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Sample records for bone tissue regeneration

  1. Pullulan microcarriers for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Hazal; Keskin, Dilek; Baran, Erkan Turker; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2016-06-01

    Microcarrier systems offer a convenient way to repair bone defects as injectable cell carriers that can be applied with small incisions owing to their small size and spherical shape. In this study, pullulan (PULL) microspheres were fabricated and characterized as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering applications. PULL was cross-linked by trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) to enhance the stability of the microspheres. Improved cytocompatibility was achieved by silk fibroin (SF) coating and biomimetic mineralization on the surface by incubating in simulated body fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent microscopy analysis confirmed biomimetic mineralization and SF coating on microspheres. The degradation analysis revealed that PULL microspheres had a slow degradation rate with 8% degradation in two weeks period indicating that the microspheres would support the formation of new bone tissue. Furthermore, the mechanical tests showed that the microspheres had a high mechanical stability that was significantly enhanced with the biomimetic mineralization. In vitro cell culture studies with SaOs-2 cells showed that cell viability was higher on SF and SBF coated microspheres on 7th day compared to PULL ones under dynamic conditions. Alkaline phosphatase activity was higher for SF coated microspheres in comparison to uncoated microspheres when dynamic culture condition was applied. The results suggest that both organic and inorganic surface modifications can be applied on PULL microspheres to prepare a biocompatible microcarrier system with suitable properties for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27040238

  2. A tissue regeneration approach to bone and cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstan, Colin; Rosen, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing exhaustively the current state of the art of tissue engineering strategies for regenerating bones and joints through the use of biomaterials, growth factors and stem cells, along with an investigation of the interactions between biomaterials, bone cells, growth factors and added stem cells and how together skeletal tissues can be optimised, this book serves to highlight the importance of biomaterials composition, surface topography, architectural and mechanical properties in providing support for tissue regeneration. Maximizing reader insights into the importance of the interplay of these attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this book also provides a detailed reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of growth factors to drive tissue regeneration and stem cell recruitment is discussed along with a review the potential and challenges of adult or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to further enhance the...

  3. Histomorphometry of regenerated tibial bone tissue in rats of different age under violation of saltwater balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelov M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of regenerated bone tissue in rats of different age at normal conditions and at hyperhydration has beenstudied. It was revealed the features in composition of regenerated tissue at a different stages of bone repair process that dependson rat's age. The hypoosmolar hyperhydration cause disorders of regenerated tissue development and inhibit lamellarbone tissue formation. With the help of statistical methods it was shown the dependence of the age and hyperhydration degreeon regenerated tissue composition.

  4. Histomorphometry of regenerated tibial bone tissue in rats of different age under violation of saltwater balance

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorelov M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Formation of regenerated bone tissue in rats of different age at normal conditions and at hyperhydration has beenstudied. It was revealed the features in composition of regenerated tissue at a different stages of bone repair process that dependson rat's age. The hypoosmolar hyperhydration cause disorders of regenerated tissue development and inhibit lamellarbone tissue formation. With the help of statistical methods it was shown the dependence of the age and hyperhydration degreeon regenerate...

  5. Efficacy of Honeycomb TCP-induced Microenvironment on Bone Tissue Regeneration in Craniofacial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Ito, Satoshi; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Artificial bone materials that exhibit high biocompatibility have been developed and are being widely used for bone tissue regeneration. However, there are no biomaterials that are minimally invasive and safe. In a previous study, we succeeded in developing honeycomb β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which has through-and-through holes and is able to mimic the bone microenvironment for bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated how the difference in hole-diameter of honeycomb β-TCP (hole-diameter: 75, 300, 500, and 1600 μm) influences bone tissue regeneration histologically. Its osteoconductivity was also evaluated by implantation into zygomatic bone defects in rats. The results showed that the maximum bone formation was observed on the β-TCP with hole-diameter 300μm, included bone marrow-like tissue and the pattern of bone tissue formation similar to host bone. Therefore, the results indicated that we could control bone tissue formation by creating a bone microenvironment provided by β-TCP. Also, in zygomatic bone defect model with honeycomb β-TCP, the result showed there was osseous union and the continuity was reproduced between the both edges of resected bone and β-TCP, which indicated the zygomatic bone reproduction fully succeeded. It is thus thought that honeycomb β-TCP may serve as an excellent biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration in the head, neck and face regions, expected in clinical applications. PMID:27279797

  6. Efficacy of Honeycomb TCP-induced Microenvironment on Bone Tissue Regeneration in Craniofacial Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tokuyama, Eijiro; Ito, Satoshi; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Artificial bone materials that exhibit high biocompatibility have been developed and are being widely used for bone tissue regeneration. However, there are no biomaterials that are minimally invasive and safe. In a previous study, we succeeded in developing honeycomb β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) which has through-and-through holes and is able to mimic the bone microenvironment for bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated how the difference in hole-diameter of honeycomb β-TCP (hole-diameter: 75, 300, 500, and 1600 μm) influences bone tissue regeneration histologically. Its osteoconductivity was also evaluated by implantation into zygomatic bone defects in rats. The results showed that the maximum bone formation was observed on the β-TCP with hole-diameter 300μm, included bone marrow-like tissue and the pattern of bone tissue formation similar to host bone. Therefore, the results indicated that we could control bone tissue formation by creating a bone microenvironment provided by β-TCP. Also, in zygomatic bone defect model with honeycomb β-TCP, the result showed there was osseous union and the continuity was reproduced between the both edges of resected bone and β-TCP, which indicated the zygomatic bone reproduction fully succeeded. It is thus thought that honeycomb β-TCP may serve as an excellent biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration in the head, neck and face regions, expected in clinical applications. PMID:27279797

  7. Chitosan and alginate scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, S S; Korkusuz, P; Bilgili, H; Senel, S

    2007-06-01

    Polymeric scaffold for tissue regeneration was developed for veterinary applications. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), which is a widely used antibiotic in veterinary medicine was chosen as the model compound. Gel formulations using chitosan and alginate were prepared in distilled water or in 1% (v/v) acetic acid solution. Sponges were also prepared by a freeze-drying process. Tripolyphosphate was used for cross-linking. Viscosity was decreased in the presence of OTC in chitosan gels whereas no difference was found with alginate gels. All gels showed pseudoplastic behaviour. Water absorption capacity was highest with chitosan/alginate sponges. The solvent used for preparation of the chitosan gels was found to affect the release of OTC. The release of OTC from the sponges was increased by cross-linking. Chitosan/alginate sponges showed the slowest and lowest drug release among the developed sponge formulations in this study. The formulations were found to be biocompatible, inducing no adverse reaction in vivo on surgically formed bone defects of radius of rabbits. The level of organization of the remodelled new bone in the treatment groups was better than that of control. Incorporation of OTC into formulations did not show any considerable enhancing effect. PMID:17663189

  8. Imaging regenerating bone tissue based on neural networks applied to micro-diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, G.; Pezzotti, G. [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy); Fratini, M. [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Ricci, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Burghammer, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cancedda, R.; Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell' Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy); Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A. [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    We monitored bone regeneration in a tissue engineering approach. To visualize and understand the structural evolution, the samples have been measured by X-ray micro-diffraction. We find that bone tissue regeneration proceeds through a multi-step mechanism, each step providing a specific diffraction signal. The large amount of data have been classified according to their structure and associated to the process they came from combining Neural Networks algorithms with least square pattern analysis. In this way, we obtain spatial maps of the different components of the tissues visualizing the complex kinetic at the base of the bone regeneration.

  9. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements for enhanced bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue, E-mail: jacaza@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Química-Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Estomatología III, Facultad de Odontología UCM, Madrid (Spain); Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Rueda, Carmen [Departamento de Química-Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Torres, Jesús [Facultad de Ciencias de la salud URJC, Alcorcón, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Luis [Departamento de Estomatología III, Facultad de Odontología UCM, Madrid (Spain); López-Cabarcos, Enrique [Departamento de Química-Física II, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    We have synthesized calcium phosphate cements doped with different amounts of magnesium (Mg-CPC) with a twofold purpose: i) to evaluate in vitro the osteoblast cell response to this material, and ii) to compare the bone regeneration capacity of the doped material with a calcium cement prepared without magnesium (CPC). Cell proliferation and in vivo response increased in the Mg-CPCs in comparison with CPC. The Mg-CPCs have promoted higher new bone formation than the CPC (p < 0.05). The cytocompatibility and histomorfometric analysis performed in the rabbit calvaria showed that the incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation and provides higher new bone formation. The development of a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties and improved bone regeneration can be considered a step toward personalized therapy that can adapt to patient needs and clinical situations. - Highlights: • The Mg-CPCs promote higher new bone formation than the CPC. • The incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation. • Mg-CPC is a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties. • We suggest that the use of Mg ions could improve the clinical efficiency of CPCs.

  10. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements for enhanced bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have synthesized calcium phosphate cements doped with different amounts of magnesium (Mg-CPC) with a twofold purpose: i) to evaluate in vitro the osteoblast cell response to this material, and ii) to compare the bone regeneration capacity of the doped material with a calcium cement prepared without magnesium (CPC). Cell proliferation and in vivo response increased in the Mg-CPCs in comparison with CPC. The Mg-CPCs have promoted higher new bone formation than the CPC (p < 0.05). The cytocompatibility and histomorfometric analysis performed in the rabbit calvaria showed that the incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation and provides higher new bone formation. The development of a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties and improved bone regeneration can be considered a step toward personalized therapy that can adapt to patient needs and clinical situations. - Highlights: • The Mg-CPCs promote higher new bone formation than the CPC. • The incorporation of magnesium ions in CPC improves osteoblasts proliferation. • Mg-CPC is a bone substitute with controllable biodegradable properties. • We suggest that the use of Mg ions could improve the clinical efficiency of CPCs

  11. Use of osteoplastic material to guide bone tissue regeneration deffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machavariani, A; Mazmishvili, K; Grdzelidze, T; Menabde, G; Amiranashvili, I

    2011-12-01

    The goal of research was study of restoration processes in jaw-teeth bone defects by application of osteoplastic materials in the experiment. The experiment was performed over 32 white (6-12 month old) rats; the animals were divided into 2 groups; 16 animals were enrolled in the first group; the section was performed in the edge of lower jaw; the lower jaw body was revealed. Under the effect of the dental drilling machine and the # 1 cooling mean by the fissure bohrium (distilled water) the defect of the dimension of 2x2 mm was created; the defect was washed by 0/9% saline to remove the bone sawdust; the wound was sutured tightly, in layers. The second group of the experiment was staffed with 16 animals (main group); the similar bone defect of the size 2 x 2mm was created on the rat's jaw's body. After washing of modeled defect we inserted osteopathic materials PORESORB-TCP crystals with the size of 0,6-1.0 mm the wound was sutured tightly, in layers. After the 3-rd, 15-th, 30-th and 90-th days from the date of operation there was performed X-ray and morphological examination over the animals in the control as well as the main group. The analysis of the examination performed over the experimental materials showed that in the control group in samples taken at 90th day the defects were not completely restored. In the test group in samples taken at 90th day reparative regeneration is confirmed. This is stimulated by the factor that within the main group's animals the defect regeneration process is supported with the osteoplastic material PORESORB-TCP. PMID:22306506

  12. Bone Regeneration Based on Tissue Engineering Conceptions-A 21st Century Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Henkel; Maria A. Woodruff; Devakara R. Epari; Roland Steck; Vaida Glatt; Ian C. Dickinson; Peter FM Choong; Michael A. Schuetz; Dietmar W. Hutmacher

    2013-01-01

    The role of Bone Tissue Engineering in the field of Regenerative Medicine has been the topic of substantial research over the past two decades. Technological advances have improved orthopaedic implants and surgical techniques for bone reconstruction. However, improvements in surgical techniques to reconstruct bone have been limited by the paucity of autologous materials available and donor site morbidity. Recent advances in the development of biomaterials have provided attractive alternatives to bone grafting expanding the surgical options for restoring the form and function of injured bone. Specifically, novel bioactive (second generation) biomaterials have been developed that are characterised by controlled action and reaction to the host tissue environment, whilst exhibiting controlled chemical breakdown and resorption with an ultimate replacement by regenerating tissue. Future generations of biomaterials (third generation) are designed to be not only osteo-conductive but also osteoinductive, i.e. to stimulate regeneration of host tissues by combining tissue engineer-ing and in situ tissue regeneration methods with a focus on novel applications. These techniques will lead to novel possibilities for tissue regeneration and repair. At present, tissue engineered constructs that may find future use as bone grafts for complex skeletal defects, whether from post-traumatic, degenerative, neoplastic or congenital/developmental“origin”require osseous reconstruction to ensure structural and functional integrity. Engineering functional bone using combinations of cells, scaffolds and bioactive factors is a promising strategy and a particular feature for future development in the area of hybrid materials which are able to exhibit suitable biomimetic and mechanical properties. This review will discuss the state of the art in this field and what we can expect from future generations of bone regeneration concepts.

  13. Targeting the hypoxic response in bone tissue engineering: A balance between supply and consumption to improve bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, Pieter-Jan; van Gastel, Nick; Carmeliet, Geert

    2016-09-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic alternative for bone grafting of large skeletal defects. It generally comprises an ex vivo engineered combination of a carrier structure, stem/progenitor cells and growth factors. However, the success of these regenerative implants largely depends on how well implanted cells will adapt to the hostile and hypoxic host environment they encounter after implantation. In this review, we will discuss how hypoxia signalling may be used to improve bone regeneration in a tissue-engineered construct. First, hypoxia signalling induces angiogenesis which increases the survival of the implanted cells as well as stimulates bone formation. Second, hypoxia signalling has also angiogenesis-independent effects on mesenchymal cells in vitro, offering exciting new possibilities to improve tissue-engineered bone regeneration in vivo. In addition, studies in other fields have shown that benefits of modulating hypoxia signalling include enhanced cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, culminating in a more potent regenerative implant. Finally, the stimulation of endochondral bone formation as a physiological pathway to circumvent the harmful effects of hypoxia will be briefly touched upon. Thus, angiogenic dependent and independent processes may counteract the deleterious hypoxic effects and we will discuss several therapeutic strategies that may be combined to withstand the hypoxia upon implantation and improve bone regeneration. PMID:26768117

  14. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, I.R.; Fradique, R.; Vallejo, M.C.S.; Correia, T.R.; Miguel, S.P.; Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt

    2015-10-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays.

  15. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays

  16. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, IIT Bombay (India); Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201303 (India); Sharma, Pratibha [Dept of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay (India)

    2013-02-05

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  17. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  18. Bioactive polymeric–ceramic hybrid 3D scaffold for application in bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regeneration of large bone defects remains a challenging scenario from a therapeutic point of view. In fact, the currently available bone substitutes are often limited by poor tissue integration and severe host inflammatory responses, which eventually lead to surgical removal. In an attempt to address these issues, herein we evaluated the importance of alginate incorporation in the production of improved and tunable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds to be used as temporary templates for bone regeneration. Different bioceramic combinations were tested in order to investigate optimal scaffold architectures. Additionally, 3D β-TCP/HA vacuum-coated with alginate, presented improved compressive strength, fracture toughness and Young's modulus, to values similar to those of native bone. The hybrid 3D polymeric–bioceramic scaffolds also supported osteoblast adhesion, maturation and proliferation, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that a 3D scaffold produced with this combination of biomaterials is described. Altogether, our results emphasize that this hybrid scaffold presents promising characteristics for its future application in bone regeneration. - Graphical abstract: B-TCP:HA–alginate hybrid 3D porous scaffolds for application in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • The produced hybrid 3D scaffolds are prone to be applied in bone tissue engineering. • Alginate coated 3D scaffolds present high mechanical and biological properties. • In vitro assays for evaluation of human osteoblast cell attachment in the presence of the scaffolds • The hybrid 3D scaffolds present suitable mechanical and biological properties for use in bone regenerative medicine

  19. Biofabrication of bone tissue: approaches, challenges and translation for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daniel; Tare, Rahul S; Yang, Liang-Yo; Williams, David F; Ou, Keng-Liang; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2016-03-01

    The rising incidence of bone disorders has resulted in the need for more effective therapies to meet this demand, exacerbated by an increasing ageing population. Bone tissue engineering is seen as a means of developing alternatives to conventional bone grafts for repairing or reconstructing bone defects by combining biomaterials, cells and signalling factors. However, skeletal tissue engineering has not yet achieved full translation into clinical practice as a consequence of several challenges. The use of additive manufacturing techniques for bone biofabrication is seen as a potential solution, with its inherent capability for reproducibility, accuracy and customisation of scaffolds as well as cell and signalling factor delivery. This review highlights the current research in bone biofabrication, the necessary factors for successful bone biofabrication, in addition to the current limitations affecting biofabrication, some of which are a consequence of the limitations of the additive manufacturing technology itself. PMID:26803405

  20. Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ling Wang; Shi-Yuan Sheu; Yueh-Sheng Chen; Shung-Te Kao; Yuan-Tsung Fu; Tzong-Fu Kuo; Kuo-Yu Chen; Chun-Hsu Yao

    2014-01-01

    Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and a...

  1. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  2. [Mandibular bone tissue regeneration after the introduction of the implantation system performed on the basis of carbon composite material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetvertnykh, V A; Loginova, N P; Astashina, N B; Rogozhnikov, G I; Rapekta, S I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes of regeneration of bone tissue after the introduction of new implant systems. In the experiment, performed on 10 male pigs of Landras breed aged 50-55 days and weighing 17-18.5 kg, the time course of histological changes was studied in the area of mandibular regeneration after the formation of tissue defect and the introduction of the implant of a proposed construction. Morphological analysis of the experimental results 90, 180 and 270 days after the operation demonstrated the process of reparative regeneration of damaged bone along implant-bone block boundaries. Bone repair proceeded through the stage of formation of the woven bone with its progressive substitution by the lamellar bone, with the maintenance of the shape, size and symmetry of the damaged organ. PMID:23805619

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Application to Bone Healing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crha, M.; Nečas, A.; Srnec, R.; Janovec, J.; Raušer, P.; Urbanová, L.; Plánka, L.; Jančář, J.; Amler, Evžen

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2009), s. 635-642. ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06130; GA AV ČR IAA500390702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : tissue engineering * biomaterials * segmental bone lesion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  4. Bone cement with a modified polyphosphate network structure stimulates hard tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hong, Min-Ho; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Ko, Yeong-Mu; Choi, Heon-Jin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a calcium polyphosphate cement (CpPC) consisting of basic components was investigated to assess its potential for hard tissue regeneration. The added basic components for improving the structural stability, which controlled the setting time, where the setting reaction resulted in the formation of amorphous structure with a re-constructed polyphosphate. Moreover, the characteristics were controlled by the composition, which determined the polyphosphate structure. CpPC exhibited outstanding dissolution rate compared with the common biodegradable cement, brushite cement (2.5 times). Despite high amounts of dissolution products, no significant cytotoxicity ensued. Induction of calcification in MG-63 cells treated with CpPC, the level of calcification increased with increasing CpPC dissolution rate. Induced calcification was observed also in CpPC-treated ST2 cells, in contrast with MG-63 and ST2 treated with brushite cement, for which no calcification was observed. In vivo tests using a rat calvarial defect model showed that resorbed CpPC resulted in favorable host responses and promoted bone formation. Additionally, there was a significant increase in defect closure, and new bone formation progressed from CpPC mid-sites as well as defect margins. From these results, CpPC exhibits significant potential as biodegradable bone substitute for bone regeneration. PMID:27511981

  5. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam M Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search. All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

  6. Strontium eluting nanofibers augment stem cell osteogenesis for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Sai Rama Krishna; Jain, Shubham; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-10-01

    Strontium is known to offer a therapeutic benefit to osteoporotic patients by promoting bone formation. Thus, toward engineering scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration we have prepared polymer nanocomposite scaffolds by electrospinning. Strontium carbonate nanoparticles (nSrCO3) were added to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at 10 and 20wt% to develop nanocomposite fibrous scaffolds (PCL/SrC10 and PCL/SrC20) with fiber diameter in the range of 300-500nm. Incorporation of nSrCO3 decreased crystallinity and the elastic modulus of PCL. The composite scaffolds released Sr(2+) ions with up to 65ppm in 4days from the PCL/SrC20 scaffolds. Cell studies confirmed that the composite scaffold with 20% nSrCO3 enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. There was marked increase in mineral deposition up to four folds in PCL/SrC20 suggesting enhanced osteogenesis. This was corroborated by increased mRNA and protein expression of various osteogenic markers such as BMP-2, Osterix and Runx2 in the PCL/SrC20 fibers. Thus, incorporation of nSrCO3 in polymer scaffolds is a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering as an alternative to the use of labile growth factors to impart bioactivity to polymer scaffolds. PMID:27429299

  7. Guided tissue regeneration and bone grafts in the treatment of furcation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffesse, R G; Nasjleti, C E; Plotzke, A E; Anderson, G B; Morrison, E C

    1993-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), with and without demineralized freeze-dried cortical bone grafts, in the treatment of furcation defects in 4 female beagle dogs with naturally occurring periodontal disease. The root surfaces were thoroughly debrided. Four weeks later, full thickness facial and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were reflected using inverse bevel incisions on both sides of the mandible involving the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th premolar, and the 1st molar teeth. Following debridement, notches were placed on the roots at the level of supporting bone. Test quadrants were randomly selected and furcations were filled with reconstituted, demineralized, freeze-dried human cortical bone grafts. Following bone grafting, all defects were covered with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane, which was sutured with 4-0 sutures. Afterward, interproximal sutures were placed through the flaps, assuring the flaps covered the membranes completely. The contralateral side, serving as control, was treated by debridement only and application of ePTFE membrane. All membranes were removed 6 weeks after surgery. Dogs were sacrificed at 4 months after surgery. Both mesio-distal and bucco-lingual histologic sections were evaluated by descriptive histology. Linear measurements and surface area determination of the furcal tissues were carried out using the microscope attached to a digitizer. Twelve to 20 nonserial sections were made of the mid-buccal aspects of each root of each treated tooth. Half of these sections were stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and the other half stained with Mallory's trichrome stain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8295103

  8. Bone tissue regeneration indento-alveolar surgery : clinical and experimental studies on biomaterials and bone graft substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin-Platt, Annika

    2011-01-01

    Pathological processes in the alveolar and facial bones can lead to bone loss that may not heal with complete regeneration. Biomaterials can be used to facilitate the healing process and/or as a bone substitute, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Persistent leakage of bacteria/bacterial toxins, after root canal treatment, may lead to a residual bone defect. The healing is dependent on a placed dental biomaterial providing a tight seal. The composition of the filling material may als...

  9. A Comparative Study of Bioartificial Bone Tissue Poly-L-lactic Acid/Polycaprolactone and PLLA Scaffolds Applied in Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizong Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioartificial bone tissue engineering is an increasingly popular technique to repair bone defect caused by injury or disease. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of PLLA/PCL (poly-L-lactic acid/polycaprolactone by a comparison study of PLLA/PCL and PLLA scaffolds applied in bone regeneration. Thirty healthy mature New Zealand rabbits on which 15 mm distal ulna defect model had been established were selected and then were divided into three groups randomly: group A (repaired with PLLA scaffold, group B (repaired with PLLA/PCL scaffold, and group C (no scaffold to evaluate the bone-remodeling ability of the implants. Micro-CT examination revealed the prime bone regeneration ability of group B in three groups. Bone mineral density of surgical site in group B was higher than group A but lower than group C. Meanwhile, the bone regeneration in both groups A and B proceeded with signs of inflammation for the initial fast degradation of scaffolds. As a whole, PLLA/PCL scaffolds in vivo initially degrade fast and were better suited to repair bone defect than PLLA in New Zealand rabbits. Furthermore, for the low mineral density of new bone and rapid degradation of the scaffolds, more researches were necessary to optimize the composite for bone regeneration.

  10. Bone marrow cells contribute to tissue regeneration in the intestine and skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Brittan, M

    2005-01-01

    Adult bone marrow contains progenitor cells that can extricate themselves from their bone marrow cavity niche, and engraft within foreign tissues, whereupon they produce specific differentiated adult lineages. Bone marrow engraftment is upregulated with increasing regenerative pressure, which has triggered speculation as to the therapeutic potential of bone marrow cells. In this thesis, I describe for the first time, that transplanted adult bone marrow cells engraft within the intestines of m...

  11. Relevance of fiber integrated gelatin-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima Shamaz, Bibi; Anitha, A.; Vijayamohan, Manju; Kuttappan, Shruthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Nair, Manitha B.

    2015-10-01

    Porous nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA) is a promising bone substitute, but it is brittle, which limits its utility for load bearing applications. To address this issue, herein, biodegradable electrospun microfibrous sheets of poly(L-lactic acid)-(PLLA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were incorporated into a gelatin-nanoHA matrix which was investigated for its mechanical properties, the physical integration of the fibers with the matrix, cell infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. The inclusion of sacrificial fibers like PVA along with PLLA and leaching resulted in improved cellular infiltration towards the center of the scaffold. Furthermore, the treatment of PLLA fibers with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide enhanced their hydrophilicity, ensuring firm anchorage between the fibers and the gelatin-HA matrix. The incorporation of PLLA microfibers within the gelatin-nanoHA matrix reduced the brittleness of the scaffolds, the effect being proportional to the number of layers of fibrous sheets in the matrix. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells was augmented on the fibrous scaffolds in comparison to those scaffolds devoid of fibers. Finally, the scaffold could promote cell infiltration, together with bone regeneration, upon implantation in a rabbit femoral cortical defect within 4 weeks. The bone regeneration potential was significantly higher when compared to commercially available HA (Surgiwear™). Thus, this biomimetic, porous, 3D composite scaffold could be offered as a promising candidate for bone regeneration in orthopedics.

  12. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  13. Bioinspired nanocomposite structures for bone tissue regeneration based on collagen, gelatin, polyamide and hydroxyapatite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchý, Tomáš; Balík, Karel; Šupová, Monika; Hrušková, Daniela; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Černý, Martin; Sedláček, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 89-91 (2009), s. 13-15. ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : nanocomposite * bone regeneration * collagen Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  14. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A;

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  15. Hard tissue regeneration using bone substitutes: an update on innovations in materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Lee, Byong Taek

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a unique organ composed of mineralized hard tissue, unlike any other body part. The unique manner in which bone can constantly undergo self-remodeling has created interesting clinical approaches to the healing of damaged bone. Healing of large bone defects is achieved using implant materials that gradually integrate with the body after healing is completed. Such strategies require a multidisciplinary approach by material scientists, biological scientists, and clinicians. Development o...

  16. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT. The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration.

  17. Wollastonite nanofiber–doped self-setting calcium phosphate bioactive cement for bone tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo H

    2012-07-01

    incorporation of WNFs into CPC improved the biological properties for wnf-CPC. Following the implantation of wnf-CPC into bone defects of rabbits, histological evaluation showed that wnf-CPC enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation in comparison with CPC, indicating excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis of wnf-CPC. In conclusion, wnf-CPC exhibited promising prospects in bone regeneration.Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, degradability, cell and tissue responses, biocompatibility

  18. In vivo evaluation of a simvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinxin; Niu, Mao; Zhang, Te; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Zhonglei; Wu, Wangxi; Zhang, Qi; Lai, Chunhua; Zhou, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar bone loss has long been a challenge in clinical dental implant therapy. Simvastatin (SV) has been demonstrated to exert excellent anabolic effects on bone. However, the successful use of SV to increase bone formation in vivo largely depends on the local concentration of SV at the site of action, and there have been continuing efforts to develop an appropriate delivery system. Specifically, nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) systems have become a popular type of encapsulation carrier system. Therefore, SV-loaded NLCs (SNs) (179.4 nm in diameter) were fabricated in this study, and the osteogenic effect of the SNs was evaluated in a critical-sized rabbit calvarial defect. Our results revealed that the SNs significantly enhanced bone formation in vivo, as evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and a fluorescence analysis. Thus, this novel nanostructured carrier system could be a potential encapsulation carrier system for SV in bone regeneration applications.

  19. The chemical NMP as a potent BMP enhancer for bone tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, B; Ghayor, C; Ehrbar, M.; Jung, R.E.; Zwahlen, R A; Hortschansky, P; Schmökel, H G; Weber, F. E.

    2009-01-01

    In medicine N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) has a long track record as constituent in FDA approved medical devices and thus can be considered as safe and biological inactive small chemical. In the present study we report on the newly discovered pharmaceutical properties of NMP as it enhances bone regeneration in a rabbit calvarial defect model in vivo. At the cellular level, the pharmaceutical effect of NMP was confirmed, in particular, in combination with BMP-2, as NMP increased early and late mar...

  20. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard OC

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering. PMID:27577960

  1. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A; Janeczek, Agnieszka A; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering. PMID:27577960

  2. Circadian Gene Networks In Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that vitamin D played a significant role in bone regeneration, facilitating the establishment of implant osseointegration. A whole genome microarray study further suggested that the vitamin D axis might involve circadian rhythm gene expression in the bone peripheral tissue.OBJECTIVES: To identify key gene networks involved with vitamin D receptor in the bone regeneration process and to explore any correlation with circadian rhythm gene expression in bone...

  3. A Comparative Study of Bioartificial Bone Tissue Poly-L-lactic Acid/Polycaprolactone and PLLA Scaffolds Applied in Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Weizong Weng; Shaojun Song; Liehu Cao; Xiao Chen; Yuanqi Cai; Haihang Li; Qirong Zhou; Jun Zhang; Jiacan Su

    2014-01-01

    Bioartificial bone tissue engineering is an increasingly popular technique to repair bone defect caused by injury or disease. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of PLLA/PCL (poly-L-lactic acid/polycaprolactone) by a comparison study of PLLA/PCL and PLLA scaffolds applied in bone regeneration. Thirty healthy mature New Zealand rabbits on which 15 mm distal ulna defect model had been established were selected and then were divided into three groups randomly: group A (repaired with ...

  4. Toward guided tissue and bone regeneration: morphology, attachment, proliferation, and migration of cells cultured on collagen barrier membranes. A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behring, J.; Junker, R.; Walboomers, X.F.; Chessnut, B.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Collagen barrier membranes are frequently used in both guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Collagen used for these devices is available from different species and is often processed to alter the properties of the final product. This is necessary because unprocessed c

  5. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  6. Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS, from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration of DBT for bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio of RA to RAS for the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5 : 1. Moreover, the most effective concentration of DBT was 1,000 μg/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000 μg/mL of DBT was able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore, DBT is highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods.

  7. Assessment of regeneration in meniscal lesions by use of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine bone marrow and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Maria L; Pérez-Castrillo, Saúl; Sánchez-Lázaro, Jaime A; Prieto-Fernández, Julio G; López-González, Maria E; Lobato-Pérez, Sandra; Colaço, Bruno J; Olivera, Elías R; Villar-Suárez, Vega

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the ability to regenerate an equine meniscus by use of a collagen repair patch (scaffold) seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT). SAMPLE 6 female Hispano-Breton horses between 4 and 7 years of age; MSCs from BM and AT were obtained for the in vitro experiment, and the horses were subsequently used for the in vivo experiment. PROCEDURES Similarities and differences between MSCs derived from BM or AT were investigated in vitro by use of cell culture. In vivo assessment involved use of a meniscus defect and implantation on a scaffold. Horses were allocated into 2 groups. In one group, defects in the medial meniscus were treated with MSCs derived from BM, whereas in the other group, defects were treated with MSCs derived from AT. Defects were created in the contralateral stifle joint but were not treated (control samples). RESULTS Both types of MSCs had universal stem cell characteristics. For in vivo testing, at 12 months after treatment, treated defects were regenerated with fibrocartilaginous tissue, whereas untreated defects were partially repaired or not repaired. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MSCs derived from AT could be a good alternative to MSCs derived from BM for use in regenerative treatments. Results also were promising for a stem cell-based implant for use in regeneration in meniscal lesions. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because of similarities in joint disease between horses and humans, these results could have applications in humans. PMID:27347833

  8. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Hydroxyapatite with Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone Nano Composite for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ragu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO46(OH2 , the main mineral component of bone and teeth, is native to the human body. Hydroxyapatite (HAp is a desirable implant material due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity properties. In this study, nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp with poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP was synthesized at room temperature condition. The synthetic nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp prepared by wet chemical precipitation method was investigated. Hydroxyapatite is biocompatible with the human organism and is capable of integrating biologically into bone tissue. The synthesized sample were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscope (TEM, Energy dispersive analysis of x-rays techniques (EDAX and Micro hardness test.

  10. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia occidentalis for bone tissue engineering and regeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Santhosh Kumar; T Hemalatha; R Deepachitra; R Narasimha Raghavan; P Prabu; T P Sastry

    2015-02-01

    Research on traditional herbs is gaining momentum owing to their potent medical properties, among which Cassia occidentalis (CO) is a promising herb, with osteogenic potential. The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. Prepared bone implants were characterized physico-chemically using FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX. The implants were analysed further for mechanical and biological properties. The results revealed that CO extract-incorporated bone implants possessed better compression strength and it was able to induce proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity in SaOS-2 cells. The implant proves to be promising for bone tissue engineering, and hence it demands further in vivo evaluation.

  11. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  12. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials

  13. Perovskite ceramic nanoparticles in polymer composites for augmenting bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing interest in the use of nanoparticles as fillers in polymer matrices to develop biomaterials which mimic the mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of bone tissue for orthopaedic applications. The objective of this study was to prepare poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites incorporating three different perovskite ceramic nanoparticles, namely, calcium titanate (CT), strontium titanate (ST) and barium titanate (BT). The tensile strength and modulus of the composites increased with the addition of nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that dispersion of the nanoparticles scaled with the density of the ceramics, which in turn played an important role in determining the enhancement in mechanical properties of the composite. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed improved permittivity and reduced losses in the composites when compared to neat PCL. Nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. Induction coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy indicated the release of small quantities of Ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2 ions from the scaffolds. Piezo-force microscopy revealed that BT nanoparticles imparted piezoelectric properties to the scaffolds. In vitro studies revealed that all composites support osteoblast proliferation. Expression of osteogenic genes was enhanced on the nanocomposites in the following order: PCL/CT > PCL/ST > PCL/BT > PCL. This study demonstrates that the use of perovskite nanoparticles could be a promising technique to engineer better polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  14. Comparative study on the role of gelatin, chitosan and their combination as tissue engineered scaffolds on healing and regeneration of critical sized bone defects: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh; Bigham-Sadegh, Amin; Moshiri, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Gelatin and chitosan are natural polymers that have extensively been used in tissue engineering applications. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and gelatin or combination of the two biopolymers (chitosan-gelatin) as bone scaffold on bone regeneration process in an experimentally induced critical sized radial bone defect model in rats. Fifty radial bone defects were bilaterally created in 25 Wistar rats. The defects were randomly filled with chitosan, gelatin and chitosan-gelatin and autograft or left empty without any treatment (n = 10 in each group). The animals were examined by radiology and clinical evaluation before euthanasia. After 8 weeks, the rats were euthanized and their harvested healing bone samples were evaluated by radiology, CT-scan, biomechanical testing, gross pathology, histopathology, histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy. Gelatin was biocompatible and biodegradable in vivo and showed superior biodegradation and biocompatibility when compared with chitosan and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds. Implantation of both the gelatin and chitosan-gelatin scaffolds in bone defects significantly increased new bone formation and mechanical properties compared with the untreated defects (P  0.05). In conclusion, application of the gelatin alone or its combination with chitosan had beneficial effects on bone regeneration and could be considered as good options for bone tissue engineering strategies. However, chitosan alone was not able to promote considerable new bone formation in the experimentally induced critical-size radial bone defects. PMID:27590825

  15. Biodegradable mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres for drug delivery and bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Bioactive inorganic materials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, and they are used as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical molecules, scaffolds and components for bio-composites. We demonstrated mesoporous bioactive glass (BG) nanospheres that exhibited the capacity to deliver pharmaceutical molecules. Mesoporous BG nanospheres with variable Ca to Si ratios were synthesized using sol–gel chemistry. By controlling the hydrolysis and condensation conditions, the diameter of the mesoporous BG nanospheres was changed from 300 nm to 1500 nm. The porous structure and surface area of the BG nanospheres were shown to be dependent on their composition. The surface area of the BG nanospheres decreased from 400 ± 2 m2 g‑1 to 56 ± 0.1 m2 g‑1 when the Ca/Si ratio increased from 5 to 50 at.%. When the mesoporous BG nanospheres were loaded with ibuprofen (IBU), they exhibited a sustained release profile in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the meantime, the IBU-loaded BG nanospheres degraded in SBF, and induced apatite layer formation on the surface as a result of their good bioactivity. When the BG nanospheres were used as a composite filler to poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), they were shown to be effective at improving the in vitro bioactivity of PCL microspheres.

  16. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. PMID:23562167

  17. Development of tissue engineered strategies combining stem cells and scaffolds aimed to regenerate bone and osteochondral interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia T Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a specialized tissue characterized by its rigidity and hardness, yet light weighed to fulfill diverse functions as mineral storage, organ protection or body support and locomotion. Despite its extraordinary healing ability, bone response may be unsuccessful to repair severe damage caused by injury or degenerative diseases. Furthermore, when bone is affected, other tissues and interfaces might be quite distressed as well. Cartilage and bone interface of the joints (osteo...

  18. Tissue regeneration with photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Elieza G.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2013-03-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely reported to reduce pain and inflammation and enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration in various settings. LLLT has been noted to have both stimulatory and inhibitory biological effects and these effects have been termed Photobiomodulation (PBM). Several elegant studies have shown the key role of Cytochrome C oxidase and ROS in initiating this process. The downstream biological responses remain to be clearly elucidated. Our work has demonstrated activation of an endogenous latent growth factor complex, TGF-β1, as one of the major biological events in PBM. TGF-β1 has critical roles in various biological processes especially in inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and stem cell biology. This paper overviews some of the studies demonstrating the efficacy of PBM in promoting tissue regeneration.

  19. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Cameron R. M.; Goriainov, Vitali; Gibbs, David; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul S; Richard O. C. Oreffo

    2015-01-01

    Medical advances have led to a welcome increase in life expectancy. However, accompanying longevity introduces new challenges: increases in age-related diseases and associated reductions in quality of life. The loss of skeletal tissue that can accompany trauma, injury, disease or advancing years can result in significant morbidity and significant socio-economic cost and emphasise the need for new, more reliable skeletal regeneration strategies. To address the unmet need for bone augmentation,...

  20. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  1. Clinical comparison of guided tissue regeneration, with collagen membrane and bone graft, versus connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghighati F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing patient demands for esthetic, put the root coverage procedures in particular attention. Periodontal regeneration with GTR based root coverage methods is the most common treatment used. The purpose of this study was to compare guided tissue regeneration (GTR with collagen membrane and a bone graft, with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG, in treatment of gingival recession. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, eleven healthy patients with no systemic diseases who had miller’s class I or II recession defects (gingival recession  2mm were treated with SCTG or GTR using a collagen membrane and a bone graft. Clinical measurements were obtained at baseline and 6 months after surgery. These clinical measurements included recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, probing depth (PD, and clinical attachment level (CAL. Data were analyzed using independent t test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Both treatment methods resulted in a statistically significant reduction of recession depth (SCTG=2.3mm, GTR=2.1mm; P<0.0001. CAL gain after 6 months was also improved in both groups (SCG= 2.5mm, GTR=2.1mm, compared to baseline (P<0.0001. No statistical differences were observed in RD, RW, CAL between test and control groups. Root coverage was similar in both methods (SCTG= 74.2%, GTR= 62.6%, P=0.87. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the two techniques are clinically comparable. Therefore the use of collagen membrane and a bovine derived xenograft may alleviate the need for connective tissue graft.

  2. Beta-tricalcium phosphate granules improve osteogenesis in vitro and establish innovative osteo-regenerators for bone tissue engineering in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Yun; Fan, Bo; Li, Xiaokang; Xiao, Xin; Lan, Pingheng; Li, Minghui; Geng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Yulin; Lian, Qin; Lu, Jianxi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The drawbacks of traditional bone-defect treatments have prompted the exploration of bone tissue engineering. This study aimed to explore suitable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules for bone regeneration and identify an efficient method to establish β-TCP-based osteo-regenerators. β-TCP granules with diameters of 1 mm and 1–2.5 mm were evaluated in vitro. The β-TCP granules with superior osteogenic properties were used to establish in vivo bioreactors, referred to as osteo-regenerators, which were fabricated using two different methods. Improved proliferation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), glucose consumption and ALP activity were observed for 1–2.5 mm β-TCP compared with 1-mm granules (P < 0.05). In addition, BMSCs incubated with 1–2.5 mm β-TCP expressed significantly higher levels of the genes for runt-related transcription factor-2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen type-1 and the osteogenesis-related proteins alkaline phosphatase, collagen type-1 and runt-related transcription factor-2 compared with BMSCs incubated with 1 mm β-TCP (P < 0.05). Fluorochrome labelling, micro-computed tomography and histological staining analyses indicated that the osteo-regenerator with two holes perforating the femur promoted significantly greater bone regeneration compared with the osteo-regenerator with a periosteum incision (P < 0.05). This study provides an alternative to biofunctionalized bioreactors that exhibits improved osteogenesis. PMID:27000963

  3. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  4. Design and production of sintered β-tricalcium phosphate 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of sintered β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds produced by 3D printing were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression tests and cytotoxicity tests, using human osteoblast cells. The results reported include details of the β-TCP scaffolds' porosity, density, phase stability, mechanical behavior and cytotoxic profile. Collectively, these properties are fundamental for the future application of these scaffolds as bone substitutes for individualized therapy. Highlights: ► β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) 3D scaffolds were produced by rapid prototyping. ► Scaffold properties were assessed by SEM, FTIR, XRD and by mechanical tests. ► The cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds was characterized by in vitro assays. ► Scaffolds have good properties for its application as bone substitutes for individualized therapy.

  5. Design and production of sintered {beta}-tricalcium phosphate 3D scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos F.L. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Silva, Abilio P. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Lopes, Luis [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Pires, Ines [Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica - Lisboa (IDMEC Lisboa/IST/UTL), Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Ilidio J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The characteristics of sintered {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds produced by 3D printing were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, uniaxial compression tests and cytotoxicity tests, using human osteoblast cells. The results reported include details of the {beta}-TCP scaffolds' porosity, density, phase stability, mechanical behavior and cytotoxic profile. Collectively, these properties are fundamental for the future application of these scaffolds as bone substitutes for individualized therapy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) 3D scaffolds were produced by rapid prototyping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffold properties were assessed by SEM, FTIR, XRD and by mechanical tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds was characterized by in vitro assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds have good properties for its application as bone substitutes for individualized therapy.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Hydroxyapatite with Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone Nano Composite for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ragu, A.; K. Senthilarasan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2 ), the main mineral component of bone and teeth, is native to the human body. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a desirable implant material due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity properties. In this study, nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) with poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP was synthesized at room temperature condition. The synthetic nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) prepared by wet chemical precipitation method was investigated. Hydroxyapatite is biocompatib...

  7. Enhanced differentiation of osteoblastic cells on novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications should have the ability to promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells. Osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteopromotive properties of the material are essential for rapid bone regeneration and new bone formation. In this study, the osteogenic potential of two novel tri-component scaffolds composed of krill chitosan, bacterial β-1,3-glucan and bioceramics (HAp or a mix of HAp/β-TCP granules) was investigated. The typical markers of the first (type I collagen), second (bone alkaline phosphatase) and third stages (osteocalcin) of the osteoblast differentiation process were evaluated during in vitro experimentation. The study was carried out using three various osteoblastic cell lines (normal human fetal osteoblast cells hFOB 1.19, human osteoblast-like cells derived from osteosarcoma Saos-2 and mouse calvarial preosteoblast cells MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4). The bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP) and osteocalcin (OC) were determined quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and type I collagen (Col I) was evaluated qualitatively using the direct immunofluorescence (DIF) method. The data obtained clearly prove that novel scaffolds have the ability to increase bALP activity, to enhance extracellular matrix synthesis (Col I and OC) and to induce mineralized nodule formation during osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, novel tri-component materials have osteoconductive and osteopromotive properties, and thus are promising materials in bone tissue engineering applications to accelerate the bone regeneration process. (paper)

  8. Genipin-Crosslinked Chitosan Gels and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regeneration of Cartilage and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzarelli, Riccardo A A; El Mehtedi, Mohamad; Bottegoni, Carlo; Aquili, Alberto; Gigante, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The present review article intends to direct attention to the technological advances made since 2009 in the area of genipin-crosslinked chitosan (GEN-chitosan) hydrogels. After a concise introduction on the well recognized characteristics of medical grade chitosan and food grade genipin, the properties of GEN-chitosan obtained with a safe, spontaneous and irreversible chemical reaction, and the quality assessment of the gels are reviewed. The antibacterial activity of GEN-chitosan has been well assessed in the treatment of gastric infections supported by Helicobacter pylori. Therapies based on chitosan alginate crosslinked with genipin include stem cell transplantation, and development of contraction free biomaterials suitable for cartilage engineering. Collagen, gelatin and other proteins have been associated to said hydrogels in view of the regeneration of the cartilage. Viability and proliferation of fibroblasts were impressively enhanced upon addition of poly-l-lysine. The modulation of the osteocytes has been achieved in various ways by applying advanced technologies such as 3D-plotting and electrospinning of biomimetic scaffolds, with optional addition of nano hydroxyapatite to the formulations. A wealth of biotechnological advances and know-how has permitted reaching outstanding results in crucial areas such as cranio-facial surgery, orthopedics and dentistry. It is mandatory to use scaffolds fully characterized in terms of porosity, pore size, swelling, wettability, compressive strength, and degree of acetylation, if the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells is sought: in fact, the novel characteristics imparted by GEN-chitosan must be simultaneously of physico-chemical and cytological nature. Owing to their high standard, the scientific publications dated 2010-2015 have met the expectations of an interdisciplinary audience. PMID:26690453

  9. Genipin-Crosslinked Chitosan Gels and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regeneration of Cartilage and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review article intends to direct attention to the technological advances made since 2009 in the area of genipin-crosslinked chitosan (GEN-chitosan hydrogels. After a concise introduction on the well recognized characteristics of medical grade chitosan and food grade genipin, the properties of GEN-chitosan obtained with a safe, spontaneous and irreversible chemical reaction, and the quality assessment of the gels are reviewed. The antibacterial activity of GEN-chitosan has been well assessed in the treatment of gastric infections supported by Helicobacter pylori. Therapies based on chitosan alginate crosslinked with genipin include stem cell transplantation, and development of contraction free biomaterials suitable for cartilage engineering. Collagen, gelatin and other proteins have been associated to said hydrogels in view of the regeneration of the cartilage. Viability and proliferation of fibroblasts were impressively enhanced upon addition of poly-l-lysine. The modulation of the osteocytes has been achieved in various ways by applying advanced technologies such as 3D-plotting and electrospinning of biomimetic scaffolds, with optional addition of nano hydroxyapatite to the formulations. A wealth of biotechnological advances and know-how has permitted reaching outstanding results in crucial areas such as cranio-facial surgery, orthopedics and dentistry. It is mandatory to use scaffolds fully characterized in terms of porosity, pore size, swelling, wettability, compressive strength, and degree of acetylation, if the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells is sought: in fact, the novel characteristics imparted by GEN-chitosan must be simultaneously of physico-chemical and cytological nature. Owing to their high standard, the scientific publications dated 2010–2015 have met the expectations of an interdisciplinary audience.

