption, and back pain in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toru; Okimoto, Nobukazu; Okamoto, Ken; Sakai, Akinori

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to precisely compare both the efficacy and abdominal symptom-related quality of life after treatment with daily minodronate and weekly alendronate in patients with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed based on improvements in a bone turnover marker, back pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms that impair quality of life, which was assessed using the Izumo scale questionnaire. In the minodronate group, there were no significant changes during the treatment period in the specific scores for heartburn, epigastralgia and epigastric fullness, whereas all of the scores were significantly elevated at some time point after drug administration in the alendronate group. Urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTX), a bone resorption marker, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, significantly decreased in both groups, but decreases in uNTX in the minodronate group was observed significantly earlier compared with those in the alendronate group. The back pain scores, which were obtained using a visual analog scale, were significantly reduced in both groups. However, analgesic effects were detected earlier in the minodronate group. In conclusion, compared with weekly alendronate, daily minodronate improved bone turnover and back pain more promptly without causing upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  13. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L; Bloom, Debra D; Bleedorn, Jason A; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  14. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C.; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J.; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L.; Bloom, Debra D.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M.; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  15. Bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasound parameters and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteritano, Marco; Lasco, Antonino; Mazzaferro, Susanna; Macrì, Ida; Catalano, Antonino; Santangelo, Antonino; Bagnato, Gianluca; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frisina, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Low bone mineral density, which increases the risk of stress fragility fractures, is a frequent, often persistent finding in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical association between major depressive disorder and osteopenia is still unclear, although several factors are associated with a loss of bone mass. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with MDD. Bone mineral density was evaluated in fifty postmenopausal women with MDD, and in 50 matched postmenopausal control women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femur, and by ultrasonography of the calcaneus and phalanges. Serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D, parathyroid hormone, Osteoprotegerin/Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand ratio, bone turnover markers, serum and urinary cortisol were examined. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD: 0.72 ± 0.06 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), p < 0.001), femoral neck (BMD: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.71 ± 0.07 g/cm(2), p < 0.001) and total femur (BMD 0.66 ± 0.09 vs. 0.54 ± 0.06 g/cm(2), p < 0.001); and ultrasound parameters at calcaneus (SI: 81.30 ± 6.10 vs. 93.80 ± 7.10, p < 0.001) and phalanges (AD-SOS: 1915.00 ± 37.70 vs. 2020.88 ± 39.46, p < 0.001; BTT : 1.30 ± 0.8 vs. 1.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) are significantly lower in patients with MDD compared with controls. Moreover bone turnover markers, parathyroid hormone levels and Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κB Ligand are significantly higher in MDD patients compared with controls, while serum levels of 25-hydroxivitamin D and osteoprotegerin are significantly lower. There are no differences in urinary excretion and serum cortisol between groups. Postmenopausal women with depressive disorder have an elevated risk for osteoporosis. Our data suggest that a high level of parathyroid hormone may play a role in the pathogenetic process underlying osteopenia in these patients.

  16. Bone Appetit: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Building and Maintaining Strong Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is a living, dynamic, metabolically active tissue. It under goes a process of constant renewal throughout life, through a process called bone turnover in which cells called osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, and cells called osteoblasts make new bone to replace it. A healthy, balanced di...

  17. Integrating Turnover Reasons and Shocks with Turnover Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.; Kmitta, Kayla R.

    2012-01-01

    We interviewed and classified 186 quitters from many jobs and organizations via a theoretically-based protocol into five decision process types. We then tested exploratory hypotheses comparing users of these types on their propensity to report certain turnover reasons and turnover shocks. "Impulsive-type quitters," with neither a job offer in hand…

  18. Efecto de telmisartan sobre marcadores del remodelado óseo en pacientes hipertensos Telmisartan effect's on remodelling bone markers in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Pérez-Castrillón

    2012-02-01

    remodelado aunque se observó un descenso de la glucosa en pacientes con niveles de vitamina D por encima de 20 ng/ml (135 ± 53 mg/dl vs 119 ± 39 mg/dl, p = 0,01. Los pacientes tratados con IECAS disminuyen los valores de tensión arterial sistólica pero la diastólica no muestra cambios. Conclusiones: Telmisartan tiene un efecto neutro a nivel de los marcadores del remodelado óseo.Introduction: The telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB with a few own characteristics that it allows us to obtain a few additional benefits. It displays the ability to act as a partial agonist of PPARgamma. On the other hand, PPAR gamma intervenes in the control of bone remodelling though with not concordant results. The objective of this study to value the effect of telmisartan on bone markers in hypertensive patients. Subjects: A sample of 31 hypertensive patients with hypertension were included. The dose of telmisartan was of 80 mg/24 h and the period of follow-up was 12 weeks. The control group included 32 hypertensive patients treated before with IECA (enalapril-20 mg/24 h - or quinapril - 40 mg/24 hours. The following parameters were determined P1NP, β-CTX, 25OHD and PTH , osteocalcin, insulin and adiponectin. Results: The patients treated with Telmisartan shown a significantly decrease in systolic blood pressure (156 ± 19 mmHg vs 133 ± 15 mmHg, p = 0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (92 ± 9 mmHgvs 82 ± 6 mmHg, p = 0.01 . Changes were not observed in other parameter, PTHi (48 ± 22 pg/ml vs 45 ± 22 pg/ml, p > 0.05 and 25-vitamin D (21 ± 10 ng/ml vs 25 ± 8 ng/ml, p > 0.05, CTX (0.195 ± 0.12 ng/ml vs 0.221 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p > 0.05, PINP (39 ± 20 ng/ml vs 40 ± 19 ng/ml, p > 0.05, osteocalcin (11 ± 9 ng/ml vs 11 ± 5 ng/ml, p > 0.05, glucose, adiponectin, insulin and HOMA. When the patients divided in two groups depending on the levels of vitamin D (insufficient and not insufficient, with a cut of 20 ng/ml, there was changes on bone markers but a decrease of the

  19. Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? – A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulton Alison

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health.

  20. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.

  1. Relationships between serum osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yi; SHEN Lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) have been shown to play a role in bone metabolism by degrading the bone matrix. The present study was undertaken to compare OPG and MMP-2 with bone mineral density and three markers (alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium and phosphorus) in postmenopausal women in Wuhan.Methods Serum OPG, MMP-2, and AKP of 78 Chinese postmenopausal women aged 48 to 65 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bone mineral density was measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and serum calcium and phosphorus were measured by auto biochemical analysis.Results Serum OPG and MMP-2 concentrations were significantly higher in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis ((127.6±6.3) ng/L; (1388±121) μg/L)) than those in age-matched normal controls ((72.3±2.4) ng/L; (1126±141) μg/L,P<0.01). Negative relationships were found between serum OPG, MMP-2 levels and bone mineral density in osteoporotic women. Adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), the correlation of MMP-2 with bone mineral density of the neck of the femur disappeared. In osteoporotic women, negative correlations between OPG, MMP-2 levels and serum calcium were found (r=-0.216; r=-0.269, P<0.05), but positive correlations between OPG and serum AKP, serum phosphorus (r=0.235; r=0.124, P<0.05).Conclusions Significant correlations exist between serum OPG, MMP-2 levels and bone metabolism in high bone turnover of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The concentrations of serum OPG and MMP-2 increase possibly as a concomitant event in the high bone turnover state, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therefore serum OPG and MMP-2 could be used as indicators for the bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  2. The generalized bone phenotype in children with neurofibromatosis 1: a sibling matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linlea; Jett, Kimberly; Birch, Patricia; Kendler, David L; McKay, Heather; Tsang, Erica; Stevenson, David A; Hanley, David A; Egeli, Deetria; Burrows, Melonie; Friedman, J M

    2013-07-01

    People with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) have low bone mineralization, but the natural history and pathogenesis are poorly understood. We performed a sibling-matched case-control study of bone mineral status, morphology, and metabolism. Eighteen children with NF1 without focal bony lesions were compared to unaffected siblings and local population controls. Bone mineral content at the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) was lower in children with NF1; this difference persisted after adjusting for height and weight. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the distal tibia showed that trabecular density was more severely compromised than cortical. Peripheral QCT-derived estimates of bone strength and resistance to bending and stress were poorer among children with NF1 although there was no difference in fracture frequencies. There were no differences in the size or shape of bones after adjusting for height. Differences in markers of bone turnover between cases and controls were in the directions predicted by animal studies, but did not reach statistical significance. Average serum calcium concentration was higher (although within the normal range) in children with NF1; serum 25-OH vitamin D, and PTH levels did not differ significantly between cases and controls. Children with NF1 were less mature (assessed by pubertal stage) than unaffected siblings or population controls. Children with NF1 have a generalized difference of bone metabolism that predominantly affects trabecular bone. Effects of decreased neurofibromin on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and pubertal development may contribute to the differences in bone mineral content observed among people with NF1. PMID:23713011

  3. Is hand bone mineral density a marker for hand function in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis? The correlation among bone mineral density of the hand, radiological findings and hand function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu, Beril; Kuran, Banu; Yilmaz, Figen; Usen, Ahmet; Sirzai, Hulya

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the role of hand bone mineral density (BMD) as a prospective marker for hand function and the correlation of hand BMD with X-ray findings and hand functioning in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eighty-three female patients diagnosed with RA were enrolled. All BMD measurements were performed on both hands. The radiological evaluation was conducted according to the van der Heijde modification of the Sharp method (Sharp/van der Heijde). Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) was used to establish the disability in the hands. Furthermore, handgrip strength (HGS), pinch strength (PS), lateral pinch (LP), tip-to-tip pinch (TTP) and three-fingered pinch (TFP) on both the dominant and the non-dominant hands was measured. A significant positive correlation between hand BMD and HGS as well as all PSs with p DHI (p > 0.05). The hand BMD and the Sharp/van der Heijde scores were significantly in reverse correlation (p DHI-related variants, HGS and PS and the total DHI scores were reversely correlated, while there was a positive significant association with radiological scores (p DHI, HGS, LP, TTP, TFP and radiographic total scores. Our study demonstrated that a one-off hand BMD measurement failed to adequately indicate a loss in hand function as measured by DHI. Ultimately, HGS and TTP were shown to be the most effective indicators for measuring hand functions.

  4. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A;

    1998-01-01

    to one of five regimens: oral placebo; oral alendronate, 1, 5, or 10 mg/d; or oral alendronate, 20 mg/d for 2 years followed by placebo during the third year (20/0 mg/d). MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover and bone quality were assessed...... with biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry. RESULTS: Alendronate at 5, 10, and 20/0 mg/d increased bone mineral density from baseline at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter by 1% to 4% and in the total body by 0.3% to 1.0%; placebo led to losses of 2% to 4% at these sites....... Alendronate, 1 mg/d, attenuated losses relative to those seen with placebo. Alendronate decreased markers of bone resorption to a new steady state by 3 months and decreased markers of bone formation by 6 to 12 months. Bone quality remained normal. At all dosages studied, alendronate had a safety and...

  5. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects...

  6. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  7. Determination of prostate motion using fiduciary markers and bone structures using cone beam computed tomography; Determinacion del movimiento prostatico con el uso de marcadores fiduciarios y estructruas oseas mediante haz conico tomografico computarizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan-Senabre, X. J.; Conde-Moreno, A. J.; Santos-Sierra, A.; Lopez-Tarjuelo, J.; Sanchez-Iglesias, A. L.; Queros-Higueras, J. D.; Marco-Blancas, N. de; Calzada-Feliu, S.; Ferrer-Albiach, C.

    2011-07-01

    Determine the motion of the prostate using a 3D-3D registration based image beam kilo voltage (kV) cone computed tomography (CBCT) and analyze the uncertainties associated with internal motion (internal motion) and positioning (setup) fusion using two methods, the use of surrogate markers as trustees of the prostate and the use of the pelvic bone structure. This will calculate the CTV-PTV margin to be applied.

  8. Fortification of yogurts with vitamin D and calcium enhances the inhibition of serum parathyroid hormone and bone resorption markers: A double blind randomized controlled trial in women over 60 living in a community dwelling home

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Benoit, V.; Atkin, S; Walrand, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether fortification of yogurts with vitamin D and calcium exerts an additional lowering effect on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone resorption markers (BRM) as compared to iso-caloric and iso-protein dairy products in aged white women at risk of fragility fractures. Design A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Setting A community dwelling home. Participants Forty-eight women over 60 years (mean age 73.4). Intervention Consumption during 84 days of two 125 ...

  9. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects...... of employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantial negative effect on total productivity but that the firm’s size, its capital intensity, and its age...... moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee...

  10. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and resorpti

  11. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships ar

  12. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to...... in bone, where it may modulate both formation and resorption ultimately influencing the bone turnover process....

  13. {sup 3}H-tetracycline as a proxy for {sup 41}Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Connie [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059 (United States)]. E-mail: weavercm@purdue.edu; Cheong, Jennifer [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059 (United States); Jackson, George [PRIME Lab, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Elmore, David [PRIME Lab, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); McCabe, George [Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Martin, Berdine [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with {sup 41}Ca and measuring urinary {sup 41}Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand {sup 41}Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used {sup 3}H-tetracycline ({sup 3}H-TC) as a proxy for {sup 41}Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary {sup 3}H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats.

  14. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-06-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41Ca and measuring urinary 41Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3H-tetracycline (3H-TC) as a proxy for 41Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats.

