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Sample records for bone sonometer measurements

  1. Comparing the T scores from bone sonometer measurements in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women

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    Droege M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity is an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Non-Hispanic white or Asian women are commonly considered at higher risk than other ethnicities. Hispanics in the U.S. are of Mexican, Caribbean, Central American, or South American descent. Conclusive data on the relative risk of osteoporosis in Hispanic women based upon heritage within the Hispanic population are not available. Objective: To investigate whether Hispanic white women are at a significantly lower risk than non-Hispanic whites for the development of osteoporosis. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Community health screenings. Participants: Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Intervention: Bone density measurements of the non-dominant heel. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including regression analyses were performed using SPSS 14.0. Main Outcomes Measure: T scores. Results: Overall, measurements were obtained from 352 women (209 Hispanic & 143 non-Hispanic white ranging in age from 55-97 years old. The mean T score obtained for Hispanic women was -1.194 and -1.280 for non-Hispanic white women. The correlation between the obtained T score and age was negative (r = -0.36, p<0.01, reflecting bone loss with increasing age. Regression analysis using age and ethnicity showed that ethnicity was a non-significant contributor to the best-fit regression line (t=0.60, p=0.55. Conclusion: This study indicates that Hispanic white women may be at comparable risk of developing osteoporosis as non-Hispanic white women.

  2. A New Tune for an Old Sonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Sonometers have long been a useful device for teaching about properties of standing waves on strings and production of sound. With modern probeware their uses can be increased significantly. An application of the sonometer presented in this paper is as a demonstration of Faraday's Law of Induction as applied to an electric guitar pickup. A demonstration pickup can be put together with a magnet and a coil. The output can be displayed on an oscilloscope or collected and displayed with computer based probes and a software package such as LoggerPro. This paper will describe a lab activity based on this use of the sonometer.

  3. Simulating a Guitar with a Conventional Sonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Zily; Gower, Christina M.; Varieschi, Gabriele U.

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  4. Simulating a guitar with a conventional sonometer

    CERN Document Server

    Burstein, Zily; Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2011-01-01

    Musical acoustics is an interesting sub-field of physics which is usually able to engage students in a dual perspective, by combining science and art together. The physics principles involved in most musical instruments can be easily demonstrated with standard laboratory equipment and can become part of lecture or lab activities. In particular, we will show in this paper how to simulate a guitar using a conventional sonometer, in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on a guitar or similar string instruments.

  5. Bone measurements of infants in the first 3 months of life by quantitative ultrasound: the influence of gestational age, season, and postnatal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiang-peng [Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wuxi Hospital for Maternal and Children' s Health Care, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Wuxi (China); Zhang, Wei-li; He, Jiamin [Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Sun, Jian-hua; Huang, Ping [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai (China)

    2005-09-01

    There are a few quantitative ultrasound (QUS) studies of bone status for Chinese children. To evaluate the clinical application and to investigate the bone status of neonates and young infants with QUS. An ultrasound bone sonometer was used to measure the bone speed of sound (SOS) of the tibia in 542 neonates within 3 months of birth. At birth, no significant difference of SOS was found between boys and girls, but there was a significant difference of SOS between premature infants and full-term infants. The SOS in neonates born during spring and summer was significantly lower than those born during autumn and winter. There were significant correlations between SOS and gestational age, and between bone SOS and birth weight in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Multiple regression analysis found that gestational age and infant birth season were two important factors influencing SOS. During the first 3 months, there was no significant difference in SOS between sexes. The SOS of infants showed an inverse correlation with postnatal age, and the decrease of bone SOS with age in premature infants was more marked than in full-term infants. QUS is suitable for evaluating bone status in infants with high precision. The study offers some basic data for neonates and young infants. (orig.)

  6. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available in: ... been one or more osteoporotic fractures. Low Bone Mass Versus Osteoporosis The information provided by a BMD ...

  7. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dyke, J. P.; Aaron, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability wi...

  8. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

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    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  9. Bone lead measured by X-ray fluorescence: epidemiologic methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, H; Aro, A; Rotnitzky, A

    1995-01-01

    In vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement of bone lead concentration (XRF) has emerged as an important technique for future epidemiological studies of long-term toxicity. Several issues germane to epidemiologic methodology need to be addressed, however. First, sources of variability in measurements of bone lead need to be quantified, including imprecision related to the physical measurement itself and the variability of lead deposition over the two main compartments of bones (cortical vs. ...

  10. Technical aspects and clinical interpretation of bone mineral measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahner, H

    1989-01-01

    Four procedures--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy radiography, and quantitative computed tomography--allow nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral, with high accuracy and precision, under conditions generally encountered in patient care situations. By using these procedures, almost any part of the skeleton is accessible to such measurements. Total bone is measured by the absorptiometry procedures, trabecular bone by quantitative computed tomography. Sever...

  11. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments

  12. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

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    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic Efficacy of Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

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    Sunanda Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. Materials and Methods: The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months. Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as "speed of sound" in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard. Results: The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P < 0.001, partial eta squared [η2 ] =0.85, a non-significant correlation with mandibular CW, (F = 1.6, P = 0.23, η2 = 0.86, and a more significant correlation with combined cortical shape and width (F = 3.3, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.70. Conclusion: The study concludes that the combined mandibular

  14. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... to the least relative influence of weight and stress loading because of migration of calcium to weight and stress-bearing areas. Since the effect of this migration could mask local osteoporotic bone loss, shoulder BMD measurement is likely to minimize false indicators of healthy bone in women with high BMI...

  15. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

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    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

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    Nurgül Köse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine thechanges of bone mineral density in patients with psoriasisvulgaris.Methods: 33 patients, diagnosed with psoriasis vulgarisin Erciyes University, Medical School, Department of Dermatology,and 23 healthy subjects as control group wereincluded in this study. Lumbar and femur bone mineraldensity of all patients and control group were measured.Biochemical tests related to bone metabolism were performed.Results: We did not find statistically significant differencebetween patient and control groups’ bone mineral density.However, the lumbar spine t score of men, were found tobe significantly lower in the patient group than the controlgroup (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant differencein bone mineral density of women between thepatient and control groups. The effects on bone mineraldensity of disease period and using the topical corticosteroidswere not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study indicates that bone mineral densityof patients with psoriasis vulgaris was not differentfrom healthy subject.Key words: Psoriasis vulgaris, bone mineral density, osteoporosis

  17. Quality of life measurement in bone metastases: A literature review

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    Sukirtha Tharmalingam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sukirtha Tharmalingam, Edward Chow, Kristin Harris, Amanda Hird, Emily SinclairRapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Quality of life (QOL has become an important consideration in the care of patients with bone metastases as prevalence, incidence and patient survival are on the rise. As a result, more interventional studies now measure patient’s QOL as a meaningful endpoint. However, well-developed bone metastases specific quality of life instruments are lacking. A literature review was conducted to better understand the nature of QOL instruments used in bone metastases trials. A total of 47 articles evaluating QOL in patients with bone metastases were identified. Twenty-five different instruments were used to evaluate QOL with study-designed questionnaires and the EORTC QLQ-C30 being most commonly employed. Many studies used more than one scale or instrument to measure QOL. This makes it difficult to compare QOL in bone metastases patients across studies and come to any formal conclusions. Therefore, this review demonstrates the need to develop a bone module that can be used across countries in future clinical trials.Keywords: bone metastases, quality of life, QOL instrument, review

  18. The clinical utility of bone marker measurements in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Gillian; Elshahaly, Mohsen; Tuck, Stephen P; Datta, Harish K; van Laar, Jacob M

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in increased fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Direct medical costs from such fractures in the UK are currently estimated at over two billion pounds per year, resulting in a substantial healthcare burden that is expected to rise exponentially due to increasing life expectancy. Currently bone mineral density is the WHO standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis, but poor sensitivity means that potential fractures will be missed if it is used alone. During the past decade considerable progress has been made in the identification and characterisation of specific biomarkers to aid the management of metabolic bone disease. Technological developments have greatly enhanced assay performance producing reliable, rapid, non-invasive cost effective assays with improved sensitivity and specificity. We now have a greater understanding of the need to regulate pre-analytical sample collection to minimise the effects of biological variation. However, bone turnover markers (BTMs) still have limited clinical utility. It is not routinely recommended to use BTMs to select those at risk of fractures, but baseline measurements of resorption markers are useful before commencement of anti-resorptive treatment and can be checked 3-6 months later to monitor response and adherence to treatment. Similarly, formation markers can be used to monitor bone forming agents. BTMs may also be useful when monitoring patients during treatment holidays and aid in the decision as to when therapy should be recommenced. Recent recommendations by the Bone Marker Standards Working Group propose to standardise research and include a specific marker of bone resorption (CTX) and bone formation (P1NP) in all future studies. It is hoped that improved research in turn will lead to optimised markers for the clinical management of

  19. Bone height measurement of maxillary and mandibular bones in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients

    OpenAIRE

    URAL, Çağrı; Bereket, Cihan; Sener, Ýsmail; Aktan, Ali Murat; Akpinar, Yusuf Ziya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this in vitro study were to determine variation in maxillary and mandibular vertical measurements and to assess vertical bone loss made from panoramic radiographs in edentulous measurements. Study Design. In this descriptive study, a total of 600 panoramic radiograph’s of edentulous patient were examined. The mean ages of edentulous patients were 31 and 87 years respectively. Measurements were made from reference lines drawn from anatomic landmarks on st...

  20. In vivo bone aluminum measurements in patients with renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Contamination of the dialysis solution with trace amounts of aluminum and long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders have led to increased body burden of aluminum in patients with end-stage renal disease. A significant clinical problem associated with aluminum-overload is the early diagnosis of aluminum-induced dialysis dementia and osteomalacic osteodystrophy. There are few, if any, blood or urine indices that provide an early monitor of this bone disease, especially in the asymptomatic patient. Although a bone biopsy is usually the basis for the final clinical diagnosis, this procedure is not recommended for routine monitoring of patients. The present technique demonstrates the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum levels in patients with renal failure. The interference normally present from activation of bone phosphorus is eliminated by using a thermal/epithermal neutron beam. For the clinical management of the patients, the Al/Ca ratio for the hand may be more useful than an absolute measurement of the total body or skeletal aluminum burden. The relationship between the increased serum Al levels following disferrioxamine infusion and the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum using the Al/Ca ratio are currently under investigation. The neutron activation procedure presented in this pilot study is a promising new technique with an immediate clinical application. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Measuring Bone Metabolism with Fluoride PET: Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Brenner, Winfried

    2010-07-01

    In recent years the more widespread availability of PET systems and the development of hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, allowing improved morphologic characterization of sites with increased tracer uptake, have improved the accuracy of diagnosis and strengthened the role of 18F-fluoride PET for quantitative assessment of bone pathology. This article reviews the role of 18F-fluoride PET in the skeleton, with a focus on (1) the underlying physiologic and pathophysiological processes of different conditions of bone metabolism and (2) methodological aspects of quantitative measurement of 18F-fluoride kinetics. Recent comparative studies have demonstrated that 18F-fluoride PET and, to an even greater extent, PET/CT are more accurate than 99mTc-bisphosphonate single-photon emission CT for the identification of malignant and benign lesions of the skeleton. Quantitative 18F-flouride PET has been shown valuable for direct non-invasive assessment of bone metabolism and monitoring response to therapy.

  2. Methodology developed for the simultaneous measurement of bone formation and bone resorption in rats based on the pharmacokinetics of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Maela; Brance, Maria Lorena; Fina, Brenda Lorena; Brun, Lucas Ricardo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for the simultaneous estimation of bone formation (BF) and resorption (BR) in rats using fluoride as a nonradioactive bone-seeker ion. The pharmacokinetics of flouride have been extensively studied in rats; its constants have all been characterized. This knowledge was the cornerstone for the underlying mathematical model that we used to measure bone fluoride uptake and elimination rate after a dose of fluoride. Bone resorption and formation were estimated by bone fluoride uptake and elimination rate, respectively. ROC analysis showed that sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve were not different from deoxypiridinoline and bone alkaline phosphatase, well-known bone markers. Sprague-Dawley rats with modified bone remodelling (ovariectomy, hyper, and hypocalcic diet, antiresorptive treatment) were used to validate the values obtained with this methodology. The results of BF and BR obtained with this technique were as expected for each biological model. Although the method should be performed under general anesthesia, it has several advantages: simultaneous measurement of BR and BF, low cost, and the use of compounds with no expiration date.

  3. Non-invasive measurement of bone: a review of clinical and research applications in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current methods for non-invasive measurement of bone quality are reviewed. In the horse this has traditionally involved the use of radiography, but there are now two other modalities available for the critical evaluation of cortical bone quality and strength. These utilise single photon absorptiometry and ultrasound velocity. Photon absorptiometry gives a direct measurement of bone mineral content, by using a monoenergetic radionuclide source, and transverse ultrasound velocity in bone gives a measure of bone stiffness or elasticity. They can both be used conveniently on the metacarpus of the conscious horse. Both ultrasound velocity and bone mineral content can be used as accurate indicators of skeletal maturity. In addition, the effects of disuse on bone and certain types of lameness can be monitored accurately. Preliminary data show an association with exercise in young and mature horses. There also appears to be considerable scope for in vivo research of bone changes in horses produced by immobilisation, weightlessness, exercise and nutrition

  4. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  5. DXA measurements in rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine;

    2011-01-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients...

  6. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen;

    2005-01-01

    Changes in trabecular bone composition during development of osteoporosis are used as a model for bone loss in microgravity conditions during a space flight. Symbolic dynamics and measures of complexity are proposed and applied to assess quantitatively the structural composition of bone tissue from...... 3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify...... the structural loss of the bone tissue and may help to diagnose and to monitor changes in bone structure of patients on Earth as well as of the space-flying personnel....