  10. Novel cerium doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite with antibacterial and osteoconductive properties for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, D S; Fernandes, S; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Sampaio, P; Ferraz, M P; Santos, J D; Lopes, M A; Sooraj Hussain, N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a bioactive bone substitute with an effective antibacterial ability based on a cerium (Ce) doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (GR-HA) composite. Developed composites were physicochemically characterized, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and flexural bending strength (FBS) tests. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was performed to analyze the oxidation state of Ce in the prepared doped glass. The antimicrobial activity of the composites was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; whether the cytocompatibility profile was assayed with human osteoblastic-like cells (Mg-63 cell line). The results revealed that the Ce inclusion in the GR-HA matrix induced the antimicrobial ability of the composite. In addition, Ce-doped materials reported an adequate biological behavior following seeding of osteoblastic populations, by inducing cell adhesion and proliferation. Developed materials were also found to enhance the expression of osteoblastic-related genes. Overall, the developed GR-HA_Ce composite is a prospective candidate to be used within the clinical scenario with a successful performance due to the effective antibacterial properties and capability of enhancing the osteoblastic cell response. PMID:26391473

  11. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gessmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  12. A bioceramic with enhanced osteogenic properties to regulate the function of osteoblastic and osteocalastic cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; No, Young Jung; Lu, Zufu; Ng, Pei Ying; Chen, Yongjuan; Shi, Jeffrey; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramics for regenerative medicine applications should have the ability to promote adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast and osteoclast cells. Osteogenic properties of the material are essential for rapid bone regeneration and new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop a silicate-based ceramic, gehlenite (GLN, Ca2Al2SiO7), and characterise its physiochemical, biocompatibility and osteogenic properties. A pure GLN powder was synthesised by a facile reactive sintering method and compacted to disc-shaped specimens. The sintering behaviour and degradation of the GLN discs in various buffer solutions were fully characterised. The cytotoxicity of GLN was evaluated by direct and indirect methods. In the indirect method, primary human osteoblast cells (HOBs) were exposed to diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)) of fine GLN particles in culture medium. The results showed that the extracts did not cause any cytotoxic effect on the HOBs with the number of cells increasing significantly from day 1 to day 7. GLN-supported HOB attachment and proliferation, and significantly enhanced osteogenic gene expression levels (Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein) were compared with biphasic calcium phosphate groups (BCP, a mixture of hydroxyapatite (60wt.%) and β-tricalcium phosphate(40wt.%)). We also demonstrated that in addition to supporting HOB attachment and proliferation, GLN promoted the formation of tartrate-acid resistance phosphatase (TRAP) positive multinucleated osteoclastic cells (OCs) derived from mouse bone marrow cells. Results also demonstrated the ability of GLN to support the polarisation of OCs, a prerequisite for their functional resorptive activity which is mainly influenced by the composition and degradability of biomaterials. Overall, the developed GLN is a prospective candidate to be used in bone regeneration applications due its effective osteogenic properties and biocompatibility. PMID

  13. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikumar, Karuppanan P.; Sugumari Elavarasu; Jayaprakash S Gadagi

    2012-01-01

    Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodon...

  14. Effect of Polycaprolactone Scaffold Permeability on Bone Regeneration In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsak, Anna G.; Kemppainen, Jessica M.; Harris, Matthew T.; Hollister, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    Successful bone tissue engineering depends on the scaffold's ability to allow nutrient diffusion to and waste removal from the regeneration site, as well as provide an appropriate mechanical environment. Since bone is highly vascularized, scaffolds that provide greater mass transport may support increased bone regeneration. Permeability encompasses the salient features of three-dimensional porous scaffold architecture effects on scaffold mass transport. We hypothesized that higher permeabilit...

  15. Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone scaffolds seeded with human dental pulp stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cedillo, M L; Alvarado-Estrada, K N; Pozos-Guillén, A J; Murguía-Ibarra, J S; Vidal, M A; Cervantes-Uc, J M; Rosales-Ibáñez, R; Cauich-Rodríguez, J V

    2016-02-01

    Conventional approaches to bone regeneration rarely use multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) but instead use polymeric matrices filled with hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses. In this study, we prepared composites of MWCNTs/polycaprolactone (PCL) for bone regeneration as follows: (a) MWCNTs randomly dispersed on PCL, (b) MWCNTs aligned with an electrical field to determine if the orientation favors the growing of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs), and (c) MWCNTs modified with β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) to analyze its osteogenic potential. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of MWCNTs and BGP on PCL, whereas the increase in crystallinity by the addition of MWCNTs to PCL was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A higher elastic modulus (608 ± 4.3 MPa), maximum stress (42 ± 6.1 MPa) and electrical conductivity (1.67 × 10(-7) S/m) were observed in non-aligned MWCNTs compared with the pristine PCL. Cell viability at 14 days was similar in all samples according to the live/dead assay, but the 21 day cell proliferation, measured by MTT was higher in MWCNTs aligned with BGP. Von Kossa and Alizarin red showed larger amounts of mineral deposits on MWCNTs aligned with BGP, indicating that at 21 days, this scaffold promotes osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs. PMID:26704552

  16. Molecular mechanism of bone formation and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Bone formation and regeneration are mediated by the coordinate action of various factors. Among these, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) play crucial roles in bone formation.

  17. How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Marchal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i skin; (ii cartilage; (iii bone; (iv nerve; and (v cardiac.

  18. Effect of preliminary fluorization on posttraumatic regeneration of bone tissue in combined radiation injury (external irradiation and fracture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with 65 male Wistar rats with body mass 0.160 0.180 kg were made. Preliminary fluorization has been carried out in the course of 3 months. Fluorine content, dissolved in drinking water as Na-fluoride, amounted to 4 mg/l. Every animal was given about 11 mg fluorine, which is equal to LD50/3. Immediately after fluorization a gamma irradiation (270 cGy) was made, followed by manually made fracture. On days 14, 21 and 28 after the fracture X-ray and histological studies were performed. The results showed that fluorization did not delay bone regeneration process. On the other hand, external irradiation with nonlethal doses delayed the process of callus formation

  19. Regeneration of human bones in hip osteonecrosis and human cartilage in knee osteoarthritis with autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Jaewoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is a series of clinical case reports demonstrating that a combination of percutaneously injected autologous adipose-tissue-derived stem cells, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride may be able to regenerate bones in human osteonecrosis, and with addition of a very low dose of dexamethasone, cartilage in human knee osteoarthritis. Case reports Stem cells were obtained from adipose tissue of abdominal origin by digesting lipoaspirate tissue with collagenase. These stem cells, along with hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride, were injected into the right hip of a 29-year-old Korean woman and a 47-year-old Korean man. They both had a history of right hip osteonecrosis of the femoral head. For cartilage regeneration, a 70-year-old Korean woman and a 79-year-old Korean woman, both with a long history of knee pain due to osteoarthritis, were injected with stem cells along with hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma, calcium chloride and a nanogram dose of dexamethasone. Pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans, physical therapy, and pain score data were then analyzed. Conclusions The MRI data for all the patients in this series showed significant positive changes. Probable bone formation was clear in the patients with osteonecrosis, and cartilage regeneration in the patients with osteoarthritis. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes, subjective pain, and functional status all improved. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell injection, in conjunction with hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma and calcium chloride, is a promising minimally invasive therapy for osteonecrosis of femoral head and, with low-dose dexamethasone, for osteoarthritis of human knees.

  20. Validity of T2 mapping in characterization of the regeneration tissue by bone marrow derived cell transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Bone marrow derived cell transplantation (BMDCT) has been recently suggested as a possible surgical technique to repair osteochondral lesions. To date, no qualitative MRI studies have evaluated its efficacy. The aim of our study is to investigate the validity of MRI T2-mapping sequence in characterizing the reparative tissue obtained and its ability to correlate with clinical results. Methods and materials: 20 patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus underwent BMDCT and were evaluated at 2 years follow up using MRI T2-mapping sequence. 20 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. MRI images were acquired using a protocol suggested by the International Cartilage Repair Society, MOCART scoring system and T2 mapping. Results were then correlated with AOFAS clinical score. Results: AOFAS score increased from 66.8 ± 14.5 pre-operatively to 91.2 ± 8.3 (p < 0.0005) at 2 years follow-up. T2-relaxation time value of 35-45 ms was derived from healthy ankles evaluation and assumed as normal hyaline cartilage value and used as a control. Regenerated tissue with a T2-relaxation time value comparable to hyaline cartilage was found in all the cases treated, covering a mean of 78% of the repaired lesion area. A high clinical score was related directly to isointense signal in DPFSE fat sat (p = 0.05), and percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (p = 0.05), inversely to the percentage of regenerated fibrocartilage. Lesion's depth negatively related to the integrity of the repaired tissue's surface (tau = -0.523, p = 0.007), and to the percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (rho = -0.546, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Because of its ability to detect cartilage's quality and to correlate to the clinical score, MRI T2-mapping sequence integrated with Mocart score represent a valid, non-invasive technique for qualitative cartilage assessment after regenerative surgical procedures.

  1. Validity of T2 mapping in characterization of the regeneration tissue by bone marrow derived cell transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M., E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E. [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Guaraldi, F. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sant' Andrea, A. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Buda, R.; Cavallo, M.; Giannini, S.; Vannini, F. [Clinical Orthopaedic and Traumatology Unit II, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Bone marrow derived cell transplantation (BMDCT) has been recently suggested as a possible surgical technique to repair osteochondral lesions. To date, no qualitative MRI studies have evaluated its efficacy. The aim of our study is to investigate the validity of MRI T2-mapping sequence in characterizing the reparative tissue obtained and its ability to correlate with clinical results. Methods and materials: 20 patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus underwent BMDCT and were evaluated at 2 years follow up using MRI T2-mapping sequence. 20 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. MRI images were acquired using a protocol suggested by the International Cartilage Repair Society, MOCART scoring system and T2 mapping. Results were then correlated with AOFAS clinical score. Results: AOFAS score increased from 66.8 {+-} 14.5 pre-operatively to 91.2 {+-} 8.3 (p < 0.0005) at 2 years follow-up. T2-relaxation time value of 35-45 ms was derived from healthy ankles evaluation and assumed as normal hyaline cartilage value and used as a control. Regenerated tissue with a T2-relaxation time value comparable to hyaline cartilage was found in all the cases treated, covering a mean of 78% of the repaired lesion area. A high clinical score was related directly to isointense signal in DPFSE fat sat (p = 0.05), and percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (p = 0.05), inversely to the percentage of regenerated fibrocartilage. Lesion's depth negatively related to the integrity of the repaired tissue's surface (tau = -0.523, p = 0.007), and to the percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (rho = -0.546, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Because of its ability to detect cartilage's quality and to correlate to the clinical score, MRI T2-mapping sequence integrated with Mocart score represent a valid, non-invasive technique for qualitative cartilage assessment after regenerative surgical procedures.

  2. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  3. Demineralized Bone Matrix Injection in Consolidation Phase Enhances Bone Regeneration in Distraction Osteogenesis via Endochondral Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, Won Joon; Cho, Tae-Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a promising tool for bone and tissue regeneration. However, prolonged healing time remains a major problem. Various materials including cells, cytokines, and growth factors have been used in an attempt to enhance bone formation. We examined the effect of percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) during the consolidation phase on bone regeneration after distraction. Methods The immature rabbit tibial DO model (20 mm length-gain) was u...

  4. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  5. In vivo bone regeneration using a novel porous bioactive composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie En [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Hu Yunyu [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)], E-mail: orth1@fmmn.edu.cn; Chen Xiaofeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology University, Guangzhou (China); Bai Xuedong; Li Dan [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ren Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang Ziru [Foreign Languages School, Northwest University Xi' an (China)

    2008-11-15

    Many commercial bone graft substitutes (BGS) and experimental bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed for bone repair and regeneration. This study reports the in vivo bone regeneration using a newly developed porous bioactive and resorbable composite that is composed of bioactive glass (BG), collagen (COL), hyaluronic acid (HYA) and phosphatidylserine (PS), BG-COL-HYA-PS. The composite was prepared by a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. A rabbit radius defect model was used to evaluate bone regeneration at time points of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Techniques including radiography, histology, and micro-CT were applied to characterize the new bone formation. 8 weeks results showed that (1) nearly complete bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composite that was combined with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP); (2) partial bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composites alone; and (3) control remained empty. This study demonstrated that the novel BG-COL-HYA-PS, with or without the grafting of BMP incorporation, is a promising BGS or a tissue engineering scaffold for non-load bearing orthopaedic applications.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of polycaprolactone cross- linked and highly-aligned 3-D artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration via electrospinning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodzha, S. N.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Novel technologies allowed the scientific community to develop scaffolds for regeneration of bone tissue. A successful scaffold should possess specific macroscopic geometry and internal architecture to perform biological and biophysical functions. In this study the process of polycaprolactone microfibrous development with either cross-linked or highly-aligned three-dimensional artificial mats via electrospinning technology for potential application in tissue engineering is described. The morphology and size of electrospun fibers were assessed systematically by varying the rotation speed of grounded collector. It was found that the diameter of the fibers decreased by increasing the rotation speed of collector. The morphology of the fibers changed from cross-linked to highly-aligned at appr. 1000-1100 rpm.

  7. Evaluation of Bone Regeneration on Polyhydroxyethyl-polymethyl Methacrylate Membrane in a Rabbit Calvarial Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somin; Hwang, Yawon; Kashif, Muhammad; Jeong, Dosun; Kim, Gonhyung

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of guiding bone regeneration of polyhydroxyethyl-polymethyl methacrylate (PHEMA-PMMA) membrane as a guided tissue regeneration membrane for bone defects. Two 8-mm diameter transosseous round defects were made at the parietal bone of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. Defects were covered with or without PHEMA-PMMA membrane. Radiological and histological evaluation revealed that the bone tissue over the defect was more regenerated with time in both groups. However, there was significantly more bone regeneration at 8 weeks in the experimental group than the control group (p<0.05). There was no sign of membrane degradation or tissue inflammation and no invasion of muscle and fibrous tissue into defects. PHEMA-PMMA is a potential material for guided tissue regeneration membrane as it induces no adverse tissue reaction and effectively supports selective bone regeneration. PMID:27566076

  8. Tissue Engineering Strategies in Ligament Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglar Yilgor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to other bones and their injuries are frequently encountered in the clinic. The current clinical approaches in ligament repair and regeneration are limited to autografts, as the gold standard, and allografts. Both of these techniques have their own drawbacks that limit the success in clinical setting; therefore, new strategies are being developed in order to be able to solve the current problems of ligament grafting. Tissue engineering is a novel promising technique that aims to solve these problems, by producing viable artificial ligament substitutes in the laboratory conditions with the potential of transplantation to the patients with a high success rate. Direct cell and/or growth factor injection to the defect site is another current approach aiming to enhance the repair process of the native tissue. This review summarizes the current approaches in ligament tissue engineering strategies including the use of scaffolds, their modification techniques, as well as the use of bioreactors to achieve enhanced regeneration rates, while also discussing the advances in growth factor and cell therapy applications towards obtaining enhanced ligament regeneration.

  9. Bone Adaptation and Regeneration - New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bacabac, Rommel Gaud

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly renewed and adapts to its local loading environment. Mechanical loading results in adaptive changes in bone size and shape that strengthen bone structure. The mechanisms for adaptation involve a multistep process called mechanotransduction, which is the ability of resident bone cells to perceive and translate mechanical energy into a cascade of structural and biochemical changes within the cells. The transduction of a mechanical signal to a biochemical response involves pathways within the cell membrane and cytoskeleton of the osteocytes, the professional mechansensor cells of bone. During the last decade the role of mechanosensitive osteocytes in bone metabolism and turnover, and the lacuno-canalicular porosity as the structure that mediates mechanosensing, is likely to reveal a new paradigm for understanding the bone formation response to mechanical loading, and the bone resorption response to disuse. Strain-derived fluid flow of interstitial fluid through the lacuno-canalicular porosity seems to mechanically activate the osteocytes, as well as ensures transport of cell signaling molecules, nutrients and waste products. Cell-cell signaling from the osteocyte sensor cells to the effector cells (osteoblasts or osteoclasts), and the effector cell response - either bone formation or resorption, allow an explanation of local bone gain and loss as well as remodeling in response to fatigue damage as processes supervised by mechanosensitive osteocytes. The osteogenic activity of cultured bone cells has been quantitatively correlated with varying stress stimulations highlighting the importance of the rate of loading. Theoretically a possible mechanism for the stress response by osteocytes is due to strain amplification at the pericellular matrix. Single cell studies on molecular responses of osteocytes provide insight on local architectural alignment in bone during remodeling. Alignment seems to occur as a result of the

  10. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations. PMID:27092345

  11. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Gessmann; Manfred Köller; Holger Godry; Thomas Armin Schildhauer; Dominik Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect ...

  12. The use of beta-tricalcium phosphate and bovine bone matrix in the guided tissue regeneration treatment of deep infra-bony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Natalija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The primary goal of bone regeneration procedures with application of various regenerative biologic agents and biomaterials is to facilitate the formation of periodontal tissues lost as a result of periodontitis. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare clinical outcome of the guided tissue regeneration (GTR treatment with the use of β-tricalcium phosphate and with bovine bone matrix in human deep intra-osseous defects. Methods. Twenty-one systemically healthy subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis, between 30 and 56 years of age, 11 females and 10 males, were selected. Patients having two similar inter-proximal defects with pocket probing depths following initial therapy greater than 5 mm were recruited for the study. Experimental sites were grafted with pure β-tricalcium phosphate biomaterial (Cerasorb® and a biomembrane, while control sites were treated with bovine-bone hydroxiapatite xenograft (Bio-oss® and a biomembrane. Immediately before surgery and 12 months after surgery, pocket probing depth (PPD, epithelial attachment level (EAL and gingival recession (GR were evaluated. Results. In the experimental group PPD amounted to 6.76±0.83 mm before surgery, and decreased significantly to 2.67±0.48 mm 12 months following surgery, while in the control group PPD significantly decreased from 7.14±0.65 mm presurgically to 2.85±0.57 mm postsurgically. After one year, EAL gain was 2.76±0.99 mm in the experimental group, and 3.24±0.16 mm in the control group. After twelve months postoperatively GR amounted to 1.33±0.79 mm in the experimental group and to 1.05±0.80 mm in the control group. No statistically significant differences for PPD reduction, EAL gain and GR increase were detected between the groups. Conclusion. Results from the present study indicate that GTR treatment of deep intra-osseous defects with Bio-oss® and Cerasorb® resulted in clinically and statistically significant improvement of EAL gain

  13. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O.; OCHOA, OSCAR; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R.; Centonze, Victoria E.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Joel E. Michalek; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.

    2009-01-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type ...

  14. Recent advances in bone regeneration using adult stemcells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadar Zigdon-Giladi; Utai Rudich; Gal Michaeli Geller; Ayelet Evron

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue reliant on theclose spatial and temporal association between bloodvessels and bone cells. Therefore, cells that participatein vasculogenesis and osteogenesis play a pivotalrole in bone formation during prenatal and postnatalperiods. Nevertheless, spontaneous healing of bonefracture is occasionally impaired due to insufficientblood and cellular supply to the site of injury. In thesecases, bone regeneration process is interrupted, whichmight result in delayed union or even nonunion ofthe fracture. Nonunion fracture is difficult to treatand have a high financial impact. In the last decade,numerous technological advancements in bone tissueengineering and cell-therapy opened new horizon inthe field of bone regeneration. This review starts withpresentation of the biological processes involved inbone development, bone remodeling, fracture healingprocess and the microenvironment at bone healingsites. Then, we discuss the rationale for using adultstem cells and listed the characteristics of the availablecells for bone regeneration. The mechanism of actionand epigenetic regulations for osteogenic differentiationare also described. Finally, we review the literature fortranslational and clinical trials that investigated the useof adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelialprogenitor cells and CD34+ blood progenitors) for boneregeneration.

  15. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  16. 0Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wakako; Tsuji; J; Peter; Rubin; Kacey; G; Marra

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells(ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differ-entiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs dam-aged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration.

  17. A novel simple strategy for in situ deposition of apatite layer on AZ31B magnesium alloy for bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Lee, Do Hee [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anodizing process was used for the surface modification of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • An appetite-like film was deposited on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • Ceramic film was investigated by XRD and XPS. • Nano-plates growth are observed though the implemented experimental design. • Significant increase in the substrate hardness and surface roughness was observed. - Abstract: In this study, for the first time, the degradation performance of AZ31B Mg alloy was tuned by an in situ deposition of apatite thin layer within a short time in one step. Using Taguchi method for experimental design, anodization process was designed under control conditions (time and voltage), and simulated body fluid (SBF) was used as the electrolyte to nucleate apatite-like compounds. The coated alloy was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), EDS, X-ray diffraction and XPS analysis. The results show that the applied voltage has a significant effect on the formation of apatite-like layers. Compared to the uncoated samples, microhardness and surface roughness of the coated samples showed remarkably different values. The potentiodynamic polarization results demonstrate that the polarization resistance of the anodized samples is higher than the substrate polarization resistance, thus improving the alloy corrosion resistant. Based on the experimental results, the proposed nanostructure apatite-like coating can offer a promising way to improve the biocompatibility and degradability properties of the Mg alloy for bone tissue regeneration.

  18. A novel simple strategy for in situ deposition of apatite layer on AZ31B magnesium alloy for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anodizing process was used for the surface modification of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • An appetite-like film was deposited on the surface of AZ31B magnesium alloy. • Ceramic film was investigated by XRD and XPS. • Nano-plates growth are observed though the implemented experimental design. • Significant increase in the substrate hardness and surface roughness was observed. - Abstract: In this study, for the first time, the degradation performance of AZ31B Mg alloy was tuned by an in situ deposition of apatite thin layer within a short time in one step. Using Taguchi method for experimental design, anodization process was designed under control conditions (time and voltage), and simulated body fluid (SBF) was used as the electrolyte to nucleate apatite-like compounds. The coated alloy was characterized through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), EDS, X-ray diffraction and XPS analysis. The results show that the applied voltage has a significant effect on the formation of apatite-like layers. Compared to the uncoated samples, microhardness and surface roughness of the coated samples showed remarkably different values. The potentiodynamic polarization results demonstrate that the polarization resistance of the anodized samples is higher than the substrate polarization resistance, thus improving the alloy corrosion resistant. Based on the experimental results, the proposed nanostructure apatite-like coating can offer a promising way to improve the biocompatibility and degradability properties of the Mg alloy for bone tissue regeneration

  19. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  20. Biomaterials for orthopaedic implants and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Timothy David

    For bone regeneration, there is need for biodegradable, synthetic scaffolds that direct the formation of de novo mineralized tissue. Orthopaedic implants additionally require mechanical function. The work described herein attempts to address both of these needs. The general strategy involves integrating molecularly designed tissue engineering scaffolds with porous metallic foams to create hybrid materials to direct cellular behavior. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) that self-assemble into nanofibers were designed to template hydroxyapatite mineral under biological conditions. The molecular design incorporated either serine (S) or phosphoserine S(P) and was mixed with RGDS-bearing PA to evaluate of the key parameters for mineral formation. This led to the discovery of nanoscale hydroxyapatite spheres templated on both S- and S(P)-bearing PA nanofibers. Stem cells were encapsulated in these gels and RT-PCR showed osteoblastic differentiation in all samples. Osteoblast maturation was increased in S-bearing PA compared to S(P)-bearing PA, although the reason is not yet understood. A method to create robust PA nanofiber coatings on NiTi was developed by optimizing the NiTi oxide surface chemistry, optimizing silane vapor deposition, and covalently attaching the PAs to the silanized substrate. The surfaces were characterized by XPS, SIMS, AFM, and fluorimetry. In vitro experiments demonstrated the importance of covalent attachment for cellular adhesion and proved the materials were not cytotoxic. Orthopaedic hybrid materials were created by triggering PA self-assembly within the interconnected pores of Ti foams developed by the Dunand research group. In vitro experiments demonstrate that pre-osteoblasts adhere to, proliferate on, and migrate into PA-Ti hybrids made with S(P)- and RGDS-bearing PA mixtures. The cells differentiate into mature osteoblasts and remain viable up to 28 days. In vivo studies using a rat model demonstrate osteointegration and boney ingrowth into bare

  1. Preparation and Characterization of an Advanced Medical Device for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Dorati, Rossella; Colonna, Claudia; Genta, Ida; Bruni, Giovanna; Visai, Livia; Conti, Bice

    2013-01-01

    Tridimensional scaffolds can promote bone regeneration as a framework supporting the migration of cells from the surrounding tissue into the damaged tissue and as delivery systems for the controlled or prolonged release of cells, genes, and growth factors. The goal of the work was to obtain an advanced medical device for bone regeneration through coating a decellularized and deproteinized bone matrix of bovine origin with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, to improve the cell engraftment...

  2. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and dise...

  3. Printing bone : the application of 3D fiber deposition for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Bone chips are used by orthopaedic surgeons for treating spinal trauma and to augment large bone defects. A potential alternative to autologous bone is regeneration of bone tissue in the lab by developing hybrid implants consisting of osteogenic (stem) cells seeded on supportive matrices. Applicatio

  4. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jeong Min [Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mantalaris, Anathathios, E-mail: yshwang@khu.ac.k [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  5. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  6. Engineering a multi-biofunctional composite using poly(ethylenimine) decorated graphene oxide for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Raj, Shammy; Sarkar, Kishor; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble osteoinductive factors. Increased adsorption of osteogenic factors due to the amine and oxygen containing functional groups on GO_PEI augment stem cell differentiation. GO_PEI was also highly efficient in imparting bactericidal activity with 85% reduction in counts of E. coli colonies compared to neat PCL at 5% filler content and was more than twice as efficient as GO. This may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the sharp edges of the particles along with the presence of the different chemical moieties. Thus, GO_PEI based polymer composites can be utilized to prepare bioactive resorbable biomaterials as an alternative to using labile biomolecules for fabricating orthopedic devices for fracture fixation and tissue engineering.Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble

  7. Nanocomposite Membranes Enhance Bone Regeneration Through Restoring Physiological Electric Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehui; Zhang, Chenguang; Lin, Yuanhua; Hu, Penghao; Shen, Yang; Wang, Ke; Meng, Song; Chai, Yuan; Dai, Xiaohan; Liu, Xing; Liu, Yun; Mo, Xiaoju; Cao, Cen; Li, Shue; Deng, Xuliang; Chen, Lili

    2016-08-23

    Physiological electric potential is well-known for its indispensable role in maintaining bone volume and quality. Although implanted biomaterials simulating structural, morphological, mechanical, and chemical properties of natural tissue or organ has been introduced in the field of bone regeneration, the concept of restoring physiological electric microenvironment remains ignored in biomaterials design. In this work, a flexible nanocomposite membrane mimicking the endogenous electric potential is fabricated to explore its bone defect repair efficiency. BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BTO NPs) were first coated with polydopamine. Then the composite membranes are fabricated with homogeneous distribution of Dopa@BTO NPs in poly(vinylidene fluoridetrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) matrix. The surface potential of the nanocomposite membranes could be tuned up to -76.8 mV by optimizing the composition ratio and corona poling treatment, which conform to the level of endogenous biopotential. Remarkably, the surface potential of polarized nanocomposite membranes exhibited a dramatic stability with more than half of original surface potential remained up to 12 weeks in the condition of bone defect. In vitro, the membranes encouraged bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) activity and osteogenic differentiation. In vivo, the membranes sustainably maintained the electric microenvironment giving rise to rapid bone regeneration and complete mature bone-structure formation. Our findings evidence that physiological electric potential repair should be paid sufficient attention in biomaterials design, and this concept might provide an innovative and well-suited strategy for bone regenerative therapies. PMID:27389708

  8. Tissue engineering and regeneration using biodegradable scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zhang, Y

    2015-12-01

    A number of people across the world suffer from various diseases or genetic defects and many of these patients die because of the lack of the availability of ideal tissue substitute and/or treatment. An important aspect of the disease is its association with the loss of tissue function. Many end-stage diseases and/or complete organ failure often require total or partial organ transplantation to restore functionality. However, such transplantation surgeries are not always successful because of the organ/ tissue rejection and also the scarcity of donors. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering aim to improve or repair the function of a dysfunctional tissue or organ. In spite of the many advances in tissue engineering methods, the field of regenerative medicine still awaits acceptable designs of bioscaffolds that are clinically tenable. Design of scaffolds and the nature of biomaterial used to make the scaffolds dictate cell behavior and function. Several approaches are currently being tried to optimize the design and improve the quality of the biomaterials. Innervation, vascularization and proper cell differentiation that are influenced by the biomaterials, are few challenges that need to be optimized along with the choice of stem cells that can be employed. Extracellular matrix scaffolds have proven to be a better choice for cartilage and bone repair while the fibrin, polyglycolate and polylactate etc are still being developed. Future research and technological innovations are still needed for a better choice of biomaterials that can support the tissue regeneration without causing any immune or inflammatory response from the host and which last for longer periods. PMID:25634586

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis evaluation of nanocrystalline bone-derived bioceramic powder using for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Amirsalar Khandan; Ebrahim Karamian; Morteza Bonakdarchian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bone tissue engineering proposes a suitable way to regenerate lost bones. Different materials have been considered for use in bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a significant success of bioceramics as a bone tissue repairing biomaterial. Among different bioceramic materials, recent interest has been risen on fluorinated hydroxyapatites, (FHA, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F x (OH) 2−x ). Fluorine ions can promote apatite formation and improve the stability of HA in the biological...

  10. Role of tissue engineering in dental pulp regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Sial; Sunit Kumar Jurel; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Durga S Gupta; Mayank Singh

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer′s disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are prima...

  11. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histological evaluation is an effective method in the behavioral description of the qualitative and quantitative implanted materials. The research validated the performance of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus on bone regeneration with the histomorphological analysis results. Were selected 30 rabbits, females, divided into 3 groups of 10 animals (G1, G2, G3) with a postoperative time of 45, 70 and 120 days respectively. Each animal is undergone 2 bone lesions in the ilium, one implemented in the material: Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus and the other for control. After the euthanasia, the iliac bone was removed, identified and subjected to histological procedure. The evaluation histological, histomorphological results were interpreted and described by quantitative and qualitative analysis based facts verified in the three experimental groups evaluating the rate of absorption of the material in the tissue regeneration, based on the neo-bone formation. The histomorphologic results classified as a material biocompatible and biologically active. Action in regeneration by bone resorption occurs slowly and gradually. Knowing the time and rate of absorption and neo-formation bone biomaterial, which can be determined in the bone segment applicable in the clinical surgical area.

  12. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

  13. Hybrid Macro-Porous Titanium Ornamented by Degradable 3D Gel/nHA Micro-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Ma, Pei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Li, Bo; Li, Qiang; Huang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model. All hybrid scaffolds with different composition ratio were found to have significant promotional effects in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in which the group with Gel:nHA = 1:1 showed the best performance in vitro, as well as the most bone regeneration volume in vivo. This 3D micro-scaffolds modification may be an innovative method for porous titanium ornamentation and shows potential application values in clinic. PMID:27092492

  14. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R; Centonze, Victoria E; Waite, Lindsay L; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2009-02-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2(-/-) mice into irradiated WT or CCR2(-/-) host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2(-/-) BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34(+)/Sca-1(-)/CD45(-) cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2(-/-) BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

  15. Biophysical stimulation of bone fracture repair, regeneration and remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao E. Y.S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical stimulation to enhance bone fracture repair and bone regenerate maturation to restore its structural strength must rely on both the biological and biomechanical principle according to the local tissue environment and the type of mechanical stress to be born by the skeletal joint system. This paper reviews the possible interactions between biophysical stimuli and cellular responses in healing bone fractures and proceeds to speculate the prospects and limitations of different experimental models in evaluating and optimising such non-invasive interventions. It is important to realize that bone fracture repair has several pathways with various combinations of bone formation mechanisms, but there may only be one bone remodeling principle regulated by the hypothesis proposed by Wolff. There are different mechanical and biophysical stimuli that could provide effective augmentation of fracture healing and bone regenerate maturation. The key requirements of establishing these positive interactions are to define the precise cellular response to the stimulation signal in an in vitro environment and to use well-established animal models to quantify and optimise the therapeutic regimen in a time-dependent manner. This can only be achieved through research collaboration among different disciplines using scientific methodologies. In addition, the specific forms of biophysical stimulation and its dose effect and application timing must be carefully determined and validated. Technological advances in achieving focalized stimulus delivery with adjustable signal type and intensity, in the ability to monitor healing callus mechanical property non-invasively, and in the establishment of a robust knowledgebase to develop effective and reliable treatment protocols are the essential pre-requisites to make biophysical stimulation acceptable in the main arena of health care. Finally, it is important to bear in mind that successful fracture repair or bone

  16. A novel in vivo platform for studying alveolar bone regeneration in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joong-Hyun; Moon, Ho-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Jo, Jong-Min; Yang, Sung Hee; Naskar, Deboki; Kundu, Subhas C.; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Kim, Hae-Won

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone regeneration is a significant challenge in dental implantation. Novel biomaterials and tissue-engineered constructs are under extensive development and awaiting in vivo animal tests to find clinical endpoint. Here, we establish a novel in vivo model, modifying gingivoperiosteoplasty in rat for the alveolar bone regeneration. Rat premaxillary bone defects were filled with silk scaffold or remained empty during the implantation period (up to 6 weeks), and harvested samples were an...

  17. Controlling dynamic mechanical properties and degradation of composites for bone regeneration by means of filler content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, Davide; de Bruijn, Joost D.; Luo, Xiaoman; Fare, Silvia; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Yuan, Huipin

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is a dynamic composite system that adapts itself, in response to the surrounding daily (cyclic) mechanical stimuli, through an equilibrium between growth and resorption processes. When there is need of synthetic bone grafts, the biggest issue is to support bone regeneration without causi

  18. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Won, J. E.; Yun, Y. R.; Jang, J. H.; S. H. Yang; Kim, J. H.; W. Chrzanowski; Wall, I. B.; Knowles, J. C.; Kim, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctio...

  19. Rapid self-integrating, injectable hydrogel for tissue complex regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Sen; WANG, XUEFEI; Park, Sean; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    A novel rapid self-integrating, injectable, and bio-erodible hydrogel is developed for tissue complex regeneration. The figure shows the self-integration of the hydrogel pieces to form various structures. In the figure, some hydrogel disks were dyed pink with rodamine and the others were left with the original light yellow color to visualize the interfaces (scale bar=5mm). This hydrogel is demonstrated to engineer cartilage-bone complex.

  20. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer. METHODS: Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed. RESULTS: Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics

  1. Bacterial Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the biological properties of bacterial cellulose-hydroxyapatite (BC-HA nanocomposite membranes for bone regeneration. Nanocomposites were prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes sequentially incubated in solutions of CaCl2 followed by Na2HPO4. BC-HA membranes were evaluated in noncritical bone defects in rat tibiae at 1, 4, and 16 weeks. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of the mineral phase was 40%–50% of the total weight. Spectroscopy, electronic microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and X-ray diffraction showed formation of HA crystals on BC nanofibres. Low crystallinity HA crystals presented Ca/P a molar ratio of 1.5 (calcium-deficient HA, similar to physiological bone. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis showed bands assigned to phosphate and carbonate ions. In vivo tests showed no inflammatory reaction after 1 week. After 4 weeks, defects were observed to be completely filled in by new bone tissue. The BC-HA membranes were effective for bone regeneration.

  2. Adipose Tissue Engineering for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerat...

  3. Utilization of Guided Bone Regeneration Techniqes in Treatment of a Single Tooth Missing with Implant Supported Crown

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, E.; Gladkowski, J.; Machnikowski, I.; Mierzwinska, E.; Spiechowicz, E.; Feder, T.; Wojtowicz, A.; Matenko, D.; Ciechowicz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Guided bone regeneration is developing very dynamically in dental surgery and in implantology. It relies on building up bone in places where it is lacking, utilizing a variety of grafting materials. Methods of guided bone regeneration utilize biological materials or synthetic specimens. The use of autogenous platelets rich plasma derived in the thromboforetic process (COBE spectra system) allows the employment of growth factors, which blood platelets contain in the formation of new bone tissu...

  4. Development and characterization of an injectable dextrin-based hydrogel for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Dina M. Silva; Daniella L. Morgado; Delair, T; David, L; Rouif, S.; López-Lacomba, J. L.; A C Maurício; Santos, J. D.; Gama, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic, highly vascularized tissue that remodels itself continuously over an individual ́s lifetime. It plays several important roles in maintaining homeostasis of the body systems [ 1 , 2 ] . However, this regenerative capac ity is limited and, as in the case of large bone defects, where the template for an orchestrated regeneration is absent, surgical proce dures are needed [ 2...

  5. Biomimetic electrospun nanofibers for tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Susan; Li Bojun; Ma Zuwei; Wei He; Chan Casey; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NUSNNI), Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-09-15

    Nanofibers exist widely in human tissue with different patterns. Electrospinning nanotechnology has recently gained a new impetus due to the introduction of the concept of biomimetic nanofibers for tissue regeneration. The advanced electrospinning technique is a promising method to fabricate a controllable continuous nanofiber scaffold similar to the natural extracellular matrix. Thus, the biomedical field has become a significant possible application field of electrospun fibers. Although electrospinning has developed rapidly over the past few years, electrospun nanofibers are still at a premature research stage. Further comprehensive and deep studies on electrospun nanofibers are essential for promoting their biomedical applications. Current electrospun fiber materials include natural polymers, synthetic polymers and inorganic substances. This review briefly describes several typically electrospun nanofiber materials or composites that have great potential for tissue regeneration, and describes their fabrication, advantages, drawbacks and future prospects. (topical review)

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potent Cell Source for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zomorodian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While small bone defects heal spontaneously, large bone defects need surgical intervention for bone transplantation. Autologous bone grafts are the best and safest strategy for bone repair. An alternative method is to use allogenic bone graft. Both methods have limitations, particularly when bone defects are of a critical size. In these cases, bone constructs created by tissue engineering technologies are of utmost importance. Cells are one main component in the manufacture of bone construct. A few cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, adult osteoblast, and adult stem cells, can be used for this purpose. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, as adult stem cells, possess characteristics that make them good candidate for bone repair. This paper discusses different aspects of MSCs that render them an appropriate cell type for clinical use to promote bone regeneration.

  7. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  8. Bone Regeneration Mediated by Biomimetic Mineralization of a Nanofiber Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Alvaro; Geng, Yanbiao; Henrikson, Karl; Aparicio, Conrado; Stock, Stuart; Satcher, Robert L.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid bone regeneration within a three-dimensional defect without the use of bone grafts, exogenous growth factors, or cells remains a major challenge. We report here on the use of self-assembling peptide nanostructured gels to promote bone regeneration that have the capacity to mineralize in biomimetic fashion. The main molecular design was the use of phosphoserine residues in the sequence of a peptide amphiphile known to nucleate hydroxyapatite crystals on the surfaces of nanofibers. We tes...

  9. Role of tissue engineering in dental pulp regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer′s disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  10. A biocomposite of collagen nanofibers and nanohydroxyapatite for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to design a synthetic construct that mimics the natural bone extracellular matrix through innovative approaches based on simultaneous type I collagen electrospinning and nanophased hydroxyapatite (nanoHA) electrospraying using non-denaturating conditions and non-toxic reagents. The morphological results, assessed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed a mesh of collagen nanofibers embedded with crystals of HA with fiber diameters within the nanometer range (30 nm), thus significantly lower than those reported in the literature, over 200 nm. The mechanical properties, assessed by nanoindentation using AFM, exhibited elastic moduli between 0.3 and 2 GPa. Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry confirmed the collagenous integrity as well as the presence of nanoHA in the composite. The network architecture allows cell access to both collagen nanofibers and HA crystals as in the natural bone environment. The inclusion of nanoHA agglomerates by electrospraying in type I collagen nanofibers improved the adhesion and metabolic activity of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. This new nanostructured collagen–nanoHA composite holds great potential for healing bone defects or as a functional membrane for guided bone tissue regeneration and in treating bone diseases. (paper)

  11. 45S5 Bioactive Glass-Based Composite Scaffolds with Polymer Coatings for Bone Tissue Engineering Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. An effective approach to bone tissue engineering aims to restore the function of damaged bone tissue or to regenerate bone tissue with the aid of scaffolds made from engineered biomaterials. The scaffolds should act as temporary matrices for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition, with consequent bone ingrowth until the new bone tissue is totally restored or regener...

  12. Bioactive Membranes and Nanocoatings for Guided Tissue Regeneration in Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nardo, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in population of all ages. Initiated by bacterial accumulation at the interface of bone and soft tissue, they lead to the loss of gingival tissue adherent to the root surface and, eventually, to tooth loss. Regenerative approaches to treat periodontitis offer exciting possibilities; guided tissue/bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) approaches are promising because, through the insertion of a physical barrier, they can exclude unwanted epithelial and gingival ...

  13. Biocompatibility of plasma-treated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nanofiber mats modified by silk fibroin for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unalan, Irem; Colpankan, Oylum; Albayrak, Aylin Ziylan; Gorgun, Cansu; Urkmez, Aylin Sendemir

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to produce biocompatible plasma-treated and silk-fibroin (SF) modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanofiber mats. The mats were plasma-treated using O2 or N2 gas to increase their hydrophilicity followed by SF immobilization for the improvement of biocompatibility. Contact angle measurements and SEM showed increased hydrophilicity and no disturbed morphology, respectively. Cell proliferation assay revealed that SF modification together with N2 plasma (PS/N2) promoted higher osteoblastic (SaOs-2) cell viability. Although, O2 plasma triggered more mineral formation on the mats, it showed poor cell viability. Consequently, the PS/N2 nanofiber mats would be a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:27524087

  14. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues. PMID:26454048

  15. Tissue regenerating functions of coagulation factor XIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, C; Kvist, P H; Seidelin, J B;

    2013-01-01

    The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged endothel......The protransglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) has recently gained interest within the field of tissue regeneration, as it has been found that FXIII significantly influences wound healing by exerting a multitude of functions. It supports haemostasis by enhancing platelet adhesion to damaged...... endothelium, and by its cross-linking activity it stabilizes the formed fibrin clot. Furthermore, FXIII limits bacterial dissemination from the wound and incorporates macromolecules of importance for cellular infiltration supporting cell migration and survival. FXIII-mediated complex formation of the VEGF...

  16. Sonic Hedgehog-activated engineered blood vessels enhance bone tissue formation

    OpenAIRE

    N C Rivron; Raiss, C.C.; Liu, J.; Nandakumar, A.; Sticht, C; Gretz, N; Truckenmuller, R.K.; Rouwkema, J.; Blitterswijk, van, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large bone defects naturally regenerate via a highly vascularized tissue which progressively remodels into cartilage and bone. Current approaches in bone tissue engineering are restricted by delayed vascularization and fail to recapitulate this stepwise differentiation toward bone tissue. Here, we use the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) to induce the in vitro organization of an endothelial capillary network in an artificial tissue. We show that endogenous Hedgehog activity regulates angiogenic...

  17. Bone Regeneration from PLGA Micro-Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Jódar-Reyes, Ana Belén; Peula-García, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the most widely used synthetic polymers for development of delivery systems for drugs and therapeutic biomolecules and as component of tissue engineering applications. Its properties and versatility allow it to be a reference polymer in manufacturing of nano- and microparticles to encapsulate and deliver a wide variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. It additionally facilitates and extends its use to encapsulate biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids that can be released in a controlled way. This review focuses on the use of nano/microparticles of PLGA as a delivery system of one of the most commonly used growth factors in bone tissue engineering, the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Thus, all the needed requirements to reach a controlled delivery of BMP2 using PLGA particles as a main component have been examined. The problems and solutions for the adequate development of this system with a great potential in cell differentiation and proliferation processes under a bone regenerative point of view are discussed. PMID:26509156

  18. Bone Regeneration from PLGA Micro-Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ortega-Oller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is one of the most widely used synthetic polymers for development of delivery systems for drugs and therapeutic biomolecules and as component of tissue engineering applications. Its properties and versatility allow it to be a reference polymer in manufacturing of nano- and microparticles to encapsulate and deliver a wide variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. It additionally facilitates and extends its use to encapsulate biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids that can be released in a controlled way. This review focuses on the use of nano/microparticles of PLGA as a delivery system of one of the most commonly used growth factors in bone tissue engineering, the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2. Thus, all the needed requirements to reach a controlled delivery of BMP2 using PLGA particles as a main component have been examined. The problems and solutions for the adequate development of this system with a great potential in cell differentiation and proliferation processes under a bone regenerative point of view are discussed.

  19. Fibromodulin reprogrammed cells: A novel cell source for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Shuang; Yang, Pu; Ting, Kang; Aghaloo, Tara; Lee, Soonchul; Zhang, Yulong; Khalilinejad, Kambiz; Murphy, Maxwell C; Pan, Hsin Chuan; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Zhong; Soo, Chia

    2016-03-01

    Pluripotent or multipotent cell-based therapeutics are vital for skeletal reconstruction in non-healing critical-sized defects since the local endogenous progenitor cells are not often adequate to restore tissue continuity or function. However, currently available cell-based regenerative strategies are hindered by numerous obstacles including inadequate cell availability, painful and invasive cell-harvesting procedures, and tumorigenesis. Previously, we established a novel platform technology for inducing a quiescent stem cell-like stage using only a single extracellular proteoglycan, fibromodulin (FMOD), circumventing gene transduction. In this study, we further purified and significantly increased the reprogramming rate of the yield multipotent FMOD reprogrammed (FReP) cells. We also exposed the 'molecular blueprint' of FReP cell osteogenic differentiation by gene profiling. Radiographic analysis showed that implantation of FReP cells into a critical-sized SCID mouse calvarial defect, contributed to the robust osteogenic capability of FReP cells in a challenging clinically relevant traumatic scenario in vivo. The persistence, engraftment, and osteogenesis of transplanted FReP cells without tumorigenesis in vivo were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, we have provided an extended potency, safety, and molecular profile of FReP cell-based bone regeneration. Therefore, FReP cells present a high potential for cellular and gene therapy products for bone regeneration. PMID:26774565

  20. Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengde Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive ceramics have received great attention in the past decades owing to their success in stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and bone tissue regeneration. They can react and form chemical bonds with cells and tissues in human body. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of bioactive ceramics for bone repair and regeneration. The review systematically summarizes the types and characters of bioactive ceramics, the fabrication methods for nanostructure and hierarchically porous structure, typical toughness methods for ceramic scaffold and corresponding mechanisms such as fiber toughness, whisker toughness and particle toughness. Moreover, greater insights into the mechanisms of interaction between ceramics and cells are provided, as well as the development of ceramic-based composite materials. The development and challenges of bioactive ceramics are also discussed from the perspective of bone repair and regeneration.

  1. PATHOHISTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF INTRACANAL MEDICATION ON THE REGENERATION OF JAW BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Borysenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of histological investigation on the influence of the proposed drug composition (metronidazole, enterosgel (Sigma, alflutop (Biotehnos S.A., Romania for experimental mandible bone defect regeneration in rats were presented. The high efficiency and osteoregenerative properties of this paste were shown, and its significant clinical efficiency for temporary placement into the root canals in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis, for stimulating regeneration of the damaged periapical tissues, was assessed.

  2. Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intini Francesco E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the present study we introduce a novel and simple biomaterial able to induce regeneration of bone. We theorized that nourishing a bone defect with calcium and with a large amount of activated platelets may initiate a series of biological processes that culminate in bone regeneration. Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore avoiding the need to activate the platelets with an agonist. Methods First, we tested CS-Platelet in heterotopic (muscle and orthotopic (bone bone regeneration bioassays. We then utilized CS-Platelet in a variety of dental and craniofacial clinical cases, where regeneration of bone was needed. Results The heterotopic bioassay showed formation of bone within the muscular tissue at the site of the implantation of CS-Platelet. Results of a quantitative orthotopic bioassay based on the rat calvaria critical size defect showed that only CS-Platelet and recombinant human BMP2 were able to induce a significant regeneration of bone. A non-human primate orthotopic bioassay also showed that CS-Platelet is completely resorbable. In all human clinical cases where CS-Platelet was used, a complete bone repair was achieved. Conclusion This study showed that CS-Platelet is a novel biomaterial able to induce formation of bone in heterotopic and orthotopic sites, in orthotopic critical size bone defects, and in various clinical situations. The discovery of CS-Platelet may represent a cost-effective breakthrough in bone regenerative therapy and an alternative or an adjuvant to the current treatments.

  3. Monitoring of bone regeneration process by means of texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image analysis method is proposed for the monitoring of the regeneration of the tibial bone. For this purpose, 130 digitized radiographs of 13 patients, who had undergone tibial lengthening by the Ilizarov method, were studied. For each patient, 10 radiographs, taken at an equal number of postoperative successive time moments, were available. Employing available software, 3 Regions Of Interest (ROIs), corresponding to the: (a) upper, (b) central, and (c) lower aspect of the gap, where bone regeneration was expected to occur, were determined on each radiograph. Employing custom developed algorithms: (i) a number of textural features were generated from each of the ROIs, and (ii) a texture-feature based regression model was designed for the quantitative monitoring of the bone regeneration process. Statistically significant differences (p 2 = 0.9, p < 0.001). The suggested method may contribute to the monitoring of the tibial bone regeneration process.

  4. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  5. Modulation of tissue repair by regeneration enhancer elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junsu; Hu, Jianxin; Karra, Ravi; Dickson, Amy L; Tornini, Valerie A; Nachtrab, Gregory; Gemberling, Matthew; Goldman, Joseph A; Black, Brian L; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-04-14

    How tissue regeneration programs are triggered by injury has received limited research attention. Here we investigate the existence of enhancer regulatory elements that are activated in regenerating tissue. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that leptin b (lepb) is highly induced in regenerating hearts and fins of zebrafish. Epigenetic profiling identified a short DNA sequence element upstream and distal to lepb that acquires open chromatin marks during regeneration and enables injury-dependent expression from minimal promoters. This element could activate expression in injured neonatal mouse tissues and was divisible into tissue-specific modules sufficient for expression in regenerating zebrafish fins or hearts. Simple enhancer-effector transgenes employing lepb-linked sequences upstream of pro- or anti-regenerative factors controlled the efficacy of regeneration in zebrafish. Our findings provide evidence for 'tissue regeneration enhancer elements' (TREEs) that trigger gene expression in injury sites and can be engineered to modulate the regenerative potential of vertebrate organs. PMID:27049946

  6. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each o...... tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp....... them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type of...