  15. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41Ca and measuring urinary 41Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3H-tetracycline (3H-TC) as a proxy for 41Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  16. Delta-toxin production deficiency in Staphylococcus aureus: a diagnostic marker of bone and joint infection chronicity linked with osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valour, F; Rasigade, J-P; Trouillet-Assant, S; Gagnaire, J; Bouaziz, A; Karsenty, J; Lacour, C; Bes, M; Lustig, S; Bénet, T; Chidiac, C; Etienne, J; Vandenesch, F; Ferry, T; Laurent, F

    2015-06-01

    Biofilm formation, intra-osteoblastic persistence, small-colony variants (SCVs) and the dysregulation of agr, the major virulence regulon, are possibly involved in staphylococcal bone and joint infection (BJI) pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the contributions of these mechanisms among a collection of 95 Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from 64 acute (67.4%) and 31 chronic (32.6%) first episodes of BJI. The included isolates were compared for internalization rate, cell damage and SCV intracellular emergence using an ex vivo model of human osteoblast infection. Biofilm formation was assessed in a microbead immobilization assay (BioFilm Ring test). Virulence gene profiles were assessed by DNA microarray. Seventeen different clonal complexes were identified among the screened collection. The staphylococcal internalization rate in osteoblasts was significantly higher for chronic than acute BJI isolates, regardless of the genetic background. Conversely, no differences regarding cytotoxicity, SCV emergence, biofilm formation and virulence gene distribution were observed. Additionally, agr dysfunction, detected by the lack of delta-toxin production using whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis (n = 15; 15.8%), was significantly associated with BJI chronicity, osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation. These findings provide new insights into MSSA BJI pathogenesis, suggesting the correlation between chronicity and staphylococcal osteoblast invasion. This adaptive mechanism, along with biofilm formation, is associated with agr dysfunction, which can be routinely assessed by delta-toxin detection using MALDI-TOF spectrum analysis, possibly providing clinicians with a diagnostic marker of BJI chronicity at the time of diagnosis.

  17. Naringin ameliorates bone loss induced by sciatic neurectomy and increases Semaphorin 3A expression in denervated bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Xing, Guosheng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jianbao; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2016-01-01

    Naringin maintains bone mass in various osteoporosis models, while its effect on bone in disuse osteoporosis has not been reported. The present study explores whether naringin can prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy (USN) and whether the Semaphorin 3A-induced Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the osteoprotection of naringin. Naringin dose-dependently prevented the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular structure and biomechanical strength in femur due to USN. Naringin increased bone formation but inhibited resorption, as indicated by bone-turnover markers in blood and urine and the histological staining of Osteocalcin (OCN) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in femur. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and active β-catenin protein decreased after USN and could be restored by naringin to the levels of the sham-operated rats. In addition, naringin in vitro promoted the differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. Our studies suggest that the down-regulation of Sema3A and the subsequent inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling may be some of the mechanisms involved in USN-induced osteoporosis. Naringin could increase the expression of Sema3A and the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling to prevent disuse osteoporosis induced by denervation. Thus, naringin functions in bone maintenance and could be a promising therapeutic alternative in preventing disuse osteoporosis. PMID:27109829

  18. The Executive Turnover Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Florian S; Wagner, Alexander F

    2012-01-01

    Executive compensation has increased dramatically over the past 15 years, but so has forced CEO turnover. We argue that part of the development of CEO pay can be explained by the adverse consequences that forced turnover implies for a CEO. We ¯nd that for the CEOs of the largest US corporations, a one percentage point increase in exogenous turnover risk is associated with $40,000 to $90,000 more in terms of total compensation. The size of this risk premium is in line with estimates of the imp...

  19. Short communication: Effect of commercial or depurinized milk diet on plasma advanced oxidation protein products, cardiovascular markers, and bone marrow CD34+ stem cell potential in rat experimental hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, Gordana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic, Tatjana; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Aneta; Jovanovic, Jelena; Zivkovic, Petar

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular repair and myocardial contractility may be improved by migration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and their delivery to the site of injury, a process known as BMSC homing. The aim of our study was to examine the dietary effect of a newly patented depurinized milk (DP) that is almost free of uric acid and purine and pyrimidine compounds compared with a standard commercial 1.5% fat UHT milk diet or allopurinol therapy in rat experimental hyperuricemia. Bone marrow stem cell potential (BMCD34(+), CD34-postive bone marrow cells), plasma oxidative stress parameters [advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], myocardial damage markers [creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], plasma cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were investigated. The DP milk diet significantly increased the number of BMCD34(+) stem cells compared with commercial UHT milk. Allopurinol given alone also increased the number of BMCD34(+). Hyperuricemia caused a significant increase in all plasma enzyme markers for myocardial damage (CPK, LDH, and AST). A cardioprotective effect was achieved with allopurinol but almost equally with DP milk and more than with commercial milk. Regarding plasma AOPP, TBARS, and cholesterol levels, the most effective treatment was DP milk. In conclusion, the protective role of a milk diet on cardiovascular function may be enhanced through the new depurinized milk diet, which may improve cardiovascular system function via increased bone marrow stem cell regenerative potential, decreased plasma oxidative stress parameters, and decreased levels of myocardial damage markers and cholesterol. New dairy technology strategies focused on eliminating harmful milk compounds should be completely nontoxic. Novel milk products should be tested for their ability to improve tissue repair and function.

  20. Short communication: Effect of commercial or depurinized milk diet on plasma advanced oxidation protein products, cardiovascular markers, and bone marrow CD34+ stem cell potential in rat experimental hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, Gordana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic, Tatjana; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Aneta; Jovanovic, Jelena; Zivkovic, Petar

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular repair and myocardial contractility may be improved by migration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and their delivery to the site of injury, a process known as BMSC homing. The aim of our study was to examine the dietary effect of a newly patented depurinized milk (DP) that is almost free of uric acid and purine and pyrimidine compounds compared with a standard commercial 1.5% fat UHT milk diet or allopurinol therapy in rat experimental hyperuricemia. Bone marrow stem cell potential (BMCD34(+), CD34-postive bone marrow cells), plasma oxidative stress parameters [advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], myocardial damage markers [creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], plasma cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were investigated. The DP milk diet significantly increased the number of BMCD34(+) stem cells compared with commercial UHT milk. Allopurinol given alone also increased the number of BMCD34(+). Hyperuricemia caused a significant increase in all plasma enzyme markers for myocardial damage (CPK, LDH, and AST). A cardioprotective effect was achieved with allopurinol but almost equally with DP milk and more than with commercial milk. Regarding plasma AOPP, TBARS, and cholesterol levels, the most effective treatment was DP milk. In conclusion, the protective role of a milk diet on cardiovascular function may be enhanced through the new depurinized milk diet, which may improve cardiovascular system function via increased bone marrow stem cell regenerative potential, decreased plasma oxidative stress parameters, and decreased levels of myocardial damage markers and cholesterol. New dairy technology strategies focused on eliminating harmful milk compounds should be completely nontoxic. Novel milk products should be tested for their ability to improve tissue repair and function. PMID:25218755

  1. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  2. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  3. Employment Turnover and Unemployment Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Vicente Rodríguez Mora, José

    1997-01-01

    Two features distinguish European and US labour markets. First, most European countries have a considerably more generous unemployment insurance system. Second, the duration of unemployment and employment spells are substantially higher in Europe – employment turnover is lower. We show that self-insurance, i.e. saving and borrowing, is a good substitute for unemployment insurance when turnover is as high as in the United States. If the insurance system is less than perfectly actuarially fair,...

  4. Collagen turnover in normal and degenerate human intervertebral discs as determined by the racemization of aspartic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivan, S.-S.; Wachtel, E.; Tsitron, E.; Sakkee, N.; Ham, F. van der; Groot, J.de; Roberts, S.; Maroudas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of rates of protein turnover is important for a quantitative understanding of tissue synthesis and catabolism. In this work, we have used the racemization of aspartic acid as a marker for the turnover of collagen obtained from healthy and pathological human intervertebral disc matrices. We

  5. Mechanism of Action of Bortezomib and the New Proteasome Inhibitors on Myeloma Cells and the Bone Microenvironment: Impact on Myeloma-Induced Alterations of Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Accardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by a high capacity to induce alterations in the bone remodeling process. The increase in osteoclastogenesis and the suppression of osteoblast formation are both involved in the pathophysiology of the bone lesions in MM. The proteasome inhibitor (PI bortezomib is the first drug designed and approved for the treatment of MM patients by targeting the proteasome. However, recently novel PIs have been developed to overcome bortezomib resistance. Interestingly, several preclinical data indicate that the proteasome complex is involved in both osteoclast and osteoblast formation. It is also evident that bortezomib either inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL or stimulates the osteoblast differentiation. Similarly, the new PIs including carfilzomib and ixazomib can inhibit bone resorption and stimulate the osteoblast differentiation. In a clinical setting, PIs restore the abnormal bone remodeling by normalizing the levels of bone turnover markers. In addition, a bone anabolic effect was described in responding MM patients treated with PIs, as demonstrated by the increase in the osteoblast number. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical evidence on the effects of bortezomib and other new PIs on myeloma bone disease.

  6. Evaluation and correlation of risk recurrence in early breast cancer assessed by Oncotype DX(®), clinicopathological markers and tumor cell dissemination in the blood and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Bahriye; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Heubner, Martin; Kimmig, Rainer; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine

    2013-11-01

    The Oncotype DX(®) assay is a validated genomic test that predicts the likelihood of breast cancer recurrence, patient survival within ten years of diagnosis and the benefit of chemotherapy in early-stage, node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Further markers of recurrence include disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood, particularly stemness-like tumor cells (slCTCs). In this study, Oncotype DX, DTCs, CTCs and slCTCs were used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 68 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were analyzed for the expression of 16 cancer genes and 5 reference genes by Oncotype DX, yielding a recurrence score (RS). G2 tumors were evaluated for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) and Ki-67. Two BM aspirates were analyzed by immunocytochemistry for DTCs using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. CTCs and slCTCs in the blood were detected using the AdnaTest BreastCancer, AdnaTest EMT and the AdnaTest TumorStemCell. Oncotype DX was performed in 68 cases, yielding a low RS in 30/68 patients (44%), an intermediate RS in 29/68 patients (43%) and a high RS in 9/68 patients (13%). DTCs were detected in 19/68 patients (28%), CTCs in 13/68 patients (19%) and slCTCs in 26/68 (38%) patients. Moreover, 8/68 patients (12%) with G2 tumors were positive for uPA, 6/68 (9%) for PAI1 and 21/68 (31%) for Ki-67. Ki-67, progesterone receptor (PR) and G3 tumors were significantly correlated with RS (P<0.001; P=0.006; and P=0,002, respectively), whereas no correlation was identified between DTCs, CTCs, slCTCs and RS. Ki-67 may support therapeutic decisions in cases where Oncotype DX is not feasible. Larger patient cohorts are required to estimate the additional detection of DTCs and CTCs for the determination of risk recurrence.

  7. Business Ethics & Employee Turnover: CAFE Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Sapovadia, Vrajlal; Patel, Sweta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Business ethics is in discussion for its importance universally, so is the employee turnover in business. Unethical practices are unwanted, so is the high employee turnover. Unethical practices and high employee turnover in business is ubiquitous. No consensus exists on defining ethics. Employee turnover is well defined, but there is no consensus on when employee turnover is disadvantageous for the company. The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity, a maxim states that either ...

  8. Immersed Turnovers In Hyperbolic 3-Orbifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Rafalski, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    We show that any immersion, which is not a covering of an embedded 2-orbifold, of a totally geodesic hyperbolic turnover in a complete orientable hyperbolic 3-orbifold is contained in a hyperbolic 3-suborbifold with totally geodesic boundary, called the "turnover core,'' whose volume is bounded from above by a function depending only on the area of the given turnover. Furthermore, we show that, for a given type of turnover, there are only finitely many possibilities for the turnover core. As ...

  9. Government Turnover : Concepts, Measures and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, S; Hoff, K.; Milanovic, B.

    2009-01-01

    While government turnover is often thought of as an adverse source of instability, it may also be viewed as a favourable source of competition and institution-building. To articulate and test such hypotheses, this article describes two main concepts of government turnover: leadership turnover, or change in rulers, and ideological turnover, or change in the rulers' ideology. Refinements involve the mode, outcome and timing of turnover. The article discusses measurement issues that arise when t...

  10. Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Saadat, Raz L; Payton, Mark E; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2011-09-01

    Aside from existing drug therapies, certain lifestyle and nutritional factors are known to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Among the nutritional factors, dried plum or prunes (Prunus domestica L.) is the most effective fruit in both preventing and reversing bone loss. The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which dried plum reverses bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. We recruited 236 women, 1-10 years postmenopausal, not on hormone replacement therapy or any other prescribed medication known to influence bone metabolism. Qualified participants (n 160) were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: dried plum (100 g/d) or dried apple (comparative control). Participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body was assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Physical activity recall and 1-week FFQ were obtained at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to examine physical activity and dietary confounders as potential covariates. Dried plum significantly increased BMD of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apple. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, only dried plum significantly decreased serum levels of bone turnover markers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b. The findings of the present study confirmed the ability of dried plum in improving BMD in postmenopausal women in part due to suppressing the rate of bone turnover.