  7. Alveolar bone measurement precision for phosphor-plate images

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILDEBOLT, CHARLES F.; COUTURE, REX; GARCIA, NATHALIA M.; DIXON, DEBRA; SHANNON, WILLIAM DOUGLAS; LANGENWALTER, ERIC; CIVITELLI, ROBERTO

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate methods for determining measurement precision and to determine the precision of alveolar-bone measurements made with a vacuum-coupled, positioning device and phosphor-plate images. Study design Subjects were rigidly attached to the x-ray tube by means of a vacuum coupling device and custom, cross-arch, bite plates. Original and repeat radiographs (taken within minutes of each other) were obtained of the mandibular posterior teeth of 51 subjects, and cementoenamel-junction-alveolar-crest (CEJ-AC) distances were measured on both sets of images. In addition, x-ray-transmission (radiodensity) and alveolar-crest-height differences were determined by subtracting one image from the other. Image subtractions and measurements were performed twice. Based on duplicate measurements, the root-mean-square standard deviation (precision) and least-significant change (LSC) were calculated. LSC is the magnitude of change in a measurement needed to indicate that a true biological change has occurred. Results The LSCs were 4% for x-ray transmission, 0.49 mm for CEJ-AC distance, and 0.06 mm for crest-height 0.06 mm. Conclusion The LSCs for our CEJ-AC and x-ray transmission measurements are similar to what has been reported. The LSC for alveolar-crest height (determined with image subtraction) was less than 0.1 mm. Compared with findings from previous studies, this represents a highly precise measurement of alveolar crest height. The methods demonstrated for calculating LSC can be used by investigators to determine how large changes in radiographic measurements need to be before the changes can be considered (with 95% confidence) true biological changes and not noise (that is, equipment/observer error). PMID:19716499

  8. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  9. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  10. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  11. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  12. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  13. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  14. Spatial resolution and measurement uncertainty of strains in bone and bone-cement interface using digital volume correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hang; Lupton, Colin; Tong, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The measurement uncertainty of strains has been assessed in a bone analogue (sawbone), bovine trabecular bone and bone-cement interface specimens under zero load using the Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) method. The effects of sub-volume size, sample constraint and preload on the measured strain uncertainty have been examined. There is generally a trade-off between the measurement uncertainty and the spatial resolution. Suitable sub-volume sizes have been be selected based on a compromise between the measurement uncertainty and the spatial resolution of the cases considered. A ratio of sub-volume size to a microstructure characteristic (Tb.Sp) was introduced to reflect a suitable spatial resolution, and the measurement uncertainty associated was assessed. Specifically, ratios between 1.6 and 4 appear to give rise to standard deviations in the measured strains between 166 and 620 με in all the cases considered, which would seem to suffice for strain analysis in pre as well as post yield loading regimes. A microscale finite element (μFE) model was built from the CT images of the sawbone, and the results from the μFE model and a continuum FE model were compared with those from the DVC. The strain results were found to differ significantly between the two methods at tissue level, consistent in trend with the results found in human bones, indicating mainly a limitation of the current DVC method in mapping strains at this level.

  15. Spatial resolution and measurement uncertainty of strains in bone and bone-cement interface using digital volume correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hang; Lupton, Colin; Tong, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The measurement uncertainty of strains has been assessed in a bone analogue (sawbone), bovine trabecular bone and bone-cement interface specimens under zero load using the Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) method. The effects of sub-volume size, sample constraint and preload on the measured strain uncertainty have been examined. There is generally a trade-off between the measurement uncertainty and the spatial resolution. Suitable sub-volume sizes have been be selected based on a compromise between the measurement uncertainty and the spatial resolution of the cases considered. A ratio of sub-volume size to a microstructure characteristic (Tb.Sp) was introduced to reflect a suitable spatial resolution, and the measurement uncertainty associated was assessed. Specifically, ratios between 1.6 and 4 appear to give rise to standard deviations in the measured strains between 166 and 620 με in all the cases considered, which would seem to suffice for strain analysis in pre as well as post yield loading regimes. A microscale finite element (μFE) model was built from the CT images of the sawbone, and the results from the μFE model and a continuum FE model were compared with those from the DVC. The strain results were found to differ significantly between the two methods at tissue level, consistent in trend with the results found in human bones, indicating mainly a limitation of the current DVC method in mapping strains at this level. PMID:26741534

  16. Reliability of fetal nasal bone length measurement at 11–14 weeks of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanrath Chitkasaem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal bone assessment has been incorporated into Down syndrome screening in first trimester. Several studies have established the normal reference values for fetal nasal bone length in the first trimester, which were found to be varied by population. However, the study on reliability of nasal bone length measurement was limited with contradictory results. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of fetal nasal bone length measurement at 11–14 weeks of gestation in the Thai population. Methods A total of 111 pregnant women at 11–14 weeks of gestation attending for the routine first-trimester ultrasound examination were recruited. Each case was measured separately by two examiners. Examiner 1 performed the first measurement in all cases; any of the other 5 examiners consecutively performed the second measurement. Three independent measurements were performed by each examiner and they were blinded to the results of the others. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results Nasal bone measurement was successfully performed in 106/111 cases (95.5% by at least one examiner; 89 cases were performed by two examiners. The intraobserver variability was excellent for all examiners (ICC, 0.840-0.939. The interobserver variability between different pairs of examiners varied from moderate to excellent (ICC, 0.467-0.962. The interobserver variability between examiner 1 and any other examiner was good (ICC, 0.749. The Bland-Altman plot of the interobserver differences of nasal bone length measurements between examiner 1 and any other examiner showed good agreement. Conclusions The reliability of the fetal nasal bone length measurement at 11–14 weeks of gestation was good. The nasal bone length measurement was reproducible. Ethnicity has an effect on fetal nasal bone length, but reliability of nasal bone length measurement is critical to accuracy of

  17. Normal SUV Values Measured from NaF18- PET/CT Bone Scan Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Aung Zaw Win; Carina Mari Aparici

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. Methods A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past...

  18. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with 18F-fluoride PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent 18F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average 18F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. 18F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. 18F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that 18F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  19. Microindentation for In Vivo Measurement of Bone Tissue Mechanical Properties in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Güerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Cáceres, Enric; Peña, Maria Jesus; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Weaver, James C.; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Koester, Kurt J.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    Bone tissue mechanical properties are deemed a key component of bone strength, but their assessment requires invasive procedures. Here we validate a new instrument, a reference point indentation (RPI) instrument, for measuring these tissue properties in vivo. The RPI instrument performs bone microindentation testing (BMT) by inserting a probe assembly through the skin covering the tibia and, after displacing periosteum, applying 20 indentation cycles at 2 Hz each with a maximum force of 11 N....

  20. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  1. Phantom studies of triple photon absorptiometry and bone mineral measurement at a hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using triple photon absorptiometry (TPA) for the measurement of bone mineral mass about a hip prosthesis was examined. A theoretical expression describing the variance of TPA measurements was verified using a triple photon source and phantom materials which simulate the soft tissue-bone mineral-metal prosthesis system. The expression for the variance was used to determine an optimized set of photon energies. It was shown that a precision of 3% could be obtained for reasonable measurement times using this optimized set of energies and that TPA should be a feasible approach for measurement of bone mineral about a hip prosthesis. (orig.)

  2. Development of pulser/receiver for measuring the thickness of heel bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound has been applied to the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Although several ultrasound devices have already been developed for bone covered with thin skin such as the calcaneus to predict failure risk of other bones, the precision of these ultrasonic methods can be adversely affected by the bone shape and inconsistent positioning. In this study, we developed a specially designed ultrasonic pulser/receiver for visualizing the bone quality and thickness simultaneously. The three dimensional image obtained from the data of quality and shape could allow better assessment of bone. The acrylic and bone specimens were used for evaluating performance of the pulser/receiver in the measurement of material quality and thickness. The results demonstrated that the method used in this study can be applied to the improvement of currently available ultrasound devices.

  3. Measurement of Ca/sup 2 +/ effluxes from bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, W.F.; Brommage, R.; Myers, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    To facilitate the study of membrane function in the control of the flow of ions into and out of bone, it was desirable to develop a system for the direct quantitation of unidirectional effluxes of calcium and phosphate from bones. Based on a mathematical analysis of the problem, a specially designed Ussing chamber was developed which proved successful. Calvaria from 2-day-old rat pups, 3-day chicks and adult mice were evaluated. Calcium influxes which exceeded the corresponding effluxes were observed in the neonatal calvaria but not with those from adult mice. Also, an asymmetry in efflux was observed in rat calvaria, the inner side of the skull showed a higher efflux than did the external side. No such asymmetry was seen with calvaria from chicks or mice. This new technology should permit a further exploration of the role of the bone membrane in electrolyte homeostasis.

  4. Application of XRF to measure strontium in human bone in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a basis for better understanding the role that Sr fulfills in human body, it is desirable to measure directly the main Sr store in human body. Although strontium is omnipresent in human tissues, 99% is stored inthe mineral portion of the bone. In the present study x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was applied to measure the strontium content of the tibial shaft in vivo. The feasibility studies showed that normal levels of stable strontium in the bone can be measured successfully

  5. Intercomparison of techniques for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of methods are presently available for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass of both normal individuals and patients with metabolic disorders. Chief among these methods are radiographic techniques such as radiogrammetry, photon absorptiometry, computer tomography, Compton scattering and neutron activation analysis. In this review, the salient features of the bone measurement techniques are discussed along with their accuracy and precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques for measuring bone mass are summarized. Where possible, intercomparisons are made of the various techniques.

  6. The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Stephanie; Michels, Nathalie; Polfliet, Carolien; D'Haese, Sara; Roggen, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life.

  7. Quantifying bone weathering stages using the average roughness parameter Ra measured from 3D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietti, Laura A.

    2016-09-01

    Bone surface texture is known to degrade in a predictable fashion due to subaerial exposure, and can thus act as a relative proxy for estimating temporal information from modern and ancient bone assemblages. To date, the majority of bone weathering data is collected on a categorical scale based on descriptive terms. While this qualitative classification of weathering data is well established, textural analyses of bone surfaces may provide means to quantify weathering stages but have yet to be tested. Here, I examined the suitability of textural analyses for bone weathering studies by first establishing bone surface regions most appropriate for weathering analyses. I then measured and compared the roughness texture of weathered bones at different stages. To establish regions of bone most suitable for textural analyses, Ra was measured from 3D scans of dorsal ribs of four adult ungulate taxa. Results indicate that the rib-shafts from unweathered ungulate skeletons were similar and are likely good candidates because differences in surface texture will not be due to differences in initial bone texture. To test if textural measurements could reliably characterize weathering stages, the average roughness values (Ra) were measured from weathered ungulate rib-shafts assigned to four descriptive weathering stages. Results from analyses indicate that the Ra was statistically distinct for each weathering stage and that roughness positively correlates with the degree of weathering. As such, results suggest that textural analyses may provide the means for quantifying bone-weathering stages. Using Ra and other quantifiable texture parameters may enable more reliable and comparative taphonomic analyses by reducing inter-observer variations and by providing numerical data more compatible for multivariate statistics.

  8. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Win

    Full Text Available Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans.A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria.The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64, thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66, lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72, femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3, humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9, mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1, parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4.According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  9. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  10. Imaging regenerating bone tissue based on neural networks applied to micro-diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, G.; Pezzotti, G. [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy); Fratini, M. [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Ricci, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Burghammer, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cancedda, R.; Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell' Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy); Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A. [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    We monitored bone regeneration in a tissue engineering approach. To visualize and understand the structural evolution, the samples have been measured by X-ray micro-diffraction. We find that bone tissue regeneration proceeds through a multi-step mechanism, each step providing a specific diffraction signal. The large amount of data have been classified according to their structure and associated to the process they came from combining Neural Networks algorithms with least square pattern analysis. In this way, we obtain spatial maps of the different components of the tissues visualizing the complex kinetic at the base of the bone regeneration.

  11. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  12. Design and Validation of Automated Femoral Bone Morphology Measurements in Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Noyeol; Lee, Jehee; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok; Koo, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    Accurate quantification of bone morphology is important for monitoring the progress of bony deformation in patients with cerebral palsy. The purpose of the study was to develop an automatic bone morphology measurement method using one or two radiographs. The study focused on four morphologic measurements—neck-shaft angle, femoral anteversion, shaft bowing angle, and neck length. Fifty-four three-dimensional (3D) geometrical femur models were generated from the computed tomography (CT) of cere...

  13. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  14. Extracting accurate strain measurements in bone mechanics: A critical review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis related fractures are a social burden that advocates for more accurate fracture prediction methods. Mechanistic methods, e.g. finite element models, have been proposed as a tool to better predict bone mechanical behaviour and strength. However, there is little consensus about the optimal constitutive law to describe bone as a material. Extracting reliable and relevant strain data from experimental tests is of fundamental importance to better understand bone mechanical properties, and to validate numerical models. Several techniques have been used to measure strain in experimental mechanics, with substantial differences in terms of accuracy, precision, time- and length-scale. Each technique presents upsides and downsides that must be carefully evaluated when designing the experiment. Moreover, additional complexities are often encountered when applying such strain measurement techniques to bone, due to its complex composite structure. This review of literature examined the four most commonly adopted methods for strain measurements (strain gauges, fibre Bragg grating sensors, digital image correlation, and digital volume correlation), with a focus on studies with bone as a substrate material, at the organ and tissue level. For each of them the working principles, a summary of the main applications to bone mechanics at the organ- and tissue-level, and a list of pros and cons are provided. PMID:26099201

  15. Bone densitometry by gamma ray attenuation measurement. Development of an apparatus for use on medullary casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed to follow changes in the bone mineral content of medullary damage cases by measuring the attenuation of a monoenergetic gamma ray according to the Cameron and Sorenson technique. Apart from their high cost, existing instruments are not designed for this bedside observation of patients. Our aim was therefore to design and develop an easily portable, inexpensive apparatus. The γ radiation is supplied by a sealed 125I source fitted with a narrow collimator. The battery-operated scintillation detector is that used to detect post-operative phlebites after injection of radio-fibrinogen. The source-detector unit can move to allow a transverse bone mineral content measurement. Data from the detector are processed electronically and the results given: - either graphically on a tracing board which gives an area proportional to the bone mineral content, - or numerically by means of an integrator computing this area and supplying the linear bone density directly. Experiments carried out in vivo showed the apparatus to be sensitive and the measurements reproducible, the results obtained being comparable with those of other authors. Using pieces of embalmed bone moreover an excellent correlation was observed between the bone mineral content obtained after incineration and the results displayed by our apparatus, which can therefore be calibrated