  7. JAW CYSTS AND GUIDED BONE REGENERATION (a late complication after enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Lalabonova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary jaw bone possesses a high regenerative capacity. Yet sometimes the defects enucleation of jaw cysts leaves may regenerate only partially or not at all. For this reason some researchers advise treatment of the residual cavities after cystectomy using bone regeneration stimulation methods. We report a case of an atypical complication after enucleation of a maxillary cyst manifesting itself eight years after the initial treatment. The symptoms the patient reported were at first periodic sweating on the left sides of face and head. This was followed by a piercing pain in the left palpebral fissure radiating to the middle of the palate and felt in the left cheekbone, left eye and left supraorbital ridge. The patient has a history of maxillary cysts recurring three times and of three operations she had 20, 12 and 8 years previously. The multiple recurrences of the cysts after their enucleation indicates poor regenerative capacity of the body which resulted in the formation of cicatricial tissue. It is most probably this tissue that was responsible for the disruption of the nerve conduction capacity which can account for the reported symptoms. We filled the cavity with bone graft material which boosted the bone structure regeneration. Although maxillary jaws possess high regenerative capacity we advise the use of guided bone regeneration in cases of large bone defects that usually occur after enucleation of jaw cysts.

  8. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implant via guided tissue regeneration. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørting-Hansen, E; Helbo, M; Aaboe, M; Gotfredsen, K; Pinholt, E M

    1995-01-01

    The principle of guided tissue regeneration was applied in an attempt to generate bone to cover a subperiosteal implant. Titanium frame works, casted on individual impressions of the anterior surface of the tibia of 4 Copenhagen White rabbits, were stabilized to the tibia by microscrews, and half...... of them were covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene augmentation membrane. The observation period was 12 weeks. Guided bone regeneration partly covering the implants was seen at all experimental sides; on the control sides the implants were mainly embedded in fibrous tissue. Studies are in...

  9. RGD修饰的聚乳酸-羟基乙酸骨组织工程材料的研究进展%RGD-modified polylactide-co-glycolic acid tissue engineering scaffolds for bone regeneration: an advance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶春; 陈琰; 钟延强

    2012-01-01

    Polylactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) tissue engineering scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of bone and cartilage. Due to the poor hydrophilicity of PLGA, it is difficult for cells to attach to the scaffolds. Modification by RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides can effectively improve the cellular affinity of PLGA and adhesion and proliferation of the seed cells. This review summarizes the recent progress in PLGA tissue engineering scaffolds modified by RGD peptides.%聚乳酸-羟基乙酸(PLGA)骨组织工程支架在骨损伤修复和再造方面有着重要的应用,但由于PLGA亲水性差,不利于种子细胞在支架上的黏附和增殖.RGD(精氨酸-甘氨酸-天冬氨酸,Arg-Gly-Asp)肽修饰PLGA支架后,材料的细胞亲和性得到了有效改善,促进了种子细胞黏附和增殖.本文就近年来RGD修饰的PLGA骨组织工程材料的相关研究作一综述.

  10. Material for bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetrík, Miroslav; Pařízek, Martin; Policianová, Olivia; Hlídková, Helena; Přádný, Martin; Hrubý, Martin; Lisá, Věra; Bačáková, Lucie

    Bratislava : Young Scientists Council of Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2016. s. 77. ISBN 978-80-970923-8-2. [Bratislava Young Polymer Scientists workshop /6./ - BYPoS 2016. 14.03.2016-18.03.2016, Ždiar] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : black orlon * bone tissue * tissue engineering Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C)

  11. Effects of bovine lactoferrin in surgically created bone defects on bone regeneration around implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmez, Ulaş; Kürkcü, Mehmet; E Benlidayi, Mehmet; Ulubayram, Kezban; Sertdemir, Yaşar; Dağlioğlu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF)-loaded gelatin microspheres (GM) used in combination with anorganic bovine bone on bone regeneration in surgically created bone defects around tooth implants. Twenty-four uniform bone defects were created in the frontal bone via an extraoral approach in 12 domestic pigs. Twenty-four implants were placed at the center of the defects. In eight animals one of these defects was filled with 0.3 mL anorganic bovine bone while the other was left empty. In four animals, all defects were filled with 3 mg/defect bLF-loaded GM and anorganic bovine bone. All the defects were covered with collagen membranes. All animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks of healing, and the implants with the surrounding bone defects were removed en bloc. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The mean total area of hard tissue was 26.9 ± 6.0% in the empty defect group, 31.8 ± 8.4% in the graft group, and 47.6 ± 5.0% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean area of newly formed bone was 26.9 ± 6.0% in the empty defect group, 22.4 ± 8.2% in the graft group, and 46.1 ± 5.1% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean residual graft area was 9.4 ± 3.2% in the graft group and 1.5 ± 0.6% in the lactoferrin group (P < 0.001). The mean proportion of bone-implant contact in the defect region was 21.9 ± 8.4% in the empty defect group, 26.9 ± 10.1% in the graft group and 29.9 ± 10.3% in the lactoferrin group (P = 0.143). These data indicate that a combination of 3 mg bLF-loaded GM and bovine-derived HA promotes bone regeneration in defects around implants. PMID:25807903

  12. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhao Qin; Lian Wang; Zhengliang Gao; Genyin Chen; Changqing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regu...

  13. Laser Microablative Tunnel Formation to Initiate Alveolar Bone Regeneration. Pilot ex vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabut М.М.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been demonstrated the ability of Erbium (Er laser to cause effective ablation of bone tissue with minimum collateral damage. Non-surgical treatment of periodontitis using Er laser improves probing depth and clinical attachment level. However, periodontal anti-inflammatory therapy should not be limited to these parameters, but also should initiate tissue regeneration including bone tissue damaged by the disease. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate feasibility and characterize the process of laser microablative tunnel formation in gingiva and alveolar bone using a pulse-periodic, single mode Er laser, and determine laser parameters providing appropriate size of the tunnel and coagulation zone needed to initiate healing and regeneration of the alveolar bone. Materials and Methods. Ex vivo pig jaw was used as a model for the study. To create a through-gingiva microperformation of the alveolar bone, we used a laboratory prototype of Er laser and delivery system Alta PE-AT (Dental Photonics, Inc.. Results. We performed a microperforation of a 1 mm thick gingiva and created a microcrater (tunnel in the underlying bone using a single pulse with energy 5, 10 and 30 mJ. The laser tunnel characteristics in the gingiva, bone and dentine were characterized as a function of laser irradiation parameters. Optical microscopy and histology examination did not reveal carbonization or significant collateral damage of the bone tissue. Conclusion. Using a laboratory prototype of Alta PE-AT Er laser we demonstrated feasibility of through gingiva laser microperforation of alveolar bone that can serve as the first step towards further study of healing and initiation of the alveolar bone regeneration.

  14. Graded porous polyurethane foam: A potential scaffold for oro-maxillary bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tissue engineering applications demand for biomaterials offering a substrate for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, while inferring suitable mechanical properties to the construct. In the present study, polyurethane (PU) foams were synthesized to develop a graded porous material—characterized by a dense shell and a porous core—for the treatment of oro-maxillary bone defects. Foam was synthesized via a one-pot reaction starting from a polyisocyanate and a biocompatible polyester diol, using water as a foaming agent. Different foaming conditions were examined, with the aim of creating a dense/porous functional graded material that would perform at the same time as an osteoconductive scaffold for bone defect regeneration and as a membrane-barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. The obtained PU was characterized in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Our findings confirm that the material is potentially suitable for guided bone regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Graded porous polyurethane foams were synthesized via a one-pot foaming reaction. • The inner porous core might act as a scaffold for guided bone regeneration. • A dense outer shell was introduced to act as a barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. • The synthesized foams were non-toxic and supportive of hBMSC adhesion

  15. Graded porous polyurethane foam: A potential scaffold for oro-maxillary bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannitelli, S.M. [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Basoli, F. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Mozetic, P. [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Piva, P.; Bartuli, F.N.; Luciani, F. [University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Arcuri, C. [Department of Periodontics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); U.O.C.C. Odontostomatology, “S. Giovanni Calibita, Fatebenefratelli” Hospital, Rome (Italy); Trombetta, M. [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Rainer, A., E-mail: a.rainer@unicampus.it [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Licoccia, S. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering applications demand for biomaterials offering a substrate for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, while inferring suitable mechanical properties to the construct. In the present study, polyurethane (PU) foams were synthesized to develop a graded porous material—characterized by a dense shell and a porous core—for the treatment of oro-maxillary bone defects. Foam was synthesized via a one-pot reaction starting from a polyisocyanate and a biocompatible polyester diol, using water as a foaming agent. Different foaming conditions were examined, with the aim of creating a dense/porous functional graded material that would perform at the same time as an osteoconductive scaffold for bone defect regeneration and as a membrane-barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. The obtained PU was characterized in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Our findings confirm that the material is potentially suitable for guided bone regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Graded porous polyurethane foams were synthesized via a one-pot foaming reaction. • The inner porous core might act as a scaffold for guided bone regeneration. • A dense outer shell was introduced to act as a barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. • The synthesized foams were non-toxic and supportive of hBMSC adhesion.

  16. Pilot in vivo animal study of bone regeneration by fractional Er: YAG-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Yaremenko, Andrey I.; Zernitskiy, Alexander Y.; Zernitckaia, Ekaterina A.

    2016-04-01

    The histological structure of the rabbit parietal bone during its regeneration after fractional Er: YAG-laser (λ=2.94μm) treatment was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. In 48 days after fractional laser treatment, bone samples contained micro-cavities and fragments of necrotic tissue with empty cellular lacuna and coagulated protein of bone matrix. In this case, necrotic lesions appeared around the periphery of micro-cavities created by laser radiation. Fragmentation of detrital mass and partial substitution of micro-cavities with fatty bone marrow were observed in bone samples in 100 days after fractional laser treatment, in contrast to the earlier period. Partial filling of micro-cavities edges by fibrous tissue with presence of osteoblasts on their inner surface was observed in 100 days also, that indicates regenerative processes in the bone.

  17. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich plasma and nanohydroxyapatite-type I collagen beads were integral parts of biomimetic bone substitutes for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo-Nian; Whu, Shu Wen; Chen, Chih-Hwa; Hsu, Fu-Yin; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chen, Chien-Hao; Liou, Hau-Min

    2013-11-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP), which includes many growth factors, can activate osteoid production, collagen synthesis and cell proliferation. Nanohydroxyapatite-type I collagen beads (CIB), which mimetic natural bone components, are not only flexible fillers for bone defect but also encourage osteogenesis. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are often used as an abundant cell source for tissue engineering. We used a rabbit model to combine PRP, CIB and BMSCs (CIB+PRP+BMSC) into a bone-like substitute to study its impact on bone regeneration, when compared to defect alone, PRP, CIB+PRP, and PRP+BMSC. CIB+PRP upregulated more alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in BMSCs than PRP alone at 4 weeks postoperation. CIB+PRP+BMSC and PRP+BMSC did not differ significantly in DNA content, total collagen content, and ALP activity at 8 weeks. In histological assay, both CIB+PRP+BMSC and PRP+BMSC showed more bone regeneration at 4 and 8 weeks. Higher trabecular bone volume in tissue volume (BV/TV) (31.15±2.67% and 36.93±1.01%), fractal dimension (FD) (2.30±0.18 and 2.65±0.02) and lower trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) (2.30±0.18 and 1.35±0.16) of CIB+PRP+BMSC than of other groups at 4 and 8 weeks, and approach to of bone tissue (BV/TV=24.35±2.13%; FD=2.65±0.06; Tb.Sp=4.19±0.95). CIB+PRP+BMSC significantly enhanced new bone formation at 4 week. Therefore, nanohydroxyapatite-type I collagen beads combined with PRP and BMSCs produced a bone substitute with efficiently improved bone regeneration that shows promise to repair bone defects. PMID:22744907

  18. Vascularization of bone regeneration products in acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 119 rabbits with acute radiation sickness the vascularization process in bone regeneration products was studied by microangiography. The formation of arteries and of bone structures was retarded in irradiated animals. The deficient formation of veins and capillaries did not cause conditions for venous blood circulation and resulted in a slow resorption of newly formed bone structures and gristle. That is one of the reasons for an extended healing process of fractures and for formation of false articulations in irradiated animals. (author)

  19. Biomechanical characteristics of regenerated cortical bone in the canine mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Uriel; Opperman, Lynne A.; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    To test the mechanical properties of regenerate cortical bone created using Mandibular Bone Transport (MBT) distraction, five adult male American foxhound dogs underwent unilateral distraction of the mandible with a novel MBT device placed to linearly repair a 30-35 mm bone defect. The animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after the beginning of the consolidation period. Fourteen cylindrical specimens were taken from the inner (lingual) and outer (buccal) plates of the reconstructed mandible and 2...

  20. Adverse Effects of Hyperlipidemia on Bone Regeneration and Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Pirih, F; J. Lu; Ye, F; Bezouglaia, O.; Atti, E.; Ascenzi, MG; Tetradis, S; Demer, LL; Aghaloo, T; Tintut, Y

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia increases the risk for generation of lipid oxidation products, which accumulate in the subendothelial spaces of vasculature and bone. Atherogenic high-fat diets increase serum levels of oxidized lipids, which are known to attenuate osteogenesis in culture and to promote bone loss in mice. In this study, we investigated whether oxidized lipids affect bone regeneration and mechanical strength. Wild type and hyperlipidemic (Ldlr−/−) mice were placed on a high-fat (HF) diet for 13 ...

  1. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  2. Electrospun poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/hydroxyapatite scaffold with unrestricted somatic stem cells for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Heidari Keshel, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The combination of scaffolds and cells can be useful in tissue reconstruction. In this study, nanofibrous poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) scaffolds, filled with unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs), were used for healing calvarial bone in rat model. The healing effects of these scaffolds, with and without stem cells, in bone regeneration were investigated by computed tomography (CT) analysis and pathology assays after 28 days of grafting. The results of CT analysis showed that bone regeneration on the scaffolds, and the amounts of regenerated new bone for polymer/nano-HAp scaffold with USSC, was significantly greater than the scaffold without cell and untreated control samples. Therefore, the combination of scaffold especially with USSC could be considered as a useful method for bone regeneration. PMID:25710767

  3. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, Rogério; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  4. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, R. P.; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  5. Tissue Engineering Bone Using Autologous Progenitor Cells in the Peritoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhui Shen; Ashwin Nair; Ramesh Saxena; Cheng Cheng Zhang; Joseph Borrelli; Liping Tang

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive research efforts, there remains a need for novel methods to improve the ossification of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Based on a common phenomenon and known pathological conditions of peritoneal membrane ossification following peritoneal dialysis, we have explored the possibility of regenerating ossified tissue in the peritoneum. Interestingly, in addition to inflammatory cells, we discovered a large number of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the periton...

  6. BMP2 genetically engineered MSCs and EPCs promote vascularized bone regeneration in rat critical-sized calvarial bone defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning He

    Full Text Available Current clinical therapies for critical-sized bone defects (CSBDs remain far from ideal. Previous studies have demonstrated that engineering bone tissue using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is feasible. However, this approach is not effective for CSBDs due to inadequate vascularization. In our previous study, we have developed an injectable and porous nano calcium sulfate/alginate (nCS/A scaffold and demonstrated that nCS/A composition is biocompatible and has proper biodegradability for bone regeneration. Here, we hypothesized that the combination of an injectable and porous nCS/A with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 gene-modified MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs could significantly enhance vascularized bone regeneration. Our results demonstrated that delivery of MSCs and EPCs with the injectable nCS/A scaffold did not affect cell viability. Moreover, co-culture of BMP2 gene-modified MSCs and EPCs dramatically increased osteoblast differentiation of MSCs and endothelial differentiation of EPCs in vitro. We further tested the multifunctional bone reconstruction system consisting of an injectable and porous nCS/A scaffold (mimicking the nano-calcium matrix of bone and BMP2 genetically-engineered MSCs and EPCs in a rat critical-sized (8 mm caviarial bone defect model. Our in vivo results showed that, compared to the groups of nCS/A, nCS/A+MSCs, nCS/A+MSCs+EPCs and nCS/A+BMP2 gene-modified MSCs, the combination of BMP2 gene -modified MSCs and EPCs in nCS/A dramatically increased the new bone and vascular formation. These results demonstrated that EPCs increase new vascular growth, and that BMP2 gene modification for MSCs and EPCs dramatically promotes bone regeneration. This system could ultimately enable clinicians to better reconstruct the craniofacial bone and avoid donor site morbidity for CSBDs.

  7. BMP2 Genetically Engineered MSCs and EPCs Promote Vascularized Bone Regeneration in Rat Critical-Sized Calvarial Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoning; Dziak, Rosemary; Yuan, Xue; Mao, Keya; Genco, Robert; Swihart, Mark; Sarkar, Debanjan; Li, Chunyi; Wang, Changdong; Lu, Li; Andreadis, Stelios; Yang, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical therapies for critical-sized bone defects (CSBDs) remain far from ideal. Previous studies have demonstrated that engineering bone tissue using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is feasible. However, this approach is not effective for CSBDs due to inadequate vascularization. In our previous study, we have developed an injectable and porous nano calcium sulfate/alginate (nCS/A) scaffold and demonstrated that nCS/A composition is biocompatible and has proper biodegradability for bone regeneration. Here, we hypothesized that the combination of an injectable and porous nCS/A with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene-modified MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) could significantly enhance vascularized bone regeneration. Our results demonstrated that delivery of MSCs and EPCs with the injectable nCS/A scaffold did not affect cell viability. Moreover, co-culture of BMP2 gene-modified MSCs and EPCs dramatically increased osteoblast differentiation of MSCs and endothelial differentiation of EPCs in vitro. We further tested the multifunctional bone reconstruction system consisting of an injectable and porous nCS/A scaffold (mimicking the nano-calcium matrix of bone) and BMP2 genetically-engineered MSCs and EPCs in a rat critical-sized (8 mm) caviarial bone defect model. Our in vivo results showed that, compared to the groups of nCS/A, nCS/A+MSCs, nCS/A+MSCs+EPCs and nCS/A+BMP2 gene-modified MSCs, the combination of BMP2 gene -modified MSCs and EPCs in nCS/A dramatically increased the new bone and vascular formation. These results demonstrated that EPCs increase new vascular growth, and that BMP2 gene modification for MSCs and EPCs dramatically promotes bone regeneration. This system could ultimately enable clinicians to better reconstruct the craniofacial bone and avoid donor site morbidity for CSBDs. PMID:23565253

  8. Chitosan Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone contains considerable amounts of minerals and proteins. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO46(OH2] is one of the most stable forms of calcium phosphate and it occurs in bones as major component (60 to 65%, along with other materials including collagen, chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate and lipids. In recent years, significant progress has been made in organ transplantation, surgical reconstruction and the use of artificial protheses to treat the loss or failure of an organ or bone tissue. Chitosan has played a major role in bone tissue engineering over the last two decades, being a natural polymer obtained from chitin, which forms a major component of crustacean exoskeleton. In recent years, considerable attention has been given to chitosan composite materials and their applications in the field of bone tissue engineering due to its minimal foreign body reactions, an intrinsic antibacterial nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and the ability to be molded into various geometries and forms such as porous structures, suitable for cell ingrowth and osteoconduction. The composite of chitosan including hydroxyapatite is very popular because of the biodegradability and biocompatibility in nature. Recently, grafted chitosan natural polymer with carbon nanotubes has been incorporated to increase the mechanical strength of these composites. Chitosan composites are thus emerging as potential materials for artificial bone and bone regeneration in tissue engineering. Herein, the preparation, mechanical properties, chemical interactions and in vitro activity of chitosan composites for bone tissue engineering will be discussed.

  9. Tracheal cartilage regeneration and new bone formation by slow release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igai, Hitoshi; Chang, Sung Soo; Gotoh, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yasumichi; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 released slowly from gelatin sponge for tracheal cartilage regeneration. A 1-cm gap was made in the mid-ventral portion of each of 10 consecutive tracheal cartilages. In the control group (n = 4), the resulting gap was left untreated. In the gelatin group (n = 4), plain gelatin was implanted in the gap. In the BMP-2 group (n = 4), gelatin containing 100 microg BMP-2 was implanted. We euthanatized all dogs in each group at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation, respectively, and then examined the implant site macro- and microscopically. In the BMP-2 group, regenerated fibrous cartilage and newly formed bone were observed at 1 and 12 months. Regenerated cartilage was observed at the ends of the host cartilage stumps, with newly formed bone in the middle portion. The gaps were filled with regenerated cartilage and newly formed bone. At 3 and 6 months, regenerated cartilage, but not newly formed bone, was evident. The regenerated cartilage was covered with perichondrium and showed continuity with the host cartilage. We succeeded in inducing cartilage regeneration and new bone formation in canine trachea by slow release of 100 microg BMP-2 from gelatin. PMID:18204324

  10. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs. PMID:27187017

  11. Nanostructured Tendon-Derived Scaffolds for Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunkyung; Alberti, Kyle; Lee, Jong Seung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Shin, Jisoo; Yang, Hee Seok; Xu, Qiaobing; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Decellularized matrix-based scaffolds can induce enhanced tissue regeneration due to their biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical similarity to native tissues. In this study, we report a nanostructured decellularized tendon scaffold with aligned, nanofibrous structures to enhance osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using a bioskiving method, we prepared decellularized tendon scaffolds from tissue slices of bovine Achilles and neck tendons with or without fixation, and investigated the effects on physical and mechanical properties of decellularized tendon scaffolds, based on the types and concentrations of cross-linking agents. In general, we found that decellularized tendon scaffolds without fixative treatments were more effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hADSCs in vitro. When non-cross-linked decellularized tendon scaffolds were applied together with hydroxyapatite for hADSC transplantation in critical-sized bone defects, they promoted bone-specific collagen deposition and mineralized bone formation 4 and 8 weeks after hADSC transplantation, compared to conventional collagen type I scaffolds. Interestingly, stacking of decellularized tendon scaffolds cultured with osteogenically committed hADSCs and those containing human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) induced vascularized bone regeneration in the defects 8 weeks after transplantation. Our study suggests that biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds made of decellularized tissue matrices can serve as functional tissue-engineering scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis of stem cells. PMID:27502160

  12. Small Players Ruling the Hard Game: siRNA in Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadakzadeh, Saber; Mekhail, Mina; Aoude, Ahmed; Hamdy, Reggie; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    Silencing gene expression through a sequence-specific manner can be achieved by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The discovery of this process has opened the doors to the development of siRNA therapeutics. Although several preclinical and clinical studies have shown great promise in the treatment of neurological disorders, cancers, dominant disorders, and viral infections with siRNA, siRNA therapy is still gaining ground in musculoskeletal tissue repair and bone regeneration. Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature to summarize different siRNA delivery strategies utilized to enhance bone regeneration. With advancement in understanding the targetable biological pathways involved in bone regeneration and also the rapid progress in siRNA technologies, application of siRNA for bone regeneration has great therapeutic potential. High rates of musculoskeletal injuries and diseases, and their inevitable consequences, impose a huge financial burden on individuals and healthcare systems worldwide. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26890411

  13. Material Tissue Interaction-From Toxicity to Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, G; Widbiller, M; Galler, K M

    2016-01-01

    The topic of material tissue interaction has gained increasing interest over recent decades from both the dental profession and the public. The primary goal initially was to avoid adverse reactions after the application of dental materials. New laboratory test methods have been developed, and currently premarket testing programs, which attempt to guarantee a basic level of patient safety, are legally required worldwide. The dentist is responsible for selecting the correct indication as well as the proper handling of any newly emerging risk. Apart from this phenomenon-oriented "inert materials concept," the "analytical concept" focuses primarily on analyzing the reasons for adverse reactions, and identifying their associated modifying factors, in order to prevent them or to develop new and more biocompatible materials. The "concept of bioactivity" involves addressing the possibility of positively influencing tissue by materials application, such as the generation of tertiary dentin or antibacterial effects. Finally, tissue regeneration may be supported and promoted by the use of various suitable materials (matrices/scaffolds) into which stem cells can migrate or be seeded, leading to cell differentiation and the generation of new tissue. These new dental materials must also fulfill additional requirements such as controlled degradability in order to be suitable for clinical use. Clearly, the field of material tissue interaction is complex and comprises a wide range of issues. To be successful as dentists in the future, practitioners should remain informed of these important new developments and have the argumentative competence to both properly advise and treat their patients. PMID:26645359

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Stem cell technology using bioceramics: hard tissue regeneration towards clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiroe; Oda, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2010-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which show differentiation capabilities toward various cell lineages. We have already used MSCs for treatments of osteoarthritis, bone necrosis and bone tumor. For this purpose, culture expanded MSCs were combined with various ceramics and then implanted. Because of rejection response to allogeneic MSC implantation, we have utilized patients' own MSCs for the treatment. Bone marrow is a good cell source of MSCs, although the MSCs also exist in adipose tissue. When comparing osteogenic differentiation of these MSCs, bone marrow MSCs show more extensive bone forming capability than adipose MSCs. Thus, the bone marrow MSCs are useful for bone tissue regeneration. However, the MSCs show limited proliferation and differentiation capabilities that hindered clinical applications in some cases. Recent advances reveal that transduction of plural transcription factors into human adult cells results in generation of new type of stem cells called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). A drawback of the iPS cells for clinical applications is tumor formation after their in vivo implantation; therefore it is difficult to use iPS cells for the treatment. To circumvent the problem, we transduced a single factor of either SOX2 or NANOG into the MSCs and found high proliferation as well as osteogenic differentiation capabilities of the MSCs. The stem cells could be combined with bioceramics for clinical applications. Here, we summarize our recent technologies using adult stem cells in viewpoints of bone tissue regeneration.

  15. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Mandibular Bone Regenerated By Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kontogiorgos, Elias; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Zapata, Uriel; Zakhary, Ibrahim; Nagy, William W; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structure and material properties of native mandibular bone and those of early regenerate bone, produced by bone transport distraction osteogenesis. Ten adult foxhounds were divided into two groups of five animals each. In all animals, a 3- to 4-cm defect was created on one side of the mandible. A bone transport reconstruction plate, consisting of a reconstruction plate with an attached intraoral transport unit, was utilized to stabilize the mandi...

  16. Biomimetic nanoclay scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambre, Avinash Harishchandra

    Tissue engineering offers a significant potential alternative to conventional methods for rectifying tissue defects by evoking natural regeneration process via interactions between cells and 3D porous scaffolds. Imparting adequate mechanical properties to biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is an important challenge and extends from molecular to macroscale. This work focuses on the use of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) to design polymer composite scaffolds having enhanced mechanical properties along with multiple interdependent properties. Materials design beginning at the molecular level was used in which Na-MMT clay was modified with three different unnatural amino acids and further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on improved bicompatibility with human osteoblasts (bone cells) and intermediate increase in d-spacing of MMT clay (shown by XRD), 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was further used to prepare biopolymer (chitosan-polygalacturonic acid complex) scaffolds. Osteoblast proliferation in biopolymer scaffolds containing 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was similar to biopolymer scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (HAP). A novel process based on biomineralization in bone was designed to prepare 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay capable of imparting multiple properties to the scaffolds. Bone-like apatite was mineralized in modified clay and a novel nanoclay-HAP hybrid (in situ HAPclay) was obtained. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a molecular level organic-inorganic association between the intercalated 5-aminovaleric acid and mineralized HAP. Osteoblasts formed clusters on biopolymer composite films prepared with different weight percent compositions of in situ HAPclay. Human MSCs formed mineralized nodules on composite films and mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) in composite scaffolds without the use of osteogenic supplements. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, was

  17. Stem Cells as Vehicles for Youthful Regeneration of Aged Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, Thomas A; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders of aging by virtue of their ability to regenerate tissues and contribute to their homeostasis. Aging is associated with a marked decline in these functionalities of adult stem cells. As such, regeneration of aged tissues is both less efficient and less effective than that of young tissues. Recent studies have revealed the remarkably dynamic responses of stem cells to systemic signals, includ...

  18. Sulfated hyaluronan improves bone regeneration of diabetic rats by binding sclerostin and enhancing osteoblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picke, Ann-Kristin; Salbach-Hirsch, Juliane; Hintze, Vera; Rother, Sandra; Rauner, Martina; Kascholke, Christian; Möller, Stephanie; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Rammelt, Stefan; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Ruiz-Gómez, Gloria; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C; Scharnweber, Dieter; Hofbauer, Christine; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2016-07-01

    Bone fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus heal poorly and require innovative therapies to support bone regeneration. Here, we assessed whether sulfated hyaluronan included in collagen-based scaffold coatings can improve fracture healing in diabetic rats. Macroporous thermopolymerized lactide-based scaffolds were coated with collagen including non-sulfated or sulfated hyaluronan (HA/sHA3) and inserted into 3 mm femoral defects of non-diabetic and diabetic ZDF rats. After 12 weeks, scaffolds coated with collagen/HA or collagen/sHA3 accelerated bone defect regeneration in diabetic, but not in non-diabetic rats as compared to their non-coated controls. At the tissue level, collagen/sHA3 promoted bone mineralization and decreased the amount of non-mineralized bone matrix. Moreover, collagen/sHA3-coated scaffolds from diabetic rats bound more sclerostin in vivo than the respective controls. Binding assays confirmed a high binding affinity of sHA3 to sclerostin. In vitro, sHA3 induced BMP-2 and lowered the RANKL/OPG expression ratio, regardless of the glucose concentration in osteoblastic cells. Both sHA3 and high glucose concentrations decreased the differentiation of osteoclastic cells. In summary, scaffolds coated with collagen/sHA3 represent a potentially suitable biomaterial to improve bone defect regeneration in diabetic conditions. The underlying mechanism involves improved osteoblast function and binding sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling and osteoblast function. PMID:27131598

  19. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolat...

  20. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S;

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse of...

  1. Mechanobiology of healing and regeneration of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, Andreas Christian

    2010-01-01

    Knochen ist ein multifunktionales Organ und zugleich ein biologisches Material. In dieser Arbeit wird der Heilungsverlauf eines Knochenbruchs (als biologisches Material) näher untersucht mit Hilfe von Computermodellen. Im menschlichen Körper kommt es nach einem Bruch zu einer vollständigen Regeneration des Knochens, ohne dass eine Narbe nach der Heilung zurückbleibt. In grob 10% der Frakturen kommt es jedoch zu Komplikationen bis zu einem Nicht-Heilen des Bruches. Das Ziel von intensiver inte...

  2. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Mukherjee, Jayanta [Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Kolkata (India); Mahato, Arnab; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-04-01

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations.

  3. Converted marine coral hydroxyapatite implants with growth factors: In vivo bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250 °C, the HCCHAp found to have ~ 87% crystallinity, 70–75% porosity and 2 ± 0.5 MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90 days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds. - Highlights: • In vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite • Scaffolds with and without growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2) • In vitro drug release was more sustained for IGF-1 than BMP-2. • Growth factor significantly improved osseous tissue formation of implanted scaffold. • Established through detailed statistical score sheet from histological observations

  4. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  5. Manufacture of degradable polymeric scaffolds for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many innovative technology platforms for promoting bone regeneration have been developed. A common theme among these is the use of scaffolds to provide mechanical support and osteoconduction. Scaffolds can be either ceramic or polymer-based, or composites of both classes of material. Both ceramics and polymers have their own merits and drawbacks, and a better solution may be to synergize the advantageous properties of both materials within composite scaffolds. In this current review, after a brief introduction of the anatomy and physiology of bone, different strategies of fabricating polymeric scaffolds for bone regeneration, including traditional and solid free-form fabrication, are critically discussed and compared, while focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques. (topical review)

  6. A comparison of the regeneration kinetics of radiation damage to mouse bone marrow in some skeleton regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of monitoring numbers of nucleated cells of the bone marrow in some skeleton regions was employed to determine the extent of radiation damage after whole-body irradiation of mice with 60Co-gamma rays in doses of 5, 7 and 9 Gy, and the regeneration kinetics of this radiation damage at intervals of 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post irradiation. The cellularity values found were expressed as per cents of control values of the respective bone marrow regions. The regeneration kinetics of radiation damage to hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow was found to differ in the respective skeleton regions. (author)

  7. Nanotechnology in the targeted drug delivery for bone diseases and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenyi Gu,1,2 Chengtie Wu,3 Jiezhong Chen,1 Yin Xiao1 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically. Keywords: nanoparticles, nanostructured scaffold, cancer bone metastasis, bone diseases, target drug delivery, bone regeneration

  8. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) using cortical bone pins in combination with leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffler, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Two of the fundamental requisites for guided bone regeneration (GBR) are space maintenance and primary soft-tissue closure. Allogeneic cortical bone pins measuring 2 mm in diameter in customized lengths can protect surrounding graft materials, support bioresorbable membrane barriers, and resist wound compression from the overlying soft tissues. In addition, a second-generation platelet concentrate, leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), may be incorporated into the augmentation procedure to provide multiple growth factors, accelerate wound healing, and aid in the maintenance of primary closure over the grafted materials. Highlighting two case reports, this article features a GBR technique that uses bone pins in combination with L-PRF membranes to provide both horizontal and vertical ridge augmentation at severely compromised implant sites. PMID:24773199

  9. Bone Graft and Guided Tissue Regeneration in Treatment for Combined Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion%引导组织再生术治疗牙周牙髓联合病变的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼; 孙江

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察应用Bio-Oss骨胶原与Bio-Gide 胶原膜联合进行引导组织再生术,对牙周牙髓联合病变治疗后3年疗效.方法 对16例患者20颗牙周牙髓联合病变患牙,先行根管治疗,牙周基础治疗后4周,联合使用Bio-Oss骨胶原与Bio-Gide胶原膜进行引导组织再生术,术后定期维护.术前和术后6、12、18、24、30、36个月,观测记录临床牙周指标,包括探诊深度(probing depth,PD)、附着丧失(attachment loss,AL)、牙龈退缩(gingival recession,GR),拍X线片,对所得数据进行统计学分析.结果 患牙行引导组织再生术术前PD、AL、GR分别为(4.81±1.37)mm、(5.48±1.76)mm、(0.64±0.62)mm,术后36个月PD、AL、GR分别为(2.09±0.66)mm、(3.90±1.11)mm、(1.86±0.83)mm.术后6、12、18、24、30、36个月PD、AL均较术前减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后6、12、18、24、30、36个月GR较术前有所增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).X线片显示治疗后随时间的延长,患牙周围骨密度不断增高,骨形成量不断增加.结论 Bio-Oss骨胶原与Bio-Gide胶原膜联合进行引导组织再生术,治疗牙周牙髓联合病变可获得良好稳定的临床疗效.%Objective To observe the effect of bone graft and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) in treatment for combined periodontic-endodontic lesion. Methods Sixteen patients (20 teeth) were investigated. Four weeks after root canal therapy and initial periodontal therapy, Bio-Oss collagen for bone graft and Bio-Gide collagen membrane for GTR were used in these teeth. Clinical examinations were performed, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 months after the surgery. Results Probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) reduced 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 months after the surgery. There was statistical significance. Gingival recession (GR) increased after the surgery, there was statistical significance. PD, AL, GR values at baseline were respectively (4.81 ± 1.37) mm, (5.48 ± 1.76) mm, (0.64 ± 0. 62 ) mm, and all

  10. Finely tuned fiber-based porous structures for bone tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Viviana Pinto; Silva-Correia, Joana; Morais, Alain José Silva; Correlo, V.M.; Marques, A.P.; Ribeiro, A. S.; Silva, Carla; Durães, Nelson; Bonifácio, Graça; Sousa, Rui Pedro Romero Amandi; Oliveira, J. M.; Oliveira, Ana Leite Almeida Monteiro; Reis, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolds developed for bone tissue engineering (TE) must possess specific structural properties to allow neo-tissue formation and integration within the material[1]. Several polymeric systems and processing methodologies have been proposed to develop bone TE scaffolds. Nevertheless, the so far proposed strategies do not fulfil all the requirements for effective bone regeneration. Textile technologies have recently emerged as an industrial route for producing more complex fibre-based porous ...

  11. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Maiorana; Mario Beretta; Davide Rancitelli; Giovanni Battista Grossi; Marco Cicciù; Alan Scott Herford

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix a...

  12. Tissue engineering in periodontal regeneration: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Dabra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a major public health issue and the development of effective therapies to treat the disease and regenerate periodontal tissue is an important goal of today′s medicine. Regeneration of periodontal tissue is perhaps one of the most complex process to occur in the body. Langer and colleagues proposed tissue engineering as a possible technique for regenerating the lost periodontal tissues. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field, which involves the application of the principles and methods of engineering and life sciences to help in the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve the function of damaged tissues and organs. A Google/Medline search was conducted and relevant literature evaluating the potential role of the tissue engineering in periodontal regeneration, which included histological studies and controlled clinical trials, was reviewed. A comprehensive search was designed. The articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal regeneration were included. The available literature was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicate tissue engineering to be a promising, as well as an effective novel approach to reconstruct and engineer the periodontal apparatus. Here, we represent several articles, as well as recent texts that make up a special and an in-depth review on the subject. The purpose behind writing this brief review has been to integrate the evidence of research related to tissue engineering so as to implement them in our daily practice.

  13. Proteomics based approach to understand tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Catarina de Matos Ferraz

    2011-01-01

    Most echinoderm species share an outstanding capacity for regeneration that is maintained throughout the adult animal lifespan. Regeneration allows these deuterostomes to recover from predation injuries or selfinduced arm autotomy, which are known to occur frequently in nature. Although echinoderms are extremely interesting in terms of their phylogenetic proximity to chordates, most areas of echinoderm research have been neglected in recent years. These wonderful animals quickly s...

  14. Dose-response for bone regeneration after single doses of 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bone Growth Chamber (BGC) methodology was used to establish a dose-response relationship for regeneration of mature bone tissue after irradiation of 5, 8, 11, 15 and 25 Gy single dose 60Co. The BGC, which is a titanium implant, was inserted in the proximal tibial metaphyses, bilaterally, of a rabbit immediately following local irradiation to one tibia. Each animal thus served as its own control. During a healing period of 4 weeks, the two canals penetrating the implant became filled with more or less newly formed bone. At the end of the healing period, the implants were removed and taken apart and the newly formed bone was collected and its volume measured by microradiography and microdensitometry. It was found that in the dose range of 5 to 8 Gy bone regeneration was reduced by about 20% as compared to non-irradiated controls. Between 8 and 11 Gy, there was a critical range in that a small increase in dose resulted in a greatly reduced bone formation. At 11 Gy and above, the depression in bone formation, as compared to non-irradiated controls, was about 65 to 75%

  15. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. PMID:23165885

  16. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Colnot, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic tool in tissue and organ regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bajek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that offers new opportunities for regeneration of diseased and damaged tissue with the use of many different cell types,including adult stem cells. In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine the most popular are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from bone marrow. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are a potential source of progenitor cells for osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, skeletal muscles and cardiomyocytes. It has also been shown that these cells can differentiate into ecto- and endodermal cells, e.g. neuronal cells, glial cells, keratinocytes and hepatocytes. The availability of autologous MSCs, their proliferative potential and multilineage differentiation capacity make them an excellent tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aim of this publication is to present characteristic and biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow.

  18. Mandibular Jaw Bone Regeneration Using Human Dental Cell-Seeded Tyrosine-Derived Polycarbonate Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibo; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Shuang; Macri, Lauren; Kohn, Joachim; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a new model for alveolar jaw bone regeneration, which uses human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) combined with tyrosine-derived polycarbonate polymer scaffolds [E1001(1k)] containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) [E1001(1k)/β-TCP]. E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (5 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were fabricated to fit a 5 mm rat mandibular ramus critical bone defect. Five experimental groups were examined in this study: (1) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a high density of hDPCs, 5.0 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CH); (2) E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with a lower density of hDPCs, 2.5 × 10(5) hDPCs/scaffold (CL); (3) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds (SA); (4) acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds supplemented with 4 μg recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP); and (5) empty defects (EDs). Replicate hDPC-seeded and acellular E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds were cultured in vitro in osteogenic media for 1 week before implantation for 3 and 6 weeks. Live microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging at 3 and 6 weeks postimplantation revealed robust bone regeneration in the BMP implant group. CH and CL groups exhibited similar uniformly distributed mineralized tissue coverage throughout the defects, but less than the BMP implants. In contrast, SA-treated defects exhibited sparse areas of mineralized tissue regeneration. The ED group exhibited slightly reduced defect size. Histological analyses revealed no indication of an immune response. In addition, robust expression of dentin and bone differentiation marker expression was observed in hDPC-seeded scaffolds, whereas, in contrast, BMP and SA implants exhibited only bone and not dentin differentiation marker expression. hDPCs were detected in 3-week but not in 6-week hDPC-seeded scaffold groups, indicating their survival for at least 3 weeks. Together, these results show that hDPC-seeded E1001(1k)/β-TCP scaffolds support the rapid regeneration of osteo

  19. The role of synthetic biomaterials in resorptive alveolar bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Biljana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar bone tissue resorption defect has a significant role in dentistry. Because of the bone tissue deficit developed by alveolar resorption, the use of synthetic material CP/PLGA (calcium-phosphate/polylactide-co-gliycolide composite was introduced. Investigations were performed on rats with artificially produced resorption of the mandibular bone. The results show that the best effect on alveolar bone were attained by using nano-composite implants. The effect of the nanocomposite was ascertained by determining the calcium and phosphate content, as a basis of the hydroxyapatite structure. The results show that synthetic CP/PLGA nanocomposite alleviate the rehabilitation of weakened alveolar bone. Due to its osteoconductive effect, CP/PLGA can be the material of choice for bone substitution in the future.

  20. Bacterial Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Saska, S.; H.S. Barud; Gaspar, A. M. M.; Marchetto, R.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Y. Messaddeq

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the biological properties of bacterial cellulose-hydroxyapatite (BC-HA) nanocomposite membranes for bone regeneration. Nanocomposites were prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes sequentially incubated in solutions of CaCl2 followed by Na2HPO4. BC-HA membranes were evaluated in noncritical bone defects in rat tibiae at 1, 4, and 16 weeks. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of the mineral phase was 40%–50% of the total wei...

  1. Bilayered construct for simultaneous regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, M Nivedhitha; Sowmya, S; Deepthi, S; Bumgardener, Joel D; Jayakumar, R

    2016-05-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes destruction of tooth-supporting tissues and if left untreated leads to tooth loss. Current treatments have shown limited potential for simultaneous regeneration of the tooth-supporting tissues. To recreate the complex architecture of the periodontium, we developed a bilayered construct consisting of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) multiscale electrospun membrane (to mimic and regenerate periodontal ligament, PDL) and a chitosan/2wt % CaSO4 scaffold (to mimic and regenerate alveolar bone). Scanning electron microscopy results showed the porous nature of the scaffold and formation of beadless electrospun multiscale fibers. The fiber diameter of microfiber and nanofibers was in the range of 10 ± 3 µm and 377 ± 3 nm, respectively. The bilayered construct showed better protein adsorption compared to the control. Osteoblastic differentiation of human dental follicle stem cells (hDFCs) on chitosan/2wt % CaSO4 scaffold showed maximum alkaline phosphatase at seventh day followed by a decline thereafter when compared to chitosan control scaffold. Fibroblastic differentiation of hDFCs was confirmed by the expression of PLAP-1 and COL-1 proteins which were more prominent on PCL multiscale membrane in comparison to control membranes. Overall these results show that the developed bilayered construct might serve as a good candidate for the simultaneous regeneration of the alveolar bone and PDL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 761-770, 2016. PMID:26153674

  2. Bone regeneration and infiltration of an anisotropic composite scaffold: an experimental study of rabbit cranial defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jidong; You, Fu; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Li, Limei; Jiang, Jiaxing; Qu, Yili; Lu, Minpeng; Man, Yi; Zou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Tissue formation on scaffold outer edges after implantation may restrict cell infiltration and mass transfer to/from the scaffold center due to insufficient interconnectivity, leading to incidence of a necrotic core. Herein, a nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) anisotropic scaffold with axially aligned channels was prepared with the aim to enhance pore interconnectivity. Bone tissue regeneration and infiltration inside of scaffold were assessed by rabbit cranial defect repair experiments. The amount of newly formed bone inside of anisotropic scaffold was much higher than isotropic scaffold, e.g., after 12 weeks, the new bone volume in the inner pores was greater in the anisotropic scaffolds (>50%) than the isotropic scaffolds (<30%). The results suggested that anisotropic scaffolds could accelerate the inducement of bone ingrowth into the inner pores in the non-load-bearing bone defects compared to isotropic scaffolds. Thus, anisotropic scaffolds hold promise for the application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26775692

  3. Optimization of tyrosine-derived polycarbonate terpolymers for bone regeneration scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resurreccion-Magno, Maria Hanshella C.

    Tyrosine-derived polycarbonates (TyrPC) are a versatile class of polymers highly suitable for bone tissue engineering. Among the tyrosine-derived polycarbonates, poly(DTE carbonate) has an FDA masterfile that documents its biocompatibility and non-toxicity and has shown potential utility in orthopedics due to its osteoconductive properties and strength. DTE stands for desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester and is the most commonly used tyrosine-derived monomer. However, in vitro degradation studies showed that poly(DTE carbonate) did not completely resorb even after four years of incubation in phosphate buffered saline. Thus for bone regeneration, which only requires a temporary implant until the bone heals, poly(DTE carbonate) would not be the best choice. The goal of the present research was to optimize a scaffold composition for bone regeneration that is based on desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine alkyl ester (DTR), desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Five areas of research were presented: (1) synthesis and characterization of a focused library of TyrPC terpolymers; (2) evaluation of the effects of how small changes on the composition affected the mechanism and kinetics of polymer degradation and erosion; (3) fabrication of bioactive three-dimensional porous scaffold constructs for bone regeneration; (4) assessment of osteogenic properties in vitro using pre-osteoblasts; and (5) evaluation of bone regeneration potential, with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), in vivo using a critical sized defect (CSD) rabbit calvaria (cranium) model. Small changes in the composition, such as changing the R group of DTR from ethyl to methyl, varying the mole percentages of DT and PEG, and using a different PEG block length, affected the overall properties of these polymers. Porous scaffolds were prepared by a combination of solvent casting, porogen leaching and phase separation techniques. Calcium phosphate was coated on the

  4. Development of electrospun nanofibrous-based scaffolds for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Albino

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials and scaffolds play a significant role in many strategies followed in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Those systems are intended and designed to help and guide the cells to contribute for the tissue regeneration process. To achieve that goal, the system needs to actively participate in the signaling process for the cells. It is widely believed that a successful scaffold should mimic the main properties and structure of the extracellular matrix of the tiss...

  5. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E. P.; Brown, J E; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk ...

  6. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Bo Huh; June-Jip Yang; Kyung-Hee Choi; Ji Hyeon Bae; Jeong-Yeol Lee; Sung-Eun Kim; Sang-Wan Shin

    2015-01-01

    Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss®) has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter) were fo...

  7. Unbiased stereological methods used for the quantitative evaluation of guided bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Else Merete; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S;

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of unbiased stereological methods for the quantitative evaluation of the amount of regenerated bone. Using the principle of guided bone regeneration the amount of regenerated bone after placement of degradable or non-degradable membranes covering defects in...... bicortically. Undecalcified sections were prepared for stereologic evaluation after an observation period of 8 weeks. Complete bone healing of the defects was not observed in any of the specimens. Unbiased stereologic estimates revealed 48% bone regeneration in defects covered by 2 ePTFE membranes, and 12% in...

  8. Tissue Regeneration in Urodela on Foton-M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, E. N.; Poplinskaya, V. A.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Novikova, Y. P.; Aleinikova, K. S.; Dvorochkin, N.; Almeida, E. A. C.

    2008-06-01

    In the experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton-M3 in 2007 we continued our study of tissue and organ regeneration in Urodela. Special attention was given to the regulatory mechanisms that could induce peculiarities of regeneration during the spaceflight. The results obtained showed that lens regeneration in space-flown animals was synchronized and about 0.5 to 1 stage more advanced than in synchronous 1g controls. In both groups of animals cytokine FGFb expression increased in parallel with lens cell mitotic activity and was localized in the growth zone and iris of regenerating eyes. Lens regeneration was also accompanied by an increase of stress protein (HSP90) expression in retinal macroglia. Evaluation of HSP90 and FGFb expression by immuno-staining showed that it was higher in the eyes of space-flown animals than in synchronous controls. BrdU assay demonstrated incorporation of the precursor into populations of DNA synthesizing cells in both animal groups and mirrored cell growth in regenerating tissues. Tail regeneration in space-flown and synchronous control animals reached the stages IV to V. Computer morphometry showed that tail size parameters were similar though the tail area was slightly decreased in the space-flown newts. In contrast, remarkable changes in tail tip morphology were found between animal groups: flight and aquarium-control tail regenerates were identical in shape, while synchronous controls developed distinct dorsoventral asymmetry. Histological examinations suggested that morphogenetic differences were caused by different rates of epidermal cell growth in tail regenerates of newts exposed to microgravity and 1 g.