  11. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  12. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  13. Neridronic acid for the treatment of bone metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Fracassi, Elena; Adami, Silvano

    2009-10-01

    Neridronic acid (6-amino-1-idroxyesilidene-1,1-bisphosphonate) is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate licensed in Italy for the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta and Paget's disease of bone. The pharmacodynamic profile is similar to that of other nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates and is characterized by its high affinity for bone tissue particularly at sites undergoing a process of remodeling. In growing children affected by osteogenesis imperfect, neridronic acid rapidly increases bone mineral density as measured by dual X-ray absortiometry and this is associated with a significant decrease in fracture cumulative number. Similar results have been obtained also in newborns ( 75% of bone turnover markers) in 95% of the patients. Neridronic acid treatment has been reported to be effective also in other skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis, algodystrophy, hypercalcemia of malignancy and bone metastasis. Neridronic acid has been developed only for parenteral use, and it is the only one used as intramuscular injection. This avoids all the limitations of oral bisphosphonates and may be offered for a home treatment with simple nursing assistance. PMID:19761412

  14. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  15. The effect of 5alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride and dutasteride on bone mineral density in older men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačukat, Indira Radin; Spanjol, Josip; Orlič, Zeljka Crncevič; Butorac, Marta Zuvič; Marinovič, Marin; Ćupič, Dora Fučkar

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by two isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5alpha-reductase inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We compared indices of bone mineral density in 50 men treated with finasteride, 50 men treated with dutasteride and 50 men as control. Bone mineral density of spine and hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorptionby measuring serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1. In addition serum total testosteron and estradiol were determined. The dutasteride group had significantly higher mean bone min- eral density, mean bone mineral content, mean T score, mean Z score at femoral neck and mean total hip Z score than control. Mean total testosterone and estradiol levels were higher in the dutasteride group. There were no significant dif- ferences between the groups in lumbar spine bone density parameters or bone turnover markers. Our results provide evidence that long-term 5alpha-reductase suppression does not adversely affect bone mineral density. Dutasteride therapy could have beneficial effect on bone density. PMID:25507347

  16. CEO Turnover and Market Reaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Setiawan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines Chief Executive Officer (CEO turnover and market reaction in Indonesia. The sample of this research consists of 213 CEO turnover announcements for Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2000–2010 period. T-tests were used to investigate the effect of CEO turnover announcement on abnormal stock return during the event windows periods. The results of this research show that there is positive reaction on the CEO turnover announcements. This research considers both routine and non routine CEO turnover processes. This research finds that both turnover processes have information content to investor. This research also finds positive reaction on the announcements of outsider incoming CEO, while investors do not react on the announcement of insider incoming CEO. Thus, this research provides evidence that CEO turnover announcement have information content.   Keywords: CEO turnover, stock price, turnover process, the origin of incoming CEO

  17. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone and vitamin D status among Pakistani immigrants in Denmark: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Mølgaard, Christian; Skovgaard, Lene T.;

    2008-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is common among Muslim immigrants. The dose necessary to correct the deficiency and its consequence for bone health are not known for immigrants. The aim was to assess the effect of relatively low dosages of supplemental vitamin D on vitamin D and bone status in...... D (S-25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone turnover markers and bone mass. The study showed that supplementation with 10 and 20 mu g vitamin D-3 per d increased S-25OHD concentrations similarly in vitamin D-deficient Pakistani women (4-fold), and that 10 mu g increased S-25OHD concentrations 2-fold and...... 20 mu g 3-fold in Pakistani men. S-25OHD concentrations increased at 6 months and were stable thereafter. Baseline S-25OHD concentrations tended to be lower in girls and women than in men; females achieved about 46 nmol/l and men 55 nmol/l after supplementation. Serum intact parathyroid hormone...

  18. Short-term intermittent PTH 1-34 administration enhances bone formation in SCID/Beige mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anabolic effect of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone is variable depending on the species studied, duration/mode of administration, and location of skeletal response investigated. We tested the hypothesis that low dose, short term, intermittent PTH 1-34 administration is sufficient to enhance bone formation without altering bone resorption. To test our hypothesis, mice were treated intermittently with one of three concentrations of PTH 1-34 (1 μg/kg, low; 10μg/kg or 20 μg/kg, high) for three weeks. The skeletal response was identified by quantifying: serum markers of bone turnover, cancellous bone parameters in distal femur, proximal tibia, and lumbar vertebrae by μCT, and number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in distal femur. Mice receiving 20 μg/kg of PTH 1-34 demonstrated a 30% increase in serum osteocalcin, but no differences in serum calcium, type I collagen teleopeptides, or tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) 5b. For all bones, μCT analysis suggested mice receiving 20 μg/kg of PTH 1-34 had increased cancellous bone mineral density, trabecular thickness and spacing, but decreased trabecular number. A 60% increase in the number of alkaline phosphatase positive osteoblasts in the distal femur was also observed in tissue sections; however, the number of TRAP positive osteoclasts was not different between test and control groups. While animals administered 10 μg/kg demonstrated similar trends for all bone turnover indices, such alterations were not observed in animals administered PTH 1-34 at 1 μg/kg per day. Thus, PTH 1-34, administered intermittently for three weeks at 20 μg/kg is sufficient to enhance bone formation without enhancing resorption. (author)

  19. Tibolone inhibits bone resorption without secondary positive effects on cartilage degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrjalsen I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis is associated with increased bone resorption and increased cartilage degradation in the subchondral bone and joint. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestogenic properties, would have similar dual actions on both bone and cartilage turnover, as reported previously with some SERMS and HRT. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of ninety-one healthy postmenopausal women aged 52–75 yrs entered a 2-yr double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of treatment with either 1.25 mg/day (n = 36, or 2.5 mg/day Tibolone (n = 35, or placebo (n = 20, (J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jul;81(7:2419–22 Second void morning urine samples were collected at baseline, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Urine CrossLaps® ELISA (CTX-I and Urine CartiLaps® ELISA (CTX-II was investigated as markers of bone resorption and cartilage degradation, respectively. Results Tibolone significantly (P Conclusion These data suggest uncoupling of the bone and cartilage effects of the synthetic steroid, Tibolone. Bone resorption was significantly decreased, whereas cartilage degradation was unchanged. These effects are in contrast to those observed some SERMs with effects on both bone and cartilage degradation. These effects may in part be described by the complicated pharmacology of Tibolone on testosterone, estrogen and progesterone receptors.

  20. Job turnover and labor turnover : a taxonomy of employment dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Wolter H.J.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an organized set of stylized facts on the relations among flows of workers,changes in employment and changes in the numer of jobs at the firm level. Job turnover isusually measured by comparing stocks of employment in each firm at two points in time andadding up the absolute employment ch

  1. Analisis Hubungan Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Asset Turnover Ratio Dengan Kemampulabaan Perusahaan Pada PTPN III (Persero) Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Fitry Bertha H.

    2010-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis hubungan Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Asset Turnover Ratio dengan kemampulabaan perusahaan pada PTPN III (Persero) Medan. Penulis menarik hipotesis bahwa Receivable Turnover Ratio, Inventory Turnover Ratio, dan Total Asset Turnover Ratio berhubungan positif dengan kemampulabaan perusahaan pada PTPN III (Persero) Medan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode analisis deskriptif dan metode analisis K...

  2. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun, E-mail: biochelab@yuhs.ac; Chung, Won-Yoon, E-mail: wychung@yuhs.ac

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  3. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells. • Betulinic

  4. Low turnover osteoporosis in sheep induced by hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Frank Timo; Oheim, Ralf; Barvencik, Florian; Hissnauer, Tim N; Pestka, Jan M; Ignatius, Anita; Rueger, Johannes M; Schinke, Thorsten; Clarke, Iain J; Amling, Michael; Pogoda, Pia

    2012-08-01

    The hypothalamus is of critical importance in regulating bone remodeling. This is underscored by the fact that intracerebroventricular-application of leptin in ewe leads to osteopenia. As a large animal model of osteoporosis, this approach has some limitations, such as high technical expenditure and running costs. Therefore we asked if a surgical ablation of the leptin signaling axis would have the same effects and would thereby be a more useful model. We analyzed the bone phenotype of ewe after surgical hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection (HPD + OVX) as compared to control ewe (OVX) after 3 and 12 months. Analyses included histomorphometric characterization, micro-CT and measurement of bone turnover parameters. Already 3 months after HPD we found osteopenic ewe with a significantly decreased bone formation (69%) and osteoclast activity (49%). After a period of 12 months the HPD group additionally developed an (preclinical) osteoporosis with significant reduction (33%) of femoral cortical thickness, as compared to controls (OVX). Taken together, HPD leads after 12 month to osteoporosis with a reduction in both trabecular and cortical bone caused by a low bone turnover situation, with reduced osteoblast and osteoclast activity, as compared to controls (OVX). The HPD-sheep is a suitable large animal model of osteoporosis. Furthermore our results indicate that an intact hypothalamo-pituitary axis is required for activation of bone turnover.

  5. Three-year experience with combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in Japanese patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, JapanPurpose: Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean and osteoporotic fracture.Methods: Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.Results: The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (-42.5% at 3 months and -18.9% at 3 years, and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years, compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis

  6. The effect of bone allografts combined with bone marrow stromal cells on the healing of segmental bone defects in a sheep model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marco Bernardo C; Guimarães, João Antônio Matheus; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos Santos; Gonçalves, Natalia N; Carlos E. Ambrósio; Rodrigues, Fernando; Pinto, Ana Carolina F; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The repair of large bone defects is a major orthopedic challenge because autologous bone grafts are not available in large amounts and because harvesting is often associated with donor-site morbidity. Considering that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) are responsible for the maintenance of bone turnover throughout life, we investigated bone repair at a site of a critically sized segmental defect in sheep tibia treated with BMSCs loaded onto allografts. The defect was created in the ...

  7. Migration Turnover Rates in Mountain States Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, William J.; Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  8. Migration Turnover Rates in United States Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.; Israelsen, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  9. Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum: a controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2012-01-01

    , plasma phosphate was increased, whereas calcium levels tended to be decreased which may stimulate PTH levels during and after prolonged lactation. CONCLUSION: The increased calcium requirements in early pregnancy are not completely offset by increased intestinal calcium absorption caused by high 1,25(OH......Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation INTRODUCTION: We describe physiological...... changes in calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: We studied 153 women planning pregnancy (n = 92 conceived) and 52 non-pregnant, age-matched female controls. Samples were collected prior to pregnancy, once each trimester and 2, 16 and 36...

  10. Estimating Teacher Turnover Costs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.

    2012-01-01

    High teacher turnover in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of turnover costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in turnover costs…

  11. Using Turnover as a Recruitment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Teacher turnover is notoriously high in the field of early childhood education with an estimated 33% of staff exiting the workplace each year. Turnover is costly. Not only do high levels of turnover negatively impact children's growth and development, it also erodes the program's economic stability and wherewithal to provide effective operations…

  12. A Spectral Model of Turnover Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zura Kakushadze

    2014-01-01

    We give a simple explicit formula for turnover reduction when a large number of alphas are traded on the same execution platform and trades are crossed internally. We model turnover reduction via alpha correlations. Then, for a large number of alphas, turnover reduction is related to the largest eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of the alpha correlation matrix.

  13. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  14. Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O. L; Gentry, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tree turnover rates were assessed at 40 tropical forest sites. Averaged across inventoried forests, turnover, as measured by tree mortality and recruitment, has increased since the 1950's, with an apparent pantropical acceleration since 1980. Among 22 mature forest sites with two or more inventory periods, forest turnover also increased. The trend in forest dynamics may have profound effects on biological diversity.

  15. Measurements of natural radionuclides in human teeth and animal bones as markers of radiation exposure from soil in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th in extracted human teeth, animal bones, and soil. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy in extracted human teeth and animal bones from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31±7.27 Bq g−1, 0.48±0.21 Bq g−1, 0.56±0.21 Bq g−1, 0.55±0.23 Bq g−1, 1.82±1.28 Bq g−1, and 0.50±0.14 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in bones were found to be 3.79±0.81 Bq g−1, 0.07±0.02 Bq g−1, 0.08±0.02 Bq g−1, 0.16±0.04 Bq g−1, 0.51±1.08 Bq g−1, and 0.06±0.02 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations in teeth from smokers were higher than those in non-smokers, and the corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. A positive correlation was found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone samples. - Highlights: • Radionuclides in teeth from smokers higher than non-smokers, except 40K. • Radionuclides slightly higher in female teeth than male teeth. • Positive correlation found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone

  16. Benchmarking of homogeneous electrocatalysts: overpotential, turnover frequency, limiting turnover number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Passard, Guillaume; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-29

    In relation to contemporary energy challenges, a number of molecular catalysts for the activation of small molecules, mainly based on transition metal complexes, have been developed. The time has thus come to develop tools allowing the benchmarking of these numerous catalysts. Two main factors of merit are addressed. One involves their intrinsic catalytic performances through the comparison of "catalytic Tafel plots" relating the turnover frequency to the overpotential independently of the characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The other examines the effect of deactivation of the catalyst during the course of electrolysis. It introduces the notion of the limiting turnover number as a second key element of catalyst benchmarking. How these two factors combine with one another to control the course of electrolysis is analyzed in detail, leading to procedures that allow their separate estimation from measurements of the current, the charge passed, and the decay of the catalyst concentration. Illustrative examples from literature data are discussed. PMID:25757058

  17. STUDIES REGARDING THE IDENTIFICATION OF SOME HISTO-MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS THAT COULD BE USED AS MARKERS FOR BONE MINERALIZATION APPRECISAL IN PIGS – SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT IN OSTEOPOROSIS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern approach of the post-menopause osteoporosis etiology relies on the unbalance between the processes of bone resorption and formation, caused by the lack of estrogen hormones which determine different combined forms of increasing/decreasing the osseous cell activity, osteoblasts and osteoclasts by type. With regards to this, some histomorphometric analyses are carried out in order to determine the mineralized bone and osteoid relative quantity, and also the activity of cells having a formation function (osteoblasts or a resorption of the osseous tissue (osteoclasts. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research recommend the evaluation of the following histomorphometric parameters: the volume of the osseous trabeculae (BV/TV, % - the percentage of the osseous tissue in a certain volume. Schematically, it represents the report full/empty within the bone; osteoid area (OS/BS, % - the percentage of the surface of the bone formed on a certain bone area; osteoblast area (Ob. S/BS, % - the percentage of the spongy bone trabecular and span areas with morphologically-active osteoblasts; osteoid volume (OV/BV, % - the osteoid percentage within a certain bon volume; osteoid width (O. Th, m, - the average width of the osteoid tape, which represents the support for calcification; osteoclast area (Oc. S/BS, % - the percentage of the trabecular areas with resorption gaps occupied by one or many osteoclasts, considering the fact that calcium deficiency causes the increase of osteoclast number and stimulates their activity; mineralization rate through apposition (MAR, m/day, calculated in divisions per average distance between two fluorescent tagging (it results from calceine accumulation at the mineralization front level. This double tagging has been accomplished through calceine i.m. injection at intervals of 6 days, 48 hours before sample taking. The researches presented in this paper work belong to the subcontract CEEX no. 110-2, partner no. 2

  18. The ARF tumor suppressor regulates bone remodeling and osteosarcoma development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Rauch

    Full Text Available The ARF tumor suppressor regulates p53 as well as basic developmental processes independent of p53, including osteoclast activation, by controlling ribosomal biogenesis. Here we provide evidence that ARF is a master regulator of bone remodeling and osteosarcoma (OS development in mice. Arf(-/- mice displayed increased osteoblast (OB and osteoclast (OC activity with a significant net increase in trabecular bone volume. The long bones of Arf(-/- mice had increased expression of OB genes while Arf(-/- OB showed enhanced differentiation in vitro. Mice transgenic for the Tax oncogene develop lymphocytic tumors with associated osteolytic lesions, while Tax+Arf(-/- mice uniformly developed spontaneous OS by 7 months of age. Tax+Arf(-/- tumors were well differentiated OS characterized by an abundance of new bone with OC recruitment, expressed OB markers and displayed intact levels of p53 mRNA and reduced Rb transcript levels. Cell lines established from OS recapitulated characteristics of the primary tumor, including the expression of mature OB markers and ability to form mineralized tumors when transplanted. Loss of heterozygosity in OS tumors arising in Tax+Arf(+/- mice emphasized the necessity of ARF-loss in OS development. Hypothesizing that inhibition of ARF-regulated bone remodeling would repress development of OS, we demonstrated that treatment of Tax+Arf(-/- mice with zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate inhibitor of OC activity and repressor of bone turnover, prevented or delayed the onset of OS. These data describe a novel role for ARF as a regulator of bone remodeling through effects on both OB and OC. Finally, these data underscore the potential of targeting bone remodeling as adjuvant therapy or in patients with genetic predispositions to prevent the development of OS.