  16. Autoradiography of lyophilized animal sections. Bone density measurement in osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a better understanding on the β-ray radiography of lyophilized animal sections, the bone densities of the osteoporosis rats were measured using a 147Pm planar radiation source. An imaging plate as a radiation sensor was overlaid on the animal section together with a density calibrator. After exposure, radioactivity recorded on the sensor was quantified using a bio-imaging analyzer. The density calibration curve showed linearity in the wide range with a good correlation coefficient (R2≥0.999). The inter- and intra-plate variability showed CV values less than 3.7%. On the measurement of bone density, bone density differences between the sham group and ovariectomized (OVX) group were statistically significant in the femoral cortical (p=0.001) and trabecular bone (p=0.07), and vertebral trabecular bone (p=0.043). Based on these results, we developed a new and valuable method, which made it possible to measure bone density of axial skeleton of a rat, as an alternative to commonly used methods. (author)

  17. Measurement of bone mineral density using DEXA and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To observe bone loss and bone metabolism status in 5-year survivors after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2∼L4) and femoral neck using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and analysis of biochemical markers of bone turnover, such as ostecalcin (OSC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked telo-peptide of type I collagen (ICTP), PTH and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D). These markers were measured in 31 5-year survivors after OLT, 34 patients with chronic liver failure (CLF) before OLT and 38 normal subjects. Results: Age-matched Z-score of BMD (Z-score) at L2∼L4 was significantly higher in 5-year survivors than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Incidence of osteoporosis (Z-score<-2.0) in 5-year survivors was significantly lower than that in patients with CLF before OLT. Although serum concentrations of bone formation and bone resorption markers in 5-year survivors were high than those of normal subjects, as compared to patients with CLF before OLT, serum OSC was increased, serum ICTP and BAP were reduced, serum PICP was unchanged. Serum PTH and 25-OH-D level was normal. Conclusions: In 5-year survivors following liver transplantation there was a reduction in bone loss and incidence of osteoporosis and an improvement of bone metabolism

  18. Validation of K-XRF bone lead measurement in young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppin, J.A.; Aro, A C; Williams, P L; Hu, H; Ryan, P B

    1995-01-01

    K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) is a useful tool for assessing environmental exposure to lead in occupationally exposed individuals and older adults. This study explores the possibility of using this technique on young adults with low environmental lead exposure. Twenty-three college students, aged 18-21 years, were recruited for 2 hr of bone lead measurement. Bone lead measurements were taken from the mid-shaft tibia for periods of 30 or 60 min. In the analysis, 30-min measurements were combine...

  19. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesen, EB; Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M;

    2003-01-01

    As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Cylindrical specimens (n = 24) were obtained in different orientations fr...

  20. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  1. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  2. Measurement of bone mineral contents in Pakistan by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertebral bone mineral content (BMC) was measured with dual photon absorptiometry in 144 normal males and 219 females (ages 11-85 years), 118 patients of hyperthyroidism, 7 of chronic renal failure and 5 each of postmenopausal osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism. Generally males had higher BMC than females. Pattern of age related bone gain and diminution was same in both sexes but the rate of bone loss differed significantly, females having higher rate of bone loss. When compared to Western population lower BMC values in our normals were seen. However, rate of bone loss in our population was lower than that reported in the west. BMC values in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure were not significantly different that of age matched normals. The small numbers of cases of post menopausal osteoporosis and hyperpara- thyroidism, tough precluding any generalization, did show lower BMC values. Lower BMC values in our normal population could possibly be explained on racial ground. But in spite of less than ideal dietary status in our normal population in general, the lower rate of bone loss and a lower incidence of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid and chronic renal failure cases can raise the possibility of active vitamin D metabolism component, triggered by utraviolet radiation, having an overall beneficiary effect on the calcium cycle. This calls for a more comprehensive workup. (author)

  3. Measurement of bone alkaline phosphatase and relative study with osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhiping; HUO Yanqing; SUN Guangzhi; LI Jianmin; LI Xin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the value of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) for diagnosing osteosarcoma,evaluating the effect of the chemotherapy,judging the prognosis and supervising the relapse and metastasis.The immunoassay was used to check the BALP of the blood serum that was from 42 primary osteosarcoma patients.Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in blood serum was checked with auto biochemistry equipment.The biopsy tissue and the lesion resected in operation were treated with pathology and histological response was counted.The patients were followed up from five months to 49 months with an average of 24.3 months.Eighteen cases relapsed and transferred,among which,16 of them were dead,and others were survival to the end of the follow-up.BALP was more sensitive than ALP in diagnosing osteosarcoma (P = 0.015).Fifteen cases decreased to normal value in ALP after preoperative chemotherapy,and 34 cases decreased in BALP.Both ALP and BALP in all cases decreased to normal value in postoperative.There was significant difference in positive correlation between the decrease of BALP and the increase of histological response (P = 0.001,r = 0.642).In the followup,there was significant difference in BALP between the group of relapse and transfer and the group of free disease survival (P=0.000).As a check marker in blood serum,BALP,reflecting the process of ossification,has a higher sensitivity than ALP.It has applied value in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma,reflection of the effect of chemotherapy and forecast the prognosis.

  4. Microindentation for in vivo measurement of bone tissue mechanical properties in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Güerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Cáceres, Enric; Peña, Maria Jesus; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Weaver, James C; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Koester, Kurt J; Ritchie, Robert O; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-08-01

    Bone tissue mechanical properties are deemed a key component of bone strength, but their assessment requires invasive procedures. Here we validate a new instrument, a reference point indentation (RPI) instrument, for measuring these tissue properties in vivo. The RPI instrument performs bone microindentation testing (BMT) by inserting a probe assembly through the skin covering the tibia and, after displacing periosteum, applying 20 indentation cycles at 2 Hz each with a maximum force of 11 N. We assessed 27 women with osteoporosis-related fractures and 8 controls of comparable ages. Measured total indentation distance (46.0 +/- 14 versus 31.7 +/- 3.3 microm, p = .008) and indentation distance increase (18.1 +/- 5.6 versus 12.3 +/- 2.9 microm, p = .008) were significantly greater in fracture patients than in controls. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the two measurements were 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.1-100) and 90.3% (95% CI 73.2-100), respectively. Interobserver coefficient of variation ranged from 8.7% to 15.5%, and the procedure was well tolerated. In a separate study of cadaveric human bone samples (n = 5), crack growth toughness and indentation distance increase correlated (r = -0.9036, p = .018), and scanning electron microscope images of cracks induced by indentation and by experimental fractures were similar. We conclude that BMT, by inducing microscopic fractures, directly measures bone mechanical properties at the tissue level. The technique is feasible for use in clinics with good reproducibility. It discriminates precisely between patients with and without fragility fracture and may provide clinicians and researchers with a direct in vivo measurement of bone tissue resistance to fracture. PMID:20200991

  5. Serial strain gauge measurement of bone healing in hoffmann® external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N

    1984-04-01

    In order to better assess callus strength for postoperative management of Hoffmann external fixation patients, the author attempted to estimate the amount of strain when bending or compressing the fracture site with a strain gauge glued to the middle of a connecting rod. Calculations in a computer architectural model of a plane beam structure show that the amount of strain on a connecting rod would decrease hyperbolically when the mechanical properties of the callus increased. Strength testing in a cadaveric crural bone confirms the importance of callus volume. The serial strain gauge measurement technique was applied to a series of 23 cases treated with Hoffmann external fixation, 20 of which achieved bone healing. On the basis of the bone healing curve obtained with the strain gauge measurements, the healing process is classified into five types. PMID:24822815

  6. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  7. Parametric electrical impedance tomography for measuring bone mineral density in the pelvis using a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Abboud, Shimon; Arad, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as bone microstructure deterioration resulting a decrease of bone's strength. Measured bone mineral density (BMD) constitutes the main tool for Osteoporosis diagnosis, management, and defines patient's fracture risk. In the present study, parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method was examined for monitoring BMD, using a computerized simulation model and preliminary real measurements. A numerical solver was developed to simulate surface potentials measured over a 3D computerized pelvis model. Varying cortical and cancellous BMD were simulated by changing bone conductivity and permittivity. Up to 35% and 16% change was found in the real and imaginary modules of the calculated potential, respectively, while BMD changes from 100% (normal) to 60% (Osteoporosis). Negligible BMD relative error was obtained with SNR>60 [dB]. Position changes errors indicate that for long term monitoring, measurement should be taken at the same geometrical configuration with great accuracy. The numerical simulations were compared to actual measurements that were acquired from a healthy male subject using a five electrodes belt bioimpedance device. The results suggest that pEIT may provide an inexpensive easy to use tool for frequent monitoring BMD in small clinics during pharmacological treatment, as a complementary method to DEXA test. PMID:27185035

  8. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Teeuw; L. Coelho; A. de Silva; C.J.N.M. van der Palen; F.G.J.M. Lessmann; U. van der Velden; B.G. Loos

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss, usin

  9. 42 CFR 410.31 - Bone mass measurement: Conditions for coverage and frequency standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the FDA under 21 CFR part 807, or approved for marketing by the FDA for this use under 21 CFR part... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bone mass measurement: Conditions for coverage and frequency standards. 410.31 Section 410.31 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  10. A Surrogate Measure of Cortical Bone Matrix Density by Long T2 -Suppressed MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alan C; Li, Cheng; Wehrli, Suzanne L; Wehrli, Felix W

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance has the potential to image and quantify two pools of water within bone: free water within the Haversian pore system (transverse relaxation time, T2 > 1 ms), and water hydrogen-bonded to matrix collagen (T2 ∼ 300 to 400 μs). Although total bone water concentration quantified by MRI has been shown to scale with porosity, greater insight into bone matrix density and porosity may be gained by relaxation-based separation of bound and pore water fractions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a recently developed surrogate measurement for matrix density, single adiabatic inversion recovery (SIR) zero echo-time (ZTE) MRI, in human bone. Specimens of tibial cortical bone from 15 donors (aged 27 to 97 years; 8 female and 7 male) were examined at 9.4T field strength using two methods: (1) (1)H ZTE MRI, to capture total (1)H signal, and (2) (1)H SIR-ZTE MRI, to selectively image matrix-associated (1)H signal. Total water, bone matrix, and bone mineral densities were also quantified gravimetrically, and porosity was measured by micro-CT. ZTE apparent total water (1)H concentration was 32.7 ± 3.2 M (range 28.5 to 40.3 M), and was correlated positively with porosity (R(2) = 0.80) and negatively with matrix and mineral densities (R(2) =  0.90 and 0.82, respectively). SIR-ZTE apparent bound water (1)H concentration was 32.9 ± 3.9 M (range 24.4 to 39.8 M), and its correlations were opposite to those of apparent total water: negative with porosity (R(2) = 0.73) and positive with matrix density (R(2) = 0.74) and mineral density (R(2) = 0.72). Porosity was strongly correlated with gravimetric matrix density (R(2) = 0.91, negative) and total water density (R(2) = 0.92, positive). The strong correlations of SIR-ZTE-derived apparent bound water (1)H concentration with ground-truth measurements suggest that this quantitative solid-state MRI method provides a nondestructive surrogate measure of bone matrix density

  11. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Measurement of the speed of sound in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok-Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A new method for measuring the speed of sound (SOS) in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics (TRA) focusing system was proposed and validated with measurements obtained by using the conventional pulse-transmission technique. The SOS measured in 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using the two methods was highly correlated each other, although the SOS measured by using the TRA focusing system was slightly lower by an average of 2.2 m/s. The SOS measured by using the two methods showed high correlation coefficients of r = 0.92 with the apparent bone density, consistent with the behavior in human trabecular bone in vitro. These results prove the efficacy of the new method based on the principle of TRA to measure the SOS in trabecular bone.

  13. Micro-computerised tomography optimisation for the measurement of bone mineral density around titanium dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dental implants (screws) are commonly used to replace missing teeth by forming a biological union with bone ('osseointegration'). Micro-computerised tomography (μCT) may be useful for measuring bone mineral density around dental implants. Major issues arise because of various artefacts that occur with polychromatic X-rays associated bench type instruments that may compromise interpretation of the observations. In this study various approaches to minimise artefacts such as; beam hardening, filtering and edge effects are explored with a homogeneous polymeric material, Teflon, with and without an implant present. The implications of the limitations of using such polychromatic μCT systems to quantify bone mineral density adjacent to the implant are discussed. (author)

  14. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 1. Magiscan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, E.; Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Fallon, J.

    1982-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that /sup 125/I absorptiometry gives an accurate and sensitive measure of alveolar bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alveolar bone mass determined by /sup 125/I absorptiometry and bone density obtained by analysis of standardized intraoral radiographs by the Magiscan System. A defect of increasing size was made at one site of the alveolar bone in a human skull. The amount of bone remaining at each step was calculated using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. Standardized radiographs were also taken at each step and the relative density in the area of the defect was determined by the Magiscan System. The Magiscan's System Computer Memory permits analysis of identical areas on a longitudinal series of films of the same alveolar bone location. The results indicate that in estimating amounts of alveolar bone the Magiscan analysis of standardized intraoral radiography is similar in sensitivity and accuracy to /sup 125/I absorptiometry.

  15. {sup 3}H-tetracycline as a proxy for {sup 41}Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Connie [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059 (United States)]. E-mail: weavercm@purdue.edu; Cheong, Jennifer [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059 (United States); Jackson, George [PRIME Lab, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Elmore, David [PRIME Lab, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); McCabe, George [Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Martin, Berdine [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47906-2059 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with {sup 41}Ca and measuring urinary {sup 41}Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand {sup 41}Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used {sup 3}H-tetracycline ({sup 3}H-TC) as a proxy for {sup 41}Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary {sup 3}H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats.

  16. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-06-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41Ca and measuring urinary 41Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3H-tetracycline (3H-TC) as a proxy for 41Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats.