  9. New highly porous hydrogel scaffolds for neural-tissue regeneration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drnovská, Hana; Šloufová, Ivana; Rypáček, František

    Antalya : Ankara University, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Laboratory, 2002. s. O-7. [International Symposium on Biomedical Science and Technology BIOMED /9./. 19.09.2002-22.09.2002, Antalya ] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109; GA MŠk LN00A065 Keywords : hydrogel * neural-tissue regeneration * biomaterial scaffolds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  10. Hierarchically engineered fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachot, Nadège; Castaño, Oscar; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A.; Engel, Elisabeth; Planell, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Surface properties of biomaterials play a major role in the governing of cell functionalities. It is well known that mechanical, chemical and nanotopographic cues, for example, influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we present a novel coating protocol to produce hierarchically engineered fibrous scaffolds with tailorable surface characteristics, which mimic bone extracellular matrix. Based on the sol–gel method and a succession of surface treatments, hollow electrospun polylactic acid fibres were coated with a silicon–calcium–phosphate bioactive organic–inorganic glass. Compared with pure polymeric fibres that showed a completely smooth surface, the coated fibres exhibited a nanostructured topography and greater roughness. They also showed improved hydrophilic properties and a Young's modulus sixfold higher than non-coated ones, while remaining fully flexible and easy to handle. Rat mesenchymal stem cells cultured on these fibres showed great cellular spreading and interactions with the material. This protocol can be transferred to other structures and glasses, allowing the fabrication of various materials with well-defined features. This novel approach represents therefore a valuable improvement in the production of artificial matrices able to direct stem cell fate through physical and chemical interactions. PMID:23985738

  11. Image-Based, Fiber Guiding Scaffolds: A Platform for Regenerating Tissue Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Ho; Rios, Hector F.; Taut, Andrei D.; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Pilipchuk, Sophia P.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    In the oral and craniofacial complex, tooth loss is the most commonly acquired disfiguring injury. Among the most formidable challenges of reconstructing tooth-supporting osseous defects in the oral cavity is the regeneration of functional multi-tissue complexes involving bone, ligament, and tooth cementum. Furthermore, periodontal multi-tissue engineering with spatiotemporal orientation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) remains the most challenging obstacle for restoration of physiological loading and homeostasis. We report on the ability of a hybrid computer-designed scaffold—developed utilizing computed tomography—to predictably facilitate the regeneration and integration of dental supporting tissues. Here, we provide the protocol for rapid prototyping, manufacture, surgical implantation, and evaluation of dual-architecture scaffolds for controlling fiber orientation and facilitating morphogenesis of bone-ligament complexes. In contrast to conventional single-system methods of fibrous tissue formation, our protocol supports rigorous control of multi-compartmental scaffold architecture using computational scaffold design and manufacturing by 3D printing, as well as the evaluation of newly regenerated tissue physiology for clinical implementation. PMID:24188695

  12. Engineering vascular development for tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rivron, Nicolas Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim at restoring a damaged tissue by recreating in vitro or promoting its regeneratin in vovo. The vasculature is central to these therapies for the irrigation of the defective tissue (oxygen, nutrients or circulating regenerative cells) and as an inductive, trophic embedded organ. This thesis describes the in vitro formation of biological vascular networks for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In a first part, we show the ...

  13. Bone regeneration based on nano-hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites: an in vitro and in vivo comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakol, S. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikpour, M. R. [Babol University of Technology, Nanotechnology Research Institute, Nanobiotechnology Research Group (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amani, A. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, M. [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (Canada); Rabiee, S. M. [Babol University of Technology, Nanotechnology Research Institute, Nanobiotechnology Research Group (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat, S. M. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chen, P., E-mail: p4chen@uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (Canada); Jahanshahi, M., E-mail: mjahan@nit.ac.ir [Babol University of Technology, Nanotechnology Research Institute, Nanobiotechnology Research Group (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Surface morphology, surface wettability, and size distribution of biomaterials affect their in vitro and in vivo bone regeneration potential. Since nano-hydroxyapatite has a great chemical and structural similarity to natural bone and dental tissues, incorporated biomaterial of such products could improve bioactivity and bone bonding ability. In this research, nano-hydroxyapatite (23 {+-} 0.09 nm) and its composites with variety of chitosan content [2, 4, and 6 g (45 {+-} 0.19, 32 {+-} 0.12, and 28 {+-} 0.12 nm, respectively)] were prepared via an in situ hybridization route. Size distribution of the particles, protein adsorption, and calcium deposition of powders by the osteoblast cells, gene expression and percentage of new bone formation area were investigated. The highest degree of bone regeneration potential was observed in nano-hydroxyapatite powder, while the bone regeneration was lowest in nano-hydroxyapatite with 6 g of chitosan. Regarding these data, suitable size distribution next to size distribution of hydroxyapatite in bone, smaller size, higher wettability, lower surface roughness of the nano-hydroxyapatite particles and homogeneity in surface resulted in higher protein adsorption, cell differentiation and percentage of bone formation area. Results obtained from in vivo and in vitro tests confirmed the role of surface morphology, surface wettability, mean size and size distribution of biomaterial besides surface chemistry as a temporary bone substitute.

  14. Bone regeneration based on nano-hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites: an in vitro and in vivo comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface morphology, surface wettability, and size distribution of biomaterials affect their in vitro and in vivo bone regeneration potential. Since nano-hydroxyapatite has a great chemical and structural similarity to natural bone and dental tissues, incorporated biomaterial of such products could improve bioactivity and bone bonding ability. In this research, nano-hydroxyapatite (23 ± 0.09 nm) and its composites with variety of chitosan content [2, 4, and 6 g (45 ± 0.19, 32 ± 0.12, and 28 ± 0.12 nm, respectively)] were prepared via an in situ hybridization route. Size distribution of the particles, protein adsorption, and calcium deposition of powders by the osteoblast cells, gene expression and percentage of new bone formation area were investigated. The highest degree of bone regeneration potential was observed in nano-hydroxyapatite powder, while the bone regeneration was lowest in nano-hydroxyapatite with 6 g of chitosan. Regarding these data, suitable size distribution next to size distribution of hydroxyapatite in bone, smaller size, higher wettability, lower surface roughness of the nano-hydroxyapatite particles and homogeneity in surface resulted in higher protein adsorption, cell differentiation and percentage of bone formation area. Results obtained from in vivo and in vitro tests confirmed the role of surface morphology, surface wettability, mean size and size distribution of biomaterial besides surface chemistry as a temporary bone substitute.

  15. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. → For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. → This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the underlying

  16. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  17. Horizontal Guided Bone Regeneration in the Esthetic Area with rhPDGF-BB and Anorganic Bovine Bone Graft: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiantella, Giovanni Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the treatment given to a patient who underwent horizontal ridge augmentation surgery in the maxillary anterior area due to the premature loss of the maxillary central incisors. The complete dehiscence of the buccal plate was detected after elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps. The lesion was overfilled with deproteinized bovine xenograft particles combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) and covered with a porcine collagen barrier hydrated with the same growth factor. The soft tissues healed with no adverse complications. After 12 months, reentry surgery was carried out to place endosseous implants. Complete bone regeneration with the presence of bone-like tissue was observed. Cross-sectional computed tomography scan images confirmed integration of the bone graft and reconstruction of the lost hard tissue volume. The implants were inserted in an optimal three-dimensional position, thus facilitating esthetic restoration. Two years after insertion of final crowns, cone beam computed tomography scans displayed the stability of regenerated hard tissues around the implants. Controlled clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit of hydrating bovine bone particles and collagen barriers with rhPDGF-BB for predictable bone regeneration of horizontal lesions. PMID:26697562

  18. Mechanochemical synthesis evaluation of nanocrystalline bone-derived bioceramic powder using for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsalar Khandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone tissue engineering proposes a suitable way to regenerate lost bones. Different materials have been considered for use in bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA is a significant success of bioceramics as a bone tissue repairing biomaterial. Among different bioceramic materials, recent interest has been risen on fluorinated hydroxyapatites, (FHA, Ca 10 (PO 4 6 F x (OH 2−x . Fluorine ions can promote apatite formation and improve the stability of HA in the biological environments. Therefore, they have been developed for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize the FHA nanopowder via mechanochemical (MC methods. Materials and Methods: Natural hydroxyapatite (NHA 95.7 wt.% and calcium fluoride (CaF 2 powder 4.3 wt.% were used for synthesis of FHA. MC reaction was performed in the planetary milling balls using a porcelain cup and alumina balls. Ratio of balls to reactant materials was 15:1 at 400 rpm rotation speed. The structures of the powdered particles formed at different milling times were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: Fabrication of FHA from natural sources like bovine bone achieved after 8 h ball milling with pure nanopowder. Conclusion: F− ion enhances the crystallization and mechanical properties of HA in formation of bone. The produced FHA was in nano-scale, and its crystal size was about 80-90 nm with sphere distribution in shape and size. FHA powder is a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Triphasic scaffolds for the regeneration of the bone-ligament interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscenti, G; Longoni, A; Di Luca, A; De Maria, C; van Blitterswijk, C A; Vozzi, G; Moroni, L

    2016-03-01

    A triphasic scaffold (TPS) for the regeneration of the bone-ligament interface was fabricated combining a 3D fiber deposited polycaprolactone structure and a polylactic co-glycolic acid electrospun. The scaffold presented a gradient of physical and mechanical properties which elicited different biological responses from human mesenchymal stem cells. Biological test were performed on the whole TPS and on scaffolds comprised of each single part of the TPS, considered as the controls. The TPS showed an increase of the metabolic activity with culturing time that seemed to be an average of the controls at each time point. The importance of differentiation media for bone and ligament regeneration was further investigated. Metabolic activity analysis on the different areas of the TPS showed a similar trend after 7 days in both differentiation media. Total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis showed a statistically higher activity of the TPS in mineralization medium compared to the controls. A different glycosaminoglycans amount between the TPS and its controls was detected, displaying a similar trend with respect to ALP activity. Results clearly indicated that the integration of electrospinning and additive manufacturing represents a promising approach for the fabrication of scaffolds for the regeneration of tissue interfaces, such as the bone-to-ligament one, because it allows mimicking the structural environment combining different biomaterials at different scales. PMID:26824799

  20. Development of Thermosensitive Hydrogels of Chitosan, Sodium and Magnesium Glycerophosphate for Bone Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisková, Jana; Bačaková, Lucie; Skwarczyńska, Agata L.; Musial, Olga; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Modrzejewska, Zofia; Douglas, Timothy E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Thermosensitive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan neutralized with sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) have been studied as biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Magnesium (Mg) has been reported to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of bone forming cells. With the aim of improving the suitability of the aforementioned chitosan hydrogels as materials for bone regeneration, Mg was incorporated by partial substitution of Na-β-GP with magnesium glycerophosphate (Mg-GP). Chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were also loaded with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which induces hydrogel mineralization. Hydrogels were characterized physicochemically with respect to mineralizability and gelation kinetics, and biologically with respect to cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. Substitution of Na-β-GP with Mg-GP did not negatively influence mineralizability. Cell biological testing showed that both chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were cytocompatible towards MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Hence, chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels can be used as an alternative to chitosan/Na-β-GP hydrogels for bone regeneration applications. However the incorporation of Mg in the hydrogels during hydrogel formation did not bring any appreciable physicochemical or biological benefit. PMID:25859630

  1. Development of Thermosensitive Hydrogels of Chitosan, Sodium and Magnesium Glycerophosphate for Bone Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lisková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermosensitive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan neutralized with sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP have been studied as biomaterials for drug delivery and tissue regeneration. Magnesium (Mg has been reported to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of bone forming cells. With the aim of improving the suitability of the aforementioned chitosan hydrogels as materials for bone regeneration, Mg was incorporated by partial substitution of Na-β-GP with magnesium glycerophosphate (Mg-GP. Chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were also loaded with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP which induces hydrogel mineralization. Hydrogels were characterized physicochemically with respect to mineralizability and gelation kinetics, and biologically with respect to cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. Substitution of Na-β-GP with Mg-GP did not negatively influence mineralizability. Cell biological testing showed that both chitosan/Na-β-GP and chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels were cytocompatible towards MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Hence, chitosan/Na-β-GP/Mg-GP hydrogels can be used as an alternative to chitosan/Na-β-GP hydrogels for bone regeneration applications. However the incorporation of Mg in the hydrogels during hydrogel formation did not bring any appreciable physicochemical or biological benefit.

  2. Translational challenges in bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    The research performed for this thesis focused at strategies to improve bone graft substitutes for future clinical applicability. We started by investigating the value of cell based tissue engineered constructs. First we showed that at the ectopic location, bone formation was only present when BLI s

  3. Bioactive peptide nanofibers for tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Uzunallı, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 155-170). Thesis (Ph. D.): Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Defects in the tissues or organs caused by trauma or diseases can have detrimental effects on all aspects of patients’ life quality. During the last three decades, considerable developments have been made in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in order to find a...

  4. Tissue engineering and regeneration of lymphatic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weitman, Evan; Cuzzone, Daniel; Mehrara, Babak J.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering is the process by which biological structures are recreated using a combination of molecular signals, cellular components and scaffolds. Although the perceived potential of this approach to reconstruct damaged or missing tissues is seemingly limitless, application of these ideas in vivo has been more difficult than expected. However, despite these obstacles, important advancements have been reported for a number of organ systems, including recent reports on the lymphatic sy...

  5. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss® has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter were formed in a white rabbit model and then implanted or not (controls with Bio-Oss® or BMP-2/Bio-Oss®. The Bio-Oss® and BMP-2/Bio-Oss® groups had significantly greater new bone areas (expressed as percentages of augmented areas than the non-implanted controls at four and eight weeks after surgery, and the BMP-2/Bio-Oss® group (16.50 ± 2.87 (n = 6 had significantly greater new bone areas than the Bio-Oss® group (9.43 ± 3.73 (n = 6 at four weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2 treated heparinized Bio-Oss® markedly enhances bone regeneration.

  6. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jung-Bo; Yang, June-Jip; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bae, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss®) has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter) were formed in a white rabbit model and then implanted or not (controls) with Bio-Oss® or BMP-2/Bio-Oss®. The Bio-Oss® and BMP-2/Bio-Oss® groups had significantly greater new bone areas (expressed as percentages of augmented areas) than the non-implanted controls at four and eight weeks after surgery, and the BMP-2/Bio-Oss® group (16.50 ± 2.87 (n = 6)) had significantly greater new bone areas than the Bio-Oss® group (9.43 ± 3.73 (n = 6)) at four weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2 treated heparinized Bio-Oss® markedly enhances bone regeneration. PMID:26184187

  7. Multifunctional and stable bone mimic proteinaceous matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong-Eun; Yun, Ye-Rang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Yang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Wall, Ivan B; Knowles, Jonathan C; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-07-01

    Biomaterial surface design with biomimetic proteins holds great promise for successful regeneration of tissues including bone. Here we report a novel proteinaceous hybrid matrix mimicking bone extracellular matrix that has multifunctional capacity to promote stem cell adhesion and osteogenesis with excellent stability. Osteocalcin-fibronectin fusion protein holding collagen binding domain was networked with fibrillar collagen, featuring bone extracellular matrix mimic, to provide multifunctional and structurally-stable biomatrices. The hybrid protein, integrated homogeneously with collagen fibrillar networks, preserved structural stability over a month. Biological efficacy of the hybrid matrix was proven onto tethered surface of biopolymer porous scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem cells quickly anchored to the hybrid matrix, forming focal adhesions, and substantially conformed to cytoskeletal extensions, benefited from the fibronectin adhesive domains. Cells achieved high proliferative capacity to reach confluence rapidly and switched to a mature and osteogenic phenotype more effectively, resulting in greater osteogenic matrix syntheses and mineralization, driven by the engineered osteocalcin. The hybrid biomimetic matrix significantly improved in vivo bone formation in calvarial defects over 6 weeks. Based on the series of stimulated biological responses in vitro and in vivo the novel hybrid proteinaceous composition will be potentially useful as stem cell interfacing matrices for osteogenesis and bone regeneration. PMID:25934278

  8. Fibrogenic Cell Plasticity Blunts Tissue Regeneration and Aggravates Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pessina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cell identity is necessary for homeostasis of most adult tissues. This process is challenged every time a tissue undergoes regeneration after stress or injury. In the lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines gradually as fibrosis increases. Using genetically engineered tracing mice, we demonstrate that, in dystrophic muscle, specialized cells of muscular, endothelial, and hematopoietic origins gain plasticity toward a fibrogenic fate via a TGFβ-mediated pathway. This results in loss of cellular identity and normal function, with deleterious consequences for regeneration. Furthermore, this fibrogenic process involves acquisition of a mesenchymal progenitor multipotent status, illustrating a link between fibrogenesis and gain of progenitor cell functions. As this plasticity also was observed in DMD patients, we propose that mesenchymal transitions impair regeneration and worsen diseases with a fibrotic component.

  9. The materials used in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tissue engineering looking for an alternative solution to the problem of skeletal injuries. The method is based on the creation of tissue engineered bone tissue equivalent with stem cells, osteogenic factors, and scaffolds - the carriers of these cells. For production of tissue engineered bone equivalent is advisable to create scaffolds similar in composition to natural extracellular matrix of the bone. This will provide optimal conditions for the cells, and produce favorable physico-mechanical properties of the final construction. This review article gives an analysis of the most promising materials for the manufacture of cell scaffolds. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the basis for the scaffold, but it alone cannot provide adequate physical and mechanical properties of the construction, and favorable conditions for the cells. Addition of natural polymers improves the strength characteristics and bioactivity of constructions. Of the inorganic compounds, to create cell scaffolds the most widely used calcium phosphates, which give the structure adequate stiffness and significantly increase its osteoinductive capacity. Signaling molecules do not affect the physico-mechanical properties of the scaffold, but beneficial effect is on the processes of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Biodegradation of the materials will help to fulfill the main task of bone tissue engineering - the ability to replace synthetic construct by natural tissues that will restore the original anatomical integrity of the bone

  10. The materials used in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshchenko, V. P., E-mail: tervp@ngs.ru; Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Larionov, P. M. [Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. Ya.L. Tsivyan, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Bone tissue engineering looking for an alternative solution to the problem of skeletal injuries. The method is based on the creation of tissue engineered bone tissue equivalent with stem cells, osteogenic factors, and scaffolds - the carriers of these cells. For production of tissue engineered bone equivalent is advisable to create scaffolds similar in composition to natural extracellular matrix of the bone. This will provide optimal conditions for the cells, and produce favorable physico-mechanical properties of the final construction. This review article gives an analysis of the most promising materials for the manufacture of cell scaffolds. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the basis for the scaffold, but it alone cannot provide adequate physical and mechanical properties of the construction, and favorable conditions for the cells. Addition of natural polymers improves the strength characteristics and bioactivity of constructions. Of the inorganic compounds, to create cell scaffolds the most widely used calcium phosphates, which give the structure adequate stiffness and significantly increase its osteoinductive capacity. Signaling molecules do not affect the physico-mechanical properties of the scaffold, but beneficial effect is on the processes of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Biodegradation of the materials will help to fulfill the main task of bone tissue engineering - the ability to replace synthetic construct by natural tissues that will restore the original anatomical integrity of the bone.

  11. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of МВМ in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  12. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  13. [The progress in application of parathyroid hormone in craniomaxillofacial bone regeneration study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Y; Tang, Z L

    2016-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone(PTH)is synthesized and secreted by chief cell of Gley's glands which possesses dual functions of catabolism and anabolism. It regulates the proliferation and differentiation of multiple cell lines including osteoblast, osteoclast and skeletal lining cells. Furthermore, PTH activates various signaling pathways which control calcium, phosphorous' metabolism and bone conversion, accelerating the bone regeneration and reconstruction. However, the study of PTH in craniomaxillofacial bone regeneration is relatively less and whether the role of parathyroid glands and the mechanism of ossification are consistent with the long bone or not needs further investigation. This review focuses on the progress of PTH in craniomaxillofacial bone regeneration in recent years. PMID:27256534

  14. Functionalization of a Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffold with Osteostatin to Facilitate Enhanced Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Elaine; Thompson, Emmet M; Matsiko, Amos; O'Brien, Fergal J; López-Noriega, Adolfo

    2015-12-01

    Defects within bones caused by trauma and other pathological complications may often require the use of a range of therapeutics to facilitate tissue regeneration. A number of approaches have been widely utilized for the delivery of such therapeutics via physical encapsulation or chemical immobilization suggesting significant promise in the healing of bone defects. The study focuses on the chemical immobilization of osteostatin, a pentapeptide of the parathyroid hormone (PTHrP107-111), within a collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffold. The chemical attachment method via crosslinking supports as little as 4% release of the peptide from the scaffolds after 21 d whereas non-crosslinking leads to 100% of the peptide being released by as early as 4 d. In vitro characterization demonstrates that this cross-linking method of immobilization supports a pro-osteogenic effect on osteoblasts. Most importantly, when implanted in a critical-sized calvarial defect within a rat, these scaffolds promote significantly greater new bone volume and area compared to nonfunctionalized scaffolds (**p < 0.01) and an empty defect control (***p < 0.001). Collectively, this study suggests that such an approach of chemical immobilization offers greater spatiotemporal control over growth factors and can significantly modulate tissue regeneration. Such a system may be adopted for a range of different proteins and thus offers the potential for the treatment of various complex pathologies that require localized mediation of drug delivery. PMID:26414944

  15. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  16. Concise review: bridging the gap: bone regeneration using skeletal stem cell-based strategies-where are we now?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Jonathan I; Kanczler, Janos; Kassem, Moustapha; Oreffo, Richard O.C.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal stem cells confer to bone its innate capacity for regeneration and repair. Bone regeneration strategies seek to harness and enhance this regenerative capacity for the replacement of tissue damaged or lost through congenital defects, trauma, functional/esthetic problems, and a broad range...... of diseases associated with an increasingly aged population. This review describes the state of the field and current steps to translate and apply skeletal stem cell biology in the clinic and the problems therein. Challenges are described along with key strategies including the isolation and ex vivo...... expansion of multipotential populations, the targeting/delivery of regenerative populations to sites of repair, and their differentiation toward bone lineages. Finally, preclinical models of bone repair are discussed along with their implications for clinical translation and the opportunities to harness...

  17. Surface delivery of tunable doses of BMP-2 from an adaptable polymeric scaffold induces volumetric bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Michael; Guillot, Raphael; Lavaud, Jonathan; Plettinx, Cedric; Olivier, Cécile; Curry, Véronique; Boutonnat, Jean; Coll, Jean-Luc; Peyrin, Françoise; Josserand, Véronique; Bettega, Georges; Picart, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    The rapid and effective bone regeneration of large non-healing defects remains challenging. Bioactive proteins, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, are proved their osteoinductivity, but their clinical use is currently limited to collagen as biomaterial. Being able to deliver BMP-2 from any other biomaterial would broaden its clinical use. This work presents a novel means for repairing a critical size volumetric bone femoral defect in the rat by combining a osteoinductive surface coating (2D) to a polymeric scaffold (3D hollow tube) made of commercially-available PLGA. Using a polyelectrolyte film as BMP-2 carrier, we tune the amount of BMP-2 loaded in and released from the polyelectrolyte film coating over a large extent by controlling the film crosslinking level and initial concentration of BMP-2 in solution. Using microcomputed tomography and quantitative analysis of the regenerated bone growth kinetics, we show that the amount of newly formed bone and kinetics can be modulated: an effective and fast repair was obtained in 1-2 weeks in the best conditions, including complete defect bridging, formation of vascularized and mineralized bone tissue. Histological staining and high-resolution computed tomography revealed the presence of bone regeneration inside and around the tube with spatially distinct organization for trabecular-like and cortical bones. The amount of cortical bone and its thickness increased with the BMP-2 dose. In view of the recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques, this surface-coating technology may be applied in combination with various types of polymeric or metallic scaffolds to offer new perspectives of bone regeneration in personalized medicine. PMID:27454063

  18. Zebrafish Heart Regeneration as a Model for Cardiac Tissue Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Robert J.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality throughout the world. Mammals have an extremely limited capacity to repair lost or damaged heart tissue, thus encouraging biologists to seek out models for heart regeneration. Zebrafish exhibit a robust regenerative capacity in a variety of tissues including the fin, spinal cord, retina, and heart, making it the sole regenerative vertebrate organism currently amenable to genetic manipulation. Future studies will utilize functional approache...

  19. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Maiorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.

  20. Histological Features and Biocompatibility of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitutes in the Atrophic Alveolar Ridge Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Carlo; Beretta, Mario; Rancitelli, Davide; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented. PMID:27022489

  1. Solid freeform fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhuo; YAN Yongnian; ZHANG Renji; CHEN Lifeng; WANG Li

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTIONTissue engineering is a promising approach to large segmental bone repair fortrauma, replacement surgery, skeletal deficiency or abnormal development. Thefabrication of bone regeneration scaffolds with appropriate bone conductive property,bone inductive property, biodegradation property and mechanical properties is thecrux of this approach.

  2. Hierarchical Structure and Mechanical Improvement of an n-HA/GCO-PU Composite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Limei; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Yang, Boyuan; Lin, Lili; Li, Jidong; Li, Yubao

    2015-10-14

    To improve the mechanical properties of bone tissue and achieve the desired bone tissue regeneration for orthopedic surgery, newly designed hydroxyapatite/polyurethane (HA/PU) porous scaffolds were developed via in situ polymerization. The results showed that the molecular modification of PU soft segments by glyceride of castor oil (GCO) can increase the scaffold compressive strength by 48% and the elastic modulus by 96%. When nano-HA (n-HA) particles were incorporated into the GCO-PU matrix, the compressive strength and elastic modulus further increased by 49 and 74%, from 2.91 to 4.34 MPa and from 95 to 165.36 MPa, respectively. The n-HA particles with fine dispersity not only improved the interface bonding with the GCO-PU matrix but also provided effective bioactivity for bonding with bone tissue. The hierarchical structure and mechanical quality of the n-HA/GCO-PU composite scaffold were determined to be appropriate for the growth of cells and the regeneration of bony tissues, demonstrating promising prospects for bone repair and regeneration. PMID:26406396

  3. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Eriberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering.

  4. Electrospun PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering for craniofacial region is considered challenging owing to its physiologic and anatomical complexities. A porous bioactive scaffold promoting osteogenesis and angio- genesis is required for clinical applications. We have developed an electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) poly-caprolactone...

  5. Biocomposite nanofibres and osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofibres and nanocomposites are highly promising recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering. Mimicking the architecture of an extracellular matrix is one of the major challenges for tissue engineering. An operationally simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHA/Col) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds to provide mechanical support and to direct the growth of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) for tissue engineering of bone. Biocomposite nanofibres constructed with PCL, nHA and collagen type I combinations gave fibre diameters around 189 ± 0.026 to 579 ± 272 nm and pore sizes 2-35 μm. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds were highly porous (>80%) structures and provided a sufficient open pore structure for cell occupancy whilst allowing free transport of nutrients and metabolic waste products; moreover, vascular in-growth was facilitated. The pore organization was determined by the deposition process, including interconnections of the fibre network. The mineralization was significantly increased (55%) in PCL/nHA/Col biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds after 10 days of culture and appeared as minerals synthesized by osteoblast cells. The unique nanoscale biocomposite system had inherent surface functionalization for hFOB adhesion, migration, proliferation and mineralization to form a bone tissue for the regeneration of bone defects

  6. Biocomposite nanofibres and osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, J.; Vadgama, P.; Sampath Kumar, T. S.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2007-02-01

    Nanofibres and nanocomposites are highly promising recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering. Mimicking the architecture of an extracellular matrix is one of the major challenges for tissue engineering. An operationally simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHA/Col) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds to provide mechanical support and to direct the growth of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) for tissue engineering of bone. Biocomposite nanofibres constructed with PCL, nHA and collagen type I combinations gave fibre diameters around 189 ± 0.026 to 579 ± 272 nm and pore sizes 2-35 µm. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds were highly porous (>80%) structures and provided a sufficient open pore structure for cell occupancy whilst allowing free transport of nutrients and metabolic waste products; moreover, vascular in-growth was facilitated. The pore organization was determined by the deposition process, including interconnections of the fibre network. The mineralization was significantly increased (55%) in PCL/nHA/Col biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds after 10 days of culture and appeared as minerals synthesized by osteoblast cells. The unique nanoscale biocomposite system had inherent surface functionalization for hFOB adhesion, migration, proliferation and mineralization to form a bone tissue for the regeneration of bone defects.

  7. Biocomposite nanofibres and osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, J [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Vadgama, P [IRC in Biomedical Materials, Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Kumar, T S Sampath [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India); Ramakrishna, S [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-02-07

    Nanofibres and nanocomposites are highly promising recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering. Mimicking the architecture of an extracellular matrix is one of the major challenges for tissue engineering. An operationally simple electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHA/Col) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds to provide mechanical support and to direct the growth of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) for tissue engineering of bone. Biocomposite nanofibres constructed with PCL, nHA and collagen type I combinations gave fibre diameters around 189 {+-} 0.026 to 579 {+-} 272 nm and pore sizes 2-35 {mu}m. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds were highly porous (>80%) structures and provided a sufficient open pore structure for cell occupancy whilst allowing free transport of nutrients and metabolic waste products; moreover, vascular in-growth was facilitated. The pore organization was determined by the deposition process, including interconnections of the fibre network. The mineralization was significantly increased (55%) in PCL/nHA/Col biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds after 10 days of culture and appeared as minerals synthesized by osteoblast cells. The unique nanoscale biocomposite system had inherent surface functionalization for hFOB adhesion, migration, proliferation and mineralization to form a bone tissue for the regeneration of bone defects.

  8. Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Gelatin-PEG and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thuy Duong; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Nguyen, Dai Hai; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Phuong Thi

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have recently attracted much attention for tissue regeneration because of their biocompatibility. In this study, we introduce poly-ethylene glycol (PEG)—grafted gelatin containing tyramine moieties which have been utilized for in situ enzyme-mediated hydrogel preparation. The hydrogel can be used to load nanoparticles of biphasic calcium phosphate, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, and forming injectable bio-composites. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra indicated that tyramine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-nitrophenyl carbonate ester was conjugated to the gelatin. The hydrogel composite was rapidly formed in situ (within a few seconds) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. In vitro experiments with bio-mineralization on the hydrogel composite surfaces was well-observed after 2 weeks soaking in simulated body fluid solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be a potential injectable material for bone regeneration.

  9. Bone tissue as a systemic endocrine regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofkova, I

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a target tissue for hormones, such as the sex steroids, parathormon, vitamin D, calcitonin, glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormones. In the last decade, other "non-classic" hormones that modulate the bone tissue have been identified. While incretins (GIP and GLP-1) inhibit bone remodeling, angiotensin acts to promote remodeling. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) has also been found to have anabolic effects on the skeleton by activating bone formation during embryonic development, as well as in the postnatal period of life. Bone has also been identified as an endocrine tissue that produces a number of hormones, that bind to and modulate extra-skeletal receptors. Osteocalcin occupies a central position in this context. It can increase insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and regulate metabolism of fatty acids. Moreover, osteocalcin also influences phosphate metabolism via osteocyte-derived FGF23 (which targets the kidneys and parathyroid glands to control phosphate reabsorption and metabolism of vitamin D). Finally, osteocalcin stimulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells and thus may play some role in male fertility. Further studies are necessary to confirm clinically important roles for skeletal tissue in systemic regulations. PMID:25470522

  10. Differentiation of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells into endothelial cells in vitro and promotion of defective bone regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhong; Liu, Chao; Sun, Bin; Shi, Ce; Qiao, Chunyan; Ke, Xiaoliang; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Xia; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-04-01

    Tissue engineering strategies often fail to regenerate bones because of inadequate vascularization, especially in the reconstruction of large segmental bone defects. Large volumes of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) that functionally interact with osteoblasts during osteogenesis are difficult to obtain. In this study, we simulated bone healing by co-culturing differentiated ECs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) either on a culture plate or on a polylactide glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffold in vitro. We also evaluated the effect of osteogenesis in repairing rabbit mandible defects in vivo. In this study, MSCs were separated from rabbit as the seed cells. After passage, the MSCs were cultured in an EC-conditioned medium to differentiate into ECs. Immunohistochemical staining analysis with CD34 showed that the induced cells had the characteristics of ECs and MSC. The induced ECs were co-cultured in vitro, and the induction of MSCs to osteoblast served as the control. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red (AZR) staining experiments were performed, and the Coomassie brilliant blue total protein and ALP activity were measured. The MSCs proliferated and differentiated into osteoblast-like cells through direct contact between the derived ECs and MSCs. The co-cultured cells were seeded on PLGA scaffold to repair 1 cm mandible defects in the rabbit. The effectiveness of the repairs was assessed through soft X-ray and histological analyses. The main findings indicated that MSCs survived well on the scaffold and that the scaffold is biocompatible and noncytotoxic. The results demonstrated that the co-cultured MSC-derived ECs improved MSC osteogenesis and promoted new bone formation. This study may serve as a basis for the use of in vitro co-culturing techniques as an improvisation to bone tissue engineering for the repair of large bone defects. PMID:23943083

  11. detrimentally affects tissue regeneration of Red Sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is threatening the future of coral reef ecosystems. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that OA negatively impacts fundamental life functions of scleractinian corals, including growth and sexual reproduction. Although regeneration is regarded as a chief life function in scleractinian corals and essential to maintain the colony's integrity, the effect of OA on regeneration processes has not yet been investigated. To evaluate the effects of OA on regeneration, the common Indo-Pacific corals Porites sp., Favia favus, Acropora eurystoma, and Stylophora pistillata were inflicted with lesions (314-350 mm2, depending on species) and incubated in different pCO2: (1) ambient seawater (400 µatm, pH 8.1), (2) intermediate (1,800 µatm, pH 7.6), and (3) high (4,000 µatm, pH 7.3) for extended periods of time (60-120 d). While all coral species after 60 d had significantly higher tissue regeneration in ambient conditions as compared to the intermediate and high treatments, reduction in regeneration rate was more pronounced in the slow-growing massive Porites sp. and F. favus than the relatively fast-growing, branching S. pistillata and A. eurystoma. This coincided with reduced tissue biomass of Porites sp., F. favus, and A. eurystoma in higher pCO2, but not in S. pistillata. Porites sp., F. favus, and S. pistillata also experienced a decrease in Symbiodinium density in higher pCO2, while in A. eurystoma there was no change. We hypothesize that a lowered regenerative capacity under elevated pCO2 may be related to resource trade-offs, energy cost of acid/base regulation, and/or decrease in total energy budget. This is the first study to demonstrate that elevated pCO2 could have a compounding influence on coral regeneration following injury, potentially affecting the capacity of reef corals to recover following physical disturbance.

  12. Dental Pulp Stem Cells as a multifaceted tool for bioengineering and the regeneration of craniomaxillofacial tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitane eAurrekoetxea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells, or DPSC, are neural crest-derived cells with an outstanding capacity to differentiate along multiple cell lineages of interest for cell therapy. In particular, highly efficient osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSC can be achieved using simple in vitro protocols, making these cells a very attractive and promising tool for the future treatment of dental and periodontal diseases. Among craniomaxillofacial organs, the tooth and salivary gland are two such cases in which complete regeneration by tissue engineering using DPSC appears to be possible, as research over the last decade has made substantial progress in experimental models of partial or total regeneration of both organs, by cell recombination technology. Moreover, DPSC seem to be a particularly good choice for the regeneration of nerve tissues, including injured or transected cranial nerves. In this context, the oral cavity appears to be an excellent testing ground for new regenerative therapies using DPSC. However, many issues and challenges need yet to be addressed before these cells can be employed in clinical therapy. In this review, we point out some important aspects on the biology of DPSC with regard to their use for the reconstruction of different craniomaxillofacial tissues and organs, with special emphasis on cranial bones, nerves, teeth, and salivary glands. We suggest new ideas and strategies to fully exploit the capacities of DPSC for bioengineering of the aforementioned tissues.

  13. Dental pulp stem cells as a multifaceted tool for bioengineering and the regeneration of craniomaxillofacial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Maitane; Garcia-Gallastegui, Patricia; Irastorza, Igor; Luzuriaga, Jon; Uribe-Etxebarria, Verónica; Unda, Fernando; Ibarretxe, Gaskon

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells, or DPSC, are neural crest-derived cells with an outstanding capacity to differentiate along multiple cell lineages of interest for cell therapy. In particular, highly efficient osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSC can be achieved using simple in vitro protocols, making these cells a very attractive and promising tool for the future treatment of dental and periodontal diseases. Among craniomaxillofacial organs, the tooth and salivary gland are two such cases in which complete regeneration by tissue engineering using DPSC appears to be possible, as research over the last decade has made substantial progress in experimental models of partial or total regeneration of both organs, by cell recombination technology. Moreover, DPSC seem to be a particularly good choice for the regeneration of nerve tissues, including injured or transected cranial nerves. In this context, the oral cavity appears to be an excellent testing ground for new regenerative therapies using DPSC. However, many issues and challenges need yet to be addressed before these cells can be employed in clinical therapy. In this review, we point out some important aspects on the biology of DPSC with regard to their use for the reconstruction of different craniomaxillofacial tissues and organs, with special emphasis on cranial bones, nerves, teeth, and salivary glands. We suggest new ideas and strategies to fully exploit the capacities of DPSC for bioengineering of the aforementioned tissues. PMID:26528190

  14. Cell-free scaffolds with different stiffness but same microstructure promote bone regeneration in rabbit large bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobao; Yang, Li; Lv, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    To promote bone healing, bone repair biomaterials are increasingly designed to incorporate growth factors. However, the impact of matrix mechanics of cell-free scaffold independent of microstructure on the osteogenic differentiation of endogenous osteoprogenitor cells orchestrating bone repair and regeneration remains not to be fully understood. In our recent study, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with different stiffness but same microstructure have been successfully fabricated by coating decellularized bone with collagen/hydroxyapatite (HA) mixture with different collagen rations. It has been demonstrated that the scaffold with optimal stiffness can induce the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and in the subcutaneous tissue. The present in vivo study further investigated the repair efficiency of these scaffolds in a rabbit radius with a critical-sized segmental defect model and its potential mechanism. Micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), X-ray and histological analysis were carried out to evaluate the repair capacity of these scaffolds. The results demonstrated that the cell-free scaffold with optimal stiffness incorporation of endogenous osteoprogenitor cells significantly promoted the repair and reconstruction quality of mass bone defect. One of the crucial mechanisms was that hypoxia and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) mediated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migration by which matrix mechanics exerted influence on bone fracture healing. These findings suggested that only modulating the matrix stiffness of cell-free scaffold can be one of the most attractive strategies for promoting the progression of bone healing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 833-841, 2016. PMID:26650620

  15. Bone tissue engineering using 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Bose

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of additive manufacturing technologies in the mid 1980s, many applications benefited from the faster processing of products without the need for specific tooling or dies. However, the application of such techniques in the area of biomedical devices has been slow due to the stringent performance criteria and concerns related to reproducibility and part quality, when new technologies are in their infancy. However, the use of additive manufacturing technologies in bone tissue engineering has been growing in recent years. Among the different technology options, three dimensional printing (3DP is becoming popular due to the ability to directly print porous scaffolds with designed shape, controlled chemistry and interconnected porosity. Some of these inorganic scaffolds are biodegradable and have proven ideal for bone tissue engineering, sometimes even with site specific growth factor/drug delivery abilities. This review article focuses on recent advances in 3D printed bone tissue engineering scaffolds along with current challenges and future directions.

  16. The paradoxes in patterns and mechanism of bone marrow regeneration after irradiation. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow regeneration following irradiation has been largely studied as a dose-effect phenomenon, however, a large literature has simultaneously developed utilizing a wide variety of volumes, both in clinical studies and in experimental studies. Volume factors, more than dose, determine patterns of suppression and regeneration which have been documented by a variety of assay systems. Experimental evidence is presented which indicates that high dose irradiation to large volumes of bone marrow does not completely suppress bone marrow regeneration but results in a rapid compensatory response. Comparisons are made between the small and larger volumes at similar doses and indicate a greater overall compensatory response after the larger field irradiation, being more rapid in onset particularly after the 1000 rad dose. Although in-field regeneration of bone marrow occurs after single dose radiation to different volumes of bone marrow, experimental and clinical evidence from protracted conventional doses of irradiation to different volumes of bone marrow indicate significantly different response mechanisms. (Auth.)

  17. Prospect of Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Engineering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizeh-Mitra Yousefi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been the subject of many studies in recent years, ranging from basic science that looks into MSCs properties to studies that aim for developing bioengineered tissues and organs. Adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs have been the focus of most studies due to the inherent potential of these cells to differentiate into various cell types. Although, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of cellular differentiation. These cells are another attractive stem cell source because of their ability to be reprogramed, allowing the generation of multiple cell types from a single cell. This paper briefly covers various types of stem cell sources that have been used for tissue engineering applications, with a focus on bone regeneration. Then, an overview of some recent studies making use of MSC-seeded 3D scaffold systems for bone tissue engineering has been presented. The emphasis has been placed on the reported scaffold properties that tend to improve MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation outcomes.

  18. Bone Regeneration in Artificial Jaw Cleft by Use of Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Particles and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Iliac Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Yoshioka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the Study. Cleft lip and palate (CLP is a prevalent congenital anomaly in the orofacial region. Autogenous iliac bone grafting has been frequently employed for the closure of bone defects at the jaw cleft site. Since the related surgical procedures are quite invasive for patients, it is of great importance to develop a new less invasive technique. The aim of this study was to examine bone regeneration with mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs for the treatment of bone defect in artificially created jaw cleft in dogs. Materials and Methods. A bone defect was prepared bilaterally in the upper incisor regions of beagle dogs. MSCs derived from iliac bone marrow were cultured and transplanted with carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP particles into the bone defect area. The bone regeneration was evaluated by standardized occlusal X-ray examination and histological observation. Results. Six months after the transplantation, perfect closure of the jaw cleft was achieved on the experimental side. The X-ray and histological examination revealed that the regenerated bone on the experimental side was almost equivalent to the original bone adjoining the jaw cleft. Conclusion. It was suggested that the application of MSCs with CAP particles can become a new treatment modality for bone regeneration for CLP patients.

  19. In vitro aging of mineralized collagen-based composite as guided tissue regeneration membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been developed for the regeneration of periodontal tissues, bone around natural teeth and dental implants. The aim of this study is to investigate the biodegradability and mechanic behavior of a novel mineralized nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (lactic acid) (nHAC/PLA) composite as GTR membrane in vitro. The elastic modulus and maximum tensile strength of GTR film samples with different nHAC/PLA ratio were measured to get an optimal nHAC/PLA ratio. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to evaluate the change of the inorganic component in the samples during the process of in vitro aging. Morphology of samples was checked by using scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that the GTR membranes maintained integrity and the original appearance throughout the 1-month in vitro aging. There is an active dissolution and deposition process of crystals which is propitious to the bone formation on the surface of the composite membrane. The optimal nHAC/PLA ratio of the novel membrane is 0.4:1. For a longer period of bone repair, PLA with higher molecular weight should be chosen as the scaffold for the GTR membrane

  20. Cementogenesis and the induction of periodontal tissue regeneration by the osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, U; Petit, J-C; Teare, J

    2009-04-01

    The antiquity and severity of periodontal diseases are demonstrated by the hard evidence of alveolar bone loss in gnathic remains of the Pliocene/Pleistocene deposits of the Bloubank Valley at Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdrai in South Africa. Extant Homo has characterized and cloned a superfamily of proteins which include the bone morphogenetic proteins that regulate tooth morphogenesis at different stages of development as temporally and spatially connected events. The induction of cementogenesis, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone regeneration are regulated by the co-ordinated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins. Naturally derived and recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins induce periodontal tissue regeneration in mammals. Morphological analyses on undecalcified sections cut at 3-6 mum on a series of mandibular molar Class II and III furcation defects induced in the non-human primate Papio ursinus show the induction of cementogenesis. Sharpey's fibers nucleate as a series of composite collagen bundles within the cementoid matrix in close relation to embedded cementocytes. Osteogenic protein-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 possess a structure-activity profile, as shown by the morphology of tissue regeneration, preferentially cementogenic and osteogenic, respectively. In Papio ursinus, transforming growth factor-beta(3) also induces cementogenesis, with Sharpey's fibers inserting into newly formed alveolar bone. Capillary sprouting and invasion determine the sequential insertion and alignment of individual collagenic bundles. The addition of responding stem cells prepared by finely mincing fragments of autogenous rectus abdominis muscle significantly enhances the induction of periodontal tissue regeneration when combined with transforming growth factor-beta(3) implanted in Class II and III furcation defects of Papio ursinus. PMID:18842117

  1. Biomimetic approaches in bone tissue engineering: Integrating biological and physicomechanical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Yague, Marc A; Abbah, Sunny Akogwu; McNamara, Laoise; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I; Pandit, Abhay; Biggs, Manus J

    2015-04-01

    The development of responsive biomaterials capable of demonstrating modulated function in response to dynamic physiological and mechanical changes in vivo remains an important challenge in bone tissue engineering. To achieve long-term repair and good clinical outcomes, biologically responsive approaches that focus on repair and reconstitution of tissue structure and function through drug release, receptor recognition, environmental responsiveness and tuned biodegradability are required. Traditional orthopedic materials lack biomimicry, and mismatches in tissue morphology, or chemical and mechanical properties ultimately accelerate device failure. Multiple stimuli have been proposed as principal contributors or mediators of cell activity and bone tissue formation, including physical (substrate topography, stiffness, shear stress and electrical forces) and biochemical factors (growth factors, genes or proteins). However, optimal solutions to bone regeneration remain elusive. This review will focus on biological and physicomechanical considerations currently being explored in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25236302

  2. Role of Fetal Stem Cells in Maternal Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Jiang F; Weiner, Leslie P.

    2007-01-01

    Microchimerism refers to the status of harboring cells from another individual at low levels. It is well known that cells traffic bidirectionally between fetus and mother during pregnancy. This situation resembles a naturally occurring long lasting fetal stem cell transplantation. The fetus acts as the donor and the mother acts as the recipient. To study the role of microchimerism in tissue regeneration, we constructed a murine microchimerism model with wild type C57BL/6J female mice carrying...

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Biology, Function, and Application for Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-Rang Yun; Jong Eun Won; Eunyi Jeon; Sujin Lee; Wonmo Kang; Hyejin Jo; Jun-Hyeog Jang; Ueon Sang Shin; Hae-Won Kim

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs) regulate a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The FGF signal pathways are the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, among which the RAS/MAP kinase pathway is known to be predominant. Several studies have recently implicated the in vitro biological functions of FGFs for tissue regeneration. However, to obtain opt...

  4. 3-Dimensional cell-laden nano-hydroxyapatite/protein hydrogels for bone regeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat-Shojai, Mehdi, E-mail: msadatshojai@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad-Taghi [Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidi, Ahmad [Department of Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    The ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) protein-based hydrogels is potentially of benefit for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, as a result of their poor mechanical strength, protein-based hydrogels have traditionally been considered for soft tissue engineering only. Hence, in this study we tried to render these hydrogels suitable for hard tissue regeneration, simply by incorporation of bioactive nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) into a photocrosslinkable gelatin hydrogel. Different cell types were also encapsulated in three dimensions in the resulting composites to prepare cell-laden constructs. According to the results, HAp significantly improves the stiffness of gelatin hydrogels, while it maintains their structural integrity and swelling ratio. It was also found that while the bare hydrogel (control) was completely inert in terms of bioactivity, a homogeneous 3D mineralization occurs throughout the nanocomposites after incubation in simulated body fluid. Moreover, encapsulated cells readily elongated, proliferated, and formed a 3D interconnected network with neighboring cells in the nanocomposite, showing the suitability of the nano-HAp/protein hydrogels for cellular growth in 3D. Therefore, the hydrogel nanocomposites developed in this study may be promising candidates for preparing cell-laden tissue-like structures with enhanced stiffness and increased osteoconductivity to induce bone formation in vivo. - Highlights: • We tried to render protein-based hydrogels suitable for hard tissue regeneration. • We developed a three-component system comprising hydrogel, nano-HAp, and cells. • Nano-HAp significantly improved the mechanical strength of hydrogel. • Encapsulated cells readily elongated and proliferated in 3D cell-laden nanocomposite. • 3D deposition of bone crystals occurred in the hydrogel nanocomposites.