  19. The Diagnostic Value of Observation of Early Lung Cancer Bone Metastasis by Tumor Markers and Radionuclide Bone Imaging%肿瘤标志物检测和核素骨显像对肺癌早期骨转移的诊断价值观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To approach diagnostic result of early lung cancer bone metastasis by tumor markers and radionuclide bone imaging. Method Analyzed 50 cases clinical data of lung cancer patients from May 2010 to May 2013 in our hospital department of radiology, selected 50 cases in our hospital during the same period in healthy volunteers was control group. Result The CEA, CYFR21-1, NSE detection result of radionuclide bone imaging positive group of lung cancer patients were higher than control group and radionuclide bone imaging, CEA, CYFR21-1, NSE positive incidence of of lung cancer patients were higher than control group and radionuclide bone imaging,P<0.05, the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The staging and treatment methods to determine clinical judgment detection of serum tumor markers and radionuclide bone imaging for early lung cancer bone metastasis were significance.%目的:探讨肿瘤标志物检测和核素骨显像对肺癌早期骨转移的诊断效果。方法分析2010年5月至2013年5月影像科诊断的肺癌患者50例临床资料,选取同期我院健康体检者50例作为对照组。结果核素骨显像阳性组肺癌患者CEA、CYFR21-1、NSE检测结果均高于对照组和核素骨显像阳性组,核素骨显像阳性组肺癌患者CEA、CYFR21-1、NSE阳性率均高于对照组和核素骨显像阳性组, P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义。结论肿瘤标志物检测和核素骨显像对于肺癌早期骨转移的临床判断、分期和确定治疗方法具有重要意义。

  20. Reader's digest of the pathophysiology of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    Bone metastases are a process originally proposed as the "seed and soil theory" in the eighteenth century. Tumor cell disseminating from patients with breast or prostate cancer typically use the bony environment to grow outside the primary tumor location. The severe clinical consequences of bone metastasis such as pain, fractures, and hypercalcemia result from a serious misbalance of bone turnover. Most bone metastases cause catabolic changes of bone turnover. The severity of bone resorption is associated with tumor growth, suggesting the existence of a vicious cycle that needs to be interrupted. Osteoblastic metastasis showing signs of osteosclerotic lesions are observed in prostate cancer. Understanding the pathophysiology of bone metastases and their detrimental consequence provide the scientific basis for therapeutic interventions at various levels including homing of tumors to bone, survival and growth of the tumor cell in the bone niche, and the mechanisms causing bone destruction. PMID:22797871

  1. From bone to breast and back - the bone cytokine RANKL and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D; Hamann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in regulating bone homeostasis. Osteoporosis and malignant bone disease secondary to breast cancer are characterized by enhanced RANKL production and increased bone turnover. Thus, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to RANKL, has been developed and is now approved for various bone loss conditions. Recent results indicate that RANKL may also promote the development and osseous migration of breast cancer.

  2. Changes in the serum sex steroids, IL-7 and RANKL-OPG system after bone marrow transplantation: influences on bone and mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Hyun; Oh, Ki Won; Lee, Won Young; Tae, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Eun Jung; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Yoo Jin; Lee, Kwang Woo; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Sung Koo; Kim, Chun Choo; Kang, Moo Il

    2006-12-01

    This study prospectively investigated the changes of the serum levels of the sex steroids, IL-7, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. This study also examined whether the changes of these cytokine levels and sex steroids actually influence bone turnover and post-BMT bone loss by correlation analysis. Data were analyzed from 39 patients (33.6+/-6.4 years, 19 men and 20 women) who had DXA performed before BMT and at 1 year after BMT. The bone turnover markers, sex steroids and the cytokine levels were measured before BMT and serially after BMT. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine and the total proximal femur was 5.9% (P bone formation decreased, whereas the bone resorption increased. For the female recipients, the estradiol levels declined at 1 week after BMT, and they did not recover to the basal levels. For the male recipients, the testosterone levels decreased at 1 week and then it increased to its baseline level. The IL-7 levels reached their maximum at 1 week and then declined to baseline level by 3 months. The serum sRANKL, OPG levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio showed their peak at post-BMT 3 weeks. The mean daily dose of steroid was associated with suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption and increased sRANKL levels. The IL-7 levels were also noted to be either positively correlated with the levels of ICTP or they were negatively correlated with the levels of osteocalcin at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. Bone loss at the lumbar spine and the proximal femur was influenced by the decreased sex steroids and increased IL-7 levels. During the observation period, the IL-7 levels showed positive correlations with the sRANKL levels and the sRANKL/OPG ratio. For the female patients, the serum IL-7 levels were negatively associated with the estradiol levels at 1 and 3 weeks after BMT. All these findings suggest that IL-7 plays an important role for post

  3. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on protein turnover in the fasting and fed state in adolescents with Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Tamara S; DiMeglio, Linda A; Pfefferkorn, Marian D; Carroll, Aaron E; Denne, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test whether recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) supplementation would enhance protein synthesis and accretion of lean body mass. Eight adolescents (six males and two females; 17.2 +/- 2.6 years; age range, 13.7-21.2 years) participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial of rhGH. We employed stable isotopes to measure proteolysis and protein synthesis during fasting and fed conditions during two 6-month treatment conditions. We also measured bone mineral density (BMD), markers of bone turnover, and body composition. Whole-body proteolysis, phenylalanine catabolism, and protein synthesis did not differ during treatment with rhGH vs. placebo. Enteral nutrition suppressed proteolysis and increased protein synthesis similarly during placebo and rhGH treatments. We conclude that rhGH is unlikely to provide sufficient metabolic benefit to warrant its use as an adjunct treatment in clinically stable adolescents with Crohn disease. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and suboptimal BMD existed, which deserves further investigation and clinical attention.

  4. Effects of low doses of hydrochloride tetracycline on bone metabolism and uterus in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQing-Nan; HUBin; HUANGLian-Fang; CHENYan; WENGLin-Ling; ZhengHu; CHENHuai-Qing

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of low doses of hydrochloride tetracycline (Tc) on bone metabolism and uterus in the ovariectomized (Ova) rats. METHODS:Forty 3-month-old rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, Ova group, Tc1 group (1.2mg·kg-1·d-1), Tc2 group (4.8mg·kg-1·d-1), and estrone group (1.48 mg·kg-1·d-1),oral fed for 3 months. The proximal tibia metaphyses were processed undecalcified for quantitative bone histomorphometry and the soft tissues were processed in paraffin for pathological observation. RESULTS: Placebo-treated (lactose) Ova rats were characterized by trabecular area (TA) decreasing and their architecture worsening compared with sham controls, and bone resorption was over formation with high bone turnover. The uteri were atrophy. (2)In estrone-treated group, TA and trabecular numbers were significantly increased and the trabecular separation decreased vs Ova group. Estrone slowed down Ova-inducing bone high turnover. But the size, weight, and the endometrium of the uteri in this group were increased vs Ova group. (3) TA was increased in both Tc1 and Tc2 groups compared with Ova rats. Tc maintained bone formation indices almost at Ova level, and only decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR) in Tc1 group, and declined bone resorption perimeter. The uteri and the cell of liver and kidney almost maintained at Ova level; Tc2 decreased labeling perimeter and increased MAR in comparison with Tc1 group. The uteri were atrophy, whose size maintained at Ova level; yellow labeling was not found in bone with these doses of Tc, while yellow labeling could be seen with the doses of 30mg·kg-1·d-1 of Tc for bone marker. CONCLUSION:The two doses of Tc have similar effects on preventing bone loss in Ova rats while the bone formation and uterus are not affected. However, Tc2 does not have more effects on increasing bone mass, Tc2 causes less mild damages to the liver and kidneys.

  5. F-spondin deficient mice have a high bone mass phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn D Palmer

    Full Text Available F-spondin is a pericellular matrix protein upregulated in developing growth plate cartilage and articular cartilage during osteoarthritis. To address its function in bone and cartilage in vivo, we generated mice that were deficient for the F-spondin gene, Spon1. Spon1-/- mice were viable and developed normally to adulthood with no major skeletal abnormalities. At 6 months, femurs and tibiae of Spon1-/- mice exhibited increased bone mass, evidenced by histological staining and micro CT analyses, which persisted up to 12 months. In contrast, no major abnormalities were observed in articular cartilage at any age group. Immunohistochemical staining of femurs and tibiae revealed increased levels of periostin, alkaline phosphate and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity in the growth plate region of Spon1-/- mice, suggesting elevated bone synthesis and turnover. However, there were no differences in serum levels of TRAP, the bone resorption marker, CTX-1, or osteoclast differentiation potential between genotypes. Knockout mice also exhibited reduced levels of TGF-β1 in serum and cultured costal chondrocytes relative to wild type. This was accompanied by increased levels of the BMP-regulatory SMADs, P-SMAD1/5 in tibiae and chondrocytes. Our findings indicate a previously unrecognized role for Spon1 as a negative regulator of bone mass. We speculate that Spon1 deletion leads to a local and systemic reduction of TGF-β levels resulting in increased BMP signaling and increased bone deposition in adult mice.

  6. Mechanisms inducing low bone density in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro-computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. PMID:21509823

  7. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  8. Managing employee turnover in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, Tuua

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: Many international companies are facing challenges in retaining their top talent in the Chinese talent war. This single case study provides a description on how voluntary employee turnover is managed in a Chinese subsidiary of a Finnish multinational enterprise. First objective of this study aims at explaining why Chinese employees stay in or leave the company. The second goal is to analyze how multicultural context affect the adoption of different retention pract...

  9. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

  10. Determination of the biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the aged patients with hip fracture%老年人髋部骨折骨代谢生化指标测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈志龙; 白人骁; 邢国胜; 王莉; 马宝通; 孙培德; 薛言

    2001-01-01

    目的通过测定骨代谢生化指标,更好地预测老年髋部骨折发生的危险性。方法对32例(男14例,女18例)60岁以上髋部骨折患者和30例(男15例,女15例)老年健康对照组进行尿Ⅰ型胶原羟基末端肽(type Ⅰcollagen crosslinked c-telopeptide, CrosslapsTM)、脱氧吡啶啉(deoxypyridinoline, Dpd)和血清骨钙素(osteocalcin, OC 或bone gla protein, BGP)测定。结果 (1)老年髋部骨折患者尿中CrosslapsTM和Dpd水平均高于对照组(P0.05)。结论老年髋部骨折患者骨吸收高于同年龄组健康人。尿中反映骨吸收指标CrosslapsTM和Dpd的监测对老年髋部骨折的预防和治疗有一定的参考价值。%Objective To observe the bone turnover rate of the aged patients with hip fracture by the biochemical maker for prediction of the risk of future fracture. Methods Thirty-two patients (over 60 years) with hip fracture (14 males and 18 females) and 30 healthy persons (15 males and 15 females) were selected for analyzing crosslapsTM, deoxypyridinoline(Dpd) in urine,and osteocalcin (OC or BGP) in serum. Results (1)The mean urine level of crosslapsTM, Dpd in hip fracture group was significantly higher than that of control groups (P0.05). Conclusions Bone resorbtion in the aged patients with hip fracture was higher than the other same old healthy persons. It is suggested that the analysis of Dpd and crosslapsTM in urine may provide some reference value for the prevention and treatment of the aged patients with hip fracture.