  17. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41Ca and measuring urinary 41Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3H-tetracycline (3H-TC) as a proxy for 41Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  18. Accuracy of trabecular bone microstructural measurement at planned dental implant sites using cone-beam CT datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ibrahim; A. Parsa; B. Hassan; P. van der Stelt; I.H.A. Aartman; D. Wismeijer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cone-beam CT (CBCT) images are infrequently utilized for trabecular bone microstructural measurement due to the system's limited resolution. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of CBCT for measuring trabecular bone microstructure in comparison with micro CT (μCT). Materials

  19. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density, trace elements and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the primary purposes of the coordinated research program was to measure BMD of the healthy population of the ages between 15 and 49 based on the protocol discussed during the first research coordination meeting, RCM, in Vienna, December 12-15, 1994. The work carried out since then can be divided into several topics. Each of these subjects will be summarized in the following sections. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used for determination of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn and Cu in bone samples. Sample preparation is a critical step prior to AAS. It requires the oxidation of organic matter of biological samples to prepare a solution ready for analysis of mineral elements. For bone samples, for dissolution purposes several acid or acid mixtures can be used. For the preparation of bone samples for AAS, cleaned, separated from blood, muscle and fat, powdered and homogenized bone samples were dissolved in nitric acid. Different dissolution procedures such as hot plate dissolution, dissolution at room temperature and microwave dissolution were tried. After these experiments, microwave dissolution procedure was chosen as the main digestion method for its following advantages: Rapid dissolution (only 8 minutes), complete digestion, minimal reagent consumption, sample integrity which allows volatile element determination, lower reagent blank and potential automation. Bone samples weighing approximately 300 mg will be irradiated with thermal neutrons at Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, TR-2 Reactor in Istanbul. Gamma rays of the radioactive isotopes of the samples will be measured with the nuclear spectroscopy system at the Department of Chemistry, METU. We have already analyzed five bone samples (cortical and trabecular parts separately) weighing approximately 200 mg, both short and long irradiation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NUT), USA

  20. Development of the in vivo measurement system of bone mineral content using monoenergetic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system, developed for in vivo measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) using monoenergetic gamma-rays of 241 Am, is described. It presents a discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of the technique, with details of acquisition and data processing and also discusses the calibration procedure used. The results obtained with in vivo measurements are presented and BMC values of clinically normal subjects and chronic renal patients are compared. (author)

  1. Reliability and Validity of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density Measurements by DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Melissa Kareen

    2002-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been well established in both clinical and research settings for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and is becoming more widely utilized for assessment of body composition. Reliability and validity are essential factors in both applications of this technique; however, neither have been confirmed for the QDR-4500A DXA at Virginia Tech. Therefore, measurements of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (TPF) and total for...

  2. Laser Doppler flowmetry for bone blood flow measurements: helium-neon laser light attenuation and depth of perfusion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nötzli, H P; Swiontkowski, M F; Thaxter, S T; Carpenter, G K; Wyatt, R

    1989-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been successfully used in clinical and experimental settings to evaluate bone perfusion but unanswered questions regarding its capabilities and limitations still remain. This study was undertaken to determine absorption of He-Ne laser light (632.8 nm) and maximum depth for flow assessment (threshold thickness) under optimal conditions in bone. Light transmittance in bovine bone samples of femora and tibia was measured after each step of grinding and depth of penetration calculated. The threshold thickness was obtained by placing the same samples in a flow chamber where a solution of 2% latex circulated beneath; flow was detected by a laser Doppler probe resting on top of the sample. The results showed a significantly higher depth of penetration for trabecular than for cortical bone. A regression analysis showed a high correlation between the inorganic fraction of the bone and the depth of penetration. The maximum depth at which the laser Doppler probe can evaluate flow in bone conditions was found to be 2.9 +/- 0.2 mm in cortical bone, 3.5 +/- 0.3 mm in bone covered by 1 mm cartilage and 3.5 +/- 0.2 mm in trabecular bone. The study showed the limitations of LDF in bone and their correlations to various bone properties.

  3. [Serial strain gauge measurement of bone healing in Hoffmann external fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N

    1984-01-01

    Since 1978, the author has applied Hoffmann external fixation to the treatment of open fractures and infected pseudoarthrosis of long bones in the lower limbs, but has some difficulties in determining when weight bearing should be started after operation, how much weight bearing should be and when the pin should be removed. As new method to mechanically analyze the callus strength, I tried to estimate the amount of strain at intervals of 2 to 3 weeks, beginning from the second week after operation, by bending or compressing the fracture site through the strain gauge glued to the middle of the external fixator's connecting rod. From a strength test by means of a model of fracture using a vinyl chloride pipe and also from a study of computer calculation using the model of plane beam structure for architectural design, it was found that the amount of the strain on the connecting rod decreased hyperbolically when the mechanical properties of the callus increased, and that it became constant when the mechanical properties of the callus reached 50% of the intact bone. The strength test using an cadaveric skin bone demonstrated that the callus volume was one of the most important and affecting factor. Twenty-three cases were treated by Hoffmann external fixation, and the bone healing was achieved in 20 of them. On the basis of the bone healing curve obtained by the serial strain gauge measurement in those cases, the bone healing process could be classified into 5 types: normal healing, slow healing, non-union, arrest in evolution and breakage of callus; and were employed as indexes in the post-operative rehabilitation program. PMID:6747402

  4. A New Technique to Increase Reliability in Measuring the Axis of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Sheng; Wu, Tai-Yin; Wang, Ting-Ming; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Shih, Kao-Shang; Liaw, Chen-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Measuring bone angles is an important method for diagnosing disease and predicting the prognosis in orthopedics. Traditionally, the angle is measured using lines drawn manually and adjusted by the naked eye. The purpose of the present study was to propose new methods to measure the bone angles formed by the axes of the calcaneus with good reliability and low operational error. The 2 new methods used linear regression analysis of the points inside and on the "envelope" line. The traditional method used the vector of the lines drawn for calculation. Digital radiographs of the lateral view of the feet from 51 patients were collected, and the angles were measured using these 3 methods. Next, we analyzed the reliability, differences, and correlations of these 3 methods. The intra- and interobserver comparisons revealed significant differences between the results of the 2 new methods and those of the traditional method. In addition, the new methods had greater reliability and better intra- and interobserver correlations than did the traditional method. We suggest that these 2 new methods to measure bone axis should be added to the Picture Archiving and Communication System to obtain more reliable and standardized data in clinical practice and for future research purposes. PMID:26364234

  5. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  6. Measurement of hand bone mineral content using single-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single photon absorption imaging technique has been developed to assess the bone mass of the hand, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or bronchial asthma. A modified rectilinear scanner images the hand by transmission scanning in a water bath with a 7.4 GBq 125I source. A microcomputer is used to calculate the bone mineral distribution, and the total bone mineral content (BMC) of the hand is determined from that distribution. The precision (coefficient of variation) of the measurement is 1.9%. A control population of 20 men and 58 women has been studied to determine normal variations in hand bone mineral content with age, sex, body size, hand volume and years since menopause. The normal men are found to have an average hand BMC of 25.1 g with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22%, which is reduced to 12% by normalising for body size using span. The normal women had an average hand BMC of 18.0 g +- 15%. The CV is reduced to 13% by normalising for span and years post-menopause. (author)

  7. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  8. Assessment of the relationship between standard probe and implantable fiber measurements of cortical bone blood flow: a canine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Podworny, N; Anderson, G I; Schemitsch, E H

    1996-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used to assess cortical bone blood flow in various clinical situations, such as osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis. Standard metal-sheathed probes containing optical fibers, applied to cortical bone for perfusion measurements, require direct exposure of the bone surface for each measurement, making nonanesthetized assessments over time impractical. Implantable optical fibers offer a noninvasive method for evaluating cortical bone perfusion without repeated surgical exposure of the bone after initial surgical implantation of the fibers. In vitro studies have shown the reliability of laser Doppler (LD) fibers compared with those of the standard probe. This investigation studied the relationship between measurements of cortical bone perfusion obtained by implanted optical (LD) fibers and standard (LDF) probes in vivo. Midshaft tibial fractures were created in the right hindlimb of 11 adult, large (>25 kg) dogs and stabilized by low contact-dynamic compression plate fixation. Cortical bone blood flow was measured by LDF using standard probes and implantable fibers at five sites along the tibia prefracture, postfracture, immediately postplate application, and at 10 weeks postplating, immediately prior to euthanasia. The implantable fibers were secured onto the cortical bone via the plate and led through a percutaneous exit site. Histological examination of the inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes and soft tissue surrounding the fibers revealed mild inflammation. No significant correlation of blood flow assessed by the implantable fibers and standard probe occurred immediately postfracture (r 0.62). However, a statistically significant correlation was seen postplate application at one of the measurement sites in the distal fracture fragment (r = 0.78, P fibers remained intact and functional until an average of 3 weeks at which time they either fractured or were removed by the animals. This is the first in vivo study assessing the

  9. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm3, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm3, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm3) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm3 and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0.05, Tukey's HSD), on

  10. Bone formation in trabecular bone of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies as measured by tetracycline label evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabecular bone from thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies of young adult beagles was evaluated for bone formation characteristics in eight beagles, using tetracycline pre-labeling. About 3 percent of the surface was continually-forming during a twelve day interval, while from 7 to 29 percent of the surface was forming bone intermittently over the twelve day span. Analysis of cross-sections provided a clearer picture of the results than did analysis of longitudinally-cut sections. There was no statistical difference in males and females or in oral vs. intravenous administration of tetracycline

  11. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary;

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing and the general practitioner is integral to identifying these patients. It is, therefore, of interest to characterize the referral pattern of patients scheduled for determination of bone density by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning...... calculated with respect to patient characteristics. Only 21% of the referred patients had osteoporosis and 34% had osteopenia. Of these, 24% had osteopenia and a Z-score below -1. Half of the referred patients were women less than 60 yr with a markedly low risk of osteoporosis. A BMI less than 20 kg/m(2......) increased the predictive value considerably. A low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 yr for measurements of bone density. Forty-five percent of the referred women from general practitioners had a normal BMD....

  12. A feasibility study of the in vivo measurement of aluminium in peripheral bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.; Chettle, D.R. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Space Research)

    1992-12-01

    In this note the authors discuss the feasibility of constructing a neutron source, using the [sup 3]H([sup 1]H,n)[sup 3] He reaction and the 3MV Dynamitron accelerator in the University of Birmingham, which is suitable for the measurement of aluminium in vivo. The immediate purpose was for the measurement of aluminium in bone, particularly in renal dialysis patients, but another possible application is mentioned in regard to a possible link between raised body stores of aluminium and Alzheimers Disease. (UK).

  13. Foot bone kinematics as measured in a cadaveric robotic gait simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Eric C; Aubin, Patrick M; Ledoux, William R

    2011-04-01

    The bony motion of the foot during the stance phase of gait is useful to further our understanding of joint function, disease etiology, injury prevention and surgical intervention. In this study, we used a 10-segment in vitro foot model with anatomical coordinate systems and a robotic gait simulator (RGS) to measure the kinematics of the tibia, talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, medial cuneiform, first metatarsal, hallux, third metatarsal, and fifth metatarsal from six cadaveric feet. The RGS accurately reproduced in vivo vertical ground reaction force (5.9% body weight RMS error) and tibia to ground kinematics. The kinematic data from the foot model generally agree with invasive in vivo descriptions of bony motion and provides the most realistic description of bony motion currently available for an in vitro model. These data help to clarify the function of several joints that are difficult to study in vivo; for example, the combined range of motion of the talonavicular, naviculocuneiform, metatarsocuneiform joints provided more sagittal plane mobility (27.4°) than the talotibial joint alone (23.2°). Additionally, the anatomical coordinate systems made it easier to meaningfully determine bone-to-bone motion, describing uniplanar motion as rotation about a single axis rather than about three. The data provided in this study allow for many kinematic interpretations to be made about dynamic foot bone motion, and the methodology presents a means to explore many invasive foot biomechanics questions under near-physiologic conditions.

  14. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  15. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle. PMID:22995463

  16. From histology to micro-CT:Measuring and modeling resorption cavities and their relation to bone competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jef; Vanderoost; G; Harry; van; Lenthe

    2014-01-01

    The process of bone remodelling plays an essential role in the emergence and maintenance of bone geometry and its internal structure.Osteoclasts are one of the three main bone cell types that play a crucial role in the bone remodelling cycle.At the microstructural level,osteoclasts create bone deficits by eroding resorption cavities.Understanding how these cavities impair the mechanical quality of the bone is not only relevant in quantifying the impact of resorption cavities in healthy bone and normal aging,but maybe even more so in quantifying their role in metabolic bone diseases.Meta-bolic bone diseases and their treatment are both known to affect the bone remodelling cycle;hence,the bone mechanical competence can and will be affected.How-ever,the current knowledge of the precise dimensions of these cavities and their effect on bone competence is rather limited.This is not surprising considering the difficulties in deriving three-dimensional(3D)properties from two-dimensional(2D)histological sections.The measurement difficulties are reflected in the evalua-tion of how resorption cavities affect bone competence.Although detailed 3D models are generally being used to quantify the mechanical impact of the cavities,the representation of the cavities themselves has basicallybeen limited to simplified shapes and averaged cavityproperties.Qualitatively,these models indicate that cav-ity size and location are important,and that the effectof cavities is larger than can be expected from simplebone loss.In summary,the dimensions of osteoclastresorption cavities were until recently estimated from2D measures;hence,a careful interpretation of resorp-tion cavity dimensions is necessary.More effort needsto go into correctly quantifying resorption cavities usingmodern 3D imaging techniques like micro-computedtomography(micro-CT)and synchrotron radiation CT.Osteoclast resorption cavities affect bone competence.The structure-function relationships have been ana-lysed using

  17. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs receive

  18. Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I

    1999-01-01

    which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner......Volume fraction, the single most important parameter in describing trabecular microstructure, can easily be calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions of micro-CT images. This study sought to quantify the accuracy of this measurement. One hundred and sixty human cancellous bone specimens...

  19. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); King, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Vieira, N.E. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States); Woodhouse, L.R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Yergey, A.L. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  20. Estimation of multipath transmission parameters for quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencks, Stefanie; Schmitz, Georg

    2013-09-01

    When applying quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements to bone for predicting osteoporotic fracture risk, the multipath transmission of sound waves frequently occurs. In the last 10 years, the interest in separating multipath QUS signals for their analysis awoke, and led to the introduction of several approaches. Here, we compare the performances of the two fastest algorithms proposed for QUS measurements of bone: the modified least-squares Prony method (MLSP), and the space alternating generalized expectation maximization algorithm (SAGE) applied in the frequency domain. In both approaches, the parameters of the transfer functions of the sound propagation paths are estimated. To provide an objective measure, we also analytically derive the Cramér-Rao lower bound of variances for any estimator and arbitrary transmit signals. In comparison with results of Monte Carlo simulations, this measure is used to evaluate both approaches regarding their accuracy and precision. Additionally, with simulations using typical QUS measurement settings, we illustrate the limitations of separating two superimposed waves for varying parameters with focus on their temporal separation. It is shown that for good SNRs around 100 dB, MLSP yields better results when two waves are very close. Additionally, the parameters of the smaller wave are more reliably estimated. If the SNR decreases, the parameter estimation with MLSP becomes biased and inefficient. Then, the robustness to noise of the SAGE clearly prevails. Because a clear influence of the interrelation between the wavelength of the ultrasound signals and their temporal separation is observable on the results, these findings can be transferred to QUS measurements at other sites. The choice of the suitable algorithm thus depends on the measurement conditions.