  5. Bone Regeneration Using Hydroxyapatite Sponge Scaffolds with In Vivo Deposited Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Reiza Dolendo; Padalhin, Andrew Reyes; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2015-11-01

    There is currently an increased interest in studying the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its potential applications for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The ECM plays an important role by providing adhesive substrates to cells during migration, morphogenesis, differentiation, and homeostasis by signaling biochemical and biomechanical cues to cells. In this study, the ECM was incorporated into hydroxyapatite by implanting sponge replica scaffolds in subcutaneous pockets in rats, and the implants were tested for bone regeneration potential. The resulting scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, DNA and RNA quantification, tissue staining, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, compressive strength testing, porosity, and pore size distribution analysis using bare scaffolds as a control reference. Biocompatibility was assessed using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and in vivo studies were carried out by implanting decellularized scaffolds in 11 mm radial defects in New Zealand rabbits for 4 and 8 weeks to determine the effect of the in vivo deposited ECM. Material characterization indicated that a 2-week decellularized scaffold was the best among the samples, with an evenly distributed ECM visible on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections, a compressive strength of 2.53 ± 0.68 MPa, a porosity of 58.08 ± 3.32% and a pore size distribution range of 10-150 μm. In vivo results showed no severe inflammation, with increased cell infiltration followed by dense matrix deposition after 4 weeks and new bone formation at 8 weeks. The results indicate that incorporation of an in vivo deposited ECM into ceramic scaffolds can potentially improve bone regeneration. PMID:26228909

  6. Tantalum coating of porous carbon scaffold supplemented with autologous bone marrow stromal stem cells for bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaowei; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, Benjie; Wang, Wei; Kang, Kai; Xie, Hui; Liu, Baoyi; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Jinsong; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-03-01

    Porous tantalum metal with low elastic modulus is similar to cancellous bone. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) can provide three-dimensional pore structure and serves as the ideal scaffold of tantalum coating. In this study, the biocompatibility of domestic porous tantalum was first successfully tested with bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro and for bone tissue repair in vivo. We evaluated cytotoxicity of RVC scaffold and tantalum coating using BMSCs. The morphology, adhesion, and proliferation of BMSCs were observed via laser scanning confocal microscope and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, porous tantalum rods with or without autologous BMSCs were implanted on hind legs in dogs, respectively. The osteogenic potential was observed by hard tissue slice examination. At three weeks and six weeks following implantation, new osteoblasts and new bone were observed at the tantalum-host bone interface and pores. At 12 weeks postporous tantalum with autologous BMSCs implantation, regenerated trabecular equivalent to mature bone was found in the pore of tantalum rods. Our results suggested that domestic porous tantalum had excellent biocompatibility and could promote new bone formation in vivo. Meanwhile, the osteogenesis of porous tantalum associated with autologous BMSCs was more excellent than only tantalum implantation. Future clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical efficacy of combined implantation of this domestic porous tantalum associated with autologous BMSCs implantation and compare their efficacy with conventional autologous bone grafting carrying blood vessel in patients needing bone repairing. PMID:26843518

  7. Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Min Wang

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterial and scaffold development underpins the advancement of tissue engineering. Traditional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) are weak and non-osteoconductive. For bone tissue engineering, polymer-based composite scaffolds containing bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite can be produced and used. The bioceramics can be either incorporated in the scaffolds as a dispersed secondary phase or form a thin coating on the po...

  8. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. PMID:26727278

  9. Periodontal healing following guided tissue regeneration with citric acid and fibronectin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffesse, R G; Nasjleti, C E; Anderson, G B; Lopatin, D E; Smith, B A; Morrison, E C

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) with and without citric acid conditioning and autologous fibronectin application. The study subjects were four female beagle dogs with spontaneous periodontitis. The dogs were given thorough root debridement and 4 weeks later, mucoperiosteal flaps were raised on both sides of the mandible involving the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th premolar and 1st molar teeth. After debridement, notches were placed on the roots at the level of supporting bone. Citric acid (pH 1) was topically applied for 3 minutes on the exposed root surfaces of one side (experimental). The roots were irrigated with normal saline solution. Both the root surfaces and the inner surface of the flap were then bathed in autologous fibronectin in saline. Following this, Gore-Tex periodontal material was adapted to the roots of each tooth and sutured. The contralateral side, serving as control, was treated by surgery and application of Gore-Tex periodontal material only. All membranes were removed 1 month after surgery, and the dogs sacrificed at 3 months. Both mesio-distal and bucco-lingual microscopic histological sections were evaluated by descriptive histology, and linear measurements and surface area determination of the furcal tissues were made. Periodontal healing following the use of GTR procedure resulted in an increase in connective tissue and alveolar bone regeneration. Adjunctive critic acid plus autologous fibronectin produced slightly better results, but these differences were not statistically significant for this sample. PMID:2002428

  10. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor; Carrier-Ruiz Alvaro; R Lemes Robertha M; Reis Ricardo A M; Mendez-Otero Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC), satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that s...

  11. Postloading behavior of regenerated tissues in GBR-treated implant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, G; Majzoub, Z; Riachi, F

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, using reentry procedures, the capacity of regenerated tissues in implant-associated defects to respond to occlusal loading. Two groups of patients treated with membrane-augmented osseointegrated implants were included in the study. In group A (7 patients), a total of 9 implant-associated defects, including 6 dehiscences and 3 immediate extraction sites, were prospectively followed up 6 months following prosthesis connection. In group B (3 patients), 4 dehiscence defects were retrospectively evaluated 5 years after prosthetic loading. All defects in both groups had an uneventful healing period beyond the 6 months following implant insertion and showed complete fill with bone-like hard tissues at abutment connection surgery. A second surgical reentry was carried out to evaluate the quantitative changes in the regenerated tissues at the membrane-treated sites; it was carried out 6 months following prosthesis connection in group A, and 5 years postloading in group B. At the second reentry procedure, the mean percentage of defect fill at the dehiscence sites was 82% +/- 12.8% in group A and 83% +/- 7.3% in group B. In the 3 immediate extraction sites in group A, the most apical bone-implant contact around the implant was consistently located at about 1 mm, relative to the coronal aspect of the implant shoulder, as evidenced both radiographically and during the second reentry. The trends noted in this investigation suggest that tissues regenerated in successfully treated implant-associated defects can be maintained in the short-term and long-term periods following prosthetic loading. PMID:10379286

  12. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in de novo liver regeneration in liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Gyu; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Soon-Jung; Chung, Hyung-Min; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hojong; Kwon, Tae-Won; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2015-09-01

    The study was designed (1) to examine the hypothesis that circulating progenitor cells play a role in the process of de novo regeneration in human liver transplants and that these cells arise from a cell population originating in, or associated with, the bone marrow and (2) to investigate whether the transplanted liver volume has an effect on the circulating recipient-derived progenitor cells that generate hepatocytes during this process. Clinical data and liver tissue characteristics were analyzed in male individuals who underwent sex-mismatched adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using dual left lobe grafts. Dual left lobe grafts were examined at the time of transplantation and 19 to 27 days after transplantation. All recipients showed recovery of normal liver function and a significant increase in the volume of the engrafted left lobes after transplantation. Double staining for a Y-chromosome probe and the CD31 antigen showed the presence of hybrid vessels composed of recipient-derived cells and donor cells within the transplanted liver tissues. Furthermore, CD34-expressing cells were observed commingling with Y-chromosome+ cells. The ratio of recipient-derived vessels and the number of Y+ CD34+ cells tended to be higher when smaller graft volumes underwent transplantation. These findings suggest that the recruitment of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells could contribute to vessel formation and de novo regeneration in human liver transplants. Moreover, graft volume may be an important determinant for the active mobilization of circulating recipient-derived progenitor cells and their contribution to liver regeneration. PMID:25761987

  13. Role of Nanog in the maintenance of marrow stromal stem cells during post natal bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bais, Manish V.; Shabin, Zabrina M.; Young, Megan; Einhorn, Thomas A. [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Kotton, Darrell N. [Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Gerstnefeld, Louis C., E-mail: lgersten@bu.edu [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is related to marrow stromal stem cell maintenance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing Nanog expression is seen during post natal surgical bone repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog knockdown decreases post surgical bone regeneration. -- Abstract: Post natal bone repair elicits a regenerative mechanism that restores the injured tissue to its pre-injury cellular composition and structure and is believed to recapitulate the embryological processes of bone formation. Prior studies showed that Nanog, a central epigenetic regulator associated with the maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ESC) was transiently expressed during fracture healing, Bais et al. . In this study, we show that murine bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) before they are induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation express {approx}50 Multiplication-Sign the background levels of Nanog seen in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and the W20-17 murine marrow stromal cell line stably expresses Nanog at {approx}80 Multiplication-Sign the MEF levels. Nanog expression in this cell line was inhibited by BMP7 treatment and Nanog lentivrial shRNA knockdown induced the expression of the terminal osteogenic gene osteocalcin. Lentivrial shRNA knockdown or lentiviral overexpression of Nanog in bone MSCs had inverse effects on proliferation, with knockdown decreasing and overexpression increasing MSC cell proliferation. Surgical marrow ablation of mouse tibia by medullary reaming led to a {approx}3-fold increase in Nanog that preceded osteogenic differentiation during intramembranous bone formation. Lentiviral shRNA knockdown of Nanog after surgical ablation led to an initial overexpression of osteogenic gene expression with no initial effect on bone formation but during subsequent remodeling of the newly formed bone a {approx}50% decrease was seen in the expression of terminal osteogenic gene expression and a {approx}50% loss in trabecular bone mass. This

  14. Role of Nanog in the maintenance of marrow stromal stem cells during post natal bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nanog is related to marrow stromal stem cell maintenance. ► Increasing Nanog expression is seen during post natal surgical bone repair. ► Nanog knockdown decreases post surgical bone regeneration. -- Abstract: Post natal bone repair elicits a regenerative mechanism that restores the injured tissue to its pre-injury cellular composition and structure and is believed to recapitulate the embryological processes of bone formation. Prior studies showed that Nanog, a central epigenetic regulator associated with the maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ESC) was transiently expressed during fracture healing, Bais et al. . In this study, we show that murine bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) before they are induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation express ∼50× the background levels of Nanog seen in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and the W20-17 murine marrow stromal cell line stably expresses Nanog at ∼80× the MEF levels. Nanog expression in this cell line was inhibited by BMP7 treatment and Nanog lentivrial shRNA knockdown induced the expression of the terminal osteogenic gene osteocalcin. Lentivrial shRNA knockdown or lentiviral overexpression of Nanog in bone MSCs had inverse effects on proliferation, with knockdown decreasing and overexpression increasing MSC cell proliferation. Surgical marrow ablation of mouse tibia by medullary reaming led to a ∼3-fold increase in Nanog that preceded osteogenic differentiation during intramembranous bone formation. Lentiviral shRNA knockdown of Nanog after surgical ablation led to an initial overexpression of osteogenic gene expression with no initial effect on bone formation but during subsequent remodeling of the newly formed bone a ∼50% decrease was seen in the expression of terminal osteogenic gene expression and a ∼50% loss in trabecular bone mass. This loss of bone mass was accompanied by an increased ∼2- to 5-fold adipogenic gene expression and observed increase of fat cells in the

  15. Novel mechanically competent polysaccharide scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of the scaffold-based bone regeneration approach critically depends on the biomaterial's mechanical and biological properties. Cellulose and its derivatives are inherently associated with exceptional strength and biocompatibility due to their β-glycosidic linkage and extensive hydrogen bonding. This polymer class has a long medical history as a dialysis membrane, wound care system and pharmaceutical excipient. Recently cellulose-based scaffolds have been developed and evaluated for a variety of tissue engineering applications. In general porous polysaccharide scaffolds in spite of many merits lack the necessary mechanical competence needed for load-bearing applications. The present study reports the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) porous sintered microsphere scaffolds based on cellulose derivatives using a solvent/non-solvent sintering approach for load-bearing applications. These 3D scaffolds exhibited a compressive modulus and strength in the mid-range of human trabecular bone and underwent degradation resulting in a weight loss of 10–15% after 24 weeks. A typical stress–strain curve for these scaffolds showed an initial elastic region and a less-stiff post-yield region similar to that of native bone. Human osteoblasts cultured on these scaffolds showed progressive growth with time and maintained expression of osteoblast phenotype markers. Further, the elevated expression of alkaline phosphatase and mineralization at early time points as compared to heat-sintered poly(lactic acid–glycolic acid) control scaffolds with identical pore properties affirmed the advantages of polysaccharides and their potential for scaffold-based bone regeneration.

  16. Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in

  17. Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylan, Nuray; Bhat, Samerna; Ditto, Maggie; Lawrence, Joseph G; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2013-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in

  18. Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterial and scaffold development underpins the advancement of tissue engineering. Traditional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid are weak and non-osteoconductive. For bone tissue engineering, polymer-based composite scaffolds containing bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite can be produced and used. The bioceramics can be either incorporated in the scaffolds as a dispersed secondary phase or form a thin coating on the pore surface of polymer scaffolds. This bioceramic phase renders the scaffolds bioactive and also strengthens the scaffolds. There are a number of methods that can be used to produce bioceramic-polymer composite scaffolds. This paper gives an overview of our efforts in developing composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  19. The Potential for Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Functional Tissue Regeneration: Understanding Microenvironmental Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Majka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, pulmonary fibrosis (PF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases.

  20. The potential for resident lung mesenchymal stem cells to promote functional tissue regeneration: understanding microenvironmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronjy, Robert F; Majka, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases. PMID:23626909

  1. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Caiwen; Zhou Huifang; Fu Yao; Gu Ping; Fan Xianqun [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu Guangpeng [Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang Peng [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science (China); Hou Hongliang; Tang Tingting, E-mail: drfanxianqun@126.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  2. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  3. Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hairfollicle regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reconstitution of a fully organized and functionalhair follicle from dissociated cells propagated underdefined tissue culture conditions is a challenge stillpending in tissue engineering. The loss of hair folliclescaused by injuries or pathologies such as alopecia notonly affects the patients' psychological well-being, butalso endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Itis then of great interest to find different strategies aimingto regenerate or neogenerate the hair follicle underconditions proper of an adult individual. Based uponcurrent knowledge on the epithelial and dermal cells andtheir interactions during the embryonic hair generationand adult hair cycling, many researchers have tried toobtain mature hair follicles using different strategies andapproaches depending on the causes of hair loss. Thisreview summarizes current advances in the differentexperimental strategies to regenerate or neogenerate hairfollicles, with emphasis on those involving neogenesisof hair follicles in adult individuals using isolated cellsand tissue engineering. Most of these experiments wereperformed using rodent cells, particularly from embryonicor newborn origin. However, no successful strategy togenerate human hair follicles from adult cells has yetbeen reported. This review identifies several issues thatshould be considered to achieve this objective. Perhapsthe most important challenge is to provide threedimensionalculture conditionsmimicking the structure ofliving tissue. Improving culture conditions that allow theexpansion of specific cells while protecting their inductiveproperties, as well as methods for selecting populationsof epithelial stem cells, should give us the necessary toolsto overcome the difficulties that constrain human hairfollicle neogenesis. An analysis of patent trends showsthat the number of patent applications aimed at hairfollicle regeneration and neogenesis has been increasingduring the last decade. This field is attractive not only

  4. Microsphere-based scaffolds encapsulating tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vineet; Lyne, Dina V; Barragan, Marilyn; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Bioceramic mixtures of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are widely used for bone regeneration because of their excellent cytocompatibility, osteoconduction, and osteoinduction. Therefore, we hypothesized that incorporation of a mixture of TCP and HAp in microsphere-based scaffolds would enhance osteogenesis of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) compared to a positive control of scaffolds with encapsulated bone-morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds encapsulating TCP and HAp mixtures in two different ratios (7:3 and 1:1) were fabricated with the same net ceramic content (30 wt%) to evaluate how incorporation of these ceramic mixtures would affect the osteogenesis in rBMSCs. Encapsulation of TCP/HAp mixtures impacted microsphere morphologies and the compressive moduli of the scaffolds. Additionally, TCP/HAp mixtures enhanced the end-point secretion of extracellular matrix components relevant to bone tissue compared to the "blank" (PLGA-only) microsphere-based scaffolds as evidenced by the biochemical, gene expression, histology, and immunohistochemical characterization. Moreover, the TCP/HAp mixture groups even surpassed the BMP-2 positive control group in some instances in terms of matrix synthesis and gene expression. Lastly, gene expression data suggested that the rBMSCs responded differently to different TCP/HAp ratios presented to them. Altogether, it can be concluded that TCP/HAp mixtures stimulated the differentiation of rBMSCs toward an osteoblastic phenotype, and therefore may be beneficial in gradient microsphere-based scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration. PMID:27272903

  5. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC, satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration.

  6. Methods for measuring bone tissue mineral status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for measuring the bone tissue mineral content are considered. Radiogrammetry and radiographic densitometry (photodensitometry), one-photon absorptiometry, two-photon absorptiometry (TPA), computerized tomography (γ- and X-ray) are discussed. It was shown that computerized tomography was the most sensitive method though its cost and patient radiation doses were high. Two-photon bone densitometers (mainly based on 153Gd source) were most wide practised. Devices based in X-ray TPA supplant them lately. They are more complex in design but permit to reduce the time of examination due to increase in scanning rate and to improve the reproducibility. Moreover, they are ecologically pure

  7. Aberrant innate immune activation following tissue injury impairs pancreatic regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E Folias

    Full Text Available Normal tissue architecture is disrupted following injury, as resident tissue cells become damaged and immune cells are recruited to the site of injury. While injury and inflammation are critical to tissue remodeling, the inability to resolve this response can lead to the destructive complications of chronic inflammation. In the pancreas, acinar cells of the exocrine compartment respond to injury by transiently adopting characteristics of progenitor cells present during embryonic development. This process of de-differentiation creates a window where a mature and stable cell gains flexibility and is potentially permissive to changes in cellular fate. How de-differentiation can turn an acinar cell into another cell type (such as a pancreatic β-cell, or a cell with cancerous potential (as in cases of deregulated Kras activity is of interest to both the regenerative medicine and cancer communities. While it is known that inflammation and acinar de-differentiation increase following pancreatic injury, it remains unclear which immune cells are involved in this process. We used a combination of genetically modified mice, immunological blockade and cellular characterization to identify the immune cells that impact pancreatic regeneration in an in vivo model of pancreatitis. We identified the innate inflammatory response of macrophages and neutrophils as regulators of pancreatic regeneration. Under normal conditions, mild innate inflammation prompts a transient de-differentiation of acinar cells that readily dissipates to allow normal regeneration. However, non-resolving inflammation developed when elevated pancreatic levels of neutrophils producing interferon-γ increased iNOS levels and the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. Pancreatic injury improved following in vivo macrophage depletion, iNOS inhibition as well as suppression of iNOS levels in macrophages via interferon-γ blockade, supporting the impairment in regeneration and the

  8. In silico Mechano-Chemical Model of Bone Healing for the Regeneration of Critical Defects: The Effect of BMP-2.

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    Frederico O Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The healing of bone defects is a challenge for both tissue engineering and modern orthopaedics. This problem has been addressed through the study of scaffold constructs combined with mechanoregulatory theories, disregarding the influence of chemical factors and their respective delivery devices. Of the chemical factors involved in the bone healing process, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 has been identified as one of the most powerful osteoinductive proteins. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a mechano-chemical regulatory model to study the effect of BMP-2 on the healing of large bone defects in silico. We first collected a range of quantitative experimental data from the literature concerning the effects of BMP-2 on cellular activity, specifically proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and extracellular matrix production. These data were then used to define a model governed by mechano-chemical stimuli to simulate the healing of large bone defects under the following conditions: natural healing, an empty hydrogel implanted in the defect and a hydrogel soaked with BMP-2 implanted in the defect. For the latter condition, successful defect healing was predicted, in agreement with previous in vivo experiments. Further in vivo comparisons showed the potential of the model, which accurately predicted bone tissue formation during healing, bone tissue distribution across the defect and the quantity of bone inside the defect. The proposed mechano-chemical model also estimated the effect of BMP-2 on cells and the evolution of healing in large bone defects. This novel in silico tool provides valuable insight for bone tissue regeneration strategies.

  9. Effect of porous polycaprolactone beads on bone regeneration: preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, June-Ho; Lee, Han A Reum; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jin Ho; Oh, Se Heang

    2014-01-01

    Background For the effective bone regeneration with appropriate pathological/physiological properties, a variety of bone fillers have been adapted as a therapeutic treatment. However, the development of ideal bone fillers is still remained as a big challenge in clinical practice. The main aims of this study are i) fabrication of a highly porous PCL beads; and ii) the estimation of the potential use of the porous PCL beads as a bone filler through preliminary animal study. Results The porous P...

  10. Improving gingival smile by means of guided bone regeneration principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo de Almeida; Brandão, Roberto Carlos Bodart; Martinelli, Carolina Borges; Pignaton, Túlio Bonna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) carried out with xenogenic bone substitute (Bio-OssTM) and collagen resorbable membrane (Bio-GideTM) to improve gingival smile (GS) in patients with excessive vertical maxillary growth (EVMG). Methods: Twelve healthy women aged between 20 and 49 years old (mean age of 26 years), with 5 mm or more of gingival exposure during fully posed smile (FPS) due to EVMG, were included. Baseline digital photographs were taken with standardized head position at rest and FPS. In eight out of 12 cases, crown lengthening procedure was indicated and the initial incision was made 2 to 4 mm from the gingival margin. In four cases, with no indication for crown lengthening procedure, a sulcular incision was performed. GBR was performed in all cases, using micro screws and/or titanium mesh associated with Bio-OssTM and Bio-GideTM. After 10 days, sutures were removed. Recall appointments were scheduled at 1, 6, and 12 months when standardized photographs were again taken. ImageToolTM software was used to measure the gingival exposure (GE) during FPS from the standardized close-up smile photographs at baseline and 12 months. Results: GE mean at baseline was 275.44 mm2. After 12 months, patients who undergone exclusively GBR procedure, presented GE reduction of 40.7%, ∆ = 112.01 mm2 (statistically significant, p = 0.12), and patients who had crown lengthening associated with the graft had a reduction of 60%, ∆ = 167.01 mm2. Conclusion: Our results using GBR to improve GS in cases of EVMG showed an exceptionally high patient acceptance and satisfaction. One-year follow-up confirmed stable results. PMID:27409660

  11. Peptide-incorporated 3D porous alginate scaffolds with enhanced osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuyuan; Yang, Yue; Deng, Yi; Sun, Yuhua; Yang, Hongtao; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-07-01

    Good bioactivity and osteogenesis of three-dimensional porous alginate scaffolds (PAS) are critical for bone tissue engineering. In this work, alginate and bone-forming peptide-1 (BFP-1), derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), have been combined together (without carbodiimide chemistry treatment) to develop peptide-incorporated PAS (p-PAS) for promoting bone repairing ability. The mechanical properties and SEM images show no difference between pure PAS and p-PAS. The release kinetics of the labeled peptide with 6-carboxy tetramethyl rhodamine from the PAS matrix suggests that the peptide is released in a relatively sustained manner. In the cell experiment, p-PAS show higher cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than the pristine PAS group, indicating that the BFP-1 released from p-PAS could significantly promote the aggregation and differentiation of osteoblasts, especially at 10μg/mL of trapped peptide concentration (p-PAS-10). Furthermore, p-PAS-10 was implanted into Beagle calvarial defects and bone regeneration was analyzed after 4 weeks. New bone formation was assessed by calcein and Masson's trichrome staining. The data reveal that p-PAS group exhibits significantly enhanced oseto-regenerative capability in vivo. The peptide-modified PAS with promoted bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation in vitro as well as bone formation ability in vivo could be promising tissue engineering materials for repairing and regeneration of bone defects. PMID:27022863

  12. A composited PEG-silk hydrogel combining with polymeric particles delivering rhBMP-2 for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dakun; An, Gang; Liang, Min; Liu, Yugang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yansong

    2016-08-01

    Given the fabulous potential of promoting bone regeneration, BMP-2 has been investigated widely in the bone tissue engineering field. A sophisticated biomaterial loaded with BMP-2, which could avoid the required supraphysiological dose leading to high medical costs and risks of complications, has been considered as a promising strategy to treat non-healing bone defects. In this study, we developed a simple approach to engineer a composited hydrogel consisting polymeric particles (PLA/PLGA) used as a BMP-2 delivery vehicle. Compared with other groups, the introduction of PLA into PEG-silk gels endowed the hydrogel new physicochemical characteristics especially hydrophobicity which inhibited the burst release of BMP-2 and enhanced gel's structural stability. Moreover, such composited gels could stabilize entrapped proteins and maintain their bioactivity fully in vitro. In vivo, the bio-degradability experiment demonstrated this system was biocompatible and the reinforced hydrophobicity significantly decreased degradation rate, and in rat critical-sized cranial defects model, the gel containing PLA promoted the most bone formation. These findings demonstrated the introduction of PLA changed physicochemical features of gels more suitable as a BMP-2 carrier indicated by inducing bone regeneration efficiently in large bone defects at low delivered dose and this system may own translational potential. PMID:27157747

  13. Nano-hydroxyapatite composite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, significant development has been achieved in the construction of artificial bone with ceramics, polymers and metals. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is widely used bioceramic material for bone graft substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. nHA with chitin, chitosan, collagen, gelatin, fibrin, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, polyamide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane and polyhydroxybutyrate based composite scaffolds have been explored in the present review for bone graft substitute. This article further reviews the preparative methods, chemical interaction, biocompatibiity, biodegradation, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization effect, mechanical properties and delivery of nHA-based nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. The nHA based composite biomaterials proved to be promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25992432

  14. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Mikaël M; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negatively regulates bone regeneration, in the mouse. Furthermore, IL-1β which is released at the bone injury site, inhibits the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mechanistically, IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling impairs MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation by inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Lastly, as a proof of concept, we engineer a MSC delivery system integrating inhibitors of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling. Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27001940

  15. Cardiovascular tissue engineering and regeneration based on adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Parvizi, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the pre-clinical field is rapidly progressing in search of new therapeutic modalities that replace or complement current medication to treat cardiovascular disease. Among these are the single or combined use of stem cells, biomaterials and instructive factors, which together form the triad of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapy is a promising approach for repair, remodeling and even regenerate tissue of otherwise irreparable damage, such as after myocard...

  16. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP and Highly Purified Bovine Xenograft (Laddec® Combination in Bone Regeneration after Cyst Enucleation: Radiological and Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pappalardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP to a new highly purified bovine allograft (Laddec® in the bone regeneration of cystic bony defects augmented following cystectomy.Material and Methods: Study sample included 20 patients undergoing cystectomy in which the bone defect was filled with PRP and Laddec®. All patients were examined with periapical radiographs before operation and at follow-up. After 3 months, at re-entry surgery for implant placement, bone core was taken for histological and histomorphometric analysis.Results: The postoperative successive radiographs showed a good regeneration of bone in the height of bony defects with application of PRP to bone graft. By the first postoperative month, about 48% of the defect was filled, which gradually increased in each month and showed about 90% of defect-fill by 6 months. Histological and histomorphometric analysis, showed a significant presence of bone tissue and vessels, with newly formed bone in contact with anorganic bone particles. The mean volume of vital bone was 68 ± 1.6% and the mean percentage of vital bone was 48 ± 2.4%. The mean percentage of inorganic particles in tissues was 20 ± 1.2% of the total volume. All the samples analyzed did not evidence the presence of inflammatory cells.Conclusions: The results of this study showed how the use of Laddec® in association with platelet-rich plasma allows bone regeneration and has a potential for routine clinical use for regeneration of cystic bony defects.

  17. Fibroblast growth factors as tissue repair and regeneration therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Quentin M; Li, Yong; Sun, Changye; Kinnunen, Tarja K; Fernig, David G

    2016-01-01

    Cell communication is central to the integration of cell function required for the development and homeostasis of multicellular animals. Proteins are an important currency of cell communication, acting locally (auto-, juxta-, or paracrine) or systemically (endocrine). The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family contributes to the regulation of virtually all aspects of development and organogenesis, and after birth to tissue maintenance, as well as particular aspects of organism physiology. In the West, oncology has been the focus of translation of FGF research, whereas in China and to an extent Japan a major focus has been to use FGFs in repair and regeneration settings. These differences have their roots in research history and aims. The Chinese drive into biotechnology and the delivery of engineered clinical grade FGFs by a major Chinese research group were important enablers in this respect. The Chinese language clinical literature is not widely accessible. To put this into context, we provide the essential molecular and functional background to the FGF communication system covering FGF ligands, the heparan sulfate and Klotho co-receptors and FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinases. We then summarise a selection of clinical reports that demonstrate the efficacy of engineered recombinant FGF ligands in treating a wide range of conditions that require tissue repair/regeneration. Alongside, the functional reasons why application of exogenous FGF ligands does not lead to cancers are described. Together, this highlights that the FGF ligands represent a major opportunity for clinical translation that has been largely overlooked in the West. PMID:26793421

  18. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Tang

    Full Text Available Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS, which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  19. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:23776648

  20. Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Wittrant, Yohann; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Walrand, Stéphane; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    As bones are levers for skeletal muscle to exert forces, both are complementary and essential for locomotion and individual autonomy. In the past decades, the idea of a bone-muscle unit has emerged. Numerous studies have confirmed this hypothesis from in utero to aging works. Space flight, bed rest as well as osteoporosis and sarcopenia experimentations have allowed to accumulate considerable evidence. Mechanical loading is a key mechanism linking both tissues with a central promoting role of physical activity. Moreover, the skeletal muscle secretome accounts various molecules that affect bone including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-15, myostatin, osteoglycin (OGN), FAM5C, Tmem119 and osteoactivin. Even though studies on the potential effects of bone on muscle metabolism are sparse, few osteokines have been identified. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Wnt3a, which are secreted by osteocytes, osteocalcin (OCN) and IGF-1, which are produced by osteoblasts and sclerostin which is secreted by both cell types, might impact skeletal muscle cells. Cartilage and adipose tissue are also likely to participate to this control loop and should not be set aside. Indeed, chondrocytes are known to secrete Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and adipocytes produce leptin, adiponectin and IL-6, which potentially modulate bone and muscle metabolisms. The understanding of this system will enable to define new levers to prevent/treat sarcopenia and osteoporosis at the same time. These strategies might include nutritional interventions and physical exercise. PMID:25804855

  1. The role of miR-135-modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Wang, Zi; Zhou, Huifang; Yu, Zhang; Huang, Yazhuo; Sun, Hao; Bi, Xiaoping; Wang, Yefei; Shi, Wodong; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineering technology employing genetically-modified mesenchymal stem cells combined with proper scaffolds represents a promising strategy for bone regeneration. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms that govern the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells will give deeper insights into the regulatory patterns, as well as provide more effective methods to enhance bone regeneration. In this study, miR-135 was identified as an osteogenesis-related microRNA that was up-regulated during the osteogenesis of rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments using a lentiviral expression system showed that Homeobox A2 (Hoxa2) was negatively regulated by miR-135, and luciferase reporter assay further indicated that miR-135 repressed Hoxa2 expression through binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the Hoxa2 mRNA. In vitro analyses showed that the overexpression of miR-135 significantly enhanced the expression of bone markers and extracellular matrix calcium deposition, whereas the knockdown of miR-135 suppressed these processes. Transduced ADSCs were then combined with poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) scaffold to repair a critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. The results showed that the overexpression of miR-135 significantly promoted new bone formation with higher bone mineral density (BMD) and number of trabeculae (Tb.N), as well as larger areas of newly formed bone and mineralization labeled by tetracycline, calcein and alizarin red. In contrast, the knockdown of miR-135 attenuated these processes. Additionally, immunohistochemical analyses showed that transduced ADSCs participated in new bone formation and a miR-135/Hoxa2/Runx2 pathway might contribute to the regulation of ADSC osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Taken together, our data suggested that miR-135 positively regulated the osteogenesis and bone regeneration of ADSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the combination of miR-135-modified ADSCs and the PSe

  2. Wound models for periodontal and bone regeneration: the role of biologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, Anton; Chapple, Iain L C; Giannobile, William V

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate goals of periodontal therapy remain the complete regeneration of those periodontal tissues lost to the destructive inflammatory-immune response, or to trauma, with tissues that possess the same structure and function, and the re-establishment of a sustainable health-promoting biofilm from one characterized by dysbiosis. This volume of Periodontology 2000 discusses the multiple facets of a transition from therapeutic empiricism during the late 1960s, toward regenerative therapies, which is founded on a clearer understanding of the biophysiology of normal structure and function. This introductory article provides an overview on the requirements of appropriate in vitro laboratory models (e.g. cell culture), of preclinical (i.e. animal) models and of human studies for periodontal wound and bone repair. Laboratory studies may provide valuable fundamental insights into basic mechanisms involved in wound repair and regeneration but also suffer from a unidimensional and simplistic approach that does not account for the complexities of the in vivo situation, in which multiple cell types and interactions all contribute to definitive outcomes. Therefore, such laboratory studies require validatory research, employing preclinical models specifically designed to demonstrate proof-of-concept efficacy, preliminary safety and adaptation to human disease scenarios. Small animal models provide the most economic and logistically feasible preliminary approaches but the outcomes do not necessarily translate to larger animal or human models. The advantages and limitations of all periodontal-regeneration models need to be carefully considered when planning investigations to ensure that the optimal design is adopted to answer the specific research question posed. Future challenges lie in the areas of stem cell research, scaffold designs, cell delivery and choice of growth factors, along with research to ensure appropriate gingival coverage in order to prevent gingival

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, So-Ra; Linh, Nguyen-Thuy Ba; Yang, Hun-Mo; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2013-02-01

    Scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning using polycaprolactone (PCL) blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in ratios of 10/0, 7/3, 5/5 and 3/7. The PCL/PMMA ratio affected the fiber diameter, contact angle, tensile strength and biological in vitro and in vivo properties of the scaffolds, and the 7/3 ratio resulted in a higher mechanical strength than 5/5 and 3/7. In vitro cytotoxicity and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast cells on these blended scaffolds were examined by MTT assay, and it was found that PCL/PMMA blends are suitable for osteoblast cell proliferation. Confocal images and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen confirmed the good proliferation and expression of cells on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds. In vivo bone formation was examined using rat models, and bone formation was observed on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffold within 2 months. In vitro and in vivo results suggest that 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffolds can be used for bone tissue regeneration.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning using polycaprolactone (PCL) blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in ratios of 10/0, 7/3, 5/5 and 3/7. The PCL/PMMA ratio affected the fiber diameter, contact angle, tensile strength and biological in vitro and in vivo properties of the scaffolds, and the 7/3 ratio resulted in a higher mechanical strength than 5/5 and 3/7. In vitro cytotoxicity and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast cells on these blended scaffolds were examined by MTT assay, and it was found that PCL/PMMA blends are suitable for osteoblast cell proliferation. Confocal images and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen confirmed the good proliferation and expression of cells on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds. In vivo bone formation was examined using rat models, and bone formation was observed on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffold within 2 months. In vitro and in vivo results suggest that 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffolds can be used for bone tissue regeneration. (paper)

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Son, Nguyen-Thuy Ba Linh, Hun-Mo Yang and Byong-Taek Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning using polycaprolactone (PCL blended with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA in ratios of 10/0, 7/3, 5/5 and 3/7. The PCL/PMMA ratio affected the fiber diameter, contact angle, tensile strength and biological in vitro and in vivo properties of the scaffolds, and the 7/3 ratio resulted in a higher mechanical strength than 5/5 and 3/7. In vitro cytotoxicity and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast cells on these blended scaffolds were examined by MTT assay, and it was found that PCL/PMMA blends are suitable for osteoblast cell proliferation. Confocal images and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen confirmed the good proliferation and expression of cells on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA fibrous scaffolds. In vivo bone formation was examined using rat models, and bone formation was observed on the 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffold within 2 months. In vitro and in vivo results suggest that 7/3 PCL/PMMA scaffolds can be used for bone tissue regeneration.

  6. Nanoscale control of silica particle formation via silk-silica fusion proteins for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszawska, Aneta J; Nadkarni, Lauren D; Perry, Carole C; Kaplan, David L

    2010-10-26

    The biomimetic design of silk/silica fusion proteins was carried out, combining the self assembling domains of spider dragline silk (Nephila clavipes) and silaffin derived R5 peptide of Cylindrotheca fusiformis that is responsible for silica mineralization. Genetic engineering was used to generate the protein-based biomaterials incorporating the physical properties of both components. With genetic control over the nanodomain sizes and chemistry, as well as modification of synthetic conditions for silica formation, controlled mineralized silk films with different silica morphologies and distributions were successfully generated; generating 3D porous networks, clustered silica nanoparticles (SNPs), or single SNPs. Silk serves as the organic scaffolding to control the material stability and multiprocessing makes silk/silica biomaterials suitable for different tissue regenerative applications. The influence of these new silk-silica composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards osteogenic lineages on the silk/silica films. The presence of the silica in the silk films influenced osteogenic gene expression, with the upregulation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col 1) markers. Evidence for early bone formation as calcium deposits was observed on silk films with silica. These results indicate the potential utility of these new silk/silica systems towards bone regeneration. PMID:20976116

  7. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for bone regeneration of a nonunion defect in a canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneselli K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Yaneselli,1 Andrea Filomeno,1 Gabriel Semiglia,1 Carolina Arce,1 Analía Rial,2 Natalia Muñoz,2 María Moreno,2 Kent Erickson,3 Jacqueline Maisonnave11Universidad de la República, Facultad de Veterinaria, Montevideo, Uruguay; 2Laboratory for Vaccine Research, Department of Biotechnology, Instituto de Higiene, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay; 3University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Nonunion bone defects occur frequently with local pain, functional limitations, muscular atrophy, and fistulas due to osteomyelitis. The application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs could improve regeneration of bone following bone defects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of a nonunion defect due to chronic osteomyelitis in a greyhound female dog with allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs. The implanted cells were adherent to plastic, were of fibroblast type, and expressed the canine stem cell markers CD90low, CD44high, and CD45-. Cell therapy consisted of five percutaneous weekly injections of 2 × 106 allogeneic AT-MSCs into the bone defect (total of 10 × 106 AT-MSCs. The patient was evaluated clinically and radiologically for up to 1 year. The results were clinical improvement, a light lameness score of 1 at week 16, return to use of its forearm, no pain, and increased muscular mass. No signs of osteomyelitis were observed radiologically and clinically there were no fistulas. There was no evidence of local or systemic adverse reactions caused by the aloimplants. The clinical relevance of the cell therapy contributing to repair of bone defects in small animals is a very promising future alternative. These results may have an important impact in new regenerative treatments for animal and human orthopedics.Keywords: allogeneic, AT-MSCs, treatment, nonunion, canine

  8. Integration of a Novel Injectable Nano Calcium Sulfate/Alginate Scaffold and BMP2 Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaoning; Dziak, Rosemary; Mao, Keya; Genco, Robert; Swithart, Mark; Li, Chunyi; Yang, Shuying

    2012-01-01

    The repair of craniofacial bone defects is surgically challenging due to the complex anatomical structure of the craniofacial skeleton. Current strategies for bone tissue engineering using a preformed scaffold have not resulted in the expected clinical regeneration due to difficulty in seeding cells into the deep internal space of scaffold, and the inability to inject them in minimally invasive surgeries. In this study, we used the osteoconductive and mechanical properties of nano-scale calci...

  9. Regeneration of soft tissues is promoted by MMP1 treatment after digit amputation in mice.

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    Xiaodong Mu

    Full Text Available The ratio of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs to the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs in wounded tissues strictly control the protease activity of MMPs, and therefore regulate the progress of wound closure, tissue regeneration and scar formation. Some amphibians (i.e. axolotl/newt demonstrate complete regeneration of missing or wounded digits and even limbs; MMPs play a critical role during amphibian regeneration. Conversely, mammalian wound healing re-establishes tissue integrity, but at the expense of scar tissue formation. The differences between amphibian regeneration and mammalian wound healing can be attributed to the greater ratio of MMPs to TIMPs in amphibian tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of MMP1 to effectively promote skeletal muscle regeneration by favoring extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling to enhance cell proliferation and migration. In this study, MMP1 was administered to the digits amputated at the mid-second phalanx of adult mice to observe its effect on digit regeneration. Results indicated that the regeneration of soft tissue and the rate of wound closure were significantly improved by MMP1 administration, but the elongation of the skeletal tissue was insignificantly affected. During digit regeneration, more mutipotent progenitor cells, capillary vasculature and neuromuscular-related tissues were observed in MMP1 treated tissues; moreover, there was less fibrotic tissue formed in treated digits. In summary, MMP1 was found to be effective in promoting wound healing in amputated digits of adult mice.

  10. Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis: Effects of rhythm of distraction on bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Djasim, Urville

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDistraction osteogenesis is defined as the formation of new bone tissue between bone segments that are divided by an osteotomy and then gradually separated by exerting an external force to the mobile bone segment(s). The resulting callus tissue in the distraction gap will eventually mineralize, creating a new bridge of bone between the osteotomy edges of the original bone segments. Nowadays, distraction osteogenesis is a widely accepted tool for the treatment of acquired and conge...

  11. Evaluation of nanostructure and microstructure of bone regenerated by BMP-2-porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, Carlos; Rodríguez-Evora, Maria; Reyes, Ricardo; González-Orive, Alejandro; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J; Delgado, Araceli; Evora, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, three systems containing BMP-2 were fabricated, including two electrospun sandwich-like-systems of PLGA 75:25 and PLGA 50:50 and a microsphere system of PLGA 50:50 to be implanted in a critical size defect in rat calvaria. The in vivo BMP-2 release profiles of the three systems were similar. The total dose was released during the first two weeks. To evaluate the nano and microstructure of the regenerated bone a multi-technique analysis was used, including stereo microscope, X-Ray; AFM, micro-CT, and histological analyses. The progression of bone regeneration was followed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the microsphere system implantation whereas the two electrospun systems were evaluated at fixed 12 weeks. All the techniques applied showed high bone regeneration. The average values of bone volume density, bone mineral density, Young's modulus, and the percent of bone repair were ∼70% of the values of the native bone. Besides, SEM-EDX analysis indicated that the main chemical elements in the new bone were oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in a ratio similar to that of native bone. In comparison, the micro-CT may provide an alternative to histology for the evaluation of bone formation at the defect size. PMID:25689580

  12. Biology of Bone Tissue: Structure, Function, and Factors That Influence Bone Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local (e.g., growth factors and cytokines) and systemic (e.g., calcitonin and estrogens) factors that all together contribute for bone homeostasis. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can res...

  13. [Grading of soft tissue and bone sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, I; Wardelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy grading is an essential element in the classification of sarcomas. It correlates with the prognosis of the disease and the risk of metastasis. This article presents the grading schemes for soft tissue, bone and pediatric sarcomas. It summarizes the histological criteria of the Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system and the Pediatric Oncology Group as well as the grading of bone tumors by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Furthermore, the potential relevance of gene expression signatures, the complexity index in sarcoma (CINSARC) and single genetic alterations (p53, MDM2, p16, SWI/SNF, EWSR1 fusions and PAX3/PAX7-FOXO1 fusions) for the prognosis of sarcomas are discussed. PMID:27384333

  14. Exosome: A Novel Approach to Stimulate Bone Regeneration through Regulation of Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunhao; Sun, Ruixin; Wu, Chuanlong; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    The clinical need for effective bone regeneration therapy remains in huge demands. However, the current “gold standard” treatments of autologous and allogeneic bone grafts may result in various complications. Furthermore, safety considerations of biomaterials and cell-based treatment require further clarification. Therefore, developing new therapies with stronger osteogenic potential and a lower incidence of complications is worthwhile. Recently, exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin, have attracted attention in bone regeneration field. The vesicles travel between cells and deliver functional cargoes, such as proteins and RNAs, thereby regulating targeted cells differentiation, commitment, function, and proliferation. Much evidence has demonstrated the important roles of exosomes in osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the properties, origins and biogenesis of exosomes, and the recent reports using exosomes to regulate osteogenesis and promote bone regeneration. PMID:27213355

  15. Exosome: A Novel Approach to Stimulate Bone Regeneration through Regulation of Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunhao; Sun, Ruixin; Wu, Chuanlong; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    The clinical need for effective bone regeneration therapy remains in huge demands. However, the current "gold standard" treatments of autologous and allogeneic bone grafts may result in various complications. Furthermore, safety considerations of biomaterials and cell-based treatment require further clarification. Therefore, developing new therapies with stronger osteogenic potential and a lower incidence of complications is worthwhile. Recently, exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin, have attracted attention in bone regeneration field. The vesicles travel between cells and deliver functional cargoes, such as proteins and RNAs, thereby regulating targeted cells differentiation, commitment, function, and proliferation. Much evidence has demonstrated the important roles of exosomes in osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the properties, origins and biogenesis of exosomes, and the recent reports using exosomes to regulate osteogenesis and promote bone regeneration. PMID:27213355

  16. Tissue Engineering Strategies for the Regeneration of Orthopaedic Interfaces: Interface Tissue Engineering Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Helen H.; Subramony, Siddarth D.; Boushell, Margaret K.; Zhang, Xinzhi

    2010-01-01

    A major focus in the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such fixation requires strategic biomimicry to be incorporated into the scaffold design in order to re-establish the critical st...

  17. Biomimetic three-dimensional nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotube chitosan nanocomposite for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Im O

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Owen Im1, Jian Li2, Mian Wang2, Lijie Grace Zhang2,3, Michael Keidar2,31Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC; 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 3Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Nanotechnology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USABackground: Many shortcomings exist in the traditional methods of treating bone defects, such as donor tissue shortages for autografts and disease transmission for allografts. The objective of this study was to design a novel three-dimensional nanostructured bone substitute based on magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, biomimetic hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, and a biocompatible hydrogel (chitosan. Both nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT have a biomimetic nanostructure, excellent osteoconductivity, and high potential to improve the load-bearing capacity of hydrogels.Methods: Specifically, three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds with different concentrations of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT were created to support the growth of human osteoblasts (bone-forming cells using a lyophilization procedure. Two types of SWCNT were synthesized in an arc discharge with a magnetic field (B-SWCNT and without a magnetic field (N-SWCNT for improving bone regeneration.Results: Nanocomposites containing magnetically synthesized B-SWCNT had superior cytocompatibility properties when compared with nonmagnetically synthesized N-SWCNT. B-SWCNT have much smaller diameters and are twice as long as their nonmagnetically prepared counterparts, indicating that the dimensions of carbon nanotubes can have a substantial effect on osteoblast attachment.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a chitosan nanocomposite with both B-SWCNT and 20% nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite could achieve a higher osteoblast density when compared with the other experimental groups, thus making this nanocomposite

  18. Roles of innervation in developing and regenerating orofacial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagella, Pierfrancesco; Jiménez-Rojo, Lucia; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2014-06-01

    The head is innervated by 12 cranial nerves (I-XII) that regulate its sensory and motor functions. Cranial nerves are composed of sensory, motor, or mixed neuronal populations. Sensory neurons perceive generally somatic sensations such as pressure, pain, and temperature. These neurons are also involved in smell, vision, taste, and hearing. Motor neurons ensure the motility of all muscles and glands. Innervation plays an essential role in the development of the various orofacial structures during embryogenesis. Hypoplastic cranial nerves often lead to abnormal development of their target organs and tissues. For example, Möbius syndrome is a congenital disease characterized by defective innervation (i.e., abducens (VI) and facial (VII) nerves), deafness, tooth anomalies, and cleft palate. Hence, it is obvious that the peripheral nervous system is needed for both development and function of orofacial structures. Nerves have a limited capacity to regenerate. However, neural stem cells, which could be used as sources for neural tissue maintenance and repair, have been found in adult neuronal tissues. Similarly, various adult stem cell populations have been isolated from almost all organs of the human body. Stem cells are tightly regulated by their microenvironment, the stem cell niche. Deregulation of adult stem cell behavior results in the development of pathologies such as tumor formation or early tissue senescence. It is thus essential to understand the factors that regulate the functions and maintenance of stem cells. Yet, the potential importance of innervation in the regulation of stem cells and/or their niches in most organs and tissues is largely unexplored. This review focuses on the potential role of innervation in the development and homeostasis of orofacial structures and discusses its possible association with stem cell populations during tissue repair. PMID:24395053

  19. Organ and plantlet regeneration of Menyanthes trifoliata through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Adamczyk-Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the regeneration of plants through organogenesis from callus tissues of Menyanthes trifoliata are described. The shoot multiplication rate was affected by basal culture media, the type and concentration of cytokinin and subculture number. The best response was obtained when caulogenic calli were cultured on the modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH-M containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0,5 mg/l and 6-benzyladenine (BA 1 mg/l or zeatin (2 mg/l. Under these conditions ca 7 shoots (mostly 1 cm or more in length per culture in the 5th and 6th passages could be developed. In older cultures (after 11-12 passages there was a trend for more numerous but shorter shoot formation. All regenerated shoots could be rooted on the SH-M medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA within 6 weeks; 80% of in vitro rooted plantlets survived their transfer to soil.