  11. The effect of a proton pump inhibitor on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies revealed that long-term intake of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) increases the risk of vertebral or hip fracture; however, the exact mechanism for this is not known. To evaluate the effect of long-term PPI therapy on bone turnover, we analyzed the signaling pathway involved in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption/formation markers using ovariectomized rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats were ovariectomized, and two weeks later they were divided into four groups (group A, normal diet + placebo; group B, low calcium diet + placebo; group C, normal diet + PPI; and group D, low calcium diet + PPI). Omeprazole, at a concentration of 30 mg/kg, was administered orally for eight weeks and the rats were sacrificed when they were 16 weeks old. The relative expression levels of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio, c-Fos, nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and osteocalcin in femoral bone marrow cells were compared, and serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I (CTX-1) levels were determined. The relative ratio of RANKL/OPG was increased in group D, and gene expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1 were upregulated in groups B and D, which are involved in differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Furthermore, expression levels of osteocalcin, a bone formation marker, were decreased and levels of serum CTX-1, a bone resorption marker, were increased in group D. Taken together, a low calcium diet and PPI administration are thought to collaborate in order to alter osteoclast activity and bone resorption signaling.

  12. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (Pweight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  13. Influence of years since menopause on bone mineral metabolism in South Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Suresh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although an increase of bone turnover has been documented at the time of menopause, the subsequent abnormalities of bone resorption and formation in the elder women have not been investigated. AIM: To assess bone turnover among different YSM (years since menopause groups of postmenopausal women. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A case control study in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven premenopausal (control women and 257 postmenopausal women were included in this study. Based on YSM, the postmenopausal women were divided into four groups namely, 1-5 YSM (n=82, 6-10 YSM (n=77, 11-15 YSM (n=58 and> 15 YSM (n=40. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, FSH, LH, estradiol, intact-paratharmone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum and urine levels of calcium, phosphorus and bone resorption marker calcium/creatinine(Ca/Cre ratios were analyzed in all subjects. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: One way ANOVA followed by Duncan′s multiple range test. RESULTS: Significantly increased levels of FSH (P 15 YSM group over 1-5 and 6-10 YSM groups. An inverse correlation was observed between serum FSH levels and urine Ca/Cre ratios (r = -0.655, P 15 YSM group. Comparable deficient estradiol levels were observed in all YSM groups. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of bone resorption is greater in early years than late years of menopause. The decreased bone resorption risk in late postmenopausal women might be due to increased FSH levels. However, further studies are required to explore this finding.

  14. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  15. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  16. Comparison of bone and renal effects in HIV-infected adults switching to abacavir or tenofovir based therapy in a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Rasmussen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to compare the bone and renal effects among HIV-infected patients randomized to abacavir or tenofovir-based combination anti-retroviral therapy. METHODS: In an open-label randomized trial, HIV-infected patients were randomized to switch from zidovudine/lamivudine (AZT/3TC to abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC. We measured bone mass density (BMD and bone turnover biomarkers (osteocalcin, osteocalcin, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx, and osteoprotegerin. We assessed renal function by estimated creatinine clearance, plasma cystatin C, and urinary levels of creatinine, albumin, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. The changes from baseline in BMD and renal and bone biomarkers were compared across study arms. RESULTS: Of 40 included patients, 35 completed 48 weeks of randomized therapy and follow up. BMD was measured in 33, 26, and 27 patients at baseline, week 24, and week 48, respectively. In TDF/FTC-treated patients we observed significant reductions from baseline in hip and lumbar spine BMD at week 24 (-1.8% and -2.5% and week 48 (-2.1% and -2.1%, whereas BMD was stable in patients in the ABC/3TC arm. The changes from baseline in BMD were significantly different between study arms. All bone turnover biomarkers except osteoprotegerin increased in the TDF/FTC arm compared with the ABC/3TC arm, but early changes did not predict subsequent loss of BMD. Renal function parameters were similar between study arms although a small increase in NGAL was detected among TDF-treated patients. CONCLUSION: Switching to TDF/FTC-based therapy led to decreases in BMD and increases in bone turnover markers compared with ABC/3TC-based treatment. No major difference in renal function was observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00647244.

  17. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saeko Fujiwara,1 Etsuro Hamaya,2 Masayo Sato,2 Peita Graham-Clarke,3 Jennifer A Flynn,2 Russel Burge41Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia.Materials and methods: Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood–lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain. Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis.Results: Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications, but not the hip region (eight publications, a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications, decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications, improved hip structural geometry (two publications, improved blood–lipid profiles (five publications, a low incidence of hot flushes

  18. Low bone mineral density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Charlotte E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is common in patients with COPD but the likely multi-factorial causes contributing to this condition (e.g. sex, age, smoking, therapy mask the potential contribution from elements related to COPD. In order to study osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD related to COPD, we studied a well-defined group of patients and controls. Methods BMD, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, circulating bone biomarkers and biochemistry were determined in 30 clinically stable male ex-smokers with confirmed COPD and 15 age matched "ex-smoker" male controls. None of the patients were on inhaled corticosteroids or received more than one short course of steroids. Results Mean (SD FEV1% predicted of patients was 64(6%, the majority having Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD II airflow obstruction. There were 5/30 patients and 1/15 controls who were osteoporotic, while a further 17 patients and 5 controls were osteopenic. The BMD at the hip was lower in patients than controls, but not at the lumbar spine. Mean values of procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide and osteocalcin, both markers of bone formation, and Type 1 collagen β C-telopeptide, a marker of bone resorption, were similar between patients and controls. However, all bone biomarkers were inversely related to hip BMD in patients (r = -0.51, r = -0.67, r = -0.57, p Conclusions Men with COPD had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia than age matched male controls, with a marked difference in BMD at the hip. Bone biomarkers suggest increased bone turnover.

  19. Efficacy of recreational football on bone health, body composition, and physical functioning in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, J.; Hornstrup, T.; Christensen, J. F.;

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) impairs musculoskeletal health. We evaluated the efficacy of 32-week football training on bone mineral density (BMD) and physical functioning in men undergoing ADT for PCa. Football training improved the femoral shaft and total hip BMD...... markers (BTMs), body composition, and physical functioning in men with PCa undergoing ADT. METHODS: Men receiving ADT >6 months (n = 57) were randomly allocated to a football training group (FTG) (n = 29) practising 2-3 times per week for 45-60 min or to a standard care control group (CON) (n = 28) for 32...... and physical functioning parameters compared to control. INTRODUCTION: ADT is a mainstay in PCa management. Side effects include decreased bone and muscle strength and increased fracture rates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 32 weeks of football training on BMD, bone turnover...

  20. Manager's guide to reducing dental hygiene turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, C

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of dental hygiene turnover and provide managers with strategies for preventing and reducing turnover. Employee turnover is a problem which affects dental health care delivery and the health of the public. Employee turnover is costly to work settings and creates a stressful working environment which has an impact on professional-client relationships. To reduce or prevent turnover in a private practice setting, office managers must be informed about the causes and effects of this problem and be able to implement solutions. Some strategies managers can use to reduce turnover are hiring employees who have the same goals as the organization; improving the working climate; rewarding longevity; encouraging the active participation of all staff members in office management; improving office communication; and providing opportunities for self-growth, recognition, and greater responsibilities.

  1. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  2. Application of Radionuclide Bone Imaging Combined with Tumor Markers in the Diagnosis of Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients%核素骨显像联合肿瘤标记物检测对乳腺癌骨转移的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小楠; 董丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the application value of radionuclide bone imaging combined with tumor markers in the diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients .Methods 82 breast cancer patients were divided into metastasis group with 43 cases and premetastasis group with 39 cases according to the result of radionuclide bone imaging .Then 40 healthy women were selected as the control group .The results of radionuclide bone imaging and tumor markers were observed ,and the diagnostic value were compared.Results The expression level and positive rate of serum CA 125,CA15-3 and CEA of metastasis group were obviously higher,there had statistically difference (P2,there had statistically difference (P<0.05).The serum levels of CA125,CA15-3 and CEA increased gradually as bone metastatic grading increased (P<0.05).Conclusion Radionuclide bone imaging combined with tumor markers can improve the diagnostic sensitivity ,which is an important reference in the diagnosis of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients .%目的:观察核素骨显像联合肿瘤标记物对乳腺癌骨转移的诊断价值。方法选择乳腺癌患者82例,按照核素骨显像结果分为转移组43例及未转移组39例,另选取40例健康体检女性作为对照组。观察核素骨显像以及肿瘤标记物检测结果,并对其诊断价值进行考察。结果转移组血清CA125、CA15-3及CEA表达水平及阳性率显著高于未转移组及对照组,骨转移灶数目≤2患者血清CA125、CA15-3以及CEA表达水平及阳性率均显著低于骨转移灶数目>2的患者,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。且随着骨转移分级程度的升高,患者乳腺癌相关肿瘤标记物CA125、CA15-3及CEA表达水平及阳性率均呈升高趋势,各分级间差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论核素骨显像联合肿瘤标记物检测可提高诊断敏感性,对于乳腺癌骨转移的诊断具有重要的参考价值。

  3. Structural adjustment, job turnover and career progression

    OpenAIRE

    Spiros Bougheas; Carl Davidson; Richard Upward; Peter Wright

    2015-01-01

    We develop a dynamic, stochastic, multi-sectoral, equilibrium model that allows for worker turnover, job turnover and career mobility. This serves to bridge the literatures on job reallocation and career progression. Our model makes a number of predictions: a positive correlation between job turnover rates and promotion rates; a positive correlation across sectors between mean real income and their corresponding variance; an inverse relationship between sector profitability and both the job t...

  4. Linking global turnover of species and environments

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Lauren B.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of species turnover are central to the geography of biodiversity and resulting challenges for conservation, but at broad scales remain relatively little understood. Here, we take a first spatially-explicitly and global perspective to link the spatial turnover of species and environments. We compare how major groups of vertebrate ectotherms (amphibians) and endotherms (birds) respond to spatial environmental gradients. We find that high levels of species turnover occur regardless of e...

  5. Critical appraisal of denosumab in the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone loss in patients undergoing hormone ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Kendler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available David L Kendler1, Kenneth Shawn Davison21Prohealth Clinical Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Antiresorptive therapies are the mainstay for treating patients with excessively high rates of bone resorption. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand (RANKL, secreted by osteoblasts, binds to the RANK receptor on the surface of preosteoclasts and osteoclasts to elicit osteoclast formation, survival, and activity. Osteoprotegerin, also secreted by the osteoblast, acts as a decoy RANK receptor reducing RANKL binding to RANK and reducing bone resorption. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, has a high affinity and specificity for RANKL. Denosumab rapidly decreases bone resorption and increases bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and one-third radius sites. In head-to-head trials, denosumab increased BMD and decreased bone resorption to a significantly greater degree than alendronate. In postmenopausal osteoporotic women, denosumab decreased the risk of vertebral fracture (68%, nonvertebral fracture (20%, and hip fracture (40% over 36 months, compared to placebo. In patients with iatrogenic hypogonadism, denosumab rapidly decreased markers of bone resorption and increased BMD. In men treated with GnRH agonist for prostate cancer, treatment with denosumab led to a 62% decreased risk of new vertebral fracture over 3 years, as compared to placebo. In all trials completed to date, comparable adverse events have been observed in both denosumab and placebo or treatment groups.Keywords: medication adherence, fracture, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers

  6. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (pprotein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: pprotein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  7. Bone histology in chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Junichiro James

    2011-06-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of biopsied bone samples is currently regarded as the gold standard for a diagnosing procedure for bone diseases associated with chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disorder. Conventionally, "bone cell activities" and "bone mineralization" are applied as two independent assessment axes, and the histology results are classified into five categories according to these axes. Recently, a new bone histology classification system called the Turnover-Mineralization-Volume system, which applied "cancellous bone volume" as another major assessing axis, was advocated; however, both classification systems have many unsolved problems. Clinicians must realize the limitations in evaluating bone metabolism by bone histology. We will need to establish a new classification method for renal bone diseases independent of histological findings.

  8. 前列腺特异性抗原及骨标志物检测对前列腺癌骨转移患者诊断的意义%Significance of prostate specific antigen and markers of bone formation or resorption in diagnosis of bone metastasis of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼慧玲; 陈巧聪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)、骨形成标志物碱性磷酸酶(ALP)与骨吸收标志物抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶5b(TRACP5b)、Ⅰ型胶原吡啶交联终肽(ICTP)在前列腺癌骨转移诊断的意义. 方法 通过测定57例老年前列腺癌患者(年龄61~90岁)PSA、TRACP5b、ALP、ICTP血清浓度,分成骨转移(27例)与非骨转移(30例)两组,以转移灶在5个及以上者划分为进展性(18例)和局限性骨转移(39例).采用受试者工作特征曲线( ROC)评估各标志物诊断前列腺癌骨转移的价值.结果 PSA、TRACP5b、ALP、ICTP血清浓度在前列腺癌骨转移组均高于非骨转移组(P<0.05);与局限性骨转移组比较,PSA、TRACP5b、ALP、ICTP、Gleason评分在进展性骨转移组中均有明显升高(P<0.05);PSA、TRACP5b、ALP、ICTP诊断前列腺癌骨转移的曲线下面积(AUC)分别为0.796、0.657、0.762、0.743,最高诊断价值的是PSA,ALP、ICTP与之相当,TRACP5b次之,其敏感性分别为66.7%、59.3%、37.0%、59.3%,特异性则为90.0%、96.7%、80.0%、76.7%;PSA、ALP、ICTP与Gleason评分是预测前列腺癌骨转移的独立性因素,总符合率为84.2%. 结论 PSA、TRACP5b、ALP、ICTP诊断前列腺癌骨转移的价值相当,联合检测并动态观察可能有利于前列腺癌骨转移的早期诊断.%Objective To evaluate the significances of prostate specific antigen(PSA),alkaline phosphatase(ALP) as a marker of bone formation,tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b(TRACP5b) and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen(ICTP) as markers of bone resorption in diagnosis of bone metastasis of prostate cancer. Methods Totally 57 elderly patients aged 61-90 years with prostate cancer were divided into groups with bone metastasis(n=27)and without bone metastasis (n=30) according to radionuclide bone imaging,and into progressive(n=18) and limited metastasis groups(n=39) by EOD score.Serum concentrations of

  9. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets

  10. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines on a variety of topics, including tumor markers for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and others. The ... of recurrence 70-Gene signature (Mammaprint®) Cancer type: Breast ... Can tumor markers be used in cancer screening? Because tumor markers ...