  1. [Modification of bone quality by extreme physical stress. Bone density measurements in high-performance athletes using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, D; Reiter, A; Pfeil, J; Güssbacher, A; Niethard, F U

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of osteoporosis is still controversial. Rehabilitation programs which stress strengthening exercises as well as impact loading activities increase the bone mass. On the other side activity level early in life has not been proven to correlate with increased bone mineral content later in life. Little is known on the influence of high performance sports on the bone density especially in athletes with high demands on weight bearing of the spine. In (n = 40) internationally top ranked high performance athletes of different disciplines (n = 28 weight-lifters, n = 6 sports-boxers and n = 6 bicycle-racers) bone density measurements of the lumbar spine and the left hip were performed. The measurements were carried out by dual-photonabsorptiometry (DEXA; QDR 2000, Siemens) and evaluated by an interactive software-programme (Hologic Inc.). The results were compared to the measurements of 21 age-matched male control individuals. In the high performance weight lifters there was an increase of bone density compared to the control individuals of 23% in the Ward's triangle (p boxers had an increase up to 17% (lumbar spine), 9% (hip) and 7% (Wards' triangle). In the third athletes group (Tour de France-bikers) BMD was decreased 10% in the lumbar spine, 14% in the hip and 17% in the Wards' triangle. Our results show that training programs stressing axial loads of the skeletal system may lead to an increase of BMD in the spine and the hip of young individuals. Other authors findings, that the BMD of endurance athletes may decrease, is confirmed. Nevertheless the bikers BMD-loss of 10 to 17% was surprisingly high.

  2. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Moraes, Livia Almeida Bueno; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz, E-mail: tataventorini@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  3. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  4. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruska Ventorini VASCONCELOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (-0.11 and -0.14 mm, respectively, and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm. However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p> 0.05. In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data.

  5. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  6. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  7. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  8. Determination of Vertical Interproximal Bone Loss Topography: Correlation Between Indirect Digital Radiographic Measurement and Clinical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Esmaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configurationof bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis,treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosiscan be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedureswill be possible.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirectdigital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topographyof interproximal bony defects.Patients and Methods: Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibularand maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique.The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using “Linear Measurement”software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD, alveolar crest(AC and cementoenamel junction (CEJ were determined using a software. Subsequentto radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulouslyduring flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontalprobe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlationbetween these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.Results: The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depthdetermination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect widthwere 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively.Conclusions: Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseousdefects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects.

  9. Measurement of crater geometries after laser ablation of bone tissue with optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenlin Zhan; Xianzeng Zhang; Qing Ye; Shusen Xie

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring crater geometries by use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is examined. Bovine shank bone on a motorized translation stage with a motion velocity of 3 mm/s is ablated with a pulsed CO2 laser in vitro. The laser pulse repetition rate is 60 Hz and the spot size on the tissue surface is 0.5 mm. Crater geometries are evaluated immediately by both OCT and histology methods after laser irradiation. The results reveal that OCT is capable of measuring crater geometries rapidly and noninvasively as compared to histology. There are good correlation and agreement between crater depth estimates obtained by two techniques, whereas there exists distinct difference between crater width estimates when the carbonization at the sides of craters is not removed.

  10. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard;

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...... to investigate the relationship between arch type and injury likelihood. Feiss Line is a valid clinical measure of the MLA. However, no study has investigated the reliability of the test. Objectives: The purpose was to describe a modified version of the Feiss Line test and to determine the intra- and inter......-tester reliability of this new foot alignment test. To emphasize the purpose of the modified test, the authors have named it The Navicular Position Test. Methods: Intra- and inter-tester reliability were evaluated of The Navicular Position Test with the use of ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Bland...

  11. Measurement of the toughness of bone: A tutorial with special reference to small animal studies✩

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, R. O.; Koester, K.J.; Ionova, S.; Yao, W.; Lane, N E; Ager, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the strength and toughness of bone has become an integral part of many biological and bioengineering studies on the structural properties of bone and their degradation due to aging, disease and therapeutic treatment. Whereas the biomechanical techniques for characterizing bone strength are well documented, few studies have focused on the theory, methodology, and various experimental procedures for evaluating the fracture toughness of bone, i.e., its resistance to fr...

  12. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  13. An alternative ultrasonic method for measuring the elastic properties of cortical bone

    CERN Document Server

    Pithioux, M; Chabrand, P; Pithioux, Martine

    2002-01-01

    We studied the elastic properties of bone to analyze its mechanical behavior. The basic principles of ultrasonic methods are now well established for varying isotropic media, particularly in the field of biomedical engineering. However, little progress has been made in its application to anisotropic materials. This is largely due to the complex nature of wave propagation in these media. In the present study, the theory of elastic waves is essential because it relates the elastic moduli of a material to the velocity of propagation of these waves along arbitrary directions in a solid. Transducers are generally placed in contact with the samples which are often cubes with parallel faces that are difficult to prepare. The ultrasonic method used here is original, a rough preparation of the bone is sufficient and the sample is in rotation. Moreover, to analyze heterogeneity of the structure we measure velocities in different points on the sample. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro the anisotropi...

  14. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Joel A.; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M.; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J.; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Scadden, David T.; Lin, Charles P.

    2014-04-01

    Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (<32 mm Hg) despite very high vascular density. We further uncovered heterogeneities in local pO2, with the lowest pO2 (~9.9 mm Hg, or 1.3%) found in deeper peri-sinusoidal regions. The endosteal region, by contrast, is less hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change markedly after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment.

  15. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Rolf; Püschel, Klaus; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors) was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  16. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossöhmichen, Martin; Salcher, Rolf; Püschel, Klaus; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors) was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures. PMID:27610377

  17. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossöhmichen, Martin; Salcher, Rolf; Püschel, Klaus; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors) was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  18. Temperature Measurement During Polymerization of Bone Cement in Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: An In Vivo Study in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the study was to 'in vivo' measure temperature, during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV), within a vertebral body injected with different bone cements. According to the declaration of Helsinki, 22 women (60-80 years; mean, 75 years) with painful osteoporotic vertebral collapse underwent bilateral transpedicular PV on 22 lumbar vertebrae. Two 10-G vertebroplasty needles were introduced into the vertebra under digital fluoroscopy; a 16-G radiofrequency thermoablation needle (Starburst XL; RITA Medical System Inc., USA), carrying five thermocouples, was than coaxially inserted. Eleven different bone cements were injected and temperatures were measured every 30 s until temperatures dropped under 45oC. After the thermocouple needle was withdrawn, bilateral PV was completed with cement injection through the vertebroplasty needle. Unpaired Student's t-tests, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate significant differences (p oC), B (from 50o to 60oC), and C (below 50oC). Peak temperature in Group A (86.7 ± 10.7oC) was significantly higher (p = 0.0172) than that in Groups B (60.5 ± 3.7oC) and C (44.8 ± 2.6oC). The average of all thermocouples showed an extremely significant difference (p = 0.0002) between groups. None of the tested cements maintained a temperature ≥45oC for more than 30 min. These data suggest that back-pain improvement is obtained not by thermal necrosis but by mechanical consolidation only. The relative necrotic thermal effect in vertebral metastases seems to confirm that analgesia must be considered the main intent of PV.

  19. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara [Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakakura, Celso Eduardo [Barretos Dental School, Barretos Educational Fundation, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  20. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-salem (United States)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm{sup 2} in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm{sup 2} and 0.765g/cm{sup 2}. Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures.

  1. Some aspects of sound discomfort caused by streetcar traffic. [noise intensity measurements and health aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursoniu, C.; Puca, N.; Dankner, A.; Moise, G.; Sirbu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Streetcar noise was investigated on different lines and inside different types by sonometer measurements. The results showed variations of the total noise intensity between 88-97 db. In some squares with heavy traffic the total noise intensity reached 106 db. Noise intensity measurements inside different types of streetcars brought to light high values between 101-106 db, while in the case of the new silent type of streetcar the values were 86-87 db. The importance of the sound discomfort produced by streetcar traffic is emphasized, inasmuch as the noise intensity exceeds by far the values recommended by communal hygiene.

  2. XRF-measured bone lead (Pb) as a biomarker for Pb exposure and toxicity among children diagnosed with Pb poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Lin, Yanfen; Weisskopf, Marc; Yan, Chonghuai; Hu, Howard; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning remains a global issue, especially in industrial areas. In this study, 115 children with average age 5.7 years were recruited as either patient diagnosed with Pb poisoning or controls at Xinhua Hospital in China. The subjects' bone Pb was measured with a K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) and a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system. A significant correlation between KXRF bone Pb and blood Pb and portable XRF and KXRF measurements were observed. The half-life of blood-lead was calculated to be 9.96 ± 3.92 d. Our results indicate that bone is a useful biomarker for Pb in children. PMID:26856822

  3. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freslier Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better

  4. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  5. Influence of object location in different FOVs on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of human mandible: a cone beam CT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ibrahim; A. Parsa; B. Hassan; P. van der Stelt; I.H.A. Aartman; P. Nambiar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different object locations in different fields of view (FOVs) of two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of a human mandible. A block of dry human mandible was scanned at five different locations (centre, lef

  6. Radiocalcium Measurement of Bone Turnover in Disorders of Calcium Metabolism Using a Model Based on an Expanding Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine bone mineralization rate the patient eats a constant daily diet for the duration of the study. 10 μCi of 47CaCl2 are injected intravenously on day one of the investigation. Blood samples are taken at 5, 10, 20, 40 and 90 minutes, 3, 5, 9 and 22 hours and 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 days. 47Ca radioactivity is measured in all the plasma and daily faecal and urine samples. Bone mineralization is determined using a model based on the concept that the exchangeable calcium pool is continuously expanding according to a power function and that activity is lost from the pool into faeces, urine and bone (by mineralization) in direct proportion to the specific activity of the plasma (S*). The power function can be determined graphically from a log/log plot of the S* data over the first 15 hours. Extrapolation of this line to day 7 permits calculation of the pool size at that time (reciprocal of the calculated Sp*7) and the product of the calculated pool and actual S7* yields the amount of activity in the pool at day 7. This is deducted from the activity retained at day 7 to give the activity attributable to bone mineralization which is then divided by the integrated S* over the 7 days to yield the bone mineralization rate. Usually the whole calculation is performed by curve fitting the data points with the aid of a computer. In contrast to previously published methods for the determination of the bone mineralization rates the results presented are independent of the portion of the S* curve that is analysed and thus bone mineralization can be determined in 7 days, previous methods requiring 14 days or more. The normal mineralization rate is 4-6 mg Ca/kg per day. High values of bone mineralization are found in groups of patients with Paget' s disease, osteomalacia, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Low values for bone mineralization have been found in some patients with crush fracture osteoporosis and in hypoparathyroidism. Changes in bone

  7. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  8. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional quantification of structures in trabecular bone using measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus;

    2009-01-01

    The study of pathological changes of bone is an important task in diagnostic procedures of patients with metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis as well as in monitoring the health state of astronauts during long-term space flights. The recent availability of high-resolution three-dimensiona...

  10. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue–bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue–bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue–bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone. (paper)

  11. Fracture Risk Assessment in Older Adults Using a Combination of Selected Quantitative Computed Tomography Bone Measures: A Subanalysis of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianon, Nahid J.; Lang, Thomas F.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y.; Garcia, Melissa; Yu, Binbing; Kapadia, Asha S.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Selwyn, Beatrice J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2016-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric bone measures are individually associated with prevalent osteoporotic fractures. Whether an aggregate of these measures would better associate with fractures has not been examined. We examined relationships between self-reported fractures and selected bone measures acquired by quantitative computerized tomography (QCT), a composite bone score, and QCT-acquired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–like total femur BMD in 2110 men and 2682 women in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. The combined bone score was generated by summing gender-specific Z-scores for 4 QCT measures: vertebral trabecular BMD, femur neck cortical thickness, femur neck trabecular BMD, and femur neck minimal cross-sectional area. Except for the latter measure, lower scores for QCT measures, singly and combined, showed positive (p < 0.05) associations with fractures. Results remained the same in stratified models for participants not taking bone-promoting medication. In women on bone-promoting medication, greater femur neck cortical thickness and trabecular BMD were significantly associated with fracture status. However, the association between fracture and combined bone score was not stronger than the associations between fracture and individual measures or total femur BMD. Thus, the selected measures did not all similarly associate with fracture status and did not appear to have an additive effect on fracture status. PMID:23562129

  12. THE ESTIMATION OF GROWTH CURVE OF BALI CATTLE AT BONE AND BARRU DISTRICTS, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA USING TEN BODY MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sri Rachma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of growth curves and mature size of ten body measurements, namely withers height,hip height, body length, chest girth, chest depth, chest width, rump length, hip width, thurl width, andpin bone width, were studied in Bali bulls and heifers at the age of 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months. 108bulls and 146 heifers at Bone district and 152 bulls and 110 heifers at Barru district, South Sulawesi,Indonesia were measured. The Brody growth function was fitted to each animal’s records and leastsquaresanalysis were used to investigate the effects of place, sex, and age to growth curve and maturesize of body measurements of Bali bulls and heifers. The result showed that the growth of bodymeasurements of Bali cattle until 24 months of age were still increasing and not reaching the mature sizeyet. The place, sex and age factors were significantly affected to the growth of body measurements ofBali cattle.