  20. Osteogenic Potential of Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells for Calvaria Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Park, Yonsil; Hu, Wei-Shou; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenic cells derived from rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPCs) were investigated for their potential use in bone regeneration. rMAPCs are adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that have a high proliferation capacity and the differentiation potential to multiple lineages. They may also offer immunomodulatory properties favorable for applications for regenerative medicine. rMAPCs were cultivated as single cells or as 3D aggregates in osteogenic media for up to 38 days, and their differentiation to bone lineage was then assessed by immunostaining of osteocalcin and collagen type I and by mineralization assays. The capability of rMAPCs in facilitating bone regeneration was evaluated in vivo by the direct implantation of multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC) aggregates in rat calvarial defects. Bone regeneration was examined radiographically, histologically, and histomorphometrically. Results showed that rMAPCs successfully differentiated into osteogenic lineage by demonstrating mineralized extracellular matrix formation in vitro and induced new bone formation by the effect of rMAPC aggregates in vivo. These outcomes confirm that rMAPCs have a good osteogenic potential and provide insights into rMAPCs as a novel adult stem cell source for bone regeneration. PMID:27239552

  1. Bone Regeneration Using a Mixture of Silicon-Substituted Coral HA and β-TCP in a Rat Calvarial Bone Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Roh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand of bone graft materials has been increasing. Among various origins of bone graft materials, natural coral composed of up to 99% calcium carbonate was chosen and converted into hydroxyapatite (HA; silicon was then substituted into the HA. Then, the Si-HA was mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP in the ratios 100:0 (S100T0, 70:30 (S70T30, 60:40 (S60T40, and 50:50 (S50T50. The materials were implanted for four and eight weeks in a rat calvarial bone defect model (8 mm. The MBCPTM (HA:β-TCP = 60:40, Biomatalante, Vigneux de Bretagne, France was used as a control. After euthanasia, the bone tissue was analyzed by making histological slides. From the results, S60T40 showed the fastest bone regeneration in four weeks (p < 0.05. In addition, S60T40, S50T50, and MBCPTM showed significant new bone formation in eight weeks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, Si-HA/TCP showed potential as a bone graft material.

  2. In vitro evaluation of isolation possibility of stem cells from intra oral soft tissue and comparison of them with bone marrow stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    P. Torkzaban; Saffarpour, A.; M. Bidgoli; Sohilifar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Stem cells are of great interest for regenerating disturbed tissues and organs. These cells are commonly isolated from the bone marrow, but there has been interest in other tissues in the recent years. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of isolation of stem cells from oral connective tissue and investigated their characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sampling from the bone marrow and oral connective tissue of a beagle dog was performed under g...

  3. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sethuraman Swaminathan; Krishnan Uma; Subramanian Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new pers...

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Ping Xu; Wen-Min Ji; Gijs R van den Brink; Maikel P Peppelenbosch

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the expression and dynamic changes of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH), and examine the effects of BMP-2 on proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cells.METHODS: Fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: A normal control (NC) group, a partial hepatectomized (PH) group and a sham operated (SO) group. To study the effect of liver regeneration on BMP-2 expression, rats were sacrificed before and at different time points after PH or the sham intervention (6, 12, 24 and 48 h). For each time point, six rats were used in parallel. Expression and distribution of BMP-2 protein were determined in regenerating liver tissue by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Effects of BMP-2 on cell proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cell line were assessed using an MTT assay.RESULTS: In the normal liver strong BMP-2 expression was observed around the central and portal veins. The expression of BMP-2 decreased rapidly as measured by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.This decrease was at a maximum of 3.22 fold after 12 h and returned to normal levels at 48 h after PH. No significant changes in BMP-2 immunoreactivity were observed in the SO group. BMP-2 inhibited serum induced Huh7 cell proliferation.CONCLUSION: BMP-2 is expressed in normal adult rat liver and negatively regulates hepatocyte proliferation.The observed down regulation of BMP-2 following partial hepatectomy suggests that such down regulation may be necessary for hepatocyte proliferation.

  5. The utility of magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac tissue regeneration trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Sanz, Javier; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan F; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2006-03-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of paradigm shifts in concepts involving cardiovascular tissue regeneration, including the idea that adult stem cells originate in hematopoietic or bone marrow cells, the belief that even adult organs, such as the heart and nervous system, are capable of post-mitotic regeneration, and the concept of inherent plasticity in cells that have undergone limited lineage differentiation. There has consequently been a flurry of proposed regenerative strategies, and safety and limited efficacy data from both animal and limited human trials have been presented. The drive to push these advances from the bench to the bedside has created a unique environment where the therapeutic agents, delivery approaches, and methods of measuring efficacy (often imaging technology) are evolving practically in parallel. The encouraging results of recent cell-therapy trials should therefore be assessed cautiously and in consonance with an understanding of the advantages and limitations of delivery strategies and end points. Arguably, the use of imaging technologies to evaluate surrogate end points might help overcome the difficulty posed by large sample sizes required for hard end point trials in cardiovascular therapeutics. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most sensitive techniques available to assess spatial and temporal changes following local or systemic therapies, and the availability of a bevy of complementary techniques enables interrogation of physiology, morphology, and metabolism in one setting. We contend that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is ideally suited to assess response to myocardial regeneration therapy and can be exploited to yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of myocardial regeneration therapies. PMID:16501625

  6. Implantation of a polycaprolactone scaffold with subchondral bone anchoring ameliorates nodules formation and other tissue alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Vikingsson, Line; Sancho-Tello, Mar??a; Ruiz-Saur??, Amparo; Martinez-Diaz, Santos; G??mez-Tejedor, Jos?? Antonio; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Carda, Carmen; Monllau Garc??a, Juan Carlos; G??mez Ribelles, Jos?? Luis

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has limited repair capacity. Two different implant devices for articular cartilage regeneration were tested in vivo in a sheep model to evaluate the effect of subchondral bone anchoring for tissue repair. METHODS: The implants were placed with press-fit technique in a cartilage defect after microfracture surgery in the femoral condyle of the knee joint of the sheep and histologic and mechanical evaluation was done 4.5 months later. The first group consisted of a b...

  7. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Mikaël M; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A.; Satoh, Takashi (Comment); Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negativel...

  8. Tissue engineering of bone: the reconstructive surgeon's point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Kneser, U; Schaefer, D. J.; Polykandriotis, E; Horch, R E

    2007-01-01

    Bone defects represent a medical and socioeconomic challenge. Different types of biomaterials are applied for reconstructive indications and receive rising interest. However, autologous bone grafts are still considered as the gold standard for reconstruction of extended bone defects. The generation of bioartificial bone tissues may help to overcome the problems related to donor site morbidity and size limitations. Tissue engineering is, according to its historic definition, an “interdisciplin...

  9. Multimodality roentgenoradiological evaluation of osseous tissue regeneration in shoulder stretching after G.A. Ilizarov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 70 patients with congenitial and acquired shoulder shortening were observed. The stretching was done using the method of transosseous osteosynthesis after G.A. Ilizarov. The formation of the regenerating tissue was controlled by means of X-ray, radionuclide methods and photon absorptiometry. Roentgenoanatomy of the regenerating tissue was sufficiently exactly characterized by the X-ray method

  10. Effect of simvastatin versus low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration in rabbit's tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Mostafa E.; Khairy, Maggie A.

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering drug which proved effective on promoting bone healing. Recently low level laser therapy (LLLT) proved its effect as a biostimulator promoting bone regeneration. This study aims to compare the effect of both Simvastatin versus low level laser on bone healing in surgically created bone defects in rabbit's tibia. Material and methods: The study included 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Three successive 3mm defects were created in rabbits tibia first defect was left as control, second defect was filled with Simvastatin while the third defect was acted on with Low Level Laser (optical fiber 320micrometer). Rabbits were sacrificed after 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks intervals. Histopathology was conducted on the three defects Results: The histopathologic studies showed that the bony defects treated with the Low Level Laser showed superior healing patterns and bone regeneration than those treated with Simvastatin. While the control defect showed the least healing pattern.

  11. Bone Regeneration Using Dentin Matrix Depends on the Degree of Demineralization and Particle Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Koga

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the influence of particle size and extent of demineralization of dentin matrix on bone regeneration.Extracted human teeth were pulverized and divided into 3 groups according to particle size; 200, 500, and 1000 μm. Each group was divided into 3 groups depending on the extent of demineralization; undemineralized dentin (UDD, partially demineralized dentin matrix (PDDM, and completely demineralized dentin matrix (CDDM. The dentin sample was implanted into rat calvarial bone defects. After 4 and 8 weeks, the bone regeneration was evaluated with micro-CT images, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Osteoblasts were cultured on UDD and DDM to evaluate the cell attachment using electron microscope.Micro-CT images and histological observation revealed that CDDM had largely resorbed but UDD had not, and both of them induced little bone formation, whereas all particle sizes of PDDM induced more new bone, especially the 1000 μm. Electron microscopic observation showed osteoblasts attached to DDM but not to UDD.PDDM with larger particle size induced prominent bone regeneration, probably because PDDM possessed a suitable surface for cell attachment. There might be an exquisite balance between its resorption and bone formation on it. PDDM could be considered as a potential bone substitute.

  12. Matrilin-2, an extracellular adaptor protein, is needed for the regeneration of muscle, nerve and other tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    va Korpos; Ferenc Dek; Ibolya Kiss

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) performs essential functions in the differentiation, maintenance and remodeling of tissues during development and regeneration, and it undergoes dynamic chang-es during remodeling concomitant to alterations in the cell-ECM interactions. Here we discuss recent data addressing the critical role of the widely expressed ECM protein, matrilin-2 (Matn2) in the timely onset of differentiation and regeneration processes in myogenic, neural and other tissues and in tumorigenesis. As a multiadhesion adaptor protein, it interacts with other ECM proteins and integrins. Matn2 promotes neurite outgrowth, Schwann cell migration, neuromuscular junc-tion formation, skeletal muscle and liver regeneration and skin wound healing. Matn2 deposition by myoblasts is crucial for the timely induction of the global switch toward terminal myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration by affecting transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein 7/Smad and other signal transduction pathways. Depending on the type of tissue and the pathomechanism, Matn2 can also promote or suppress tumor growth.

  13. In vitro evaluation of various bioabsorbable and nonresorbable barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different types of bioabsorbable and nonresorbable membranes have been widely used for guided tissue regeneration (GTR with its ultimate goal of regenerating lost periodontal structures. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of various bioabsorbable and nonresorbable membranes in cultures of primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGF, periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF and human osteoblast-like (HOB cells in vitro. Methods Three commercially available collagen membranes [TutoDent® (TD, Resodont® (RD and BioGide® (BG] as well as three nonresorbable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membranes [ACE (AC, Cytoplast® (CT and TefGen-FD® (TG] were tested. Cells plated on culture dishes (CD served as positive controls. The effect of the barrier membranes on HGF, PDLF as well as HOB cells was assessed by the Alamar Blue fluorometric proliferation assay after 1, 2.5, 4, 24 and 48 h time periods. The structural and morphological properties of the membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results The results showed that of the six barriers tested, TD and RD demonstrated the highest rate of HGF proliferation at both earlier (1 h and later (48 h time periods (P P ≤ 0.001. In HOB cell culture, the highest rate of cell proliferation was also calculated for TD at all time periods (P Conclusion Results from the present study suggested that GTR membrane materials, per se, may influence cell proliferation in the process of periodontal tissue/bone regeneration. Among the six membranes examined, the bioabsorbable membranes demonstrated to be more suitable to stimulate cellular proliferation compared to nonresorbable PTFE membranes.

  14. Osteolipoma independent of bone tissue: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Alderete, Joseph F; Kose, Ozkan; Ozcan, Ayhan; Cicek, Ilker; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lipomas are the most common benign soft tissue tumors and appear in any part of the body. They typically consist of mature adipose tissue. Osteolipoma is an extremely rare histologic variant of lipoma that contains mature lamellar bone within the tumor and osteolipoma independent of bone tissue are very rare. We report a case of histologically confirmed osteolipoma independent of bone located in the thigh. Case presentation A 47-year-old male presented with a progressively enlarg...

  15. Powder-based 3D printing for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, G; Sivolella, S; Meneghello, R; Ferroni, L; Gardin, C; Piattelli, A; Zavan, B; Bressan, E

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineered 3-D constructs customized to patient-specific needs are emerging as attractive biomimetic scaffolds to enhance bone cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The article outlines the features of the most common additive manufacturing technologies (3D printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and selective laser sintering) used to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds. It concentrates, in particular, on the current state of knowledge concerning powder-based 3D printing, including a description of the properties of powders and binder solutions, the critical phases of scaffold manufacturing, and its applications in bone tissue engineering. Clinical aspects and future applications are also discussed. PMID:27086202

  16. Three-dimensional chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Han, W. W.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2009-09-01

    We describe the structure of biodegradable chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composites scaffolds and their interaction with pre-osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds were fabricated via freezing and lyophilization. The nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized by a highly porous structure and pore size of ˜50-125 μm, irrespective of nHA content. The observed significant enhancement in the biological response of pre-osteoblast on nanocomposite scaffolds expressed in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and widespread morphology in relation to pure chitosan points toward their potential use as scaffold material for bone regeneration.

  17. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, C M; Ambrus, J L

    1975-01-01

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colonyforming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls. PMID:124758

  18. Myeloid regeneration after whole body irradiation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and treatment with an anabolic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumptail monkeys (Macaca speciosa) received lethal whole-body radiation. Autologous bone marrow injection resulted in survival of the majority of the animals. Treatment with Deca-Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, caused more rapid recovery of colony-forming cell numbers in the bone marrow than in control animals. Both the Deca-Durabolin-treated and control groups were given autologous bone marrow transplantation. Anabolic steroid effect on transplanted bone marrow colony-forming cells may explain the increased rate of leukopoietic regeneration in anabolic steroid-treated animals as compared to controls

  19. Vascularised endosteal bone tissue in armoured sauropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsamy, Anusuya; Cerda, Ignacio; Powell, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The presence of well-vascularised, endosteal bone in the medullary region of long bones of nonavian dinosaurs has been invoked as being homologous to medullary bone, a specialised bone tissue formed during ovulation in birds. However, similar bone tissues can result as a pathological response in modern birds and in nonavian dinosaurs, and has also been reported in an immature nonavian dinosaur. Here we report on the occurrence of well-vascularised endosteally formed bone tissue in three skeletal elements of armoured titanosaur sauropods from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina: i) within the medullary cavity of a metatarsal, ii) inside a pneumatic cavity of a posterior caudal vertebra, iii) in intra-trabecular spaces in an osteoderm. We show that considering the criteria of location, origin (or development), and histology, these endosteally derived tissues in the saltasaurine titanosaurs could be described as either medullary bone or pathological bone. Furthermore, we show that similar endosteally formed well-vascularised bone tissue is fairly widely distributed among nondinosaurian Archosauriformes, and are not restricted to long bones, but can occur in the axial, and dermal skeleton. We propose that independent evidence is required to verify whether vascularised endosteal bone tissues in extinct archosaurs are pathological or reproductive in nature. PMID:27112710

  20. Effects of Two Types of Anorganic Bovine Bone on Bone Regeneration: A Histological and Histomorphometric Study of Rabbit Calvaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Paknejad; Amir Reza Rokn; Siamak Yaghobee; Pantea Moradinejad; Mohadeseh Heidari; Ali Mehrfard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two types of bone substitutes, Bio-Oss and NuOss, for repair of bone defects. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on the calvaria of 14 New Zealand rabbits. The 6mm critical size defect (CSD) models of bone regeneration were used. Three CSDs were created in each surgical site. The first defect was filled with NuOss, the second one with Bio-Oss and the third one remained unfilled as the control. After healing peri...

  1. Biocompatibility, resorption and biofunctionality of a new synthetic biodegradable membrane for guided bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornaert, Alain; d'Arros, Cyril; Heymann, Marie-Francoise; Layrolle, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) were prepared from the synthetic biodegradable polymer poly-D,L-lactic/glycolic acid (PLGA). This GBR membrane has a bi-layered structure with a dense film to prevent gingival fibroblast ingrowth and ensure mechanical function, and a micro-fibrous layer to support colonization by osteogenic cells and promote bone regeneration. Hydrolysis and biodegradation were both studied in vitro through soaking in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and in vivo by implantation in the subcutis of rats for 4, 8, 16, 26, 48 and 52 weeks. Histology revealed an excellent colonization of the micro-fibrous layer by cells with a minimal inflammatory reaction during resorption. GBR using the synthetic PLGA membrane was evaluated on critical-size calvaria defects in rats for 4 and 8 weeks. Radiographs, micro-computed tomography and histology showed bone regeneration with the PLGA membrane, while the defects covered with a collagen membrane showed a limited amount of mineralized bone, similar to that of the defect left empty. The biofunctionality of the PLGA membranes was also compared to collagen membranes in mandible defects in rabbits, associated or not with beta-tricalcium phosphate granules. This study revealed that the bi-layered synthetic membrane made of PLGA was safer, more biocompatible, and had a greater controlled resorption rate and bone regeneration capacity than collagen membranes. This new PLGA membrane could be used in pre-implantology and peri-odontology surgery. PMID:27509180

  2. Sarcomas of Soft Tissue and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Dirksen, Uta; Bielack, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The definition of soft tissue and bone sarcomas include a large group of several heterogeneous subtypes of mesenchymal origin that may occur at any age. Among the different sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma are aggressive high-grade malignancies that often arise in adolescents and young adults. Managing these malignancies in patients in this age bracket poses various clinical problems, also because different therapeutic approaches are sometimes adopted by pediatric and adult oncologists, even though they are dealing with the same condition. Cooperation between pediatric oncologists and adult medical oncologists is a key step in order to assure the best treatment to these patients, preferably through their inclusion into international clinical trials. PMID:27595362

  3. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibers coated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tavakoli-Darestani; Gholamhossein Kazemian; Mohammad Emami; Amin Kamrani-Rad

    2013-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Tavakoli-Darestani R, Kazemian GH, Emami M, Kamrani-Rad A. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibers coated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Novel Biomed 2013;1:8-15.Background: A combination of polymeric nanofibrous scaffold and bioactive materials is potentially useful in bone regeneration applications.Materials and Methods: In the present study, Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibrous scaffolds, fabricated via electrospinni...

  4. Biodegradable Polymers in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon E. Govaert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The use ofdegradable polymers in medicine largely started around the mid 20th century with their initial use as in vivo resorbing sutures. Thorough knowledge on this topic as been gained since then and the potential applications for these polymers were, and still are, rapidly expanding. After improving the properties of lactic acid-based polymers, these were no longer studied only from a scientific point of view, but also for their use in bone surgery in the 1990s. Unfortunately, after implanting these polymers, different foreign body reactions ranging from the presence of white blood cells to sterile sinuses with resorption of the original tissue were observed. This led to the misconception that degradable polymers would, in all cases, lead to inflammation and/or osteolysis at the implantation site. Nowadays, we have accumulated substantial knowledge on the issue of biocompatibility of biodegradable polymers and are able to tailor these polymers for specific applications and thereby strongly reduce the occurrence of adverse tissue reactions. However, the major issue of biofunctionality, when mechanical adaptation is taken into account, has hitherto been largely unrecognized. A thorough understanding of how to improve the biofunctionality, comprising biomechanical stability, but also visualization and sterilization of the material, together with the avoidance of fibrotic tissue formation and foreign body reactions, may greatly enhance the applicability and safety of degradable polymers in a wide area of tissue engineering applications. This review will address our current understanding of these biofunctionality factors, and will subsequently discuss the pitfalls remaining and potential solutions to solve these problems.

  5. Invasive cervical root resorption: Engineering the lost tissue by regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexton Antony Johns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR is a localized resorptive process that commences on the surface of the root below the epithelial attachment and the coronal aspect of the supporting alveolar process, namely the zone of the connective tissue attachment′ early diagnosis, elimination of the resorption and restorative management are the keys to a successful outcome. Treatment done was a combined non-surgical root canal therapy, surgical treatment to expose the resorptive defect and the resorptive defect was filled up with reverse sandwich technique and finally the bony defect filled with platelet rich fibrin (PRF, hydroxylapatite and PRF membrane. Significant bone fill was obtained in our case after a 2 year follow-up period. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with ICR.

  6. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SKELETAL REGENERATED TISSUE : WHAT CAN MECHANICAL INVESTIGATION ADD TO BIOLOGICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Remy; Mokoko, Didier; Pithioux, Martine; Pailler-Mattéi, Cyril; Zahouani, Hassan; Chabrand, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The objective here was to experimentally characterise the temporal evolution of the structural and mechanical properties of large volume immature regenerated tissues. We studied these evolving tissues from their genesis in controlled mechanical conditions. We developed an animal model based on the periosteal properties leading to unloaded regenerated skeletal tissue. To characterize the temporal evolution of mechanical properties, we carried out indentation tests coupled with macroscopic exam...

  7. A review of chitosan and its derivatives in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LogithKumar, R; KeshavNarayan, A; Dhivya, S; Chawla, A; Saravanan, S; Selvamurugan, N

    2016-10-20

    Critical-sized bone defects treated with biomaterials offer an efficient alternative to traditional methods involving surgical reconstruction, allografts, and metal implants. Chitosan, a natural biopolymer is widely studied for bone regeneration applications owing to its tunable chemical and biological properties. However, the potential of chitosan to repair bone defects is limited due to its water insolubility, faster in vivo depolymerization, hemo-incompatibility, and weak antimicrobial property. Functionalization of chitosan structure through various chemical modifications provides a solution to these limitations. In this review, current trends of using chitosan as a composite with other polymers and ceramics, and its modifications such as quaternization, carboxyalkylation, hydroxylation, phosphorylation, sulfation and copolymerization in bone tissue engineering are elaborated. PMID:27474556

  8. Tissue Regeneration through Self-Assembled Peptide Amphiphile Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinkhani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the present study, we hypothesized that a novelapproach to promote vascularization would be to create injectablethree dimensional (3-D scaffolds within growth factor that enhancethe sustained release of growth factor and induce the angiogenesis.Material and Methods: We demonstrate that a 3-D scaffold can beformed by mixing of peptide-amphiphile (PA aqueous solution withhepatocyte growth factor (HGF solution. PA was synthesized bystandard solid phase chemistry that ends with the alkylation of theNH2 terminus of the peptide. The sequence of arginine-glycineasparticacid (RGD was included in peptide design as well. A 3-Dnetwork of nanofibers was formed by mixing HGF suspensions withdilute aqueous solution of PA.Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM examination revealedthe formation of fibrous assemblies with an extremely high aspectratio and high surface areas with mean diameter of less than 200 nm.In vitro HGF release profile of 3-D nanofibers was investigated whileangiogenesis induced by the released HGF was being assessed. Invivo potential ability of PA nanofibers to induce angiogenesis wasassessed through subcutaneous injection of PA solution, HGFsolution, and PA in combination with HGF solutions. Injection of PAwith HGF induced significant angiogenesis around the injected site,in marked contrast to HGF injection alone and PA injection alone.Conclusion: The combination of HGF-induced angiogenesis is apromising procedure to improve tissue regeneration.

  9. CHANGING OF THE BIOCHEMICAL INDICES ON REGENERATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DEFECT OF THE MANDIBLE BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borysenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of an experimental biochemical investigation on the influence of the proposed drug composition for the experimental mandible bone defect regeneration in rats were presented. The high efficiency and osteoregenerative properties of this paste were shown. The experimental investigations showed that the proposed drug composition exerts a considerable normalization influence upon the biochemical indicators of bone mineral metabolism, comparable to Collapan influence.

  10. Exosome: A Novel Approach to Stimulate Bone Regeneration through Regulation of Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhao Qin; Ruixin Sun; Chuanlong Wu; Lian Wang; Changqing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical need for effective bone regeneration therapy remains in huge demands. However, the current “gold standard” treatments of autologous and allogeneic bone grafts may result in various complications. Furthermore, safety considerations of biomaterials and cell-based treatment require further clarification. Therefore, developing new therapies with stronger osteogenic potential and a lower incidence of complications is worthwhile. Recently, exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin, ...

  11. Scaffolds for bone regeneration made of hydroxyapatite microspheres in a collagen matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholas, Rahmatullah; Kunjalukkal Padmanabhan, Sanosh; Gervaso, Francesca; Udayan, Gayatri; Monaco, Graziana; Sannino, Alessandro; Licciulli, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic scaffolds with a structural and chemical composition similar to native bone tissue may be promising for bone tissue regeneration. In the present work hydroxyapatite mesoporous microspheres (mHA) were incorporated into collagen scaffolds containing an ordered interconnected macroporosity. The mHA were obtained by spray drying of a nano hydroxyapatite slurry prepared by the precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the microspheres were composed only of hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed the Ca/P ratio to be 1.69 which is near the value for pure HA. The obtained microspheres had an average diameter of 6μm, a specific surface area of 40m(2)/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis showed a mesoporous structure with an average pore diameter of 16nm. Collagen/HA-microsphere (Col/mHA) composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying followed by dehydrothermal crosslinking. SEM observations of Col/mHA scaffolds revealed HA microspheres embedded within a porous collagen matrix with a pore size ranging from a few microns up to 200μm, which was also confirmed by histological staining of sections of paraffin embedded scaffolds. The compressive modulus of the composite scaffold at low and high strain values was 1.7 and 2.8 times, respectively, that of pure collagen scaffolds. Cell proliferation measured by the MTT assay showed more than a 3-fold increase in cell number within the scaffolds after 15days of culture for both pure collagen scaffolds and Col/mHA composite scaffolds. Attractive properties of this composite scaffold include the potential to load the microspheres for drug delivery and the controllability of the pore structure at various length scales. PMID:27040244

  12. Regeneration of a Compromized Masticatory Unit in a Large Mandibular Defect Caused by a Huge Solitary Bone Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Regenerative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Joseph Kamal; Akhtar, Shakeel; Abu Al Nassar, Hiba; Al Khoury, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    The reconstructive options for large expansive cystic lesion affecting the jaws are many. The first stage of treatment may involve enucleation or marsupialization of the cyst. Attempted reconstruction of large osseous defects arising from the destruction of local tissue can present formidable challenges. The literature reports the use of bone grafts, free tissue transfer, bone morphogenic protein and reconstruction plates to assist in the healing and rehabilitation process. The management of huge mandibular cysts needs to take into account the preservation of existing intact structures, removal of the pathology and the reconstructive objectives which focus both on aesthetic and functional rehabilitation. The planning and execution of such treatment requires not only the compliance of the patient and family but also their assent as customers with a voice in determining their surgical destiny. The authors would like to report a unique case of a huge solitary bone cyst that had reduced the ramus, angle and part of the body of one side of the mandible to a pencil-thin-like strut of bone. A combination of decompression through marsupialization, serial packing, and the fabrication of a custom made obturator facilitated the regeneration of the myo-osseous components of the masticatory unit of this patient. Serial CT scans showed evidence of concurrent periosteal and endosteal bone formation and, quite elegantly, the regeneration of the first branchial arch components of the right myo-osseous masticatory complex. The microenvironmental factors that may have favored regeneration of these complex structures are discussed. PMID:27408457

  13. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea form...

  14. Enhancing plant regeneration in tissue culture: A molecular approach through manipulation of cytokinin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kristine; Schaller, G. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is used for commercial purposes worldwide, but the capacity to undergo somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration varies greatly among species. The plant hormones auxin and cytokinin are critical for plant regeneration in tissue culture, with cytokinin playing an instrumental role in shoot organogenesis. Type-B response regulators govern the transcriptional output in response to cytokinin and are required for plant regeneration. In our paper published in Plant Physiology, w...

  15. The Axolotl Fibula as a Model for the Induction of Regeneration across Large Segment Defects in Long Bones of the Extremities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available We tested the ability of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum fibula to regenerate across segment defects of different size in the absence of intervention or after implant of a unique 8-braid pig small intestine submucosa (SIS scaffold, with or without incorporated growth factor combinations or tissue protein extract. Fractures and defects of 10% and 20% of the total limb length regenerated well without any intervention, but 40% and 50% defects failed to regenerate after either simple removal of bone or implanting SIS scaffold alone. By contrast, scaffold soaked in the growth factor combination BMP-4/HGF or in protein extract of intact limb tissue promoted partial or extensive induction of cartilage and bone across 50% segment defects in 30%-33% of cases. These results show that BMP-4/HGF and intact tissue protein extract can promote the events required to induce cartilage and bone formation across a segment defect larger than critical size and that the long bones of axolotl limbs are an inexpensive model to screen soluble factors and natural and synthetic scaffolds for their efficacy in stimulating this process.

  16. A bioreactor system for clinically relevant bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Franciscus Wilhelmus

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering of bone by combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a suitable ceramic carrier provides a potential alternative for autologous bone grafts. However, for large scale-production, the current two dimensional (2D) multiplication process in tissue culture flasks has some serious dr

  17. Bone Repair on Fractures Treated with Osteosynthesis, ir Laser, Bone Graft and Guided Bone Regeneration: Histomorfometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Aciole, Jouber Mateus; dos Santos Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu; Soares, Luiz Guilherme Pinheiro; Barbosa, Artur Felipe Santos; Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the analysis of histomorfometric, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with osteosynthesis, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ780 nm, 50 mW, CW) associated or not to the use of hydroxyapatite and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Surgical fractures were created, under general anesthesia (Ketamina 0,4 ml/Kg IP and Xilazina 0,2 ml/Kg IP), on the dorsum of 15 Oryctolagus rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with wire osteosynthesis. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite and GBR technique used. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16 J/cm2, 4×4 J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death (overdose of general anesthetics) the specimes were routinely processed to wax and underwent histological analysis by light microscopy. The histomorfometric analysis showed an increased bone neoformation, increased collagen deposition, less reabsorption and inflammation when laser was associated to the HATCP. It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of CHA.

  18. Development of an angiogenesis-promoting microvesicle-alginate-polycaprolactone composite graft for bone tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges of bone tissue engineering applications is to construct a fully vascularized implant that can adapt to hypoxic environments in vivo. The incorporation of proangiogenic factors into scaffolds is a widely accepted method of achieving this goal. Recently, the proangiogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) has been confirmed in several studies. In the present study, we incorporated MSC-MVs into alginate-polycaprolactone (PCL) constructs that had previously been developed for bone tissue engineering applications, with the aim of promoting angiogenesis and bone regeneration. MSC-MVs were first isolated from the supernatant of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and characterized by scanning electron microscopic, confocal microscopic, and flow cytometric analyses. The proangiogenic potential of MSC-MVs was demonstrated by the stimulation of tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. MSC-MVs and osteodifferentiated MSCs were then encapsulated with alginate and seeded onto porous three-dimensional printed PCL scaffolds. When combined with osteodifferentiated MSCs, the MV-alginate-PCL constructs enhanced vessel formation and tissue-engineered bone regeneration in a nude mouse subcutaneous bone formation model, as demonstrated by micro-computed tomographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. This MV-alginate-PCL construct may offer a novel, proangiogenic, and cost-effective option for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27231660

  19. Development of an angiogenesis-promoting microvesicle-alginate-polycaprolactone composite graft for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai; Chen, Zhichao; Zhang, WenJie

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges of bone tissue engineering applications is to construct a fully vascularized implant that can adapt to hypoxic environments in vivo. The incorporation of proangiogenic factors into scaffolds is a widely accepted method of achieving this goal. Recently, the proangiogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs) has been confirmed in several studies. In the present study, we incorporated MSC-MVs into alginate-polycaprolactone (PCL) constructs that had previously been developed for bone tissue engineering applications, with the aim of promoting angiogenesis and bone regeneration. MSC-MVs were first isolated from the supernatant of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and characterized by scanning electron microscopic, confocal microscopic, and flow cytometric analyses. The proangiogenic potential of MSC-MVs was demonstrated by the stimulation of tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. MSC-MVs and osteodifferentiated MSCs were then encapsulated with alginate and seeded onto porous three-dimensional printed PCL scaffolds. When combined with osteodifferentiated MSCs, the MV-alginate-PCL constructs enhanced vessel formation and tissue-engineered bone regeneration in a nude mouse subcutaneous bone formation model, as demonstrated by micro-computed tomographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. This MV-alginate-PCL construct may offer a novel, proangiogenic, and cost-effective option for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27231660

  20. Cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration using cell-based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrefai MT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad T Alrefai,1–3 Divya Murali,4 Arghya Paul,4 Khalid M Ridwan,1,2 John M Connell,1,2 Dominique Shum-Tim1,2 1Division of Cardiac Surgery, 2Division of Surgical Research, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Abstract: Stem cell therapy and tissue engineering represent a forefront of current research in the treatment of heart disease. With these technologies, advancements are being made into therapies for acute ischemic myocardial injury and chronic, otherwise nonreversible, myocardial failure. The current clinical management of cardiac ischemia deals with reestablishing perfusion to the heart but not dealing with the irreversible damage caused by the occlusion or stenosis of the supplying vessels. The applications of these new technologies are not yet fully established as part of the management of cardiac diseases but will become so in the near future. The discussion presented here reviews some of the pioneering works at this new frontier. Key results of allogeneic and autologous stem cell trials are presented, including the use of embryonic, bone marrow-derived, adipose-derived, and resident cardiac stem cells. Keywords: stem cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac surgery, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, heart, scaffolds, organoids, cell sheet and tissue engineering

  1. Boron containing poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffold-based bone defect reconstructions still face many challenges due to their inadequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. Various biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds, combined with proper cell type and biochemical signal molecules, have attracted significant interest in hard tissue engineering approaches. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of boron incorporation into poly-(lactide-co-glycolide-acid) (PLGA) scaffolds, with or without rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs), on bone healing in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that boron containing scaffolds increased in vitro proliferation, attachment and calcium mineralization of rADSCs. In addition, boron containing scaffold application resulted in increased bone regeneration by enhancing osteocalcin, VEGF and collagen type I protein levels in a femur defect model. Bone mineralization density (BMD) and computed tomography (CT) analysis proved that boron incorporated scaffold administration increased the healing rate of bone defects. Transplanting stem cells into boron containing scaffolds was found to further improve bone-related outcomes compared to control groups. Additional studies are highly warranted for the investigation of the mechanical properties of these scaffolds in order to address their potential use in clinics. The study proposes that boron serves as a promising innovative approach in manufacturing scaffold systems for functional bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Boron containing PLGA scaffolds were developed for bone tissue engineering. • Boron incorporation increased cell viability and mineralization of stem cells. • Boron containing scaffolds increased bone-related protein expression in vivo. • Implantation of stem cells on boron containing scaffolds improved bone healing

  2. Boron containing poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University 34755 Istanbul (Turkey); Bayir, Yasin [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Halici, Zekai [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Karakus, Emre [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Aydin, Ali [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Cadirci, Elif [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Albayrak, Abdulmecit [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Demirci, Elif [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Karaman, Adem [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Ayan, Arif Kursat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Gundogdu, Cemal [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey); Şahin, Fikrettin, E-mail: fsahin@yeditepe.edu.tr [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University 34755 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Scaffold-based bone defect reconstructions still face many challenges due to their inadequate osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. Various biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds, combined with proper cell type and biochemical signal molecules, have attracted significant interest in hard tissue engineering approaches. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of boron incorporation into poly-(lactide-co-glycolide-acid) (PLGA) scaffolds, with or without rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs), on bone healing in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that boron containing scaffolds increased in vitro proliferation, attachment and calcium mineralization of rADSCs. In addition, boron containing scaffold application resulted in increased bone regeneration by enhancing osteocalcin, VEGF and collagen type I protein levels in a femur defect model. Bone mineralization density (BMD) and computed tomography (CT) analysis proved that boron incorporated scaffold administration increased the healing rate of bone defects. Transplanting stem cells into boron containing scaffolds was found to further improve bone-related outcomes compared to control groups. Additional studies are highly warranted for the investigation of the mechanical properties of these scaffolds in order to address their potential use in clinics. The study proposes that boron serves as a promising innovative approach in manufacturing scaffold systems for functional bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Boron containing PLGA scaffolds were developed for bone tissue engineering. • Boron incorporation increased cell viability and mineralization of stem cells. • Boron containing scaffolds increased bone-related protein expression in vivo. • Implantation of stem cells on boron containing scaffolds improved bone healing.

  3. Developments in bone tissue engineering research for spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    van Gaalen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many orthopaedic procedures require fusion of a bony defect. Sometimes a bone graft is needed for this fusion. Autograft bone is considered the golden standard. The harvesting of this bone is time consuming and may have serious side effects, such as chronic donor site pain. Available alternatives are reviewed and discussed based on their benefits and drawbacks. As an alternative, bone Tissue Engineering (TE), i.e. osteoprogenitor cells seeded on porous ceramic scaffolds, for spinal fusion was...

  4. Fabrication of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped degradable composite hollow fiber for guided and biomimetic bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure interwoven in a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix, which plays critical roles in conferring appropriate physical and biological properties to the bone tissue. Single type of material may not be sufficient to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, therefore, composite materials consisting of both polymers, bioceramics, and other inorganic materials have to be designed. Among a variety of candidate materials, polymer-nanoparticle composites appear most promising for bone tissue engineering applications because of superior mechanical properties, improved durability, and surface bioactivity when compared with conventional polymers or composites. The long term objective of this project is to use highly aligned, bioactive, biodegradable scaffold mimicking natural histological structure of human long bone, and to engineer and regenerate human long bone both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, bioactive, degradable, and highly permeable composite hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated using a wet phase phase-inversion approach. The structure of the hollow fiber membranes was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); degradation behavior was examined using weigh loss assay, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); and bioactivity was evaluated with the amount of calcium deposition from the culture media onto HFM surface. Doping PLGA HFMs with nanoHA results in a more bioactive and slower degrading HFM than pure PLGA HFMs

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Cui-Ping; Ji, Wen-Min; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the expression and dynamic changes of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH), and examine the effects of BMP-2 on proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cells. METHODS: Fifty-four adult male Wistar rats we

  6. Physicochemical properties and applications of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) for use in bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanao, R.P.; Jonker, A.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Hest, J.C. van; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most often used synthetic polymer within the field of bone regeneration owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. As a consequence, a large number of medical devices comprising PLGA have been approved for clinical use in humans by the American Fo

  7. Factors affecting callus and protoplast production and regeneration of plants from garlic tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cultivars of garlic, two explants, six callusing media, six regeneration media, two kinds of light and several doses of gamma irradiation were used to determine the best conditions for callus induction and plant regeneration from garlic tissue cultures. Also, some experiments were conducted to study the possibility to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The experiment showed that medium MS9 was good for regenerating plant directly from basal plate without going through callus phase. ANOVA exhibited significant differences among used cultivars in their ability to form callus. No significant difference was observed between 16 hr light and complete darkness in callus growth. However, appearance of callus was generally better on darkness. Cultivar varied in their ability to regenerate and interaction between cultivars and media was observed. Cultivar kisswany was the best in regeneration (38%) and medium MS47 was the best among used media (35%). Light type played a significant role in regeneration of plants where red light was much better than white light in inducing regeneration (68% vs 36%). ANOVA revealed significant effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on stimulation regeneration of plant whereas high doses prevented regeneration. Many experiments were conducted to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The best method for culturing was the droplet and the best conditions for incubation were complete darkness at 25 Degreed centigrade. This lead to formation of cell wall but no cell division was observed (author)

  8. Effects of two types of anorganic bovine bone on bone regeneration: a histological and histomorphometric study of rabbit calvaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two types of bone substitutes, Bio-Oss and NuOss, for repair of bone defects.This study was performed on the calvaria of 14 New Zealand rabbits. The 6mm critical size defect (CSD models of bone regeneration were used. Three CSDs were created in each surgical site. The first defect was filled with NuOss, the second one with Bio-Oss and the third one remained unfilled as the control. After healing periods of one and two months (seven animal for each time point, histological and histomorphometric analyses were carried out to assess the amount of new bone formation, presence of inflammation, foreign body reaction and type of new bone. Qualitative variables were analyzed by multiple comparisons, Wilcoxon, Friedman and Mann Whitney tests. Quantitative variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Level of statistical significance was set at 0.05.The level of inflammation was not significantly different at four and eight weeks in the Bio-Oss (P=0.944, NuOss (P=1.000 and control groups (P=0.71. At four weeks, foreign body reaction was not observed in Bio-Oss, NuOss and control groups. There was no significant difference in the type of the newly formed bone at four and eight weeks in any group (P=0.141 for Bio-Oss, P=0.06 for NuOss and P=0.389 for the control group.Deproteinized bovine bone mineral can be used as a scaffold in bone defects to induce bone regeneration.

  9. Bone Regeneration in Iliac Crestal Defects: An Experimental Study on Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Felice; Ravera, Lorenzo; Mortellaro, Carmen; Piattelli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oral rehabilitation of partially fully edentulous patients with dental implants has become a routine procedure in clinical practice. In a site with a lack of bone GBR is a surgical procedure that provides an augmentation in terms of volume for the insertion of dental implants. Materials and Methods. In the iliac crest of six sheep 4 defects were created where an implant was inserted, three of them with different biomaterials and a control site. All animals were sacrificed after a 4-month healing period. All specimens were processed and analyzed with histomorphometry. Statistical evaluation was done to evaluate percentage of bone defect filled by new bone. Results. All experimental groups showed an increase of the new bone. Higher and highly statistically significant differences were found in the percentages of bone defect filled by new bone in group filled with corticocancellous 250–1000 microns particulate porcine bone mix. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that particulate porcine bone mix and porcine corticocancellous collagenate prehydrated bone mix when used as scaffold are able to induce bone regeneration. Moreover, these data suggest that these biomaterials have higher biocompatibility and are capable of inducing faster and greater bone formation. PMID:27413746

  10. LIVER AND BONE MARROW STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS AS REGULATORS OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF DAMAGED LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Lundup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches. 

  11. Integration of Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Hydroxyapatite Burr Hole Button Device for Bone Interface Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Viswanathan; Harikrishnan, Varma; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2016-01-01

    Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, multipotent stem cells isolated from adipose tissue, present close resemblance to the natural in vivo milieu and microenvironment of bone tissue and hence widely used for in bone tissue engineering applications. The present study evaluates the compatibility of tissue engineered hydroxyapatite burr hole button device (HAP-BHB) seeded with Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs). Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress response, apoptotic behavior, attachment, and adherence of adipose MSC seeded on the device were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The results of the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay indicated that powdered device material was noncytotoxic up to 0.5 g/mL on cultured cells. It was also observed that oxidative stress related reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis on cell seeded device were similar to those of control (cells alone) except in 3-day period which showed increased reactive oxygen species generation. Further scanning electron and confocal microscopy indicated a uniform attachment of cells and viability up to 200 μm deep inside the device, respectively. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the in-house developed HAP-BHB device seeded with ADMSCs is nontoxic/safe compatible device for biomedical application and an attractive tissue engineered device for calvarial defect regeneration. PMID:26880922

  12. Root Conditioning and Agents Effect in Regeneration of Periodontal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhoda Z

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis affected root surfaces are hypermineralized and contaminated with cytotoxic and"nother biologically active substances."nThe instrumented surface will inervitably be coverd by a smear layer following root planing with or without flap."nSmear layer is resistant to saline rinsing, but may be removed with agents such as acids (e.g.citric acid, tetracyclines, EDTA, and laser."nLow pH aqueous solutions such as citric acid have been used in surgical periodontal therapy mainly for two reasons, It dissolves smear layer after a relatively short exposure time and it has been claimed to selectively remove root surface associated mineral exposing collagen to varying degrees. A root surface coated with collagen appears to be a preferred surface for fibroblast attachment, a cellular event fundamental to successful periodontal wound healing."nSeveral studies indicate the potential of tetracycline (TTE-HCL in periodontal regeneration. Its acidic pH suggest that it can be used as a demineralization agent and removing the smear layer and exposing collagen matrix of the dentin."nChalating agent (EDTA working at neutral pH appears preferable with respect to preserving the integrity of exposed collagen fibers, early colonization, and wound healing. In addition, etching at neutral pH has been reported preserve adjacent tissue- vitality, while etching at low pH necrotizes the fiap and adjacent periodontium."nClinical and subclinical studies have demonstrated laser waves can remove calculus and bacterial plaque and pocket epithelium and strile the root surface and can expose the dentin collagen and dentinal tublules, and leads to pronounce reducing of probing depth around teeth diseased with periodontitis.

  13. Bone defect regeneration and cortical bone parameters of type 2 diabetic rats are improved by insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picke, A-K; Gordaliza Alaguero, I; Campbell, G M; Glüer, C-C; Salbach-Hirsch, J; Rauner, M; Hofbauer, L C; Hofbauer, C

    2016-01-01

    Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats represent an established model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and display several features of human diabetic bone disease, including impaired osteoblast function, decreased bone strength, and delayed bone healing. Here, we determined whether glycemic control by insulin treatment prevents skeletal complications associated with diabetes. Subcritical femur defects were created in diabetic (fa/fa) and non-diabetic (+/+) ZDF rats. Diabetic rats were treated once daily with long-lasting insulin glargin for 12weeks for glycemic control. Insulin treatment successfully maintained serum levels of glycated hemoglobin, while untreated diabetic rats showed a 2-fold increase. Trabecular and cortical bone mass measured by μCT were decreased in diabetic rats. Insulin treatment increased bone mass of the cortical, but not of the trabecular bone compartment. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed a lower bone formation rate at the trabecular and periosteal cortical bone in diabetic animals and decreased serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP, -49%) levels. Insulin treatment partially improved these parameters. In T2DM, serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, +32%) and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX, +49%) were increased. Insulin treatment further elevated TRAP levels, but did not affect CTX levels. While diabetes impaired bone defect healing, glycemic control with insulin fully reversed these negative effects. In conclusion, insulin treatment reversed the adverse effects of T2DM on bone defect regeneration in rats mainly by improving osteoblast function and bone formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Bone and diabetes. PMID:26055107

  14. Osteoblasts and their applications in bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Asha Rupani1, Richard Balint2, Sarah H Cartmell1,21Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent, UK; 2Materials Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Tissue engineering is an emerging therapy that offers a new solution to patients suffering from bone loss. It utilizes cells derived from such sources as a patient's own bone or bone marrow, which are laboratory-isolated, grown (so they multiply in number, and placed onto a degradable material, or scaffold, that has mechanical/chemical properties appropriate to the bone section that it is replacing. The cells plus the scaffold are then grown in a container, or bioreactor, which is necessary as it provides the correct environment required for the cells to proliferate, differentiate, and to produce extracellular matrix. The following review focuses on the use of osteoblasts for bone tissue engineering.Keywords: osteoblast, bone, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, orthopaedic

  15. Microarchitectural adaptations in aging and osteoarthrotic subchondral bone tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2010-01-01

    quality of subchondral cancellous and cortical bone tissues. The studies included mainly two parts. For human subjects: aging- (I–IV) and early OA-related (V–VI) changes in cancellous bone properties were assessed. For OA guinea pig models (VII–IX), three topics were studied: firstly, the spontaneous, age......-related development of guinea pig OA; secondly, the potential effects of hyaluronan on OA subchondral bone tissues; and thirdly, the effects on OA progression of an increase in subchondral bone density by inhibition of bone remodeling with a bisphosphonate. These investigations aimed to obtain more insight into the...... age-related and OA-related subchondral bone adaptations.   Microarchitectural adaptation in human aging cancellous bone The precision of micro-CT measurement is excellent. Accurate 3-D micro-CT image datasets can be generated by applying an appropriate segmentation threshold. A fixed threshold may be...

  16. Surface Functionalization of Titanium Alloy with miR-29b Nanocapsules To Enhance Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yubin; Li, Xue; Li, Zhaoyang; Liu, Chaoyong; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Jianwei; Liu, Yunde; Yuan, Xubo; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin

    2016-03-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used over the past 3 decades as implants for healing bone defects. Nevertheless, the bioinert property of titanium alloy limits its clinical application and surface modification method is frequently performed to improve the biological and chemical properties. Recently, the delivery of microRNA with osteogenesis capability has been recognized as a promising tool to enhance bone regeneration of implants. Here, we developed a biodegradable coating to modify the titanium surface in order to enhance osteogenic bioactivity. The previous developed nanocapsules were used as the building blocks, and then a bioactive titanium coating was designed to entrap the miR-29b nanocapsules. This coating was not only favorable for cell adhesion and growth but also provided sufficient microRNA transfection efficacy and osteoinductive potential, resulting in a significant enhancement of bone regeneration on the surface of bioinert titanium alloy. PMID:26887789

  17. Can Bone Tissue Engineering Contribute to Therapy Concepts after Resection of Musculoskeletal Sarcoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Michael Holzapfel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of musculoskeletal sarcoma can result in large bone defects where regeneration is needed in a quantity far beyond the normal potential of self-healing. In many cases, these defects exhibit a limited intrinsic regenerative potential due to an adjuvant therapeutic regimen, seroma, or infection. Therefore, reconstruction of these defects is still one of the most demanding procedures in orthopaedic surgery. The constraints of common treatment strategies have triggered a need for new therapeutic concepts to design and engineer unparalleled structural and functioning bone grafts. To satisfy the need for long-term repair and good clinical outcome, a paradigm shift is needed from methods to replace tissues with inert medical devices to more biological approaches that focus on the repair and reconstruction of tissue structure and function. It is within this context that the field of bone tissue engineering can offer solutions to be implemented into surgical therapy concepts after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcoma. In this paper we will discuss the implementation of tissue engineering concepts into the clinical field of orthopaedic oncology.