  11. Dynamic Aspects of Voluntary Turnover: An Integrated Approach to Curvilinearity in the Performance-Turnover Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William J.; Cropanzano, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Previous research pertaining to job performance and voluntary turnover has been guided by 2 distinct theoretical perspectives. First, the push-pull model proposes that there is a quadratic or curvilinear relationship existing between these 2 variables. Second, the unfolding model of turnover posits that turnover is a dynamic process and that a…

  12. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  13. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  14. Effects of tai chi exercise on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z; Chen, H; Berger, M R; Zhang, L; Guo, H; Huang, Y

    2016-10-01

    Tai chi exercise may have positive effects on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. This systematic review is the first to summarize evidence to clarify the efficacy of tai chi exercise in bone health. The benefits of tai chi exercise on bone health remain unclear; further studies are needed. Emerging randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone health among older women, but yielded inconclusive results. Our objective is to conduct a systematic review to evaluate evidence from RCTs to clarify the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone mineral density (BMD), and bone turnover markers (BTM) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Six electronic databases were searched, and reference lists of systematic reviews and identified studies from the search strategy were also screened. We included all RCTs that investigate tai chi exercise for bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data selection, extraction, and evaluation of risk of bias were performed independently by two reviewers. Ten trials detailed in 11 articles were included. Six of the 11 studies reported positive outcomes on bone health. Results of our meta-analysis showed a significant effect of tai chi exercise on BMD change at the spine compared with no treatment in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. When tai chi exercise combined with a calcium supplement was compared with the calcium supplement alone, the result of BMD change at the spine showed no significant effect. Because the measurable effect observed was minimal, and due to the low quality of methodology of the studies, we conclude that the result is of limited reliability. Tai chi exercise may have benefits on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, but the evidence is sometimes weak, poor, and inconsistent. Consequently, only limited conclusions can be drawn regarding the efficacy of tai chi exercise on bone health. Further well designed studies with

  15. Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Robin; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Smith, Brenda J; Altman, Stephanie; Tou, Janet C

    2011-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) consumption has been reported to improve bone health. However, sources of ω-3 PUFAs differ in the type of fatty acids and structural form. The study objective was to determine the effect of various ω-3 PUFAs sources on bone during growth. Young (age 28d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil (CO) or ω-3 PUFA rich, flaxseed (FO), krill (KO), menhaden (MO), salmon (SO) or tuna (TO) for 8 weeks. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Bone turnover markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by calorimetric assays. Results showed that rats fed TO, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) had higher (P<0.009) tibial bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and lower (P=0.05) lipid peroxidation compared to the CO-fed rats. Reduced lipid peroxidation was associated with increased tibial BMD (r2=0.08, P=0.02) and BMC (r2=0.71, P=0.01). On the other hand, rats fed FO or MO, rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω-3), improved bone microarchitecture compared to rats fed CO or SO. Serum osteocalcin was higher (P=0.03) in rats fed FO compared to rats fed SO. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. The animal study results suggest consuming a variety of ω-3 PUFA sources to promote bone health during the growth stage.

  16. Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Way, Fabrice; Lessard, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène

    2012-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters the metabolism of several minerals, thereby inducing bone lesions and vessel-wall calcifications that can cause functional impairments and excess mortality. The histological bone abnormalities seen in CKD, known as renal osteodystrophy, consist of alterations in the bone turnover rate, which may be increased (osteitis fibrosa [OF]) or severely decreased (adynamic bone disease [AD]); abnormal mineralization (osteomalacia [OM]), and bone loss. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is related to early phosphate accumulation (responsible for FGF23 overproduction by bone tissue), decreased calcitriol production by the kidneys, and hypocalcemia. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with OF. Other factors that affect bone include acidosis, chronic inflammation, nutritional deficiencies, and iatrogenic complications.

  17. Effects of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density, bone metabolism and serum lipids in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis:a multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-li刘建立; LIU Hui刘慧; CHEN Xiao-ping陈小平; LIU Yu-juan刘玉娟; Abie Ekangaki; ZHENG Yi-man郑以漫; Adolfo Diez-Perez; Kristine Harper; ZHU Han-min朱汉民; HUANG Qi-ren黄琪仁; ZHANG Zhong-lan张忠兰; LI Hui-lin李慧林; QIN Yue-juan秦跃娟; ZHANG Ying张颖; WEI Dao-lin魏道林; LU Jing-hui陆敬辉

    2004-01-01

    Background Raloxifene has been approved for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasian women. It also has some positive effects on serum lipids in Caucasians. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, and serum lipids in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.Methods This was a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 204 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis were assigned to receive raloxifene (60 mg) or placebo treatment daily for 12 months. BMD, serum bone metabolism markers, and serum lipids were measured before and after drug administration. BMD was measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and bone metabolism markers were analyzed by one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum lipids were measured by enzymatic analysis.Results At the end of the 12-month study, lumbar spine BMD increased in both groups with a mean increase of (3.3±4.8) % in the raloxifene group and (1.0±4.9) % in the placebo group (P0.05). In the raloxifene group, the median decreases in the biochemical markers of bone metabolism serum osteocalcin and C-telopeptide were 41.7% and 61.5%, respectively. These changes were statistically significant compared with those in the placebo group (10.6% and 35.6%, P<0.001, respectively). Both total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly in the raloxifene group compared with those in the placebo group (P<0.001, respectively) and there was no significant effect of raloxifene on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides compared with placebo. Conclusions Raloxifene 60 mg/d for 12 months significantly increases lumbar spine and total hip BMD, significantly decreases bone turnover, and has favourable effects on serum lipids in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  18. Rho iso-alpha acids from hops inhibit the GSK-3/NF-κB pathway and reduce inflammatory markers associated with bone and cartilage degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Jeffrey S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rho iso-alpha acids (RIAA from hops have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. To understand the mechanisms, we evaluated the effect of RIAA in cell signaling pathways and inflammatory markers using various in vitro models. We also investigated their therapeutic effect in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Methods The LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were used to evaluate the effect of RIAA on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways; phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK was assessed by western blotting and NF-κB binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Effect on the NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter assays in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. GSK-3α/β kinase activity was measured in cell-free assays. The inhibitory effect of RIAA on inflammatory markers was assessed by measuring nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, RANKL-mediated TRAP activity in transformed osteoclasts, and TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis were fed with RIAA for 2 weeks. Symptoms of joint swelling, arthritic index and joint damage were assessed. Results RIAA selectively inhibited the NF-κB pathway while having no effect on ERK1/2, p38 and JNK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RIAA also inhibited GSK-3α/β kinase activity and GSK-3β dependent phosphorylation of β-catenin in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, RIAA inhibited NF-κB-mediated inflammatory markers in various cell models, including nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, RANKL-mediated TRAP activity in transformed osteoclasts, and TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated MMP-13 expression in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells. Finally, in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, RIAA ameliorated joint damage as evidenced by significant reduction of the arthritis index and histology score; at 250 mg/kg-body weight, RIAA had efficacy similar to that of 20 mg

  19. Function of osteocytes in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarden, E M; Burger, E H; Nijweide, P J

    1994-07-01

    Although the structural design of cellular bone (i.e., bone containing osteocytes that are regularly spaced throughout the bone matrix) dates back to the first occurrence of bone as a tissue in evolution, and although osteocytes represent the most abundant cell type of bone, we know as yet little about the role of the osteocyte in bone metabolism. Osteocytes descend from osteoblasts. They are formed by the incorporation of osteoblasts into the bone matrix. Osteocytes remain in contact with each other and with cells on the bone surface via gap junction-coupled cell processes passing through the matrix via small channels, the canaliculi, that connect the cell body-containing lacunae with each other and with the outside world. During differentiation from osteoblasts to mature osteocyte the cells lose a large part of their cell organelles. Their cell processes are packed with microfilaments. In this review we discuss the various theories on osteocyte function that have taken in consideration these special features of osteocytes. These are 1) osteocytes are actively involved in bone turnover; 2) the osteocyte network is through its large cell-matrix contact surface involved in ion exchange; and 3) osteocytes are the mechanosensory cells of bone and play a pivotal role in functional adaptation of bone. In our opinion, especially the last theory offers an exciting concept for which some biomechanical, biochemical, and cell biological evidence is already available and which fully warrants further investigations.

  20. Antiosteoporosis Effect of Radix Scutellariae Extract on Density and Microstructure of Long Bones in Tail-Suspended Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Rui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Scutellariae (RS, a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  1. Antiosteoporosis effect of radix scutellariae extract on density and microstructure of long bones in tail-suspended sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50 mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2 mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

  2. Contextual Factors Related to Elementary Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlow, Michelle C.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school leadership instability and how it affects schools and student achievement has been studied. The question of how to predict turnover of the principal remains an unknown. The purpose of this research was to search for possible relationships between certain contextual variables and principal turnover and to test the independent…

  3. Principal Turnover. Information Capsule. Volume 0914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that school districts are facing increasing rates of principal turnover. Frequent principal changes deprive schools of the leadership stability they need to succeed, disrupt long-term school reform efforts, and may even be linked to increased teacher turnover and lower levels of student achievement. This Information Capsule…

  4. Employee Turnover: Evidence from a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of employee turnover from a medium-sized law firm in Australia were examined in regard to theories of worker mobility (matching, sectoral shift, and incentive). Results support a role for matching effects, but personnel practices affect the timing of turnover. Matching and incentive-based theories do not explain the high rates of turnover…

  5. Molecular markers of tumor invasiveness in ameloblastoma: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Li; CHEN, XINMING

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to review the current new knowledge on the molecular markers of tumor invasion in ameloblastoma. In this review, tumor molecular markers were identified and allocated to the following six groups according to their functions: (I) Markers involved in extracellular matrix degradation, (II) Molecular markers involved in cell adhesion lost, (III) Molecular markers involved in bone remodeling, (IV) Cytokines involved in angiogenesis, (V) Molecular markers related ...

  6. Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacey Guin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships among teachers. The reality of these organizational challenges is particularly alarming, given that high turnover schools are more likely to serve low-income and minority students. The negative relationship between teacher turnover and school functioning, and the fact that turbulent schools are disproportionately likely to serve lowincome and minority students have important implications for both district and school-level policies. Specifically: Teacher turnover rates are one indicator of school health, which school districts should consider when focusing on school improvements. Districts need to begin by developing the means to identify individual schools that experience high levels of teacher turnover. Current district policies in implementing professional development for teachers in low-performing schools are inefficient when teachers do not remain in the schools in which they are trained. In order for low-performing schools to improve, districts need to consider providing incentive programs so that high quality teachers apply for, and remain in, these schools. Future research is needed to address the causal link between turnover, organizational functioning and student outcomes. Additionally, there is a need for research examining district policies that may facilitate teacher turnover within a district, including how districts place and transfer teachers, as well as how teachers’ salaries are budgeted.

  7. System turnover and acceptance procedure of Qingshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnover and acceptance process of nuclear power plant has direct influence on construction scheduling. The authors describe organization, conditions and implementation of system turnover and acceptance. The paper also gives some suggestions as reference of turnover and acceptance work

  8. The Research Progress and Prospect of Employee Turnover Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Somchit Hongvichit

    2015-01-01

    Employee turnover management is an important aspect of human resource management, how to effectively control and predict employee turnover becomes an important content of academic research. Related research results show that the turnover intention is employee turnover behavior of the most direct antecedents, can predict employee turnover behavior. The author reviews the employee turnover intention, the connotation of the antecedent variables and measurement, the future trend of development an...

  9. Turnover intention in new graduate nurses: a multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beecroft, Pauline C; Dorey, Frederick; Wenten, Madé

    2008-01-01

    Title Turnover intention in new graduate nurses: a multivariate analysis Aim This paper is a report of a study to determine the relationship of new nurse turnover intent with individual characteristics, work environment variables and organizational factors and to compare new nurse turnover with actual turnover in the 18 months of employment following completion of a residency. Background Because of their influence on patient safety and health outcomes nurse turnover and turnover intent have r...

  10. Bone Metabolism and Arterial Stiffness After Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Cseprekál

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To assess the relationship between bone and vascular disease and its changes over time after renal transplantation. Metabolic bone disease (MBD is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD and is associated with cardiovascular (CV disease. Following transplantation (Tx, improvement in CV disease has been reported; however, data regarding changes in bone disease remain controversial. Methods: Bone turnover and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV were assessed in 47 Tx patients (38 (3-191 months after Tx. Results: Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteocalcin (OC and beta-crosslaps were significantly higher in Tx patients, and decreased significantly after one year. There was a negative correlation between BALP, OC and steroid administered (r=-0.35;r=-0.36 respectively. PWV increased in the Tx group (1.15 SD. In patients with a follow up of Conclusions: Increased bone turnover and arterial stiffness are present following kidney transplantation. While bone turnover decreases with time, arterial stiffness correlates initially with bone turnover, after which the influence of cholesterol becomes significant. Non-invasive estimation of bone metabolism and arterial stiffness may help to assess CKD-MBD following renal transplantation.