  13. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: Pitfalls in measurement and interpretation of bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is common disorder of elderly population all over the world as well as in India. The presence of osteoporosis predicts fracture risk. Fragility fracture has marked morbidity as well as mortality. Thus, osteoporosis has marked therapeutic and economic implications. Osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD. The gold-standard method to assess BMD is dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In India, hologic and lunar machines are most commonly used to measure BMD; these machines have their own normative data from which patients BMD is compared and results are generated. As per recommendations, all postmenopausal women and men above 70 years need BMD estimation other than quite a few other specific indications as well. With increasing life expectancy, increased awareness of osteoporosis, and availability of DXA machines, there is flooding of requests for BMD estimation. In view of all this, it becomes imperative on part of physicians, orthopedicians, rheumatologists, and endocrinologists alike to be fully aware about pitfalls in BMD assessment by DXA and interpretation of BMD reports.

  14. The effect of fat on the measurement of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Edward; Kälvesten, Johan; Cook, Kenneth; Khramov, Nata; Javed, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that surrounding fat causes an increase of up to 21% in bone mineral density (BMD) measured by Lunar 'Intelligent DXA' (iDXA), one of the latest generation dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners [1]. The purpose of our study was to see if it was possible to avoid this artifact when measuring the BMD of metacarpals II, III, and IV by digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR). METHODS: We took X-rays of the bones of a cadaveric left hand which were immobilized in a wooden cradle to preserve an approximate in vivo configuration. The X-rays were digitized into Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files which were analyzed using dxr-online (dxr-online, Sectra, Sweden) which uses the same DXR-BMD algorithm previously used by Pronosco X-posure v2 and Sectra Osteoporosis package. The X-rays were repeated four times. We then surrounded the bones with a layer of lard, and again X-rayed four times. This process was repeated with the bones were covered by two layers, and then three layers of lard. RESULTS: The measured DXR-BMD increased by a maximum of 0.44% when the metacarpals were covered by either two or three layers of lard compared with when the metacarpals were not covered by lard. CONCLUSION: The measurement of metacarpal BMD measured by DXR is minimally affected by surrounding lard. The measurement of metacarpal BMD by DXR seems to be a way of avoiding the artifactual change in BMD caused by fat, when it is measured by DXA. PMID:21403849

  15. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piert, Morand [Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich (Germany); Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A. [Radiopharmacy Section, PET Center, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T. [Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K{sub 1} values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f{sub H2O}) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K{sub 1} values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K{sub i}), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K{sub i} and k{sub 3} (P<0.05), which was mainly caused by an increase of the fraction of bound tracer in tissue (P<0.01). In contrast, f{sub H2O}, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [{sup 18}F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [{sup 18}F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f{sub H2O} and K{sub i} values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [{sup 18}F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease

  16. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K1 values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (fH2O) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [15O]H2O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [18F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K1 values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (Ki), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of Ki and k3 (PH2O, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [18F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [18F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean fH2O and Ki values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [18F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [18F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy is mainly related to an up-regulation of the amount of ionic exchange of [18F]fluoride with the bone matrix, while tracer delivery remains unchanged. (orig.)

  17. The role of SPECT bone scan in unilateral condylar hyperplasia: Is it measuring the condylar size?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, DWC; Yau, YY; Lo, J.; Cheung, LK

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of Tc-99m SPECT bone scan has been recommended as the assessment tool for patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia. A condyle is generally regarded as active if the scintigraphic activity difference is 10% greater than the contralateral side. However, there was little information regarding the association between the bone scan uptake and the histopathological features of the hyperactive condyle. AIM: The aim of this study is to check the association between the SPECT ...

  18. Comparison of the Mandibular Bone Densitometry Measurement between Normal, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to compare the mandibular bone density between postmenopausal women with normal skeletal bone mass density (BMD and those with low skeletal BMD using digital panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: One hundred fifteen postmenopausal women were divided into normal and osteoporotic/osteopenic groups. Digital panoramic radiographs were prepared using Digora PCT Sorodex equipment and Promax panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland, Kvp=68 and mA=9. The mandibular bone density of an area (approximately 4×4 mm, exactly near the distal edge of the right mental foramen was determined in digital panoramic radiographs using Digora for Windows (DfW Software.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mandibular bone density between the normal and osteoporotic/osteopenic participants (P >0.05. Mandibular bone density was not statistically different in normal and osteoporotic individuals with SBMD or FBMD T-score -2.5 (P >0.05. Density of the region of interest differed significantly between the normal and the osteoporotic group with SBMD and FBMD T-score -2.5 (P <0.05. The same results also gained in women who were osteoporotic only in the femoral region (P <0.05.Conclusion: Mandibular bone density in subjects with low BMD was related to FBMD. So, digital panoramic radiographs could be beneficial in the diagnosis of postmenopausal women who are at risk of osteoporosis.

  19. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  20. Noninvasive optical measurement of bone marrow lesions: a Monte Carlo study on visible human dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow is both the main hematopoietic and important immune organ. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a series of severe complications and even myeloma. The traditional diagnosis of BMLs rely on mostly bone marrow biopsy/ puncture, and sometimes MRI, X-ray, and etc., which are either invasive and dangerous, or ionizing and costly. A diagnosis technology with advantages in noninvasive, safe, real-time continuous detection, and low cost is requested. Here we reported our preliminary exploration of feasibility verification of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical diagnosis of BMLs by Monte Carlo simulation study. We simulated and visualized the light propagation in the bone marrow quantitatively with a Monte Carlo simulation software for 3D voxelized media and Visible Chinese Human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy. The results indicate that bone marrow actually has significant effects on light propagation. According to a sequence of simulation and data analysis, the optimal source-detector separation was suggested to be narrowed down to 2.8-3.2cm, at which separation the spatial sensitivity distribution of NIRS cover the most region of bone marrow with high signal-to-noise ratio. The display of the sources and detectors were optimized as well. This study investigated the light transport in spine addressing to the BMLs detection issue and reported the feasibility of NIRS detection of BMLs noninvasively in theory. The optimized probe design of the coming NIRS-based BMLs detector is also provided.

  1. A signature dissimilarity measure for trabecular bone texture in knee radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a dissimilarity measure for the classification of trabecular bone (TB) texture in knee radiographs. Problems associated with the traditional extraction and selection of texture features and with the invariance to imaging conditions such as image size, anisotropy, noise, blur, exposure, magnification, and projection angle were addressed. Methods: In the method developed, called a signature dissimilarity measure (SDM), a sum of earth mover's distances calculated for roughness and orientation signatures is used to quantify dissimilarities between textures. Scale-space theory was used to ensure scale and rotation invariance. The effects of image size, anisotropy, noise, and blur on the SDM developed were studied using computer generated fractal texture images. The invariance of the measure to image exposure, magnification, and projection angle was studied using x-ray images of human tibia head. For the studies, Mann-Whitney tests with significance level of 0.01 were used. A comparison study between the performances of a SDM based classification system and other two systems in the classification of Brodatz textures and the detection of knee osteoarthritis (OA) were conducted. The other systems are based on weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM) and local binary patterns (LBP). Results: Results obtained indicate that the SDM developed is invariant to image exposure (2.5-30 mA s), magnification (x1.00-x1.35), noise associated with film graininess and quantum mottle (64x64 pixels). However, the measure is sensitive to changes in projection angle (>5 deg.), image anisotropy (>30 deg.), and blur generated by a regular film screen. For the classification of Brodatz textures, the SDM based system produced comparable results to the LBP system. For the detection of knee OA, the SDM based system achieved 78.8% classification accuracy and outperformed the WND

  2. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  3. Evaluation of imaging technologies to correct for photon attenuation in the overlying tissue for in vivo bone strontium measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heirwegh, C M; Chettle, D R; Pejovic-Milic, A [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: cheirweg@uoguelph.ca

    2010-02-21

    The interpretation of measurements of bone strontium in vivo using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is presently hindered by overlying skin and soft-tissue absorption of the strontium x-rays. The use of imaging technologies to measure the overlying soft-tissue thickness at the index finger measuring site might allow correction of the strontium reading to estimate its concentration in bone. An examination of magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US) imaging technologies revealed that 55 MHz US had the smallest range of measurement uncertainty at 3.2% followed by 1 Tesla MR, 25 MHz US, 8 MHz US and CT at 4.3, 5.4, 6.6 and 7.1% uncertainty, respectively. Of these, only CT imaging appeared to underestimate total thickness (p < 0.05). Furthermore, an inter-study comparison on the accuracy of US measurements of the overlying tissue thickness at finger and ankle in nine subjects was investigated. The 8 MHz US system used in prior in vivo experiments was found to perform satisfactorily in a repeat study of ankle measurements, but indicated that finger thickness measurements may have been misread in previous studies by up to 17.7% (p < 0.025). Repeat ankle measurements were not significantly different from initial measurements at 2.2% difference.

  4. Preliminary analysis of osteocyte lacunar density in long bones of tetrapods: all measures are bigger in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen W H Stein

    Full Text Available Osteocytes harbour much potential for paleobiological studies. Synchrotron radiation and spectroscopic analyses are providing fascinating data on osteocyte density, size and orientation in fossil taxa. However, such studies may be costly and time consuming. Here we describe an uncomplicated and inexpensive method to measure osteocyte lacunar densities in bone thin sections. We report on cell lacunar densities in the long bones of various extant and extinct tetrapods, with a focus on sauropodomorph dinosaurs, and how lacunar densities can help us understand bone formation rates in the iconic sauropod dinosaurs. Ordinary least square and phylogenetic generalized least square regressions suggest that sauropodomorphs have lacunar densities higher than scaled up or comparably sized mammals. We also found normal mammalian-like osteocyte densities for the extinct bovid Myotragus, questioning its crocodilian-like physiology. When accounting for body mass effects and phylogeny, growth rates are a main factor determining the density of the lacunocanalicular network. However, functional aspects most likely play an important role as well. Observed differences in cell strategies between mammals and dinosaurs likely illustrate the convergent nature of fast growing bone tissues in these groups.

  5. Serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, and its relationship to bone health indices in Danish girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Eibhlis; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2007-01-01

    Recent cross-sectional data suggest that better vitamin K status in young girls (aged 3-16 years) is associated with decreased bone turnover, even though it is not associated with bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum...... status to modulate childhood bone health. Serum %ucOC and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were measured at baseline in a study of 223 healthy girls aged 11-12 years. Urinary pyridinium crosslinks of collagen and serum total osteocalcin as markers of bone resorption and formation, respectively...

  6. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  7. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Born Rita; Zwahlen Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM) and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM) in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were liv...

  8. Correlation of Arterial Stiffness and Bone Mineral Density by Measuring Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nam-Lee; Suh, Heuy-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between arterial stiffness and osteoporosis has previously been reported. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and bone mineral density in a sample of healthy women undergoing routine medical checkup. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 135 women who had visited the Health Promotion Center (between May 2009 and December 2012). Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity wa...

  9. Nondestructive measurements of implant-bone interface shear modulus and effects of implant geometry in pull-out tests

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins, A.; Shah, B.; Weinans, Harrie; Sumner, Dale

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPush-out and pull-out tests are used for destructive evaluation of implant-bone interface strength. Because nondestructive mechanical tests would allow maintenance of an intact interface for subsequent morphological study, we developed such a test to determine the shear modulus of the interface by measuring the shear deformation of a thin layer adjacent to the implant. A polyurethane foam model was used to test the experimental setup on a group of nine cylindrical implants with th...

  10. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  11. Known VDR polymorphisms are not associated with bone mineral density measures in pediatric Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A; Sinaii, Ninet; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2012-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in adults with Cushing disease (CD), and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been associated with osteopenia. Genetic factors play an important role in bone accrual and its response to various diseases; among them, the most studied are the allelic variants of the VDR gene. There is debate as to whether described variants in the VDR gene have an effect on BMD. In the current study, we sought to analyze whether BMD differences in patients with CD were associated with the Taq1 and Apal VDR allelotypes. The data showed lack of association between BMD and these widely studied VDR polymorphisms, suggesting that the effect of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone in the context of CD does not depend on VDR genotypes.

  12. The measurement of gonadal and bone-marrow doses from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of calculation of the radiation doses to the gonads and to the active bone marrow arising from dental radiography is described. The bone-marrow doses have been calculated using a computer model of X-ray depth doses within the skull for typical dental radiographic examinations as performed in Australia. The ovarian and testicular doses, as a percentage of skin dose have been determined experimentally. The dependence of the gonadal doses on X-ray tube voltage, face to cone distance and direction of the X-ray beam relative to the face is detailed

  13. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  14. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work…

  15. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 5

  16. Accuracy of bone surface size and cortical layer thickness measurements using cone beam computerized tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, N.L.; Meijer, G.J.; Borstlap, W.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Berge, S.J.; Maal, T.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) reconstructions in displaying bone surface size and cortical layer thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two fresh frozen cadaver heads were scanned using a CBCT (i-CAT() 3D Imaging System; Im

  17. Effects of plasma magnesium and prolactin on quantitative ultrasound measurements of heel bone among schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renn Jenn-Huei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a bone disease that can reduce both bone mass and bone strength. It can cause serious fractures of bones, along with causing significant and even devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences for patients and their family members. Many reports have revealed that the prevalence of decreased bone density is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the non-psychological diseased population. The previous report of our group revealed that chronic schizophrenia patients have poorer BUA levels since they were young as compared to the general community population. Hyperprolactinemia and antipsychotics are reported to be among the risk factors for osteoporosis in chronic schizophrenic patients. Methods 93 schizophrenic patients with severely poor adjusted BUA values and 93 age and gender matched patients with normal adjusted BUA values from a previous survey study were selected. Data were collected via questionnaires and via reviews of antipsychotic medications. Blood samples were drawn, and serum levels of prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, Cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTX, thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone were checked. The association between BUA levels and serum levels of the above items, along with the type of received antipsychotic medication, was evaluated. Results There was no significant association found between reduced BUA levels and serum prolactin, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, NTX, thyroid stimulating hormone and parathyroid hormone levels. There was also no association between BUA levels and types of currently received antipsychotics. There was no association between BUA levels and menstruation condition in female patients. Hypermagnesemia had a borderline association with classical and combined (classical and atypical antipsychotic medications in male patients. Nevertheless, hypermagnesemia is a significant

  18. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions. (orig.)