  18. Functionalized D-form self-assembling peptide hydrogels for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bin He,1 Yunsheng Ou,1 Ao Zhou,1 Shuo Chen,1 Weikang Zhao,1 Jinqiu Zhao,2 Hong Li,3 Yong Zhu,1 Zenghui Zhao,1 Dianming Jiang1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bone defects are very common in orthopedics, and there is great need to develop suitable bone grafts for transplantation in vivo. However, current bone grafts still encounter some limitations, including limited availability, immune rejection, poor osteoinduction and osteoconduction, poor biocompatibility and degradation properties, etc. Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds have emerged as an important substrate for cell culture and bone regeneration. We report on the structural features (eg, Congo red staining, circular dichroism spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and rheometry assays and osteogenic ability of D-RADA16-RGD peptide hydrogels (with or without basic fibroblast growth factor due to the better stability of peptide bonds formed by these peptides compared with those formed by L-form peptides, and use them to fill the femoral condyle defect of Sprague Dawley rat model. The bone morphology change, two-dimensional reconstructions using microcomputed tomography, quantification of the microcomputed tomography analyses as well as histological analyses have demonstrated that RGD-modified D-form peptide scaffolds are able to enhance extensive bone regeneration. Keywords: bone defect, functionalized D-form self-assembling peptide, D-RADA16-RGD, peptide hydrogel, bone regeneration

  19. Fetal and adult liver stem cells for liver regeneration and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, H C; Lange, Claudia; Kneser, U; Lambrecht, W; Zander, A R; Rogiers, X; Kluth, D

    2006-01-01

    For the development of innovative cell-based liver directed therapies, e.g. liver tissue engineering, the use of stem cells might be very attractive to overcome the limitation of donor liver tissue. Liver specific differentiation of embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells is currently under investigation. Different types of fetal liver (stem) cells during development were identified, and their advantageous growth potential and bipotential differentiation capacity were shown. However, ethical and legal issues have to be addressed before using fetal cells. Use of adult stem cells is clinically established, e.g. transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. Other bone marrow derived liver stem cells might be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the transdifferentiation potential is still in question due to the observation of cellular fusion in several in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments revealed a crucial role of the environment (e.g. growth factors and extracellular matrix) for specific differentiation of stem cells. Co-cultured liver cells also seemed to be important for hepatic gene expression of MSC. For successful liver cell transplantation, a novel approach of tissue engineering by orthotopic transplantation of gel-immobilized cells could be promising, providing optimal environment for the injected cells. Moreover, an orthotopic tissue engineering approach using bipotential stem cells could lead to a repopulation of the recipients liver with healthy liver and biliary cells, thus providing both hepatic functions and biliary excretion. Future studies have to investigate, which stem cell and environmental conditions would be most suitable for the use of stem cells for liver regeneration or tissue engineering approaches. PMID:16989722

  20. PTH/SDF-1α cotherapy induces CD90+CD34− stromal cells migration and promotes tissue regeneration in a rat periodontal defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Du, Lingqian; Ge, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a key stem cell homing factor that is crucial for recruitment of stem cells to many diseased organs. However, the therapeutic activity of SDF-1α is potentially limited by N-terminal cleavage at position-2 proline by a cell surface protein CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a DPP-IV inhibitor and has been suggested as a promising agent for periodontal tissue repair. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a cell-free system comprising SDF-1α and scaffold plus PTH systemic application on periodontal tissue regeneration in vivo. The results showed that PTH/SDF-1α cotherapy improved the quantity of regenerated bone and resulted in better organization of ligament interface. We further investigated the possible mechanisms, and found that PTH/SDF-1α cotherapy enhanced CD90+CD34− stromal cells migration in vivo, increased the number of CXCR4 + cells in periodontal defects, induced early bone osteoclastogenesis and enhanced the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen I (Col I) in newly formed bone tissue. In conclusion, this cell-free tissue engineering system with local administration of SDF-1α and systemic application of PTH could be employed to induce CD90+CD34− stromal cells recruitment and promote periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:27480134

  1. Composite biopolymers for bone regeneration enhancement in bony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, K; Tabrizian, M

    2016-01-01

    For the past century, various biomaterials have been used in the treatment of bone defects and fractures. Their role as potential substitutes for human bone grafts increases as donors become scarce. Metals, ceramics and polymers are all materials that confer different advantages to bone scaffold development. For instance, biocompatibility is a highly desirable property for which naturally-derived polymers are renowned. While generally applied separately, the use of biomaterials, in particular natural polymers, is likely to change, as biomaterial research moves towards mixing different types of materials in order to maximize their individual strengths. This review focuses on osteoconductive biocomposite scaffolds which are constructed around natural polymers and their performance at the in vitro/in vivo stages and in clinical trials. PMID:26317131

  2. Raman tomography of tissue phantoms and bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Kreider, Jaclynn; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Dooley, Kathryn A.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-02-01

    We report tomographic reconstruction of objects located several millimeters below the surface of highly scattering media. For this purpose we adapted proven software developed for fluorescence tomography with and without the use of spatial priors1. For this first demonstration we acquired Raman spectra using an existing ring/disk fiber optic probe with fifty collection fibers2. Several illumination ring diameters were employed to generate multiple angles of incidence. Tomographic reconstruction from Raman scatter was tested using a 9.5 mm diameter Teflon® sphere embedded in a gel of agarose and 1% Intralipid. Blind reconstruction of the sphere using the 732 cm -1 C-F stretch yielded an accurate shape but an inaccurate depth. Using the known shape and position of the object as spatial priors, a more accurate reconstruction was obtained. We also demonstrated a reconstruction of the tibial diaphysis of an intact canine hind limb using spatial priors generated from micro-computed tomography. In this first demonstration of Raman tomography in animal tissue, the P-O stretch of the bone mineral at 958 cm -1 was used for the reconstruction. An accurate shape and depth were recovered.

  3. REGene: a literature-based knowledgebase of animal regeneration that bridge tissue regeneration and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhao; Bronwyn Rotgans; Tianfang Wang; Cummins, S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration is a common phenomenon across multiple animal phyla. Regeneration-related genes (REGs) are critical for fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation. Identification of REGs and elucidating their functions may help to further develop effective treatment strategies in regenerative medicine. So far, REGs have been largely identified by small-scale experimental studies and a comprehensive characterization of the diverse biological processes regulated by RE...

  4. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  5. Innovative Biomaterials Based on Collagen-Hydroxyapatite and Doxycycline for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Mederle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration is a serious challenge in orthopedic applications because of bone infections increase, tumor developing, and bone loss due to trauma. In this context, the aim of our study was to develop innovative biomaterials based on collagen and hydroxyapatite (25, 50, and 75% which mimic bone composition and prevent or treat infections due to doxycycline content. The biomaterials were obtained by freeze-drying in spongious forms and were characterized by water uptake capacity and microscopy. The in vitro release of doxycycline was also determined and established by non-Fickian drug transport mechanism. Among the studied biomaterials, the most suitable one to easily deliver the drug and mimic bone structure, having compact structure and lower capacity to uptake water, was the one with 75% hydroxyapatite and being cross-linked.

  6. Full regeneration of segmental bone defects using porous titanium implants loaded with BMP-2 containing fibrin gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J van der Stok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of load-bearing segmental bone defects is a major challenge in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. The ideal bone graft substitute is a biomaterial that provides immediate mechanical stability, while stimulating bone regeneration to completely bridge defects over a short period. Therefore, selective laser melted porous titanium, designed and fine-tuned to tolerate full load-bearing, was filled with a physiologically concentrated fibrin gel loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. This biomaterial was used to graft critical-sized segmental femoral bone defects in rats. As a control, porous titanium implants were either left empty or filled with a fibrin gels without BMP-2. We evaluated bone regeneration, bone quality and mechanical strength of grafted femora using in vivo and ex vivo µCT scanning, histology, and torsion testing. This biomaterial completely regenerated and bridged the critical-sized bone defects within eight weeks. After twelve weeks, femora were anatomically re-shaped and revealed open medullary cavities. More importantly, new bone was formed throughout the entire porous titanium implants and grafted femora regained more than their innate mechanical stability: torsional strength exceeded twice their original strength. In conclusion, combining porous titanium implants with a physiologically concentrated fibrin gels loaded with BMP-2 improved bone regeneration in load-bearing segmental defects. This material combination now awaits its evaluation in larger animal models to show its suitability for grafting load-bearing defects in trauma and orthopaedic surgery.

  7. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide nanofibers coated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tavakoli-Darestani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Tavakoli-Darestani R, Kazemian GH, Emami M, Kamrani-Rad A. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide nanofibers coated with collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Novel Biomed 2013;1:8-15.Background: A combination of polymeric nanofibrous scaffold and bioactive materials is potentially useful in bone regeneration applications.Materials and Methods: In the present study, Poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds, fabricated via electrospinning, were initially coated with Type I collagen and then with nano-hydroxyapatite. The prepared scaffolds were then characterized using SEM and their ability for bone regeneration was investigated in a rat critical size bone defect using digital mammography, multislice spiral-computed tomography (MSCT imaging, and histological analysis.Results: Electrospun scaffolds had nanofibrous structure with homogenous distribution of n-HA on collagen-grafted PLGA. After 8 weeks of implantation, no sign of inflammation or complication was observed at the site of surgery. According to digital mammography and MSCT, PLGA nanofibers coated simultaneously with collagen and HA showed the highest regeneration in rat calvarium. In addition, no significant difference was observed in bone repair in the group which received PLGA and the untreated control. This amount was lower than that observed in the group implanted with collagen-coated PLGA. Histological studies confirmed these data and showed osteointegration to the surrounding tissue.Conclusion: Taking all together, it was demonstrated that nanofibrous structures can be used as appropriate support for tissue-engineered scaffolds, and coating them with bioactive materials will provide ideal synthetic grafts. Fabricated PLGA coated with Type I collagen and HA can be used as new bone graft substitutes in orthopaedic surgery and is capable of enhancing bone regeneration via characteristics such as osteoconductivity and

  8. Hyaluronic acid-recombinant gelatin gels as a scaffold for soft tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    A Tuin; J Zandstra; SG Kluijtmans; JB Bouwstra; MC Harmsen; MJA Van Luyn

    2012-01-01

    An array of different types of hyaluronic acid (HA)- and collagen-based products is available for filling soft-tissue defects. A major drawback of the current soft-tissue fillers is their inability to induce cell infiltration and new tissue formation. Our aim is to develop novel biodegradable injectable gels which induce soft tissue regeneration, initially resulting in integration and finally replacement of the gel with new autologous tissue. Two reference gels of pure HA, monophasic HA-1 and...

  9. Adipose tissue-organotypic culture system as a promising model for studying adipose tissue biology and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Shuji; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Sonoda, Emiko; Yamasaki, Fumio; Piao, Meihua; Ootani, Akifumi; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue consists of mature adipocytes, preadipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but a culture system for analyzing their cell types within the tissue has not been established. We have recently developed “adipose tissue-organotypic culture system” that maintains unilocular structure, proliferative ability and functions of mature adipocytes for a long term, using three-dimensional collagen gel culture of the tissue fragments. In this system, both preadipocytes and MSCs regenerate...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Ali Can; Yücel, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. PMID:27524030

  11. Genetically engineered new spider silk chimeras for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sílvia Cristina Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are emerging fields focused on the development of tissues and organs that can be used in transplantation surgeries for the replacement or repair of damaged tissues or organs. This accomplishment would discard the need to use autologous and allogenic grafts, overcoming problems such as donor rejection, disease transmission or organ scarcity. The materials science field contributes directly for the achievement of this goal through the ...

  12. Modeling of an optimized electrostimulative hip revision system under consideration of uncertainty in the conductivity of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Zimmermann, Ulf; van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    Since several years, the number of total hip arthroplasty revision surgeries is substantially growing. One of the main reasons for this procedure to become necessary is the loosening or damage of the prothesis, which is facilitated by bone necrosis at the implant-bone interface. Electrostimulation is one promising technique, which can accelerate the growth of bone cells and, therefore, enhance the anchorage of the implant to the bone. We present computational models of an electrostimulative total hip revision system to enhance bone regeneration. In this study, the influence of uncertainty in the conductivity of bone tissue on the electric field strength and the beneficial stimulation volume for an optimized electrode geometry and arrangement is investigated. The generalized polynomial chaos technique is used to quantify the uncertainty in the stimulation volumes with respect to the uncertain conductivity of cancellous bone, bone marrow, and bone substitute, which is used to fill defective areas. The results suggest that the overall beneficial stimulation areas are only slightly sensitive to the uncertainty in conductivity of bone tissue. However, in the proximity of tissue boundaries, larger uncertainties, especially in the transition between beneficial and understimulation areas, can be expected. PMID:25898285

  13. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: A New Player in Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emma V.; Edwards, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow is a favored site for a number of cancers, including the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma, and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer. This specialized microenvironment is highly supportive, not only for tumor growth and survival but also for the development of an associated destructive cancer-induced bone disease. The interactions between tumor cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts are well documented. By contrast, despite occupying a significant proportion of the bone marrow, the importance of bone marrow adipose tissue is only just emerging. The ability of bone marrow adipocytes to regulate skeletal biology and hematopoiesis, combined with their metabolic activity, endocrine functions, and proximity to tumor cells means that they are ideally placed to impact both tumor growth and bone disease. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of how marrow adipose tissue contributes to bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease.

  14. Osteocyte: the unrecognized side of bone tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Rochefort, Gaël,; Pallu, Stéphane; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Osteocytes represent 95% of all bone cells. These cells are old osteoblasts that occupy the lacunar space and are surrounded by the bone matrix. They possess cytoplasmic dendrites that form a canalicular network for communication between osteocytes and the bone surface. They express some biomarkers (osteopontin, beta3 integrin, CD44, dentin matrix protein 1, sclerostin, phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, matrix extracellular phosphog...

  15. The control of bone induction in soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D H; Speak, K S

    1979-09-01

    The induction of bone at the boundary of parenchymal organs has been studied using acid demineralized rib implants in rabbits. The induction of bone is usually confined to that portion of an implant protruding from such an organ though both scant cartilage induction and the induction of bone within the territory of parenchymal organs were seen on a few occasions. Neonatal splenectomy does not influence the inductive properties of bone matrix in muscle or other soft tissues. The inclusion of composite autografts of liver and acid demineralized bone in muscle results in a reduction in the induction rate. It is postulated that the parenchymal organs exclude osteoprogenitor cells and possibly blood-bone bone-marrow-derived osteoinductor releasing cells by some mechanism that is diffusable, thus preventing the initial inductive event. Composite grafts of matrix and muscle produce bone in these tissue, demonstrating that once bone cell differentiation by induction is initiated bone tissue develops even in spleen, liver and kidney parenchyma. PMID:389518

  16. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer; Gabriela dos Santos Kummer; Shaban Mirco; Joao Cesar Zielak

    2014-01-01

    The guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2) associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx) for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is a...

  17. Bone regeneration in cranioplasty and clinical complications in rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanice Menezes Marçal Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the bone repair process in surgical defects created on the parietal bones of diabetic rabbits using the guided bone regeneration technique to observe the effects of alloxan in the induction of diabetes mellitus. Twenty-four adult rabbits were divided into three study groups: control (C, diabetic (D and diabetic associated to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane (D-PTFE. For diabetes induction the animals received one dose of monohydrated alloxan (90 mg/kg by intravenous administration in the auricular or femoral vein. In group D-PTFE the membrane covered both the floor and the surface of the bone defect. In groups D and C, the bone defect was filled up with blood clot. The specimens were fixed in 10% formol and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The results showed that the 90 mg/kg dose of monohydrate alloxan was sufficient to promote diabetes mellitus when administered in the auricular vein. Bone regeneration was slower in the diabetic group when compared with the control and diabetic-PTFE groups, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two experimental groups (D and D-PTFE. The oral and general clinical complications among the diabetics were weight loss, polyuria, polyphagia and severe chronic gingivitis.

  18. Collagen/chitosan porous bone tissue engineering composite scaffold incorporated with Ginseng compound K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Aravinthan, Adithan; Sharmila, Judith; Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    In this study, suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering were successfully prepared using fish scale collagen, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Porous composite scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method. The Korean traditional medicinal ginseng compound K, a therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis that reduces inflammation and enhances production of bone morphogenetic protein-2, was incorporated into the composite scaffold. The scaffold was characterized for pore size, swelling, density, degradation, mineralization, cell viability and attachment, and its morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy. This characterization and in vitro analysis showed that the prepared scaffold was biocompatible and supported the growth of MG-63 cells, and therefore has potential as an alternative approach for bone regeneration. PMID:27516305

  19. Micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing for complex tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Koch, Alia; Jun, Yena; Chou, Conrad; Awadallah, Mary R; Lee, Chang H

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as an efficient tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, given its advantages for constructing custom-designed scaffolds with tunable microstructure/physical properties. Here we developed a micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffolds. PLGA microspheres (μS) were encapsulated with growth factors (GFs) and then embedded inside PCL microfibers that constitute custom-designed 3D scaffolds. Given the substantial difference in the melting points between PLGA and PCL and their low heat conductivity, μS were able to maintain its original structure while protecting GF's bioactivities. Micro-precise spatial control of multiple GFs was achieved by interchanging dispensing cartridges during a single printing process. Spatially controlled delivery of GFs, with a prolonged release, guided formation of multi-tissue interfaces from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs). To investigate efficacy of the micro-precise delivery system embedded in 3D printed scaffold, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc scaffolds were fabricated with micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery of CTGF and TGFβ3, mimicking native-like multiphase fibrocartilage. In vitro, TMJ disc scaffolds spatially embedded with CTGF/TGFβ3-μS resulted in formation of multiphase fibrocartilaginous tissues from MSCs. In vivo, TMJ disc perforation was performed in rabbits, followed by implantation of CTGF/TGFβ3-μS-embedded scaffolds. After 4 wks, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly improved healing of the perforated TMJ disc as compared to the degenerated TMJ disc in the control group with scaffold embedded with empty μS. In addition, CTGF/TGFβ3-μS embedded scaffolds significantly prevented arthritic changes on TMJ condyles. In conclusion, our micro-precise spatiotemporal delivery system embedded in 3D printing may serve as an efficient tool to regenerate complex and inhomogeneous tissues. PMID

  20. Tissue absence initiates regeneration through follistatin-mediated inhibition of activin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviño, Michael A; Wenemoser, Danielle; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration is widespread, but mechanisms that activate regeneration remain mysterious. Planarians are capable of whole-body regeneration and mount distinct molecular responses to wounds that result in tissue absence and those that do not. A major question is how these distinct responses are activated. We describe a follistatin homolog (Smed-follistatin) required for planarian regeneration. Smed-follistatin inhibition blocks responses to tissue absence but does not prevent normal tissue turnover. Two activin homologs (Smed-activin-1 and Smed-activin-2) are required for the Smed-follistatin phenotype. Finally, Smed-follistatin is wound-induced and expressed at higher levels following injuries that cause tissue absence. These data suggest that Smed-follistatin inhibits Smed-Activin proteins to trigger regeneration specifically following injuries involving tissue absence and identify a mechanism critical for regeneration initiation, a process important across the animal kingdom. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00247.001. PMID:24040508

  1. Biomimetic treatment on dental implants for short -term bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manzanares, Norberto; Badet de Mena, Armando; Aparicio Bádenas, Conrado José; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this work was to assess the short-term bone regenerative potential of new osteoconductive implants. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the effectiveness of a novel two-step treatment which combines shot-blasting with a thermo-chemical treatment, at very short times after implant placement in a minipig model. Materials and methods Three hundred twenty implants with four different surface treatments, namely bioactivated sur...

  2. Titanium Foam-Bioactive Nanofiber Hybrids for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeant, Timothy D; Oppenheimer, Scott M.; Dunand, David C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2008-01-01

    We have reported previously a method to introduce bioactive nanofiber networks through self-assembly into the pores of titanium alloy foams for bone repair. In this study we evaluate the in vitro colonization by mouse pre-osteoblastic cells of these metal-peptide amphiphile hybrids containing phosphoserine residues and the RGDS epitope. The aim was to determine the effect of varying the RGDS epitope concentration within a given range, and confirm the ability for cells to infiltrate and surviv...

  3. Effects of hydroxyapatite and PDGF concentrations on osteoblast growth in a nanohydroxyapatite-polylactic acid composite for guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talal, Ahmed; McKay, I J; Tanner, K E; Hughes, Francis J

    2013-09-01

    The technique of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has evolved over recent years in an attempt to achieve periodontal tissue regeneration by the use of a barrier membrane. However, there are significant limitations in the currently available membranes and overall outcomes may be limited. A degradable composite material was investigated as a potential GTR membrane material. Polylactic acid (PLA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite was analysed, its bioactive potential and suitability as a carrier system for growth factors were assessed. The effect of nHA concentrations and the addition of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was investigated. The bioactivity was dependent on the nHA concentration in the films, with more apatite deposited on films containing higher nHA content. Osteoblasts proliferated well on samples containing low nHA content and differentiated on films with higher nHA content. The composite films were able to deliver PDGF and cell proliferation increased on samples that were pre-absorbed with the growth factor. nHA-PLA composite films are able to deliver active PDGF. In addition the bioactivity and cell differentiation was higher on films containing more nHA. The use of a nHA-PLA composite material containing a high concentration of nHA may be a useful material for GTR membrane as it will not only act as a barrier, but may also be able to enhance bone regeneration by delivery of biologically active molecules. PMID:23832451

  4. Protein adsorption capability on polyurethane and modified-polyurethane membrane for periodontal guided tissue regeneration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan; Khan, Abdul Samad; Roohpour, Nima; Glogauer, Michael; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2016-11-01

    Periodontal disease if left untreated can result in creation of defects within the alveolar ridge. Barrier membranes are frequently used with or without bone replacement graft materials for achieving periodontal guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Surface properties of barrier membranes play a vital role in their functionality and clinical success. In this study polyetherurethane (PEU) membranes were synthesized by using 4,4'-methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) and 1,4-butane diol (BDO) as a chain extender via solution polymerization. Hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) due to having inherent surface orientation towards air was used for surface modification of PEU on one side of the membranes. This resulting membranes had one surface being PEU and the other being PDMS coated PEU. The prepared membranes were treated with solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in de-ionized water at 37°C at a pH of 7.2. The surface protein adsorptive potential of PEU membranes was observed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and Confocal Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle measurement, tensile strength and modulus of prepared membranes were also evaluated. PEU membrane (89.86±1.62°) exhibited less hydrophobic behavior than PEU-PDMS (105.87±3.16°). The ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of PEU (27±1MPa and 14±2MPa) and PEU-PDMS (8±1MPa and 26±1MPa) membranes was in required range. The spectral analysis revealed adsorption of BSA proteins on the surface of non PDMS coated PEU surface. The PDMS modified PEU membranes demonstrated a lack of BSA adsorption. The non PDMS coated side of the membrane which adsorbs proteins could potentially be used facing towards the defect attracting growth factors for periodontal tissue regeneration. Whereas, the PDMS coated side could serve as an occlusive barrier for preventing gingival epithelial cells from

  5. New biomimetic approaches for producing bone-like calcium-phosphate coatings on the surface of tissue engineering 3D architectures and orthopaedic Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ana Leite

    2008-01-01

    Bone is one of the most wonderful examples of nature’s ability to engineer living materials. The processes by which the mineralized tissues are formed can be a source of information for the development of new materials for biomedical applications, capable of better mimicking living tissues, i.e. biomimetic materials. In the field of bone replacement and regeneration, this new concept can lead to innovative ideas towards the controlled fabrication of advanced materials. When con...

  6. Enhancing plant regeneration in tissue culture: a molecular approach through manipulation of cytokinin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristine; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-10-01

    Micropropagation is used for commercial purposes worldwide, but the capacity to undergo somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration varies greatly among species. The plant hormones auxin and cytokinin are critical for plant regeneration in tissue culture, with cytokinin playing an instrumental role in shoot organogenesis. Type-B response regulators govern the transcriptional output in response to cytokinin and are required for plant regeneration. In our paper published in Plant Physiology, we explored the functional redundancy among the 11 type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs). Interestingly, we discovered that the enhanced expression of one family member, ARR10, induced hypersensitivity to cytokinin in multiple assays, including callus greening and shoot induction of explants. Here we 1) discuss the hormone dependence for in vitro plant regeneration, 2) how manipulation of the cytokinin response has been used to enhance plant regeneration, and 3) the potential of the ARR10 transgene as a tool to increase the regeneration capacity of agriculturally important crop plants. The efficacy of ARR10 for enhancing plant regeneration likely arises from its ability to transcriptionally regulate key cytokinin responsive genes combined with an enhanced protein stability of ARR10 compared with other type-B ARRs. By increasing the capacity of key tissues and cell types to respond to cytokinin, ARR10, or other type-B response regulators with similar properties, could be used as a tool to combat the recalcitrance of some crop species to tissue culture techniques. PMID:23887495

  7. [Modern biomechanical poroeslatic model of bone tissue. Part II--structure of pore space in cortical and trabecular bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Piotr; Uklejewski, Ryszard; Stryła, Wanda

    2002-01-01

    In modern bone biomechanics the bone tissue is treated as a porous elastically deformed solid filled with a viscous newtonian fluid (two-phase poroelastic model) [41]. Traditional one-phase biomechanical model of bone tissue is still valid and it can be considered as an approximate model in comparison with the more realistic two-phase model of bone tissue. Hierarchical biostructure of the pore space of cortical and trabecular bone is presented, including the compartments of bone pore space after Cowin [12, 13]. Examples of clinical amplications of the poroelastic model of bone tissue such as: osteoporosis, porous coated implants, bone electromagnetostimulation in rehabilitation are indicated. PMID:12418404

  8. Effect of Combined Calcium Hydroxide and Accelerated Portland Cement on Bone Formation and Soft Tissue Healing in Dog Bone Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recent literatures show that accelerated Portland cement (APC and calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2 may have the potential to promote the bone regeneration. However, certain clinical studies reveal consistency of Ca (OH2, as one of the practical drawbacks of the material when used alone. To overcome such inconvenience, the combination of the Ca (OH2 with a bone replacement material could offer a convenient solution. Objectives: To evaluate the soft tissue healing and bone regeneration in the periodontal intrabony osseous defects using accelerated Portland cement (APC in combination with calcium hydroxide Ca (OH2, as a filling material. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adult mongrel dogs aged 2-3 years old (approximately 20 kg in weight with intact dentition and healthy periodontium were selected for this study. Two one-wall defects in both mesial and distal aspects of the 3rd premolars of both sides of the mandible were created. Therefore, four defects were prepared in each dog. Three defects in each dog were randomly filled with one of the following materials: APC alone, APC mixed with Ca (OH2, and Ca (OH2 alone. The fourth defect was left empty (control. Upon clinical examination of the sutured sites, the amount of dehiscence from the adjacent tooth was measured after two and eight weeks, using a periodontal probe mesiodistally. For histometric analysis, the degree of new bone formation was estimated at the end of the eighth postoperative week, by a differential point-counting method. The percentage of the defect volume occupied by new osteoid or trabecular bone was recorded. Results: Measurement of wound dehiscence during the second week revealed that all five APCs had an exposure of 1-2 mm and at the end of the study all samples showed 3-4 mm exposure across the surface of the graft material, whereas the Ca (OH2, control, and APC + Ca (OH2 groups did not show any exposure at the end of the eighth week of the study. The most

  9. In situ vascular regeneration using substance P-immobilised poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) scaffolds: stem cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M; Jung, Y; Kim, S H

    2015-01-01

    In situ tissue regeneration holds great promise for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. However, to achieve control over long-term and localised presence of biomolecules, certain barriers must be overcome. The aim of this study was to develop electrospun scaffolds for the fabrication of artificial vascular grafts that can be remodelled within a host by endogenous cell recruitment. We fabricated scaffolds by mixing appropriate proportions of linear poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) and substance P (SP)-immobilised PLCL, using electrospinning to develop vascular grafts. Substance P was released in a sustained fashion from electrospun membranes for up to 30 d, as revealed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immobilised SP remained bioactive and recruited human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in an in vitro Trans-well migration assay. The biocompatibility and biological performance of the scaffolds were evaluated by in vivo experiments involving subcutaneous scaffold implantations in Sprague-Dawley rats for up to 28 d followed by histological and immunohistochemical studies. Histological analysis revealed a greater extent of accumulative host cell infiltration and collagen deposition in scaffolds containing higher contents of SP than observed in the control group at both time points. We also observed the presence of a large number of laminin-positive blood vessels and Von Willebrand factor (vWF+) cells in the explants containing SP. Additionally, scaffolds containing SP showed the existence of CD90+ and CD105+ MSCs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the methodology presented here may have broad applications in regenerative medicine, and the novel scaffolding materials can be used for in situ tissue regeneration of soft tissues. PMID:26614483

  10. Biodegradable Polymer-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sultana, Naznin

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the principles, methods and applications of biodegradable polymer based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The general principle of bone tissue engineering is reviewed and the traditional and novel scaffolding materials, their properties and scaffold fabrication techniques are explored. By acting as temporary synthetic extracellular matrices for cell accommodation, proliferation, and differentiation, scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering. This book does not only provide the comprehensive summary of the current trends in scaffolding design but also presents the new trends and directions for scaffold development for the ever expanding tissue engineering applications.

  11. Extracellular matrix-inspired growth factor delivery systems for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, Mikaël M. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Immunology Frontier Research Center; Briquez, Priscilla S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Bioengineering; Maruyama, Kenta [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Immunology Frontier Research Center; Hubbell, Jeffrey A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Bioengineering; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Inst. for Molecular Engineering; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-04-17

    Growth factors are very promising molecules to enhance bone regeneration. However, their translation to clinical use has been seriously limited, facing issues related to safety and cost-effectiveness. These problems derive from the vastly supra-physiological doses of growth factor used without optimized delivery systems. Therefore, these issues have motivated the development of new delivery systems allowing better control of the spatio-temporal release and signaling of growth factors. Because the extracellular matrix (ECM) naturally plays a fundamental role in coordinating growth factor activity in vivo, a number of novel delivery systems have been inspired by the growth factor regulatory function of the ECM. After introducing the role of growth factors during the bone regeneration process, this review exposes different issues that growth factor-based therapies have encountered in the clinic and highlights recent delivery approaches based on the natural interaction between growth factor and the ECM.

  12. Bone regeneration with resorbable polylactide membrane and sponge in an unstable fracture model in rabbit radius

    OpenAIRE

    Gogolewski, S.; Tsui, K.; Ip, WY

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healing of segmental diaphyseal bone defects in animals can be enhanced by covering the defects with resorbable polylactide membranes. Based on the results of bone healing in defects 10 mm long in the rabbit radii, it was suggested that the membranes prevents muscle and soft tissue from invading the defect and maintains osteogenic cells and osteogenic substances within the space covered with membrane, thus promoting new bone formation. OBJECTIVES: 1. To investigate and …

  13. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength “trabecular Nitinol” scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1–1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects

  14. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Zaretzky, Asaph; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Gutmanas, Elazar Y.

    2015-10-01

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength "trabecular Nitinol" scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1-1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects.

  15. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotman, Irena, E-mail: gotman@technion.ac.il; Gutmanas, Elazar Y., E-mail: gutmanas@technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Techion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 Israel (Israel); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Zaretzky, Asaph [The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 31096 Israel (Israel); Psakhie, Sergey G. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength “trabecular Nitinol” scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1–1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects.

  16. In vitro and in vivo investigations on bone regeneration potential of laminated hydroxyapatite/gelatin nanocomposite scaffold along with DBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone regeneration ability of a scaffold strongly depends on its structure and the size of its components. In this study, a nanostructured scaffold was designed for bone repair using nano hydroxyapatite (nHA) (8–16 nm × 50–80 nm) and gelatin (GEL) as main components. In vitro investigations of calcium matrix deposition and gene expression of the seeded cells for this scaffold, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), scaffold plus DBM, and the control group were carried out. Bone regeneration in rat calvarium with critical defect size after 1, 4, and 8 weeks post implantation was investigated. The calcium matrix depositions by the osteoblast and RUNX2, ALP, osteonectin, and osteocalcin gene expression in scaffold were more significant than in other groups. Histomorphometry analysis confirmed in vitro results. In vitro and in vivo bone regeneration were least in scaffold plus DBM group. Enhanced effects in scaffold could be attributed to the shape and size of nHA particles and good architecture of the scaffold. Reduction of bone regeneration might be due to tight bonding of BMPs and nHA particles in the third group. Results obtained from this study confirmed that nano-scale size of the main components and the scaffold architecture (pore diameter, interconnectivity pores, etc.) have significant effects on bone regeneration ability of the scaffold and are important parameters in designing a temporary bone substitute.

  17. Bioactive composite scaffolds for bone regeneration:from the process to the biological validation

    OpenAIRE

    Ronca, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have discussed the preparation and characterization of composite scaffolds for bone regeneration. The scaffolds were made with different techniques: salt leaching / phase inversion,filament winding and stereolithography. The phase of preparation is followed by a characterization from a morphological, mechanical and biological point of view. Results were very promising especially regarding the biological response of the substrates that appear to be promising for future in v...

  18. Incorporation of copper into chitosan scaffolds promotes bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects

    OpenAIRE

    D'Mello, Sheetal; Elangovan, Satheesh; Hong, Liu; Ross, Ryan D.; Sumner, D. Rick; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a copper loaded chitosan scaffold on bone regeneration in critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. Chitosan scaffolds and copper-chitosan scaffolds were fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chitosan and copper-chitosan scaffolds were implanted into 5 mm diameter critical-sized calvarial defects in Fisher 344 male rats. Empty defects (no scaffolds) were included as a control. After 4 weeks, the rats w...

  19. β-Cell Regeneration Mediated by Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Milanesi; Jang-Won Lee; Zhenhua Li; Stefano Da Sacco; Valentina Villani; Vanessa Cervantes; Laura Perin; Yu, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to ameliorate diabetes in animal models. The mechanism, however, remains largely unknown. An unanswered question is whether BMSCs are able to differentiate into β-cells in vivo, or whether BMSCs are able to mediate recovery and/or regeneration of endogenous β-cells. Here we examined these questions by testing the ability of hBMSCs genetically modified to transiently express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or pancreatic-duode...

  20. Bioinspired nanocomposite structures for bone tissue regeneration with gelatin nanofibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika; Hrušková, Daniela; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Svobodová, J.

    Liberec: ELMARCO, 2009, s. 99-103. ISBN 978-80-254-3994-4. [ Nano fibers for the 3rd millennium – Nano for lifeTM. Praha (CZ), 11.03.2009-12.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : composite * gelatin * hydroxyapatite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Material s

  1. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals

  2. Cell-scaffold interactions in the bone tissue engineering triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Murphy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering has emerged as one of the leading fields in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The success of bone tissue engineering relies on understanding the interplay between progenitor cells, regulatory signals, and the biomaterials/scaffolds used to deliver them – otherwise known as the tissue engineering triad. This review will discuss the roles of these fundamental components with a specific focus on the interaction between cell behaviour and scaffold structural properties. In terms of scaffold architecture, recent work has shown that pore size can affect both cell attachment and cellular invasion. Moreover, different materials can exert different biomechanical forces, which can profoundly affect cellular differentiation and migration in a cell type specific manner. Understanding these interactions will be critical for enhancing the progress of bone tissue engineering towards clinical applications.

  3. New tissue substitutes representing cortical bone and adipose tissue in quantitative radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To employ quantitative radiology more accurately, we examined phantom materials for cortical bone and adipose tissue as calibration standards and as experimental phantoms. New tissue substitutes for cortical bone and adipose tissue composed of liquid phantom were verified by computing their attenuation coefficients and observing their chemical properties. We showed that a potassium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) solution for cortical bone was comparable to a dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) solution. Also, the use of methyl alcohol for adipose tissue was more suitable than ethyl alcohol as a phantom material because of its physical and chemical properties. (author)

  4. Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Novel Supportive Therapies for Oral Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Padial-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration is often needed prior to dental implant treatment due to the lack of adequate quantity and quality of the bone after infectious diseases, trauma, tumor, or congenital conditions. In these situations, cell transplantation technologies may help to overcome the limitations of autografts, xenografts, allografts, and alloplastic materials. A database search was conducted to include human clinical trials (randomized or controlled and case reports/series describing the clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in the oral cavity for bone regeneration only specifically excluding periodontal regeneration. Additionally, novel advances in related technologies are also described. 190 records were identified. 51 articles were selected for full-text assessment, and only 28 met the inclusion criteria: 9 case series, 10 case reports, and 9 randomized controlled clinical trials. Collectively, they evaluate the use of MSCs in a total of 290 patients in 342 interventions. The current published literature is very diverse in methodology and measurement of outcomes. Moreover, the clinical significance is limited. Therefore, the use of these techniques should be further studied in more challenging clinical scenarios with well-designed and standardized RCTs, potentially in combination with new scaffolding techniques and bioactive molecules to improve the final outcomes.

  5. Tissue and organ regeneration in adults extension of the paradigm to several organs

    CERN Document Server

    Yannas, Ioannis V

    2015-01-01

    This textbook describes the basic principles of induced organ regeneration in skin and peripheral nerves and extends the original successful paradigm to other organs. A set of trans-organ rules is established and its use in regeneration of several organs is illustrated from the works of several independent investigators who worked with a variety of organs, such as the lung, the bladder, and the Achilles tendon, using collagen-based scaffolds somewhat similar to the original one. These critical medical treatments fill the clinical need that is not met by organ transplantation. New to this second edition: New information extending the paradigm of tissue regeneration from organ regeneration in skin and peripheral nerves to other organs Guidelines, known as trans-organ rules, are described for the first time for extending this unique medical treatment to organs of several medical specialties The work serves as a comprehensive text and reference for students and practitioners of tissue engineering  

  6. Ultrasound elastography assessment of bone/soft tissue interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Biren J.; Yang, Xu; Chaudhry, Anuj; Shafeeq Shajudeen, Peer; Nair, Sanjay P.; Weiner, Bradley K.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Krouskop, Thomas A.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We report on the use of elastographic imaging techniques to assess the bone/soft tissue interface, a region that has not been previously investigated but may provide important information about fracture and bone healing. The performance of axial strain elastograms and axial shear strain elastograms at the bone/soft tissue interface was studied ex vivo on intact and fractured canine and ovine tibias. Selected ex vivo results were corroborated on intact sheep tibias in vivo. The elastography results were statistically analyzed using elastographic image quality tools. The results of this study demonstrate distinct patterns in the distribution of the normalized local axial strains and axial shear strains at the bone/soft tissue interface with respect to the background soft tissue. They also show that the relative strength and distribution of the elastographic parameters change in the presence of a fracture and depend on the degree of misalignment between the fracture fragments. Thus, elastographic imaging modalities might be used in the future to obtain information regarding the integrity of bones and to assess the severity of fractures, alignment of bone fragments as well as to follow bone healing.

  7. Self-assembling functionalized nanopeptides for immediate hemostasis and accelerative liver tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tzu-Yun; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Han; Lee, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications in hemostasis and tissue regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine.Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell aggregate: an optimal cell therapy for full-layer cutaneous wound vascularization and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yulin; wei, Wei; Jing, Huan; Ming, Leiguo; Liu, Shiyu; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries. Wounds involving dermis suffer more from outside influence and higher risk of chronic inflammation. Therefore the appearance and function restoration has become an imperative in tissue engineering research. In this study, cell-aggregates constructed with green fluorescent protein-expressing (GFP+) rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were applied to rat acute full-layer cutaneous wound model to confirm its pro-regeneration ability and compare its regenerative efficacy with the currently thriving subcutaneous and intravenous stem cell administration strategy, with a view to sensing the advantages, disadvantages and the mechanism behind. According to results, cell-aggregates cultured in vitro enjoyed higher expression of several pro-healing genes than adherent cultured cells. Animal experiments showed better vascularization along with more regular dermal collagen deposition for cell-aggregate transplanted models. Immunofluorescence staining on inflammatory cells indicated a shorter inflammatory phase for cell-aggregate group, which was backed up by further RT-PCR. The in situ immunofluorescence staining manifested a higher GFP+-cell engraftment for cell-aggregate transplanted models versus cell administered ones. Thus it is safe to say the BMMSCs aggregate could bring superior cutaneous regeneration for full layer cutaneous wound to BMMSCs administration, both intravenous and subcutaneous. PMID:26594024

  9. Histopathological Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Periodontium-derived Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration in Rabbit Calvaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, Z.; Safarpour, A.; Azmoodeh, F.; Adibi, S.; Khoshzaban, A.; Bahrami, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an important oral disease. Stem cell therapy has found its way in treatment of many diseases. Objective: To evaluate the regenerative potential of periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSCs) and osteoblast differentiated from PDLSC in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and pre-osteoblasts in calvarial defects. Methods: After proving the existence of surface markers by flow cytometry, BM-MSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts. 5 defects were made on rabbit calvaria. 3 of them were first covered with collagen membrane and then with BM-MSCs, PDLSCs, and pre-osteoblasts. The 4th defect was filled with collagen membrane and the 5th one was served as control. After 4 weeks, histological (quantitative) and histomorphological (qualitative) surveys were performed. Results: Both cell lineages were positive for CD-90 cell marker, which was specifically related to stem cells. Alizarin red staining was done for showing mineral material. RT-PCR set up for the expression of Cbfa1 gene, BMP4 gene, and PGLAP gene, confirmed osteoblast differentiation. The findings indicated that although PDLSCs and pre-osteoblasts could be used for bone regeneration, the rate of regeneration in BM-MSCs-treated cavities was more significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The obtained results are probably attributable to the effective micro-environmental signals caused by different bone types and the rate of cell maturation. PMID:26889369

  10. Short- and long-term effects of irradiation on bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to quantify bone-regenerative capacity directly and 1 year after administration of 15 Gy 60Co irradiation. A titanium implant, the bone growth chamber, which in nonirradiated cases becomes filled with newly formed bone over a 4-week period, was inserted into each tibial metaphysis of 20 rabbits. In 10 animals the chambers were installed directly after irradiation, while in 10 other rabbits the implants were installed 1 year after the 60Co trauma. In both groups the bone-forming capacity on the irradiated side was compared to that of the contralateral, nonirradiated, control tibia. The amount of bone formed was determined by microradiography and microdensitometry. It was found that bone regeneration was depressed by 70.9 percent within a 4-week period after irradiation. At a follow-up of 1 year, the average depression of bone-forming capacity was only 28.9 percent. This means a recovery by a factor of almost 2.5. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed

  11. BMP2 Genetically Engineered MSCs and EPCs Promote Vascularized Bone Regeneration in Rat Critical-Sized Calvarial Bone Defects

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiaoning; Dziak, Rosemary; Yuan, Xue; Mao, Keya; Genco, Robert; Swihart, Mark; Sarkar, Debanjan; Li, Chunyi; Wang, Changdong; Lu, Li; Andreadis, Stelios; Yang, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical therapies for critical-sized bone defects (CSBDs) remain far from ideal. Previous studies have demonstrated that engineering bone tissue using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is feasible. However, this approach is not effective for CSBDs due to inadequate vascularization. In our previous study, we have developed an injectable and porous nano calcium sulfate/alginate (nCS/A) scaffold and demonstrated that nCS/A composition is biocompatible and has proper biodegradability for bon...

  12. [Effect of pulsed CO2-laser irradiation on bone tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodnov, S E

    1985-01-01

    Different dynamic effects on biological tissue caused by pulsed laser radiation are described. It is shown that the parameters of these effects which take place on the bone tissue affected by pulsed CO2-laser radiation are directly dependent on the parameters of these pulses and may be predicted for any concrete application. PMID:3931698

  13. Exercise and Regulation of Bone and Collagen Tissue Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Heinemeier, Katja Maria;

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system and its connective tissue include the intramuscular connective tissue, the myotendinous junction, the tendon, the joints with their cartilage and ligaments, and the bone; they all together play a crucial role in maintaining the architecture of the skeletal muscle...

  14. Functionalized PCL/HA nanocomposites as microporous membranes for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, microporous membranes based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL functionalized with amine (PCL-DMAEA) or anhydride groups (PCL-MAGMA) were realized by solvent–non solvent phase inversion and proposed for use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). Nanowhiskers of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also incorporated in the polymer matrix to realize nanocomposite membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed improved interfacial adhesion with HA for functionalized polymers, and highlighted substantial differences in the porosity. A relationship between the developed porous structure of the membrane and the chemical nature of grafted groups was proposed. Compared to virgin PCL, hydrophilicity increases for functionalized PCL, while the addition of HA influences significantly the hydrophilic characteristics only in the case of virgin polymer. A significant increase of in vitro degradation rate was found for PCL-MAGMA based membranes, and at lower extent of PCL-DMAEA membranes. The novel materials were investigated regarding their potential as support for cell growth in bone repair using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a model. MSC plated onto the various membranes were analyzed in terms of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic capacity that resulted to be related to chemical as well as porous structure. In particular, PCL-DMAEA and the relative nanocomposite membranes are the most promising in terms of cell-biomaterial interactions. - Graphical abstract: Functionalized PCL is used to realize nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of microporous membranes. The influence of different grafted groups on mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, porous membrane structure and interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is discussed. - Highlights: • Functionalized PCL shows faster in vitro degradation rate. • Functionalized PCL shows superior cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • Nanocomposites based

  15. Functionalized PCL/HA nanocomposites as microporous membranes for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Maria Assunta; Gomez d' Ayala, Giovanna; Malinconico, Mario [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples) (Italy); Laurienzo, Paola, E-mail: paola.laurienzo@ipcb.cnr.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples) (Italy); Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), Artificial Biopolymers Group, CNRS UMR 5247, University of Montpellier 1, Faculty of Pharmacy, 15 Av. C. Flahault, Montpellier 34093 (France); Ragione, Fulvio Della [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples (Italy); Oliva, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.oliva@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, microporous membranes based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL functionalized with amine (PCL-DMAEA) or anhydride groups (PCL-MAGMA) were realized by solvent–non solvent phase inversion and proposed for use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). Nanowhiskers of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also incorporated in the polymer matrix to realize nanocomposite membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed improved interfacial adhesion with HA for functionalized polymers, and highlighted substantial differences in the porosity. A relationship between the developed porous structure of the membrane and the chemical nature of grafted groups was proposed. Compared to virgin PCL, hydrophilicity increases for functionalized PCL, while the addition of HA influences significantly the hydrophilic characteristics only in the case of virgin polymer. A significant increase of in vitro degradation rate was found for PCL-MAGMA based membranes, and at lower extent of PCL-DMAEA membranes. The novel materials were investigated regarding their potential as support for cell growth in bone repair using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a model. MSC plated onto the various membranes were analyzed in terms of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic capacity that resulted to be related to chemical as well as porous structure. In particular, PCL-DMAEA and the relative nanocomposite membranes are the most promising in terms of cell-biomaterial interactions. - Graphical abstract: Functionalized PCL is used to realize nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of microporous membranes. The influence of different grafted groups on mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, porous membrane structure and interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is discussed. - Highlights: • Functionalized PCL shows faster in vitro degradation rate. • Functionalized PCL shows superior cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • Nanocomposites based

  16. Mechanical and cytotoxicity evaluation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbagi, Marjan; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Raeissi, Keyvan; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Valiani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Despite the attractive characteristics of three-dimensional pure hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, due to their weak mechanical properties, researches have focused on the development of composite scaffolds via introducing suitable secondary components. The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time, three-dimensional HA-bredigite (Ca7MgSi4O16) scaffolds containing various amounts of bredigite nanopowder (0, 5, 10 and 15wt.%) using space holder technique. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were applied in order to study the morphology, fracture surface and phase compositions of nanopowders and scaffolds. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results showed that the composite scaffolds with average pore size in the range of 220-310μm, appearance porosity of 63.1-75.9% and appearance density of 1.1±0.04g/cm(3) were successfully developed, depending on bredigite content. Indeed, the micropore size of the scaffolds reduced with increasing bredigite content confirming that the sinterability of the scaffolds was improved. Furthermore, the compression strength and modulus of the scaffolds significantly enhanced via incorporation of bredigite content from 0 to 15wt.%. The composite scaffolds revealed superior bioactivity and biodegradability with increasing bredigite content. Moreover, MTT assay confirmed that HA-15wt.% bredigite scaffold significantly promoted cell proliferation compared to tissue culture plate (control) and HA scaffold. Based on these results, three-dimensional HA-bredigite scaffolds could be promising replacements for HA scaffolds in bone regeneration. PMID:27524060

  17. Substrate stiffness and oxygen as regulators of stem cell differentiation during skeletal tissue regeneration: a mechanobiological model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Paul Burke

    Full Text Available Extrinsic mechanical signals have been implicated as key regulators of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation. It has been possible to test different hypotheses for mechano-regulated MSC differentiation by attempting to simulate regenerative events such as bone fracture repair, where repeatable spatial and temporal patterns of tissue differentiation occur. More recently, in vitro studies have identified other environmental cues such as substrate stiffness and oxygen tension as key regulators of MSC differentiation; however it remains unclear if and how such cues determine stem cell fate in vivo. As part of this study, a computational model was developed to test the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen tension regulate stem cell differentiation during fracture healing. Rather than assuming mechanical signals act directly on stem cells to determine their differentiation pathway, it is postulated that they act indirectly to regulate angiogenesis and hence partially determine the local oxygen environment within a regenerating tissue. Chondrogenesis of MSCs was hypothesized to occur in low oxygen regions, while in well vascularised regions of the regenerating tissue a soft local substrate was hypothesised to facilitate adipogenesis while a stiff substrate facilitated osteogenesis. Predictions from the model were compared to both experimental data and to predictions of a well established computational mechanobiological model where tissue differentiation is assumed to be regulated directly by the local mechanical environment. The model predicted all the major events of fracture repair, including cartilaginous bridging, endosteal and periosteal bony bridging and bone remodelling. It therefore provides support for the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen play a key role in regulating MSC fate during regenerative events such as fracture healing.