  11. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  12. 藏红花提取液对去卵巢大鼠骨密度及骨代谢生化指标的影响%Effects of Crocus Sativus Extract on Bone Mineral Density and Biochemistry Markers of Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鹏冲; 雷伟; 高雁翎; 颉强; 程欢; 刘帅

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究中药藏红花提取液对去卵巢大鼠股骨骨密度及血清骨代谢生化指标的影响.方法:选用48只4月龄SD雌性大鼠,随机分为6组:假手术组、模型组、戊酸雌二醇组、藏红花低、中、高剂量组.术后4周各组分别给予相应制剂灌胃,术后12周处死,分别测定股骨骨密度、子宫指数、雌二醇、血钙、血磷、威性磷酸酶.结果:与模型组相比,藏红花各刺量组股骨骨密度明显井高(p0.05);与戊酸雌二醇组比较,藏红花各剂量组子宫指数显著降低(p<0.01).结论:藏红花提取液有助于抑制去卵巢大鼠骨量的丢失,改善骨代谢,对骨质疏松症具有防治作用.%Objictive: To investigate the effects of Crocus sativus extraction on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemistry markers of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Forty-eight female Sprague-dawley rats, four months old, were randomly divided into six groups: the sham-operating group (Sham), the ovarictomized group (OVX), estradiol valerate treated group (E2),low-dose of Crocus sativus treated group (L-Crocus), medium-dose of Crocus sativus treated group (M-Crocus) and high-dose of Crocus sativus treated group (H-Crocus). Four weeks after surgery, the rats of Sham group and OVX group were intra-gastric administrated with distilled water, while the rats of the E2 group received estradiol valerate (0.8mg/lgd) and rats of other three groups received different dosage of Crocus sativus extract (25, 50, 100mg/kg.d) by gavage for 8 weeks. Then all the rats were executed and their right femoral bones and blood sera were collected. The BMD, index of uterus, serum estrogen levels anl serum biochemical markers of bone metabolism were determined. Results: The BMD and serum estrogen levels in the rats of three Crocus sativus extract treated groups were significantly higher than that in OVX group (p<0.01), while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level in the former were obviously

  13. Marcadores del remodelamiento óseo en saliva y su correlación con los niveles sanguíneos en ratas Bone remodeling markers in saliva as compared to serum in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Gretel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien es conocida la utilidad de marcadores óseos en suero u orina para determinar cambios en el remodelamiento óseo, la misma no ha sido totalmente estudiada en saliva. Este trabajo evalúa la correlación entre dos marcadores del recambio óseo: la fosfatasa alcalina ósea (isoforma ósea, FAO y el telopéptido C-terminal del colágeno tipo I (CTX, medidos simultáneamente en suero y saliva de ratas Wistar (250 a 300 g, SHAM (n=12 y ovariectomizadas (OVX (n=12. Luego de una semana de la cirugía se extrajo sangre en ayunas y saliva total estimulada donde se evaluó CTX (ELISA, RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Dinamarca y FAO (Wiener, colorimetría. En el suero, tanto CTX (ng/ml como FAO (UI/l en ratas OVX fueron significativamente mayores que en ratas SHAM (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, pBone markers are useful tools to measure bone remodeling; currently they are assessed in serum and urinary samples; however there is little information concerning their measurement in saliva. The present experimental study evaluates the possibility to measure collagen type I carboxiterminal telopeptide (CTX and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP in saliva, its correlation with serum samples in normal conditions and in the increase of the bone remodeling due to estrogen deficiency. Twenty four normal adult Wistar rats (300±20 g [12 SHAM and 12 rats after 1 week of bilateral ovariectomy (OVX] were studied. Fasting serum and total saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine were collected. In both samples were measured: CTX (ng/ml by ELISA (RatLabs, Osteometer Bio Tech, Denmark and b-AP (IU/L (Wiener, colorimetrically. Both CTX and b-AL in serum samples were significantly higher in OVX than in SHAM rats (15.3±4.0 vs. 21.8±6.4, p<0.05 y 71±29 vs. 104±23; p<0.01, respectively. Saliva presented the same behaviour (3.6±0.5 vs. 6.4±2.9; p<0.02 y 73±29 vs. 90±8; p<0.003, respectively. When saliva CTX and b-AP were plotted against serum concentration significant

  14. The validation of the turnover intention scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F.C. Bothma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Turnover intention as a construct has attracted increased research attention in the recent past, but there are seemingly not many valid and reliable scales around to measure turnover intention.Research purpose: This study focused on the validation of a shortened, six-item version of the turnover intention scale (TIS-6.Motivation for the study: The research question of whether the TIS-6 is a reliable and a valid scale for measuring turnover intention and for predicting actual turnover was addressed in this study.Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a census-based sample (n= 2429 of employees in an information, communication and technology (ICT sector company (N= 23 134 where the TIS-6 was used as one of the criterion variables. The leavers (those who left the company in this sample were compared with the stayers (those who remained in the employ of the company in this sample in respect of different variables used in the study.Main findings: It was established that the TIS-6 could measure turnover intentions reliably (α= 0.80. The TIS-6 could significantly distinguish between leavers and stayers (actual turnover, thereby confirming its criterion-predictive validity. The scale also established statistically significant differences between leavers and stayers in respect of a number of the remaining theoretical variables used in the study, thereby also confirming its differential validity. These comparisons were conducted for both the 4-month and the 4-year period after the survey was conducted.Practical/managerial implications: Turnover intention is related to a number of variables in the study which necessitates a reappraisal and a reconceptualisation of existing turnover intention models.Contribution/value-add: The TIS-6 can be used as a reliable and valid scale to assess turnover intentions and can therefore be used in research to validly and reliably assess turnover intentions or to

  15. The importance of zinc on osteoporotic bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I.; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Farias, M.L.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: fleiuss@hucff.ufrj.br; Rosenthal, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Endocrina]. E-mail: doris@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element that can be found in bones, such as calcium and phosphorus. It seems to have effects on growth, bone turnover and mineralization making its relationship with bones still opening. The goal of this study is, by XRF analysis, characterized bone samples, with and without pathology, in the trabecular region. For that purpose, it was used an XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results show that the profile of the zinc distribution and its concentration on femoral heads are strongly related to the associated pathology. (author)

  16. Poly(Dopamine-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs. We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA. The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs’ responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.

  17. Improvements to Kramers Turnover Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The Kramers turnover problem, that is obtaining a uniform expression for the rate of escape of a particle over a barrier for any value of the external friction was solved in the eighties. Two formulations were given, one by Melnikov and Meshkov (MM) (J. Chem. Phys. 85, 1018 (1986)), which was based on a perturbation expansion for the motion of the particle in the presence of friction. The other, by Pollak, Grabert and Haenggi (PGH) (J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4073 (1989)), valid also for memory friction, was based on a perturbation expansion for the motion along the collective unstable normal mode of the particle. Both theories did not take into account the temperature dependence of the average energy loss to the bath. Increasing the bath temperature will reduce the average energy loss. In this paper, we analyse this effect, using a novel perturbation theory. We find that within the MM approach, the thermal energy gained from the bath diverges, the average energy gain becomes infinite, implying an essential failure o...

  18. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  19. Effect of dietary calcium: Phosphorus ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal calcium absorption in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshihara, Moyuru; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of dietary calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on bone mineralization and intestinal Ca absorption in ovariectomized (OVX) rat models of osteoporosis and sham-operated rats. Thirty 12-wk-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of OVX rats and three groups of sham rats. Thirty days after the adaptation period, OVX rats and sham rats were fed a diet formulated Ca:P, 1:0.5, 1:1 or 1:2 (each diet containing 0.5% Ca), respectively for 42 d. In both sham and OVX rats, serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, was increased by decreasing Ca:P ratio (1:2). In contrast, rats fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet (dietary P restriction) suppressed the increased serum parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline, and increased Ca absorption in both sham and OVX rats compared to the Ca:P = 1:1 and 1:2 diets. Especially, in OVX rats, the decreased bone mineral density of the fifth lumbar was also suppressed when rats were fed the Ca:P = 1:0.5 diet. These results indicated that the elevation of dietary Ca:P ratio may inhibit bone loss and increase intestinal Ca absorption in OVX rats.

  20. Dietary long-chain inulin reduces abdominal fat but has no effect on bone density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Ryz, Natasha R; Taylor, Carla G; Weiler, Hope A

    2008-08-01

    New strategies to improve Ca absorption and bone health are needed to address the current state of osteoporosis prevention and management. Inulin-type fructans have shown great promise as a dietary intervention strategy, but have not yet been tested in a young female model. Our objective was to investigate the effect of long chain (LC) inulin on bone mineralization and density in growing, female rats, as well as the quality of growth. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to inulin or cellulose treatments for either 4 or 8 weeks. Growth was measured weekly and quality of growth assessed using fat pad weights and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Whole body (WB) and selected regions were analysed for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by DXA. Serum markers of bone turnover were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ca and P concentrations were determined in excised femurs by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Feeding inulin resulted in 4 % higher femoral weight (adjusted for body weight) and 6 % less feed intake. Inulin did not affect WB or regional BMD, but was associated with a 28 % lower parametrial fat pad mass, 21 % less WB fat mass and 5 % less WB mass. In summary, LC-inulin lowered body fat mass, without consequence to bone density in growing female rats.

  1. Effects of long-term immobilization and recovery on human triceps surae and collagen turnover in the Achilles tendon in patients with healing ankle fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per;

    2008-01-01

    or remobilization. Local collagen turnover was measured as the peritendinous concentrations of NH2-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) and COOH-terminal telopeptide region of type I collagen (ICTP), markers thought to be indexes of type I collagen synthesis and degradation, respectively. Both markers were...

  2. Biomimetic catalysis: Taking on the turnover challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Richard J.

    2016-03-01

    Emulating the efficiency with which enzymes catalyse reactions has often been used as inspiration to develop self-assembled cages. Now two studies present approaches to achieving catalyst turnover -- one of the biggest challenges in achieving truly biomimetic catalysis.

  3. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE TURNOVER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUNTU ROXANA CORINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the economic crisis seems not to be overcome by the authorities it is important for companies to see how they are performing, if their products are sold or not and if it is necessary to take measures according to the results obtained. The turnover expresses the total revenues obtained by a company from its current commercial activities, being one of the most important indicators of measuring the performance of the company. The aim of this paper is to stress the theoretical implications that turnover has over the economic activity of a company. In the chapters of the paper we will present theoretical notions regarding the concept of turnover analysis, meaning analysis of the turnover’s dynamics, the structural analysis of turnover.

  4. Effect of different doses of propranolol on bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in ovariectomized rats%不同剂量普萘洛尔对去卵巢大鼠骨密度和生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉川; 马远征; 王亮; 杨同磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of propranolol hydrochloride tablets on bone mineral density ( BMD ) and bone metabolic markers in ovariectomized rats. Methods Sixty rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, model blank group ( normal saline ) , high dose group ( 20 mg/kg · D ), middle dose group ( 5 mg/kg ·D ), and low dose group ( 1 mg/kg. D ). Rats in sham group received the operation to resect equivalent adipose tissue near the ovary. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in rats in other groups. BMD was tested at the 3rd month after the operation. Thereafter, rats in both sham group and model blank group were given normal saline, while rats in other groups were given a gavage of propranolol aqueous solution at different concentrations according to different doses per day. BMD and bone metabolic markers were tested on the 4th and 8th week, respectively. Results The results in sham group were higher than those in the other groups ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Low dose of propranolol can inhibit bone loss and increase the osteoblast activity in osteoporosis rats. The regulating effect of high dose of propranolol on bone mass is not obvious.%目的 观察盐酸普萘洛尔片对去卵巢大鼠骨密度(BMD)、骨代谢标志物的影响.方法将60只大鼠随机分组:假手术组,模型空白组(生理盐水),高剂量组[20 mg/(kg·d)],中等剂量组[5 mg/(kg·d)],低剂量组[1 mg/(kg·d)].假手术组在卵巢附近切除等量脂肪组织,其余各组行双侧卵巢摘除手术,术后3个月后,检测骨密度,之后,假手术组和模型空白组给予生理盐水,其余根据剂量不同每日给予大鼠灌胃相应剂量普萘洛尔水溶液.分别于第4周和第8周,检测各组BMD及骨代谢生化指标.结果 假手术组均高于各组(P<0.01),低剂量和中等剂量组高于高剂量组和生理盐水组(P<0.05),高剂量组与生理盐水组无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 低剂量的普萘洛尔对于骨质疏松大鼠模型,可

  5. Biglycan deficiency interferes with ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina L; Allen, Matthew R; Bloomfield, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    Biglycan is a matrix proteoglycan with a possible role in bone turnover. In a 4-week study with sham-operated or OVX biglycan-deficient or wildtype mice, we show that biglycan-deficient mice are resistant to OVX-induced trabecular bone loss and that there is a gender difference in the response to...

  6. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  7. Thrombospondin-1 regulates bone homeostasis through effects on bone matrix integrity and nitric oxide signaling in osteoclasts

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah R Amend; Uluckan, Ozge; Hurchla, Michelle; Leib, Daniel; Novack, Deborah Veis; Silva, Matthew; Frazier, William; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), an endogenous antiangiogenic, is a widely expressed secreted ligand with roles in migration, adhesion and proliferation and is a target for new therapeutics. While TSP1 is present in the bone matrix and several TSP1 receptors play roles in bone biology, the role of TSP1 in bone remodeling has not been fully elucidated. Bone turnover is characterized by coordinated activity of bone-forming osteoblasts (OB) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OC). TSP1−/− mice had increased...