  19. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  20. Panoramic measures for oral bone mass in detecting osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, E; Donos, N; Park, J C; Petrie, A; Mardas, N

    2015-03-01

    Different quantitative and qualitative indices calculated on oral panoramic radiographs have been proposed as useful tools to screen for reduced skeletal bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to systematically review the literature on linear and qualitative panoramic measures and to assess the accuracy of these indices by performing a meta-analysis of their sensitivity and specificity. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed. Fifty studies were included in the qualitative appraisal and 19 were considered for meta-analysis. The methodological quality of the retrieved studies, assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool, was on average low. Three indices were reported by most of the studies: mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and the Klemetti index. Mandibular cortical width presented with a better accuracy in excluding osteopenia/osteoporosis (specificity), since patients with a cortical width more than 4 mm had a normal BMD in 90% of the cases. Almost all studies used a cutoff of 0.3 for the panoramic mandibular index, resulting in an estimated sensitivity and specificity in detecting reduced BMD, respectively, of 0.723 (SE 0.160; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.352-0.926) and 0.733 (SE 0.066; 95% CI, 0.587-0.841). The presence of any kind of mandibular cortical erosion gave an estimated sensitivity and specificity in detecting reduced BMD, respectively, of 0.789 (SE 0.031; 95% CI, 0.721-0.843) and 0.562 (SE 0.047; 95% CI, 0.47-0.651) and a sensitivity and specificity in detecting osteoporosis, respectively, of 0.806 (SE 0.105; 95% CI, 0.528-0.9200) and 0.643 (SE 0.109; 95% CI, 0.417-0.820). The mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and Klemetti index are overall useful tools that potentially could be used by dentists to screen for low BMD. Their limitations are mainly related to the experience/agreement between different operators and the different image quality and

  1. Elastic modulus and hardness of cortical and trabecular bovine bone measured by nanoindentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG X J; CHEN X B; HODGSON P D; WEN C E

    2006-01-01

    The elastic modulus and hardness of several microstructure components of dry bovine vertebrae and tibia have been investigated in the longitude and transverse directions using nanoindentation. The elastic modulus for the osteons and the interstitial lamellae in the longitude direction were found to be (24.7±2.5) GPa and (30.1±2.4) GPa. As it's difficult to distinguish osteons from interstitial lamellae in the transverse direction,the average elastic modulus for cortical bovine bone in the transverse direction was (19.8±1.6) GPa. The elastic modulus for trabecular bone in the longitude and transverse direction were (20±2) GPa and (14.7±1.9) GPa respectively. The hardness also varied among the microstructure components in the range of 0.41-0.89 GPa. Analyses of variance show that the values are significantly different.

  2. Measurement of serum marker for bone metastasis (1-CTP) in hepatobiliary and pancreas malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Tobinaga, Syuuichi; Araki, Masato; Sumida, Yorihisa; Kunizaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Abo, Takafumi; HIDAKA, SHIGEKAZU; Sawai, Terumitsu; Yasutake, Toru; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (1CTP) is a sensitive serum marker for metastatic bone carcinomas and may also be associated with invasiveness of various carcinomas. To clarify the significance of 1CTP in hepato-biliary pancreas malignancies, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological features and serum level of 1CTP. Methodology: The subjects were 75 patients who underwent surgical resections including 27 patients with l...

  3. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II. Intra- and inter-examinar variation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.

  4. Quantitative Comparison of 2 Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Systems in Assessing Body Composition and Bone Mineral Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Chafi, Hatim; Guo, Beibei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Murray, Kori B; Zheng, Jolene; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used in body composition measurement and evaluation. Because of its numerous applications, the probability of instrument discrepancies has increased dramatically. This study quantitatively compares 2 different DXA systems. In this study, 96 subjects (60 female and 36 male, aged 19-82 years) were recruited and scanned using a General Electric Lunar iDXA and a Hologic Discovery scanner. Four measurements (percent fat, total mass, bone mineral density [BMD], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were quantitatively compared in the whole body and in specific anatomic regions (arms, legs, trunk, android, gynoid, head, ribs, and pelvis). A simple linear regression of each measurement was performed to examine the correlation between the 2 systems. Percent fat, total mass, BMC, and BMD were highly correlated between the 2 DXA systems, with correlation r values greater than 0.854 for both the whole body and the individual anatomic regions except for BMC and BMD in ribs. The high correlation between the 2 DXA systems with systematic differences enabled development of calibration equations for extending the multisystem measurements to advanced quantitative analyses. PMID:26206525

  5. Measurement of bone marrow lesions by MR imaging in knee osteoarthritis: The sensitivity to change assessed by two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming Kromann; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Peters, David Alberg;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two quantitative methods of measuring BMLs in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one with computer assisted automatic segmentation (CAS) and one with manual segmentation (MS). Methods and Materials: Eighteen females and four males (mean age 61 years) with KOA confined to the medial fe...... changes over time. The BML-volumes measured by the two methods were not comparable.......Purpose: To compare two quantitative methods of measuring BMLs in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one with computer assisted automatic segmentation (CAS) and one with manual segmentation (MS). Methods and Materials: Eighteen females and four males (mean age 61 years) with KOA confined to the medial...... values and standard deviations (STD) of the signal intensity (SI) of the normal marrow of the lateral femoral and tibial condyles were obtained by both methods. In three slices of the medial femoral condyle the volume of bone marrow with SIs exceeding the threshold values (BML) were measured. Threshold...

  6. Correlation between skin, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid layer thickness and optical coefficients measured by multidistance frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy in term and preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demel, Anja; Feilke, Katharina; Wolf, Martin; Poets, Christian F.; Franz, Axel R.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly used in neonatal intensive care. We investigated the impact of skin, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness in term and preterm infants on absorption-(μa) and/or reduced scattering coefficients (μs‧) measured by multidistance frequency-domain (FD)-NIRS. Transcranial ultrasound was performed to measure the layer thicknesses. Correlations were only statistically significant for μa at 692 nm with bone thickness and μs‧ at 834 nm with skin thickness. There is no evidence that skin, bone, or CSF thickness have an important effect on μa and μs‧. Layer thicknesses of skin, bone, and CSF in the range studied do not seem to affect cerebral oxygenation measurements by multidistance FD-NIRS significantly.

  7. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  8. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  9. Measurement of strain distribution in cortical bone around miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage using digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Rupali; Bhutani, Ravi; Shakher, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    An application of digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) for the measurement of deformations and strain-field distributions developed in cortical bone around orthodontic miniscrew implants inserted into the human maxilla is presented. The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the strain distribution in cortical bone/miniscrew interface of human maxilla around miniscrew implants of different diameters, different implant lengths, and implants of different commercially available companies. The technique is also used to measure tilt/rotation of canine caused due to the application of retraction springs. The proposed technique has high sensitivity and enables the observation of deformation/strain distribution. In DSPI, two specklegrams are recorded corresponding to pre- and postloading of the retraction spring. The DSPI fringe pattern is observed by subtracting these two specklegrams. Optical phase was extracted using Riesz transform and the monogenic signal from a single DSPI fringe pattern. The obtained phase is used to calculate the parameters of interest such as displacement/deformation and strain/stress. The experiment was conducted on a dry human skull fulfilling the criteria of intact dental arches and all teeth present. Eight different miniscrew implants were loaded with an insertion angulation of 45 deg in the inter-radicular region of the maxillary second premolar and molar region. The loading of miniscrew implants was done with force level (150 gf) by nickel-titanium closed-coil springs (9 mm). The obtained results from DSPI reveal that implant diameter and implant length affect the displacement and strain distribution in cortical bone layer surrounding the miniscrew implant.

  10. Measurement of strain distribution in cortical bone around miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage using digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Rupali; Bhutani, Ravi; Shakher, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    An application of digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) for the measurement of deformations and strain-field distributions developed in cortical bone around orthodontic miniscrew implants inserted into the human maxilla is presented. The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the strain distribution in cortical bone/miniscrew interface of human maxilla around miniscrew implants of different diameters, different implant lengths, and implants of different commercially available companies. The technique is also used to measure tilt/rotation of canine caused due to the application of retraction springs. The proposed technique has high sensitivity and enables the observation of deformation/strain distribution. In DSPI, two specklegrams are recorded corresponding to pre- and postloading of the retraction spring. The DSPI fringe pattern is observed by subtracting these two specklegrams. Optical phase was extracted using Riesz transform and the monogenic signal from a single DSPI fringe pattern. The obtained phase is used to calculate the parameters of interest such as displacement/deformation and strain/stress. The experiment was conducted on a dry human skull fulfilling the criteria of intact dental arches and all teeth present. Eight different miniscrew implants were loaded with an insertion angulation of 45 deg in the inter-radicular region of the maxillary second premolar and molar region. The loading of miniscrew implants was done with force level (150 gf) by nickel-titanium closed-coil springs (9 mm). The obtained results from DSPI reveal that implant diameter and implant length affect the displacement and strain distribution in cortical bone layer surrounding the miniscrew implant.

  11. The effect of scan parameters on cone beam CT trabecular bone microstructural measurements of the human mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, N; Parsa, A.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cone beam CT scan parameters on trabecular bone microstructure measurements. A human mandibular cadaver was scanned using a cone beam CT (3D Accuitomo 170; J.Morita, Kyota, Japan). 20 cone beam CT images were obtained using 5 different fields of view (4X4 cm, 6x6 cm, 8X8 cm, 10x10 cm and 10X5 cm), 2 types of rotation steps (180 degrees and 360 degrees) and 2 scanning resolutions (standard and high). Image analysis software...

  12. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  13. Reliable measurement of 3D foot bone angles based on the frame-of-reference derived from a sole of the foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Lee, Dong Yeon; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clinical management of foot pathology requires accurate and robust measurement of the anatomical angles. In order to measure a 3D angle, recent approaches have adopted a landmark-based local coordinate system to establish bone angles used in orthopedics. These measurement methods mainly assess the relative angle between bones using a representative axis derived from the morphological feature of the bone and therefore, the results can be affected by bone deformities. In this study, we propose a method of deriving a global frame-of-reference to acquire consistent direction of the foot by extracting the undersurface of the foot from the CT image data. The two lowest positions of the foot skin are identified from the surface to define the base plane, and the direction from the hallux to the fourth toe is defined together to construct the global coordinate system. We performed the experiment on 10 volumes of foot CT images of healthy subjects to verify that the proposed method provides reliable measurements. We measured 3D angles for talus-calcaneus and talus-navicular using facing articular surfaces of paired bones. The angle was reported in 3 projection angles based on both coordinate systems defined by proposed global frame-of-reference and by CT image planes (saggital, frontal, and transverse). The result shows that the quantified angle using the proposed method considerably reduced the standard deviation (SD) against the angle using the conventional projection planes, and it was also comparable with the measured angles obtained from local coordinate systems of the bones. Since our method is independent from any individual local shape of a bone, unlike the measurement method using the local coordinate system, it is suitable for inter-subject comparison studies.

  14. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Van den Bussche

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa, and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF REGIONAL BONE BLOOD FLOW IN THE CANINE MANDIBULAR RAMUS USING RADIOLABELLED TOAD RED BLOOD CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛驰; 王翰章

    1994-01-01

    Toad red blood cells were used to measure regional bone blood flow in the canine mandibular ramus.The blood cells were labelled with sodium pertechnetate and fixed in 10% formalin;they were 22×15 μm in size and had a specific gravity close to that of dog red blood cells.These cells had no discernible effect on systemic hemody-namics after injection,did not agglutinate,were well mixed and evenly distributed throughout the body,and were completely extracted in one circulation through the mandible.The mandibular ramus was divided into six regions,and the blood flow rates in each were found to be similar to those reported in previous studies with radiolabelled carbonized,microspheres.Furthermore,the blood flow distribution pattern of the mandibular ramus determined in this study was identical to that of our previous study using the bone-seeking radionuclide method.We suggest that radiolabelled toad red blood cells are an ideal marker for measuring regional blood flow in the canine mandible.

  16. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  17. Comparative study of bone density and body composition in college students between PE Major and Non-PE Major%体育与非体育专业大学生骨密度和体成分比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭见平; 尹海滨; 牛英群

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较体育与非体育专业大学生骨密度、身体成分的差异,为指导大学生树立科学健身意识提供参考.方法 采用美国HOLOGIC公司生产的Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer测试仪和韩国产Biospace InBody 3.0人体成分分析仪,对邯郸职业技术学院志愿参加测试的412名大学生进行骨密度、体成分测试,其中体育专业学生198名,非体育专业学生214名.结果 体育专业学生骨密度指标测定结果均高于同性别非体育专业学生,差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01);体育专业男生体成分指标中的体重、蛋白质、矿物质、肌肉、去脂体重、身高质量指数高于非体育专业男生,体脂含量、体脂百分比低于非体育专业男生;体育专业女生体重、蛋白质、矿物质、肌肉、去脂体重高于非体育专业女生,体脂含量、体脂百分比低于非体育专业女生,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01).结论 体育运动可以促进大学生骨密度提高,改善大学生体成分的构成,促进身体健康.%Objective To compare the differences of bone density and body composition in college students between PE major and non-PE major to learn the effect of physical exercise to body composition. Methods Body composition were measured by Body Composition Test Instrument (Biospace InBody 3.0, Korea) and the bone density were measured by Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer Test Instrument ( HOLOGIC, USA). There were 412 college students as objectives, including 198 PE major and 214 non-PE major. Results In the term of the bone density, there were high difference between two group students (P < 0.01) , while the body composition had the same tendency. Among the male, the PE major students' weight, protein, mineral substance, muscle, fat free mass and BMI were higher than the non PE major students', and the body fat composition, body fat perceutage were lower than the non PE major students. Among the female, the PE

  18. Oversampling in the computed tomography measurements applied for bone structure studies as a method of spatial resolution improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to check the potential ability of oversampling as a method for computed tomography axial resolution improvement. The method of achieving isotropic and fine resolution, when the scanning system is characterized by anisotropic resolutions is proposed. In case of typical clinical system the axial resolution is much lower than the planar one. The idea relies on the scanning with a wide overlapping layers and subsequent resolution recovery on the level of scanning step. Simulated three-dimensional images, as well as the real microtomographic images of rat femoral bone were used in proposed solution tests. Original high resolution images were virtually scanned with a wide beam and a small step in order to simulate the real measurements. The low resolution image series were subsequently processed in order to back to the original fine one. Original, virtually scanned and recovered images resolutions were compared with the use of modulation transfer function (MTF). A good ability of oversampling as a method for the resolution recovery was showed. It was confirmed by comparing the resolving powers after and before resolution recovery. The MTF analysis showed resolution improvement. The resolution improvement was achieved but the image noise raised considerably, which is clearly visible on image histograms. Despite this disadvantage the proposed method can be successfully used in practice, especially in the trabecular bone studies because of high contrast between trabeculae and intertrabecular spaces