  18. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departament of Materials Engineering - Rd. Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905, São Carlos-SP (Brazil); Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario, E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Université de Strasbourg, ECPM-LIPHT - 25 rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  19. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João.; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario.

    2015-05-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  20. The Kinetics of Ampicillin Release from Hydroxyapatite for Bones Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanilton Ferreira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics are among the most used pharmaceuticals. Their use in veterinary and human medicine is in continuous expansion. There is a growing need for developing bioactive implants. Advantages of implantable drug delivery tools can include high release efficiency, precise dose control, low toxicity, and allow to overcome disadvantages connected with conventional methods. In this respect, hydroxyapatite (HA is an elective material. It enables to produce architectures similar to those of real bones. Here we studied a kinetic model to describe ampicillin release from HA. In the course of adsorption experiment, ampicillin was dissolved, maintained at 30∘C and shaken at 60 strokes/minute. Samples were withdrawn periodically for analysis and then returned to the mixture. Adsorbed amounts were measured by the difference of the concentration of the antibiotics before and after adsorption using UV adsorption at 225 nm. The aim of this work was to evaluate its application as ampicillin delivery carrier.

  1. Bone regeneration by the osteoconductivity of porous titanium implants manufactured by selective laser melting: a histological and micro computed tomography study in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Michael; Schumacher, Ralf; Mayer, Kyrill; Schkommodau, Erik; Thoma, Daniel; Bredell, Marius; Kruse Gujer, Astrid; Grätz, Klaus W; Weber, Franz E

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of large bone defects still poses a major challenge in orthopaedic and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. One possible solution could be the development of personalized porous titanium-based implants that are designed to meet all mechanical needs with a minimum amount of titanium and maximum osteopromotive properties so that it could be combined with growth factor-loaded hydrogels or cell constructs to realize advanced bone tissue engineering strategies. Such implants could prove useful for mandibular reconstruction, spinal fusion, the treatment of extended long bone defects, or to fill in gaps created on autograft harvesting. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical properties and potential of bone formation of light weight implants generated by selective laser melting (SLM). We mainly focused on osteoconduction, as this is a key feature in bone healing and could serve as a back-up for osteoinduction and cell transplantation strategies. To that end, defined implants were produced by SLM, and their surfaces were left untreated, sandblasted, or sandblasted/acid etched. In vivo bone formation with the different implants was tested throughout calvarial defects in rabbits and compared with untreated defects. Analysis by micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry revealed that all generatively produced porous Ti structures were well osseointegrated into the surrounding bone. The histomorphometric analysis revealed that bone formation was significantly increased in all implant-treated groups compared with untreated defects and significantly increased in sand blasted implants compared with untreated ones. Bone bridging was significantly increased in sand blasted acid-etched scaffolds. Therefore, scaffolds manufactured by SLM should be surface treated. Bone augmentation beyond the original bone margins was only seen in implant-treated defects, indicating an osteoconductive potential of the implants that could be utilized clinically for bone

  2. [Bone tissue engineering. Reconstruction of critical sized segmental bone defects in the ovine tibia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, J C; Epari, D R; Wullschleger, M E; Berner, A; Saifzadeh, S; Nöth, U; Dickinson, I C; Schuetz, M A; Hutmacher, D W

    2012-04-01

    Well-established therapies for bone defects are restricted to bone grafts which face significant disadvantages (limited availability, donor site morbidity, insufficient integration). Therefore, the objective was to develop an alternative approach investigating the regenerative potential of medical grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL-TCP) and silk-hydroxyapatite (silk-HA) scaffolds.Critical sized ovine tibial defects were created and stabilized. Defects were left untreated, reconstructed with autologous bone grafts (ABG) and mPCL-TCP or silk-HA scaffolds. Animals were observed for 12 weeks. X-ray analysis, torsion testing and quantitative computed tomography (CT) analyses were performed. Radiological analysis confirmed the critical nature of the defects. Full defect bridging occurred in the autograft and partial bridging in the mPCL-TCP group. Only little bone formation was observed with silk-HA scaffolds. Biomechanical testing revealed a higher torsional moment/stiffness (p < 0.05) and CT analysis a significantly higher amount of bone formation for the ABG group when compared to the silk-HA group. No significant difference was determined between the ABG and mPCL-TCP groups. The results of this study suggest that mPCL-TCP scaffolds combined can serve as an alternative to autologous bone grafting in long bone defect regeneration. The combination of mPCL-TCP with osteogenic cells or growth factors represents an attractive means to further enhance bone formation. PMID:22476418

  3. Combination of simvastatin, calcium silicate/gypsum, and gelatin and bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Huiming; Shi, Jue; Wang, Ying; Lai, Kaichen; Yang, Xianyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Guoli

    2016-03-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether simvastatin improves bone regeneration when combined with calcium silicate/gypsum and gelatin (CS-GEL). The surface morphology was determined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM). Degradation in vitro was evaluated by monitoring the weight change of the composites soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Drug release was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity testing was performed to assess the biocompatibility of composites. Four 5 mm-diameter bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria. Three sites were filled with CS-GEL, 0.5 mg simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL (SIM-0.5) and 1.0 mg simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL (SIM-1.0), respectively, and the fourth was left empty as the control group. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis were carried out at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The composites all exhibited three-dimensional structures and showed the residue with nearly 80% after 4 weeks of immersion. Drug release was explosive on the first day and then the release rate remained stable. The composites did not induce any cytotoxicity. The results in vivo demonstrated that the new bone formation and the expressions of BMP-2, OC and type I collagen were improved in the simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL group. It was concluded that the simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL may improve bone regeneration.

  4. Combination of simvastatin, calcium silicate/gypsum, and gelatin and bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Huiming; Shi, Jue; Wang, Ying; Lai, Kaichen; Yang, Xianyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yang, Guoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether simvastatin improves bone regeneration when combined with calcium silicate/gypsum and gelatin (CS-GEL). The surface morphology was determined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM). Degradation in vitro was evaluated by monitoring the weight change of the composites soaked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Drug release was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity testing was performed to assess the biocompatibility of composites. Four 5 mm-diameter bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria. Three sites were filled with CS-GEL, 0.5 mg simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL (SIM-0.5) and 1.0 mg simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL (SIM-1.0), respectively, and the fourth was left empty as the control group. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis were carried out at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The composites all exhibited three-dimensional structures and showed the residue with nearly 80% after 4 weeks of immersion. Drug release was explosive on the first day and then the release rate remained stable. The composites did not induce any cytotoxicity. The results in vivo demonstrated that the new bone formation and the expressions of BMP-2, OC and type I collagen were improved in the simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL group. It was concluded that the simvastatin-loaded CS-GEL may improve bone regeneration. PMID:26996657

  5. Bone regeneration in surgically created defects filled with autogenous bone: an epifluorescence microscopy analysis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Heidy Guskuma; Eduardo Hochuli-Vieira; Flávia Priscila Pereira; Idelmo Rangel-Garcia Junior; Roberta Okamoto; Tetuo Okamoto; Osvaldo Magro Filho

    2010-01-01

    Although the search for the ideal bone substitute has been the focus of a large number of studies, autogenous bone is still the gold standard for the filling of defects caused by pathologies and traumas, and mainly, for alveolar ridge reconstruction, allowing the titanium implants installation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of autogenous bone graft incorporation process to surgically created defects in rat calvaria, using epifluorescence microscopy. MATERIAL A...

  6. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Henrich; René Verboket; Alexander Schaible; Kerstin Kontradowitz; Elsie Oppermann; Brune, Jan C; Christoph Nau; Simon Meier; Halvard Bonig; Ingo Marzi; Caroline Seebach

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or ...

  7. Gelatin-Modified Bone Substitute with Bioactive Molecules Enhance Cellular Interactions and Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Ankur; Raina, Deepak Bushan; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we have synthesized injectable bone cement incorporated with gelatin to enhance cellular interaction. Human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) and a bisphosphonate (zoledronic acid (0.2 mM)) were also incorporated to cement. In vitro studies conducted using Saos-2 demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation on gelatin (0.2%w/v) cement. The differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells into bone forming cells showed 6-fold increase in ALP levels on gelatin cement. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone biomarkers showed osteoinductive potential of gelatin cement. We investigated efficacy for local delivery of these bioactive molecules in enhancing bone substitution qualities of bone cements by implanting in 3.5 mm critical size defect in tibial metaphysis of wistar rats. The rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks and 16 weeks post implantation. X-ray, micro-CT, histology, and histomorphometry analysis were performed to check bone healing. The cement materials slowly resorbed from the defect site leaving HAP creating porous matrix providing surface for bone formation. The materials showed high biocompatibility and initial bridging was observed in all the animals but maximum bone formation was observed in animals implanted with cement incorporated with zoledronic acid followed by cement with BMP's compared to other groups. PMID:27077816

  8. Temporal evolution of mechanical properties of skeletal tissue regeneration in rabbits. An experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Mokoko, Didier; Chabrand, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Various mathematical models represent the effects of local mechanical environment on the regulation of skeletal regeneration. Their relevance relies on an accurate description of the evolving mechanical properties of the regenerating tissue. The object of this study was to develop an experimental model which made it possible to characterize the temporal evolution of the structural and mechanical properties during unloaded enchondral osteogenesis in the New Zealand rabbit, a standard animal model for studies of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. A 25mm segment of tibial diaphysis was removed sub-periosteally from rabbits. The defect was repaired by the preserved periosteum. An external fixator was applied to prevent mechanical loading during osteogenesis. The regenerated skeletal tissues were studied by CT scan, histology and mechanical tests. The traction tests between 7 to 21 days post-surgery were done on formaldehyde-fixated tissue allowing to obtain force/displacement curves. The viscoelastic properties of ...

  9. Somaclonal variation in tobacco and tomato plants regenerated from tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigations on the somaclonal variation of regenerants of six N. tabacum varieties and four species of the genus Lycopersicon (L. esculentum, L. peruvianum, L. chilense and L. cheesmanii var. minor). The 1300 regenerated tobacco plants obtained differed from each other and from the initial varieties by their habitus, height of stem, size and form of the leaves and flowers, duration of the vegetative period and other characters. Cytological investigations of the root meristems of the regenerated plants demonstrated great variability of chromosome number, many being mixoploid, aneuploid or tetraploid. The meiosis of the regenerants was characterized by a great number of disturbances which resulted in their low fertility, or complete sterility. After testing the progenies of the regenerated plants in R1 and R2, 100 lines were obtained, 10 of which had higher yield and valuable qualities. The same great variability of morphological and cytological properties and pollen fertility was observed in regenerants obtained from tissue cultures of tomato leaves and flower buds. Self-compatible forms were obtained from initially completely self-compatible plants of L. peruvianum and L. chilense. Recessive, jointless, pedicel mutation was observed in plants regenerated from tissue cultures of L. peruvianum. It was established that segregation of fruit-carotenoid composition occurred in R1 progenies of regenerants from L. cheesmanii. Some plants formed normal orange fruits with high β-carotene content (genotype BB+). Others formed red fruits with high lycopene and low β-carotene contents (genotype B+B+). Progenies of these R2 plants were also red-fruited. The data obtained from the investigations show mutation of the dominant gene B into a recessive B+. The results of these investigations show that somaclonal variation in tissue cultures can be successfully applied in genetics and plant breeding to obtain valuable lines and varieties

  10. Evaluation of clinical, antiinflammatory and antiinfective properties of amniotic membrane used for guided tissue regeneration: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory, antiinfective and clinical properties of amniotic membrane (AM when used for guided tissue regeneration (GTR in contained interdental defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects participated in this study. Two sites in each subject were randomly assigned into each of the following experimental groups; test group: AM with bone graft and control group: Bone graft only. Clinical parameters included recording site-specific measures of plaque, gingivitis, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment loss (CAL. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF from the test and control sites were measured by using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. The evaluation of bone fill was performed by using digital subtraction technique and morphometric area analysis. One-way analysis of variance followed by the post-hoc test was used for intragroup and intergroup comparison. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Combination therapy using an AM increased bone fill and reduced PPD and CAL when compared to controls. AM also resulted in a significant reduction of GCF IL-1β levels and insignificant increase in the hBD-2 levels. Conclusion: From this trial conducted over a period of 24 weeks, AM demonstrated a marked antiinflammatory effect and its use resulted in an improvement in periodontal parameters. AM has the potential to function as a barrier for GTR and the unique properties associated with this material can augment its potential as a matrix for periodontal regeneration.

  11. Tissue culture regeneration and radiation induced mutagenesis in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced mutagenesis is an important tool for banana genetic improvement. At BARC, protocols for shoo-tip multiplication of commercial banana varieties have been developed and transferred to user agencies for commercial production. Excellent embryogenic cell suspensions were established in banana cvs. Rasthali and Rajeli, and were maintained at low temperatures for long-term storage. Normal plantlets were successfully regenerated from these cell suspensions. The cell suspensions and shoot-tip cultures were gamma-irradiated for mutagenesis. The mutagenized populations were field screened and a few interesting mutants have been isolated. The existence of genetic variation was confirmed using DNA markers. Further evaluation of these mutants is in progress. (author)

  12. Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga, E-mail: dagnija.loca@rtu.l [Riga Technical University, Riga Biomaterials innovation and development centre, Pulka 3/3, LV-1007, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-10-29

    The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

  13. Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loca, Dagnija; Locs, Janis; Salma, Kristine; Gulbis, Juris; Salma, Ilze; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2011-10-01

    The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

  14. Porous Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Scaffolds for Drug Delivery and Bone Regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional methods of supplying a patient with pharmacologic active substances suffer from being very poorly selective, so that damage can occurs to the healthy tissues and organs, different from the intended target. In addition, high drug doses can be required to achieve the desired effect. An alternative approach is based on the use of implantable delivery tools, able to release the active substance in a controlled way. In the current research local drug delivery devices containing 8mg of gentamicin sulphate were prepared using custom developed vacuum impregnation technique. In vitro dissolution tests showed that gentamicin release was sustained for 12h. In order to decrease gentamicin release rate, biopolymer coatings were applied and coating structure investigated. The results showed that gentamicin release can be sustained for more than 70h for poly(ε-caprolactone) coated calcium phosphate scaffolds. From poly lactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol coated scaffolds gentamicin was released within 20h and 50h, respectively.

  15. Factors promoting increased rate of tissue regeneration: the zebrafish fin as a tool for examining tissue engineering design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Vijay P; Ferreira, Tracie L

    2012-12-01

    Student interest in topics of tissue engineering is increasing exponentially as the number of universities offering programs in bioengineering are on the rise. Bioengineering encompasses all of the STEM categories: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. Inquiry-based learning is one of the most effective techniques for promoting student learning and has been demonstrated to have a high impact on learning outcomes. We have designed program outcomes for our bioengineering program that require tiered activities to develop problem solving skills, peer evaluation techniques, and promote team work. While it is ideal to allow students to ask unique questions and design their own experiments, this can be difficult for instructors to have reagents and supplies available for a variety of activities. Zebrafish can be easily housed, and multiple variables can be tested on a large enough group to provide statistical value, lending them well to inquiry-based learning modules. We have designed a laboratory activity that takes observation of fin regeneration to the next level: analyzing conditions that may impact regeneration. Tissue engineers seek to define the optimum conditions to grow tissue for replacement parts. The field of tissue engineering is likely to benefit from understanding natural mechanisms of regeneration and the factors that influence the rate of regeneration. We have outlined the results of varying temperature on fin regeneration and propose other inquiry modules such as the role of pH in fin regeneration. Furthermore, we have provided useful tools for developing critical thinking and peer review of research ideas, assessment guidelines, and grading rubrics for the activities associated with this exercise. PMID:23244692

  16. A functional chitosan membrane with grafted epigallocatechin-3-gallate and lovastatin enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lee, Chien-Chen; Lin, Hung-Pin; Shih, Wei-An; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2016-10-20

    Currently used guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes are mainly used as a barrier to prevent epithelial cells growth into defects before new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop a tri-layer functional chitosan (CS) membrane with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) grafted on the outer layer for bactericidal activity, and lovastatin was included in the middle layer for controlled release. Successful EGCG grafting was demonstrated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and EGCG grafting significantly enhanced adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts. The release duration of lovastatin reached 21days. CS-Lovastatin1 produced the highest alkaline phosphatase activity and EGCG14-CS exhibited the best bactericidal activity against periodontopathic bacteria. Finally, the EGCG14-CS-Lovastatin1 membrane showed a higher percentage of bone regeneration than BioMend(®) and control groups in one-walled defects of beagle dogs. These results suggest that the EGCG14-CS-Lovastatin1 membrane has the potential to be used as a novel GTR membrane. PMID:27474626

  17. Endochondral bone tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jukes, Jojanneke M.; Both, Sanne Karijn; Leusink, Anouk; Sterk, Lotus M. Th.; Blitterswijk, van, W.J.; Boer, de, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can provide an unlimited supply of pluripotent cells for tissue engineering applications. Bone tissue engineering by directly differentiating ES cells (ESCs) into osteoblasts has been unsuccessful so far. Therefore, we investigated an alternative approach, based on the process of endochondral ossification. A cartilage matrix was formed in vitro by mouse ESCs seeded on a scaffold. When these cartilage tissue-engineered constructs (CTECs) were implanted s.c., the cartilage ...

  18. Bone regeneration with active angiogenesis by basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells seeded on porous β-TCP ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on combining gene transfer with tissue engineering techniques. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most prominent osteogenic growth factors that has the potential to accelerate bone healing by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the regeneration of capillary vasculature. However, the short biological half-lives of growth factors may impose severe restraints on their clinical usefulness. Gene-based delivery systems provide a better way of achieving a sustained high concentration of growth factors locally in the defect and delivering a more biologically active product than that achieved by exogenous application of recombinant proteins. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether the bFGF gene modified MSCs could enhance the repair of large segmental bone defects. The pcDNA3-bFGF gene transfected MSCs were seeded on biodegradable porous β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics and allografted into the 15 mm critical-sized segmental bone defects in the radius of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. The pcDNA3 vector gene transfected MSCs were taken as the control. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic, roentgenographic, histologic and immunohistological studies were used to assess angiogenesis and bone regeneration. In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of bFGF gene transfected MSCs were more active than that of the control groups. In vivo, significantly more new bone formation accompanied by abundant active capillary regeneration was observed in pores of the ceramics loaded with bFGF gene transfected MSCs, compared with control groups. Transfer of gene encoding bFGF to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation. This new b

  19. Cellular proliferation and regeneration following tissue damage. Progress report. [Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.V.

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from a study of wound healing in tissues of the eye, particularly lens, cornea, and surrounding tissues. The reactions of these tissues to mechanical injuries, as well as injuries induced by chemotoxic agents were studied. It is postulated that a better understanding of the basic reactions of the eye to injurious agents may be of importance in the evaluation of potential environmental hazards.

  20. Oily calcium hydroxide suspension (Osteoinductal) used as an adjunct to guided bone regeneration: an experimental study in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavropoulos, A.; Geenen, C.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Karring, T.; Sculean, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether an oily calcium hydroxide suspension (OCHS) promotes bone healing when used as an adjunct to guided bone regeneration (GBR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rigid, hemispherical, teflon capsules were placed with their open part facing the lateral surface of the ramus on both si

  1. Mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite-PLGA-collagen biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Didarul B; Middleton, John C; Tannenbaum, Rina; Wick, Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    A bone graft is a complicated structure that provides mechanical support and biological signals that regulate bone growth, reconstruction, and repair. A single-component material is inadequate to provide a suitable combination of structural support and biological stimuli to promote bone regeneration. Multicomponent composite biomaterials lack adequate bonding among the components to prevent phase separation after implantation. We have previously developed a novel multistep polymerization and fabrication process to construct a nano-hydroxyapatite-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-collagen biomaterial (abbreviated nHAP-PLGA-collagen) with the components covalently bonded to each other. In the present study, the mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of nHAP-PLGA-collagen are characterized to assess the material's suitability to support bone regeneration. nHAP-PLGA-collagen films exhibit tensile strength very close to that of human cancellous bone. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are viable on 2D nHAP-PLGA-collagen films with a sevenfold increase in cell population after 7 days of culture. Over 5 weeks of culture, hMSCs deposit matrix and mineral consistent with osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. As a result of matrix deposition, nHAP-PLGA-collagen films cultured with hMSCs exhibit 48% higher tensile strength and fivefold higher moduli compared to nHAP-PLGA-collagen films without cells. More interestingly, secretion of matrix and minerals by differentiated hMSCs cultured on the nHAP-PLGA-collagen films for 5 weeks mitigates the loss of mechanical strength that accompanies PLGA hydrolysis. PMID:27120980

  2. Bone regeneration effect after the addition of a vitamin complex in two bio ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Biomaterials research is the development of devices that help bone regeneration. Two synthetic ceramics has been widely used with that purpose: hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). In many situations it is desirable that the resorption rate of these materials by the body matches the bone growth rate. In these cases, the use of a mixture between the two phases is beneficial. The material resorption and bone growth are complexes physiological processes, influenced amongst other things by the inflammatory response of the surgical site. That being said, an exacerbated inflammatory response is potentially hazardous, since it may induce an increase of the oxidative stress due to the free radicals production. The free radicals attack causes, amongst other hazardous effects, the cell membrane degeneration which in turn may lead to cell necrosis and/or apoptosis within the surgical site. In this work, two ceramics were implanted in rats femora: β-TCP or the biphasic mixture of 60:40% in mass of HAp:β-TCP. The bone growth was assessed by both optical and fluorescence microscopy, using fluorescent bone markers. Moreover, it was also evaluated the effect of the presence of a vitamin complex, mediator of the inflammatory response. It was concluded that the pure β-TCP was more readily absorbed when compared with the mixture β-TCP-HAp, and there it was signs that the presence of the vitamin complex may have helped in a favorable way the bone neo formation. (author)

  3. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of β-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of β-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that β-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of β-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/β-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: ► Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. ► Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of β-TCP. ► Increasing amount of β-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. ► Proper fraction of β-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. ► Hybrid of β-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  4. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  5. Analysis of anisotropic viscoelastoplastic properties of cortical bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Adel A; Alam, Khurshid; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2011-07-01

    Bone fractures affect the health of many people and have a significant social and economic effect. Often, bones fracture due to impacts, sudden falls or trauma. In order to numerically model the fracture of a cortical bone tissue caused by an impact it is important to know parameters characterising its viscoelastoplastic behaviour. These parameters should be measured for various orientations in a bone tissue to assess bone's anisotropy linked to its microstructure. So, the first part of this study was focused on quantification of elastic-plastic behaviour of cortical bone using specimens cut along different directions with regard to the bone axis-longitudinal (axial) and transverse. Due to pronounced non-linearity of the elastic-plastic behaviour of the tissue, cyclic loading-unloading uniaxial tension tests were performed to obtain the magnitudes of elastic moduli not only from the initial loading part of the cycle but also from its unloading part. Additional tests were performed with different deformation rates to study the bone's strain-rate sensitivity. The second part of this study covered creep and relaxation properties of cortical bone for two directions and four different anatomical positions-anterior, posterior, medial and lateral-to study the variability of bone's properties. Since viscoelastoplasticity of cortical bone affects its damping properties due to energy dissipation, the Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) technique was used in the last part of our study to obtain magnitudes of storage and loss moduli for various frequencies. Based on analysis of elastic-plastic behaviour of the bovine cortical bone tissue, it was found that magnitudes of the longitudinal Young's modulus for four cortical positions were in the range of 15-24 GPa, while the transversal modulus was lower--between 10 and 15 GPa. Axial strength for various anatomical positions was also higher than transversal strength with significant differences in magnitudes for those positions

  6. Tautomerizable β-ketonitrile copolymers for bone tissue engineering: Studies of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers have demonstrated tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity properties according to surrounding environment, and mechanical properties similar to those of human bone tissue. Both characteristic properties make them promising candidates as biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Based on this knowledge we have designed two scaffolds based on β-ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers which differ in chemical composition and surface morphology. Two of them were nanostructured, using an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template, and the other two obtained by solvent casting methodology. They were used to evaluate the effect of the composition and their structural modifications on the biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and degradation properties. Our results showed that the nanostructured scaffolds exhibited higher degradation rate by macrophages than casted scaffolds (6 and 2.5% of degradation for nanostructured and casted scaffolds, respectively), a degradation rate compatible with bone regeneration times. We also demonstrated that the β-ketonitrile tautomeric based scaffolds supported osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation without cytotoxic effects, suggesting that these biomaterials could be useful in the bone tissue engineering field. - Graphical abstract: β-Ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers were nanostructured in nanorods using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. These nanorods had good biocompatibility properties supporting osteoblastic growth and differentiation without cytotoxic effects, making them promising for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Tautomeric β-ketonitrile copolymer based scaffold was obtained with different compositions. • Scaffolds exhibited tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity properties and good mechanical properties. • Nanostructured scaffolds exhibited higher degradation rate than casted scaffolds by macrophages. • Scaffolds support osteoblastic cell proliferation and

  7. Tautomerizable β-ketonitrile copolymers for bone tissue engineering: Studies of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra, M. Laura [Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Osteopatías y Metabolismo Mineral (LIOMM), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP (1900), 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Molinuevo, M. Silvina, E-mail: silvinamolinuevo@yahoo.com.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Osteopatías y Metabolismo Mineral (LIOMM), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP (1900), 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Giussi, Juan M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT-La Plata, CC16 suc. 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Estudio de Compuestos Orgánicos (LADECOR), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Allegretti, Patricia E. [Laboratorio de Estudio de Compuestos Orgánicos (LADECOR), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cortizo, M. Susana, E-mail: gcortizo@infta.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT-La Plata, CC16 suc. 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    β-Ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers have demonstrated tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity properties according to surrounding environment, and mechanical properties similar to those of human bone tissue. Both characteristic properties make them promising candidates as biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Based on this knowledge we have designed two scaffolds based on β-ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers which differ in chemical composition and surface morphology. Two of them were nanostructured, using an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template, and the other two obtained by solvent casting methodology. They were used to evaluate the effect of the composition and their structural modifications on the biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and degradation properties. Our results showed that the nanostructured scaffolds exhibited higher degradation rate by macrophages than casted scaffolds (6 and 2.5% of degradation for nanostructured and casted scaffolds, respectively), a degradation rate compatible with bone regeneration times. We also demonstrated that the β-ketonitrile tautomeric based scaffolds supported osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation without cytotoxic effects, suggesting that these biomaterials could be useful in the bone tissue engineering field. - Graphical abstract: β-Ketonitrile tautomeric copolymers were nanostructured in nanorods using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template. These nanorods had good biocompatibility properties supporting osteoblastic growth and differentiation without cytotoxic effects, making them promising for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Tautomeric β-ketonitrile copolymer based scaffold was obtained with different compositions. • Scaffolds exhibited tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity properties and good mechanical properties. • Nanostructured scaffolds exhibited higher degradation rate than casted scaffolds by macrophages. • Scaffolds support osteoblastic cell proliferation and

  8. Bone regeneration in the presence of a synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based and a xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute materia

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, A.; Jung, R.E.; Nicholls, F.; Zwahlen, R A; Hämmerle, C H F; Weber, F E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: A comparison of synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide, xenogenic hydroxyapatite-based bone substitute materials with empty control sites in terms of bone regeneration enhancement in a rabbit calvarial four non-critical-sized defect model. Methods: In each of six rabbits, four bicortical calvarial bone defects were generated. The following four treatment modalities were randomly allocated: (1) empty control site, (2) synthetic hydroxyapatite/silica oxide-based (HA/SiO) test granule...

  9. Biodegradable Polymers in Bone Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Govaert, Leon E.; Smit, Theo H; Robert J. Kroeze; Helder, Marco N.

    2009-01-01

    The use ofdegradable polymers in medicine largely started around the mid 20th century with their initial use as in vivo resorbing sutures. Thorough knowledge on this topic as been gained since then and the potential applications for these polymers were, and still are, rapidly expanding. After improving the properties of lactic acid-based polymers, these were no longer studied only from a scientific point of view, but also for their use in bone surgery in the 1990s. Unfortunately, after implan...

  10. Biomaterials mediated microRNA delivery for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, M; Sainitya, R; Kalyanaraman, V; Dhivya, S; Selvamurugan, N

    2015-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an alternative strategy to overcome the problems associated with traditional treatments for bone defects. A number of bioactive materials along with new techniques like porous scaffold implantation, gene delivery, 3D organ printing are now-a-days emerging for traditional bone grafts and metal implants. Studying the molecular mechanisms through which these biomaterials induce osteogenesis is an equally hot field. Biomaterials could determine the fate of a cell via microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play an essential role for regulation of cell specific lineages including osteogenesis. Thus, this review focuses the recent trends on establishing a link of biomaterials with miRNAs and their delivery for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25543062

  11. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Atala

    2010-04-28

    The Joint Commission for Health Care Organizations recently declared the shortage of transplantable organs and tissues a public health crisis. As such, there is about one death every 30 seconds due to organ failure. Complications and rejection are still significant albeit underappreciated problems. It is often overlooked that organ transplantation results in the patient being placed on an immune suppression regimen that will ultimate shorten their life span. Patients facing reconstruction often find that surgery is difficult or impossible due to the shortage of healthy autologous tissue. In many cases, autografting is a compromise between the condition and the cure that can result in substantial diminution of quality of life. The national cost of caring for persons who might benefit from engineered tissues or organs has reached $600 billion annually. Autologous tissue technologies have been developed as an alternative to transplantation or reconstructive surgery. Autologous tissues derived from the patient's own cells are capable of correcting numerous pathologies and injuries. The use of autologous cells eliminates the risks of rejection and immunological reactions, drastically reduces the time that patients must wait for lifesaving surgery, and negates the need for autologous tissue harvest, thereby eliminating the associated morbidities. In fact, the use of autologous tissues to create functional organs is one of the most important and groundbreaking steps ever taken in medicine. Although the basic premise of creating tissues in the laboratory has progressed dramatically, only a limited number of tissue developments have reached the patients to date. This is due, in part, to the several major technological challenges that require solutions. To that end, we have been in pursuit of more efficient ways to expand cells in vitro, methods to improve vascular support so that relevant volumes of engineered tissues can be grown, and constructs that can mimic the

  12. Hydrogel-Based Platforms for the Regeneration of Osteochondral Tissue and Intervertebral Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ambrosio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels currently represent a powerful solution to promote the regeneration of soft and hard tissues. Primarily, they assure efficient bio-molecular interactions with cells, also regulating their basic functions, guiding the spatially and temporally complex multi-cellular processes of tissue formation, and ultimately facilitating the restoration of structure and function of damaged or dysfunctional tissues. In order to overcome basic drawbacks of traditional synthesized hydrogels, many recent strategies have been implemented to realize multi-component hydrogels based on natural and/or synthetic materials with tailored chemistries and different degradation kinetics. Here, a critical review of main strategies has been proposed based on the use of hydrogels-based devices for the regeneration of complex tissues, i.e., osteo-chondral tissues and intervertebral disc.

  13. Pulp regeneration after non-infected and infected necrosis, what type of tissue do we want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Bakland, Leif K

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration (revitalization) of infected necrotic pulp tissue has been an important issue in endodontics for more than a decade. Based on a series of case reports, there appears to be evidence that new soft tissue can enter the root canal with a potential for subsequent hard tissue deposition...... resulting in a narrowing of the root canal. Very little is presently known about the exact nature of this tissue growing into the canal and how it may behave in the long term. In the case of regeneration of necrotic non-infected pulp tissue, a series of clinical and histological studies have shown that such...... events may take place in four variants: (i) Revascularization of the pulp with accelerated dentin formation leading to pulp canal obliteration. This event has a good long-term prognosis. (ii) Ingrowth of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL). The long-term prognosis for this event is not known. (iii...

  14. Histological analysis of cells and matrix mineralization of new bone tissue induced in rabbit femur bones by Mg-Zr based biodegradable implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragamouni, Sravanthi; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Mushahary, Dolly; Nemani, Harishankar; Pande, Gopal

    2013-09-01

    The biological efficacy of bone inducing implant materials in situ can be assessed effectively by performing histological analysis. We studied the peri-implant bone regeneration around two types of biodegradable magnesium-zirconium alloys, Mg-5Zr and Mg-Zr-2Sr, using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in the femur of New Zealand White strain rabbits. Our study includes three animal groups: (a) Mg-5Zr, (b) Mg-Zr-2Sr and (c) control. In each group three animals were used and in groups 'a' and 'b' the respective alloys were implanted in cavities made at the distal ends of the femur; control animals were left without implants to observe natural bone healing. Qualitative assessment of the cellularity and matrix mineralization events of the newly formed bone tissue was done at three months after implantation by histological methods in methyl methacrylate embedded tissue without decalcifying the bone. Quantitative mineral content and density of the new bone (NB) were evaluated by the statistical analysis of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data obtained from three animals in each experimental group. Based on our analysis we conclude that Mg-Zr-2Sr alloy showed better osseointegration of the newly formed bone with the implant surface. Our methodology of studying peri-implant osteoinduction of degradable implants using low temperature methyl methacrylate embedding resin can be useful as a general method for determining the bio-efficacy of implant materials. PMID:23628266

  15. Adipose Tissue Regeneration: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Casadei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue pathologies and defects have always represented a reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. In more recent years, several allogenic and alloplastic materials have been developed and used as fillers for soft tissue defects. However, their clinical use has been limited by further documented complications, such as foreign-body reactions potentially affecting function, degradation over time, and the risk for immunogenicity. Tissue-engineering strategies are thus being investigated to develop methods for generating adipose tissue. This paper will discuss the current state of the art in adipose tissue engineering techniques, exploring the biomaterials used, stem cells application, culture strategies, and current regulatory framework that are in use are here described and discussed.

  16. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  17. Multi-Level Micromechanical Modeling of Bone Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu-Kai

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we aim to develop robust multi-level micromechanical constitutive models for human bone tissues. First, the hierarchical microstructure of human bones is considered, and a multi-scale micromechanical homogenization scheme is proposed in Chapter 3. The proposed framework predicts that the pattern of mineralization and the shape of the mineral crystals serve to improve the mechanical function of collagen fibrils along the longitudinal axis. The numerical results in comparison to...

  18. Gellan gum : hydroxyapatite composite hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Manda-guiba, G. M.; Oliveira, Mariana B.; Mano, J. F.; Marques, A. P.; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Correlo, V.M.; Reis, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    The modification of polymeric matrices by adding calcium-phosphate derivatives has been proven an effective strategy for tailoring the properties of scaffolds employed in bone tissue engineering. In this regard and, considering the biomechanics of bone as well as the durotactic response of osteoblasts, this study builds on the hypothesis that the preparation of novel Gellan Gum (GG)-Hydroxyapatite (HA) hydrogel composites could benefit the mechanical profile of matrices as well as the cell-su...

  19. Scaffolds and cells for tissue regeneration: different scaffold pore sizes-different cell effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružauskaitė, Ieva; Bironaitė, Daiva; Bagdonas, Edvardas; Bernotienė, Eiva

    2016-05-01

    During the last decade biomaterial sciences and tissue engineering have become new scientific fields supplying rising demand of regenerative therapy. Tissue engineering requires consolidation of a broad knowledge of cell biology and modern biotechnology investigating biocompatibility of materials and their application for the reconstruction of damaged organs and tissues. Stem cell-based tissue regeneration started from the direct cell transplantation into damaged tissues or blood vessels. However, it is difficult to track transplanted cells and keep them in one particular place of diseased organ. Recently, new technologies such as cultivation of stem cell on the scaffolds and subsequently their implantation into injured tissue have been extensively developed. Successful tissue regeneration requires scaffolds with particular mechanical stability or biodegradability, appropriate size, surface roughness and porosity to provide a suitable microenvironment for the sufficient cell-cell interaction, cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. Further functioning of implanted cells highly depends on the scaffold pore sizes that play an essential role in nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. In addition, pore sizes strongly influence cell adhesion, cell-cell interaction and cell transmigration across the membrane depending on the various purposes of tissue regeneration. Therefore, this review will highlight contemporary tendencies in application of non-degradable scaffolds and stem cells in regenerative medicine with a particular focus on the pore sizes significantly affecting final recover of diseased organs. PMID:26091616

  20. Bone Regeneration of Rat Tibial Defect by Zinc-Tricalcium Phosphate (Zn-TCP Synthesized from Porous Foraminifera Carbonate Macrospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera carbonate exoskeleton was hydrothermally converted to biocompatible and biodegradable zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP as an alternative biomimetic material for bone fracture repair. Zn-TCP samples implanted in a rat tibial defect model for eight weeks were compared with unfilled defect and beta-tricalcium phosphate showing accelerated bone regeneration compared with the control groups, with statistically significant bone mineral density and bone mineral content growth. CT images of the defect showed restoration of cancellous bone in Zn-TCP and only minimal growth in control group. Histological slices reveal bone in-growth within the pores and porous chamber of the material detailing good bone-material integration with the presence of blood vessels. These results exhibit the future potential of biomimetic Zn-TCP as bone grafts for bone fracture repair.

  1. Distribution of Caesium-137 in Samples Consisting of Soft Tissue, Bone and Bone Marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations which were performed up to now on the distribution of-caesium-137 in the human organism could not explain exactly the distribution of the radiocaesium between bone and bone marrow. That is why a reliable estimation of the radiation burden of the skeleton caused by the incorporation of atmospheric caesium-137 is not given in the literature. Therefore, the concentration of caesium-137 in compact bones as well as in bone marrow was determined. Furthermore, the concentration of caesium-137 in the soft tissue of the same individuals was measured. (author)

  2. Bio-inspired in situ crosslinking and mineralization of electrospun collagen scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Chetna; Ong, Seow Theng; Dwivedi, Neeraj; Diaz, Silvia Marrero; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Navaneethan, Balchandar; Fazil, Mobashar H U T; Liu, Shouping; Seitz, Vera; Wintermantel, Erich; Beuerman, Roger W; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Navin K; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani

    2016-10-01

    Bone disorders are the most common cause of severe long term pain and physical disability, and affect millions of people around the world. In the present study, we report bio-inspired preparation of bone-like composite structures by electrospinning of collagen containing catecholamines and Ca(2+). The presence of divalent cation induces simultaneous partial oxidative polymerization of catecholamines and crosslinking of collagen nanofibers, thus producing mats that are mechanically robust and confer photoluminescence properties. Subsequent mineralization of the mats by ammonium carbonate leads to complete oxidative polymerization of catecholamines and precipitation of amorphous CaCO3. The collagen composite scaffolds display outstanding mechanical properties with Young's modulus approaching the limits of cancellous bone. Biological studies demonstrate that human fetal osteoblasts seeded on to the composite scaffolds display enhanced cell adhesion, penetration, proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone matrix protein when compared to pristine collagen or tissue culture plates. Among the two catecholamines, mats containing norepinephrine displayed superior mechanical, photoluminescence and biological properties than mats loaded with dopamine. These smart multifunctional scaffolds could potentially be utilized to repair and regenerate bone defects and injuries. PMID:27475728

  3. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a difference between tissue and organ donation? In general, organ donors must be brain dead, which is defined ... very limited cases (approximately 20,000 per year), organ donation occurs when mechanical support (i.e., ventilators) can ...

  4. 3D printing of composite tissue with complex shape applied to ear regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ear reconstruction field, tissue engineering enabling the regeneration of the ear's own tissue has been considered to be a promising technology. However, the ear is known to be difficult to regenerate using traditional methods due to its complex shape and composition. In this study, we used three-dimensional (3D) printing technology including a sacrificial layer process to regenerate both the auricular cartilage and fat tissue. The main part was printed with poly-caprolactone (PCL) and cell-laden hydrogel. At the same time, poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) was also deposited as a sacrificial layer to support the main structure. After complete fabrication, PEG can be easily removed in aqueous solutions, and the procedure for removing PEG has no effect on the cell viability. For fabricating composite tissue, chondrocytes and adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stromal cells were encapsulated in hydrogel to dispense into the cartilage and fat regions, respectively, of ear-shaped structures. Finally, we fabricated the composite structure for feasibility testing, satisfying expectations for both the geometry and anatomy of the native ear. We also carried out in vitro assays for evaluating the chondrogenesis and adipogenesis of the cell-printed structure. As a result, the possibility of ear regeneration using 3D printing technology which allowed tissue formation from the separately printed chondrocytes and adipocytes was demonstrated. (paper)

  5. Local delivery of parathyroid hormone-related protein-derived peptides coated onto a hydroxyapatite-based implant enhances bone regeneration in old and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Juan A; Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Lozano, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Irene; Sánchez-Salcedo, Sandra; López-Herradón, Ana; Mulero, Francisca; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, María L; Vallet-Regí, María; Esbrit, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and aging are associated with bone fragility and increased fracture risk. Both (1-37) N- and (107-111) C-terminal parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) exhibit osteogenic properties. We here aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of either PTHrP (1-37) or PTHrP (107-111) loaded into gelatin-glutaraldehyde-coated hydroxyapatite (HA-Gel) foams to improve bone repair of a transcortical tibial defect in aging rats with or without DM, induced by streptozotocin injection at birth. Diabetic old rats showed bone structural deterioration compared to their age-matched controls. Histological and μ-computerized tomography studies showed incomplete bone repair at 4 weeks after implantation of unloaded Ha-Gel foams in the transcortical tibial defects, mainly in old rats with DM. However, enhanced defect healing, as shown by an increase of bone volume/tissue volume and trabecular and cortical thickness and decreased trabecular separation, occurred in the presence of either PTHrP peptide in the implants in old rats with or without DM. This was accompanied by newly formed bone tissue around the osteointegrated HA-Gel implant and increased gene expression of osteocalcin and vascular endothelial growth factor (bone formation and angiogenic markers, respectively), and decreased expression of Sost gene, a negative regulator of bone formation, in the healing bone area. Our findings suggest that local delivery of PTHrP (1-37) or PTHrP (107-111) from a degradable implant is an attractive strategy to improve bone regeneration in aged and diabetic subjects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2060-2070, 2016. PMID:27086979

  6. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Atala, M D

    2012-10-11

    The proposed work aims to address three major challenges to the field of regenerative medicine: 1) the growth and expansion of regenerative cells outside the body in controlled in vitro environments, 2) supportive vascular supply for large tissue engineered constructs, and 3) interactive biomaterials that can orchestrate tissue development in vivo. Toward this goal, we have engaged a team of scientists with expertise in cell and molecular biology, physiology, biomaterials, controlled release, nanomaterials, tissue engineering, bioengineering, and clinical medicine to address all three challenges. This combination of resources, combined with the vast infrastructure of the WFIRM, have brought to bear on projects to discover and test new sources of autologous cells that can be used therapeutically, novel methods to improve vascular support for engineered tissues in vivo, and to develop intelligent biomaterials and bioreactor systems that interact favorably with stem and progenitor cells to drive tissue maturation. The Institute's ongoing programs are aimed at developing regenerative medicine technologies that employ a patient's own cells to help restore or replace tissue and organ function. This DOE program has provided a means to solve some of the vexing problems that are germane to many tissue engineering applications, regardless of tissue type or target disease. By providing new methods that are the underpinning of tissue engineering, this program facilitated advances that can be applied to conditions including heart disease, diabetes, renal failure, nerve damage, vascular disease, and cancer, to name a few. These types of conditions affect millions of Americans at a cost of more than $400 billion annually. Regenerative medicine holds the promise of harnessing the body's own power to heal itself. By addressing the fundamental challenges of this field in a comprehensive and focused fashion, this DOE program has opened new opportunities to treat

  7. Tissue specificity in rat peripheral nerve regeneration through combined skeletal muscle and vein conduit grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tos, P; Battiston, B; Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G; Hill, M A; Lanzetta, M; Owen, E R

    2000-01-01

    Diffusible factors from the distal stumps of transected peripheral nerves exert a neurotropic effect on regenerating nerves in vivo (specificity). This morphological study was designed to investigate the existence of tissue specificity in peripheral nerve fiber regeneration through a graft of vein filled with fresh skeletal muscle. This tubulization technique demonstrated experimental and clinical results similar to those obtained with traditional autologous nerve grafts. Specifically, we used Y-shaped grafts to assess the orientation pattern of regenerating axons in the distal stump tissue. Animal models were divided into four experimental groups. The proximal part of the Y-shaped conduit was sutured to a severed tibial nerve in all experiments. The two distal stumps were sutured to different targets: group A to two intact nerves (tibial and peroneal), group B to an intact nerve and an unvascularized tendon, group C to an intact nerve and a vascularized tendon, and group D to a nerve graft and an unvascularized tendon. Morphological evaluation by light and electron microscopy was conducted in the distal forks of the Y-shaped tube. Data showed that almost all regenerating nerve fibers spontaneously oriented towards the nerve tissue (attached or not to the peripheral innervation field), showing a good morphological pattern of regeneration in both the early and late phases of regeneration. When the distal choice was represented by a tendon (vascularized or not), very few nerve fibers were detected in the corresponding distal fork of the Y-shaped graft. These results show that, using the muscle-vein-combined grafting technique, regenerating axons are able to correctly grow and orientate within the basement membranes of the graft guided by the neurotropic lure of the distal nerve stump. PMID:10702739

  8. The effect of bacterial cellulose membrane compared with collagen membrane on guided bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung In; An, Sung-Jun; Kang, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the effects of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes as a barrier membrane on guided bone regeneration (GBR) in comparison with those of the resorbable collagen membranes. MATERIALS AND METHODS BC membranes were fabricated using biomimetic technology. Surface properties were analyzed, Mechanical properties were measured, in vitro cell proliferation test were performed with NIH3T3 cells and in vivo study were performed with rat calvarial defect and histomorphometric analysis was done. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used (α<.05). RESULTS BC membrane showed significantly higher mechanical properties such as wet tensile strength than collagen membrane and represented a three-dimensional multilayered structure cross-linked by nano-fibers with 60 % porosity. In vitro study, cell adhesion and proliferation were observed on BC membrane. However, morphology of the cells was found to be less differentiated, and the cell proliferation rate was lower than those of the cells on collagen membrane. In vivo study, the grafted BC membrane did not induce inflammatory response, and maintained adequate space for bone regeneration. An amount of new bone formation in defect region loaded with BC membrane was significantly similar to that of collagen membrane application. CONCLUSION BC membrane has potential to be used as a barrier membrane, and efficacy of the membrane on GBR is comparable to that of collagen membrane. PMID:26816579

  9. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces qu

  10. Influence of Hyaluronic Acid in Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Popovska, Mirjana; Minovska, Ana; Belazelkovska, Zlatanka

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a high molecular weight polysaccharide - glycosaminoglycan, which plays a vital role in the functioning of extracellular matrices, including those of mineralized and non-mineralized periodontal tissues. Hyaluronic acid is also important because of its numerous actions in the mechanisms associated with inflammation and the wound healing process. Hyaluronic acid has been identified in all periodontal tissues in varying quantities, being more prominent in ...

  11. Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2013-05-01

    Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4 ± 7.1 mm(3) (titanium-120, p = 0.015) and 18.7 ± 8.0 mm(3) (titanium-230, p = 0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8 ± 5.1 mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects. PMID:23255164

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials in bone reconstructive surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the influ-ence of PRGF and fibrin membrane on regeneration of bony defects with and witho