  8. Platelet turnover in stable coronary artery disease - influence of thrombopoietin and low-grade inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Bøjet Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Newly formed platelets are associated with increased aggregation and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of platelet turnover in patients with CAD are largely unknown. AIM: To investigate associations between platelet turnover parameters, thrombopoietin and markers of low-grade inflammation in patients with stable CAD. Furthermore, to explore the relationship between platelet turnover parameters and type 2 diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, smoking, age, gender and renal insufficiency. METHODS: We studied 581 stable CAD patients. Platelet turnover parameters (immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell-ratio were determined using automated flow cytometry (Sysmex XE-2100. Furthermore, we measured thrombopoietin and evaluated low-grade inflammation by measurement of high-sensitive CRP and interleukin-6. RESULTS: We found strong associations between the immature platelet fraction, immature platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet large cell ratio (r = 0.61-0.99, p<0.0001. Thrombopoietin levels were inversely related to all of the platelet turnover parameters (r = -0.17--0.25, p<0.0001. Moreover, thrombopoietin levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes (p = 0.03 and in smokers (p = 0.003. Low-grade inflammation evaluated by high-sensitive CRP correlated significantly, yet weakly, with immature platelet count (r = 0.10, p = 0.03 and thrombopoietin (r = 0.16, p<0.001. Also interleukin-6 correlated with thrombopoietin (r = 0.10, p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: In stable CAD patients, thrombopoietin was inversely associated with platelet turnover parameters. Furthermore, thrombopoietin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and in smokers. However, low-grade inflammation did not seem to have a

  9. Impact of motivation principles on employee turnover

    OpenAIRE

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie; Klupáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on the analysis of motivation principles in human resource management and their further verification by factor analysis. The objective is to identify the main motivation principles and their impacts on employee turnover as well as formulate suggested practices to eliminate the negative impact of employee disaffection and turnover. The identification of motivation principles is based on a content analysis of professional and scientific publications aimed at moti...

  10. Labor Turnover and Labor Legislation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Gonzaga

    2003-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Brazilian labor market is its impressively high job and worker turnover rates. Although labor legislation in Brazil is very restrictive, dismissal costs are not high when compared with other Latin American countries. Moreover, many authors argue that the design of some job security programs creates perverse incentives that generate labor turnover. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we describe Brazilian labor legislation, with emphasis on job...

  11. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  12. Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, N; Holzmann, PJ; ter Maaten, JC; Stuurman, LM; Roos, JC; Lips, P

    2005-01-01

    Long-term GH treatment in GH-deficient men resulted in a continuous increase in bone turnover as shown by histomorphometry. BMD continuously increased in all regions of interest, but more in the regions with predominantly cortical bone. Introduction: Adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency have r

  13. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  14. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  15. Failure to Generate Bone Marrow Adipocytes Does Not Protect Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T.

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocal association between bone marrow fat and bone mass has been reported in ovariectomized rodents, suggesting that bone marrow adipogenesis has a negative effect on bone growth and turnover balance. Mice with loss of function mutations in kit receptor (kitW/W-v) have no bone marrow adipocytes in tibia or lumbar vertebra. We therefore tested the hypothesis that marrow fat contributes to development of osteopenia by comparing the skeletal response to ovariectomy (ovx) in growing wild t...

  16. The Effects of Employee Turnover on Those Who Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Eugene P.; Hockett, Cherri

    Research on employee turnover which has examined why employees quit their jobs has identified a wide range of variables that are associated with turnover, but has provided little information about the consequences of turnover for those who remain in an organization. This study was conducted to examine whether the manner in which turnover is…

  17. Implications of combined ovariectomy and glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment on mineral, microarchitectural, biomechanical and matrix properties of rat bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Parameswari; Khassawna, Thaqif; Kampschulte, Marian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Huerter, Britta; Dürselen, Lutz; Faulenbach, Miriam; Heiss, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the deleterious side effects of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Since the condition is particularly aggressive in postmenopausal women who are on steroid therapy, in this study we have attempted to analyse the combined effect of glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment and cessation of oestrogen on rat bone. The dual aim was to generate osteoporotic bone status in a short time scale and to characterise the combination of glucocorticoid-postmenopausal osteoporotic conditions. Sprague Dawley rats (N = 42) were grouped randomly into three groups: untreated control, sham-operated and ovariectomized-steroid (OVX-Steroid) rats. Control animals were euthanized with no treatment [Month 0 (M0)], while sham and OVX-Steroid rats were monitored up to 1 month (M1) and 3 months (M3) post laparotomy/post OVX-Steroid treatment. Histology, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical and mRNA expression analysis of collagenous, non-collagenous matrix proteins and osteoclast markers were examined. The study indicated enhanced osteoclastogenesis and significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the OVX-Steroid rats with Z-scores below -2.5, reduced torsional strength, reduced bone volume (BV/TV%), significantly enhanced trabecular separation (Tb.S), and less trabecular number (Tb.N) compared with sham rats. Osteoclast markers, cathepsin K and MMP 9 were upregulated along with Col1α1 and biglycan with no significant expression variation in fibronectin, MMP 14, LRP-5, Car II and TNC. These results show higher bone turnover with enhanced bone resorption accompanied with reduced torsional strength in OVX-Steroid rats; and these changes were attained within a short timeframe. This could be a useful model which mimics human postmenopausal osteoporosis that is associated with steroid therapy and could prove of value both in disease diagnosis and for testing generating and testing biological agents which could

  18. Addressing employee turnover and retention: keeping your valued performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee turnover and employee retention are inextricably linked; to control turnover is to enhance retention. Turnover is a relatively simple concept; however, considerable confusion often results when addressing turnover because of differences in how it is defined; that is, what is counted, how it is counted, and how the turnover rates are expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to its cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some that can be corrected and some that cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role; every improvement in turnover is a direct improvement in retention, with eventual positive effects on the bottom line.

  19. Inulin, oligofructose and bone health: experimental approaches and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M

    2005-04-01

    Inulin-type fructans have been proposed to benefit mineral retention, thereby enhancing bone health. Many, but not all, experimental animal studies have shown increased mineral absorption by feeding non-digestible oligosaccharides. Possible reasons for inconsistencies are explored. A few studies have reported an enhanced bone mineral density or content. Bone health can be evaluated in chronic feeding studies with bone densitometry, bone breaking strength, bone mineral concentration and bone structure. Isotopic Ca tracers can be used to determine the point of metabolism affected by feeding a functional food ingredient. These methods and the effects of feeding inulin-type fructose are reviewed. Inulin-type fructans enhance Mg retention. Chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose enhance femoral Ca content, bone mineral density and Ca retention through enhanced Ca absorption and suppressed bone turnover rates, but it is not bone-promoting under all conditions.

  20. Bone and energy metabolism parameters in professional cyclists during the Giro d'Italia 3-weeks stage race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cycling is a not weight-bearing activity and is known to induce bone resorption. Stage races are really strenuous endurance performances affecting the energy homeostasis. The recently highlighted link, in the co-regulation of bone and energy metabolism, demonstrates a central role for the equilibrium between carboxylated and undercarboxylated forms of osteocalcin. Aim of this study was to understand the acute physiological responses to a cycling stage race in terms of bone turnover and energy metabolism and the possible co-regulative mechanisms underlying their relationship. We studied nine professional cyclists engaged in 2011 Giro d'Italia stage race. Pre-analytical and analytical phases tightly followed academic and anti-doping authority's recommendations. Bone and energy metabolism markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, leptin and adiponectin and related hormones (cortisol and testosterone were measured, by Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassays, at days -1 (pre-race, 12 and 22 during the race. The power output and the energy expenditure (mean and accumulated were derived and correlated with the biochemical indexes. During the race, bone metabolism showed that an unbalance in behalf of resorption, which is enhanced, occurred along with a relative increase in the concentration of the undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin that was indirectly related to the enhanced energy expenditure, through adipokines modifications, with leptin decrease (high energy consumption and adiponectin increase (optimization of energy expenditure. The exertion due to heavy effort induced a decrease of cortisol, while testosterone levels resulted unchanged. In conclusion, during a 3-weeks stage race, bone metabolism is pushed towards resorption. A possible relationship between the bone and the energy metabolisms is suggested by the relative correlations among absolute and relative concentrations

  1. Surface Functionalization of Orthopedic Titanium Implants with Bone Sialoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Baranowski

    Full Text Available Orthopedic implant failure due to aseptic loosening and mechanical instability remains a major problem in total joint replacement. Improving osseointegration at the bone-implant interface may reduce micromotion and loosening. Bone sialoprotein (BSP has been shown to enhance bone formation when coated onto titanium femoral implants and in rat calvarial defect models. However, the most appropriate method of BSP coating, the necessary level of BSP coating, and the effect of BSP coating on cell behavior remain largely unknown. In this study, BSP was covalently coupled to titanium surfaces via an aminosilane linker (APTES, and its properties were compared to BSP applied to titanium via physisorption and untreated titanium. Cell functions were examined using primary human osteoblasts (hOBs and L929 mouse fibroblasts. Gene expression of specific bone turnover markers at the RNA level was detected at different intervals. Cell adhesion to titanium surfaces treated with BSP via physisorption was not significantly different from that of untreated titanium at any time point, whereas BSP application via covalent coupling caused reduced cell adhesion during the first few hours in culture. Cell migration was increased on titanium disks that were treated with higher concentrations of BSP solution, independent of the coating method. During the early phases of hOB proliferation, a suppressive effect of BSP was observed independent of its concentration, particularly when BSP was applied to the titanium surface via physisorption. Although alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced in the BSP-coated titanium groups after 4 days in culture, increased calcium deposition was observed after 21 days. In particular, the gene expression level of RUNX2 was upregulated by BSP. The increase in calcium deposition and the stimulation of cell differentiation induced by BSP highlight its potential as a surface modifier that could enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic implants

  2. Carboxy-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and amino-terminal propeptide (PINP) of type I collagen as markers of bone metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, Franco; Santeufemia, Davide A; Del Conte, Alessandro; Mazza, Francesco; Tozzoli, Renato; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2013-06-01

    The early diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is difficult, and 30-40% of patients with NSCLC develop bone metastases (BMs) during the course of their disease. Because the delayed demonstration of skeletal involvement may seriously affect survival, there is a need for early diagnosis of BMs. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of common serum tumor markers is low and they are used mainly for monitoring the efficacy of therapy and detection of recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a panel of serum biomarkers in patients with NSCLC and BMs. Sixteen patients (11 males, 5 females; median age=64 years, range 54-68 years) with NSCLC and BMs (cases), and 18 age- and stage-matched patients without BMs (controls) underwent measurement of serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform type 5b (TRAP5b) and amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and fragments of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1. CTX (443.7 ± 945.1 vs. 402.7 ± 28.4 pg/ml, p=0.003) and PINP (75.9 ± 11.4 vs. 64.1 ± 7.5 μg/l, p=0.001) were significantly higher in patients with BMs, while the mean value of the other markers did not differ (p=NS) between cases and controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 73.3%, 86.7% and 79.4% for CTX; 55.5%, 62.5% and 58.8% for CEA; 65.0%, 78.6% and 70.6% for CYFRA; 30.4%, 76.2% and 67.6% for TRAP5b; and 72.2%, 81.2% and 76.5% for PINP, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for CTX was 0.68. In conclusion, CTX and PINP measurement can be useful in monitoring patients with NSCLC during follow-up, with the aim of detecting BMs early. PMID:23749913

  3. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF TURNOVER INTENTIONS AMONG CHINESE OFF FARM MIGRANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Smyth; Qingguo Zhai; Xiaoxu Li

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of turnover intentions of off farm migrant workers, using data collected from China's Jiangsu Province. Turnover intention is posited to be a function of demographic/human capital characteristics, job characteristics and job satisfaction. We find that higher levels of education have a positive effect on reported turnover intentions, while higher income and job satisfaction have a negative effect on turnover intentions. As turnover intentions represent a go...

  5. Effects of Tai Ji Exercise on Bone Structure and Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong; David Lawson

    2005-01-01

    To evaluated the effects of the 24 movements Tai Ji exercise on bone structure and function. Broadband Ultrsonic Attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS), bone formation marker Osteocalcin (OSTN) and bone resorption markers urinary Pyridum crosslinks (PYR and D-PYR) were studied before and after four months of Tai Ji exercise. Improved bone structure and increased bone density in menopausal women were reflected by BUA results. The increased BUA appears to be associated with increased bone formation rather than decreased bone resorption.

  6. Distinct Characteristics of Mandibular Bone Collagen Relative to Long Bone Collagen: Relevance to Clinical Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsuura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone undergoes constant remodeling throughout life. The cellular and biochemical mechanisms of bone remodeling vary in a region-specific manner. There are a number of notable differences between the mandible and long bones, including developmental origin, osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, and the rate of bone turnover. Collagen, the most abundant matrix protein in bone, is responsible for determining the relative strength of particular bones. Posttranslational modifications of collagen, such as intermolecular crosslinking and lysine hydroxylation, are the most essential determinants of bone strength, although the amount of collagen is also important. In comparison to long bones, the mandible has greater collagen content, a lower amount of mature crosslinks, and a lower extent of lysine hydroxylation. The great abundance of immature crosslinks in mandibular collagen suggests that there is a lower rate of cross-link maturation. This means that mandibular collagen is relatively immature and thus more readily undergoes degradation and turnover. The greater rate of remodeling in mandibular collagen likely renders more flexibility to the bone and leaves it more suited to constant exercise. As reviewed here, it is important in clinical dentistry to understand the distinctive features of the bones of the jaw.

  7. 香豆雌酚对去卵巢大鼠骨代谢生化指标的影响%Effects of coumestrol on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓钢; 胡小吾; 周晓清; 洪鑫; 庄苏阳; 吴小涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of coumestrol on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats and to explore the therapeutic effect of coumestrol on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods Thirty-six 6-month old female SO rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized model group, coumestrol group, 17β-estradiol group, and the sham group. The intervention therapy started 14 days after the operation in each group. Rats of 17β-estradiol group were treated with 300 μg/kg 17β-estradiol subcutaneously, twice a week. Rats of coumestrol group were treated with 60 mg/kg coumestrol subcutaneously, once a day. Rats of ovariectomized group and the sham group were injected daily with normal saline of the same volume as those in the 17β-estradiol and coumestrol groups. Body weight of the rats was measured in the first 10-week. On 11 weeks, urinary calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and deoxypyridinoline were measured. Rat uterus coefficient was calculated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, estradiol levels, and bone mineral density were also determined. Results Bone mineral density (g/cm2 ) in rats of coumestrol group was significantly higher than that in OVX model (0. 141 ±0.002 vs0.126 ±0.003, P<