  19. Nondestructive measurements of implant-bone interface shear modulus and effects of implant geometry in pull-out tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, A; Shah, B; Weinans, H; Sumner, D R

    1997-03-01

    Push-out and pull-out tests are used for destructive evaluation of implant-bone interface strength. Because nondestructive mechanical tests would allow maintenance of an intact interface for subsequent morphological study, we developed such a test to determine the shear modulus of the interface by measuring the shear deformation of a thin layer adjacent to the implant. A polyurethane foam model was used to test the experimental setup on a group of nine cylindrical implants with three different lengths (15-48 mm) and three different diameters (5-9.7 mm). The shear modulus of the interface, as calculated from the pull-out test, was validated against the shear modulus of the foam derived from tensile tests. The two values of shear modulus were well correlated (R2 = 0.8, p tests of implant-bone interface mechanics. In addition, we also examined the effects of implant length and diameter. The length of the implants had a significant influence on the interface shear modulus (p < 0.05), indicating that comparisons of the variable should only be made of implants with the same length. The length and diameter of the implants were not critical parameters for the ultimate fixation strength. PMID:9086403

  20. Comparative study on measured variables and sensitivity to bone microstructural changes induced by weightlessness between in vivo and ex vivo micro-CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lian Wen; Wang, Chao; Pu, Fang; Li, De Yu; Niu, Hai Jun; Fan, Yu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the experimental design, micro-CT can be used to examine bones either in vivo or ex vivo (excised fresh or formalin-fixed). In this study we investigated if differences exist in the variables measured by micro-CT between in vivo and ex vivo scans and which kind of scan is more sensitive to the changes of bone microstructure induced by simulated weightlessness. Rat tail suspension was used to simulate the weightless condition. The same bone from either normal or tail-suspended rats was scanned by micro-CT both in vivo and ex vivo (fresh and fixed by formalin). Then, bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructural characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that no significant differences existed in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone among in vivo, fresh, and formalin-fixed bone scans from both femurs and tibias, although BMD exhibited differences. On the other hand, most parameters of the tail-suspended rats measured by micro-CT deteriorated compared with controls. Ex vivo scanning appeared to be more sensitive to bone microstructural changes induced by tail suspension than in vivo scanning. In general, the results indicate that values obtained in vivo and ex vivo (fresh and fixed) are comparable, thus allowing for meaningful comparison of experimental results from different studies irrespective of the type of scans. In addition, this study suggests that it is better to use ex vivo scanning when evaluating bone microstructure under weightlessness. However, researchers can select any type of scan depending upon the objective and the demands of the experiment.

  1. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  2. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  3. IBA analyses and lead concentration measurements of AMS-14C dated bones from two medieval sites in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dated human bone samples recovered in the deserted medieval village of Quattro Macine, Lecce, in Southern Italy, were analyzed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) and PIGE (particle induced gamma ray emission). The optimization of the PIXE-PIGE experimental set-up in term of beam energy and detection geometry resulted in the possibility to obtain information about major, minor and trace elements of the samples. Unexpectedly, all the analyzed samples showed a Pb concentration higher than 50 ppm. Two possible explanations of the measured high Pb concentration are discussed in the paper: the pre-mortem intake associated with the use of Pb-rich glazed pottery and the post-mortem intake from soil as the result of diagenetic processes

  4. Calibration of the holy body counter of IRD for in vivo measurements of Pb-210 in bone and pulmonary tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of the humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of lead-210 in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to Rn-222. The metabolism of Pb-210 and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such a radionuclide. These regions of the body present a high concentration of bone and little cross contribution from other organs. The chest monitoring is useful to estimate recent incorporations of radon decay products by inhalation, which is the main exposure pattern. This type of measurement should be carried out inside a heavy shielded room and with a detection system of high sensitivity and resolution in order to reach the low detection limits required for this application. The calibration of the detection system requires the use of anthropomorphic phantoms of skull, knee and lungs. The calibration consists on the determination of efficiency factors used to convert the count rates in the region of Pb-210 (46.5 keV) into an activity value in Bequerels. This way it is possible to determine the activity of Pb-210 in each of the organs and tissues of interest of the individual monitored in order to estimate the internal individual exposure to radon progeny. (author)

  5. Modeling fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in loaded bone: potential applications in measuring fluid and solute transport in the osteocytic lacunar-canalicular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaozhou; Novotny, John E; Wang, Liyun

    2008-12-01

    Solute transport through the bone lacunar-canalicular system is essential for osteocyte viability and function, and it can be measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The mathematical model developed here aims to analyze solute transport during FRAP in mechanically loaded bone. Combining both whole bone-level poroelasticity and cellular-level solute transport, we found that load-induced solute transport during FRAP is characterized by an exponential recovery rate, which is determined by the dimensionless Strouhal (St) number that characterizes the oscillation effects over the mean flows, and that significant transport occurs only for St values below a threshold, when the solute stroke displacement exceeds the distance between the source and sink (the canalicular length). This threshold mechanism explains the general flow behaviors such as increasing transport with increasing magnitude and decreasing frequency. Mechanical loading is predicted to enhance transport of all tracers relative to diffusion, with the greatest enhancement for medium-sized tracers and less enhancement for small and large tracers. This study provides guidelines for future FRAP experiments, based on which the model can be used to quantify bone permeability, solute-matrix interaction, and flow velocities. These studies should provide insights into bone adaptation and metabolism, and help to treat various bone diseases and conditions. PMID:18810639

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 stimulate bone resorption in vivo as measured by urinary [3H]tetracycline excretion from prelabeled mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been shown to stimulate bone resorption in vitro. We have now investigated whether these cytokines also cause a similar action when administered in vivo. This was made possible by the adaptation of a newly developed technique that enables the continual assessment of bone resorption in vivo in mice by measuring urinary excretion of 3H from [3H]tetracycline-prelabeled animals. Experiments using maneuvers known to influence bone resorption, such as a change in dietary calcium or administration of parathyroid hormone or dichloromethylenebisphosphonate, indicate that the technique is reliable and sensitive in mice. Daily intravenous administration of either recombinant human or recombinant murine TNF-alpha, as well as subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IL-1 alpha, were found to stimulate bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was maximal within 2 days. Thus, exogenous TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha can stimulate bone resorption in vivo, suggesting that these cytokines may also exert a systemic effect on bone

  7. Correlation analysis between bone density measured by quantitative CT and blood sugar level of aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To approach the correlation between the bone density measured by quantitative CT and the blood sugar level of the aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and observe the effects of the blood sugar level on the bone density. Methods: The lumbar bone densities and the blood sugar levels of 160 aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia group 80 cases, euglycemia group 80 cases ) and the healthy aged people (80 cases) were detected by quantitative CT and serum biochemical detection; the correlation between the blood sugar level and the bone density and the osteoporosis occurrence status of aged people in various groups were analyzed. Results: The bone density in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hyperglycemia group was lower than those in normal (control) group and non-insulin-dependent diabetes and euglycemia group (P<0.05); the morbility of osteoporosis in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hyperglycemia group was higher than those in normal (control) group and non-insulin-dependent diabetes and euglycemia group (P<0.05); negative correlation was found between the bone density and the blood sugar level (aged male group: r=-0.7382, P=0.0013; aged female group: r=-0.8343, P=0.0007). Conclusion: The blood sugar level affects the bone density of the aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; the higher the blood sugar level, the lower the bone density. The non-insulin-dependent diabetes aged patients with hyperglycemia have the liability of osteoporosis. (authors)

  8. Assessment of exposure of uranium miners to radon progeny using in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Hoover, M.D. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque (United States); Leggett, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Laurer, G.R. [New York University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Coons, T.A. [University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Albuquerque (United States); Gilliland, F.D. [University of Southern California, Occupational and Environmental Health, Los Angeles (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of lung cancer incidence among uranium miners from various populations around the world have shown a significant variability in the relative risk per unit exposure - a range of a factor of 30. A significant fraction of the uncertainty associated with these risk coefficients may be due to differences in the methods and quality of data used in calculating cumulative exposures, in Working Level Months (WLM), for the various miner populations. We hypothesize that in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb, a long-lived radon decay product, retained in bone will provide a better measure of the exposure of individual miners to radon and progeny during their mining careers. To accomplish these in vivo measurements, the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) In Vivo Bioassay Facility (IVBF) was modified to optimize a counting geometry for measuring {sup 210}Pb in the skull. Six phoswich detectors (12.7 cm diameter) were positioned about the head of a reclining subject (one posterior, one anterior, and four on the sides of the head), and photon emission from the skull was measured using anticoincidence multichannel analysis electronics. To date, we have analyzed the in vivo measurement data from about 90 former uranium miners from the Grants, New Mexico (NM), mining district. The recorded WLM exposures for each uranium miner (data from the UNM epidemiological data base) were compared with a WLM exposure calculated using a Pb biokinetic model coupled to the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract dosimetry model. The analyses show that the independent measures of exposure are statistically correlated but vary greatly among individual values. (author)

  9. Assessment of exposure of uranium miners to radon progeny using in vivo measurement of 210Pb in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies of lung cancer incidence among uranium miners from various populations around the world have shown a significant variability in the relative risk per unit exposure - a range of a factor of 30. A significant fraction of the uncertainty associated with these risk coefficients may be due to differences in the methods and quality of data used in calculating cumulative exposures, in Working Level Months (WLM), for the various miner populations. We hypothesize that in vivo measurement of 210Pb, a long-lived radon decay product, retained in bone will provide a better measure of the exposure of individual miners to radon and progeny during their mining careers. To accomplish these in vivo measurements, the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) In Vivo Bioassay Facility (IVBF) was modified to optimize a counting geometry for measuring 210Pb in the skull. Six phoswich detectors (12.7 cm diameter) were positioned about the head of a reclining subject (one posterior, one anterior, and four on the sides of the head), and photon emission from the skull was measured using anticoincidence multichannel analysis electronics. To date, we have analyzed the in vivo measurement data from about 90 former uranium miners from the Grants, New Mexico (NM), mining district. The recorded WLM exposures for each uranium miner (data from the UNM epidemiological data base) were compared with a WLM exposure calculated using a Pb biokinetic model coupled to the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract dosimetry model. The analyses show that the independent measures of exposure are statistically correlated but vary greatly among individual values. (author)

  10. Palatal bone thickness measured by palatal index method using cone-beam computed tomography in nonorthodontic patients for placement of mini-implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W S Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the bone thickness of the palatal areas in different palatal index (PI groups. Materials and Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 10 subjects were selected with a mean age group of 18 years. The measurements of palatal bone thickness were made at 36 sites using CareStream 3D Imaging software. The PI was measured using Korkhaus ratio (palatal height/palatal width. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze intergroup differences, as well as the PI difference. Results: Bone thickness was higher in the anterior region than in the middle and posterior regions P<0.001. Furthermore, significant differences were found among the midline, medial, and lateral areas of the palate. Conclusions: These findings might be helpful for clinicians to enhance the successful use of temporary anchorage devices in the palate.

  11. Development of a practical ultrasonic approach for simultaneous measurement of the thickness and the sound speed in human skull bones: a laboratory phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of a non-invasive express method for the in vivo measurement of both sound velocity and thickness of the human skull bone would be of great benefit to various transcranial ultrasonic imaging and treatment applications. This paper investigates two ultrasonic methods that measure both parameters and are based on the variable focus technique. All the experiments described in this paper were conducted on specially prepared custom skull bone phantoms, including flat and deformed samples, designed and developed in our laboratory. The first method uses a single immersion 2.25 MHz ultrasonic transducer consecutively focused on the front and back surfaces of the sample. The accuracy and precision of this method are demonstrated via single point measurements on flat samples with and without porosity. The measurement results from a specimen with the randomly curved back surface show the possibility of obtaining the inner profile of the skull bone. The second presented method is a practical modification of the variable focus technique for the linear phased array case. The method was tested on flat and curved skull bone phantoms with and without inner porosity showing higher measurement accuracy and simpler practical realization than its scanning counterpart. (paper)

  12. Effect of micro-computed tomography voxel size and segmentation method on trabecular bone microstructure measures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-12-01

    Micro-computed tomography (μCT) is currently the gold standard for determining trabecular bone microstructure in small animal models. Numerous parameters associated with scanning and evaluation of μCT scans can strongly affect morphologic results obtained from bone samples. However, the effect of these parameters on specific trabecular bone outcomes is not well understood. This study investigated the effect of μCT scanning with nominal voxel sizes between 6-30 μm on trabecular bone outcomes quantified in mouse vertebral body trabecular bone. Additionally, two methods for determining a global segmentation threshold were compared: based on qualitative assessment of 2D images, or based on quantitative assessment of image histograms. It was found that nominal voxel size had a strong effect on several commonly reported trabecular bone parameters, in particular connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and bone tissue mineral density. Additionally, the two segmentation methods provided similar trabecular bone outcomes for scans with small nominal voxel sizes, but considerably different outcomes for scans with larger voxel sizes. The Qualitatively Selected segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness across different voxel sizes, but the Histogram segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular number, trabecular separation, and structure model index. Altogether, these results suggest that high-resolution scans be used whenever possible to provide the most accurate estimation of trabecular bone microstructure, and that the limitations of accurately determining trabecular bone outcomes should be considered when selecting scan parameters and making conclusions about inter-group variance or between-group differences in studies of trabecular bone microstructure in small animals. PMID:27430011

  13. Effect of micro-computed tomography voxel size and segmentation method on trabecular bone microstructure measures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-12-01

    Micro-computed tomography (μCT) is currently the gold standard for determining trabecular bone microstructure in small animal models. Numerous parameters associated with scanning and evaluation of μCT scans can strongly affect morphologic results obtained from bone samples. However, the effect of these parameters on specific trabecular bone outcomes is not well understood. This study investigated the effect of μCT scanning with nominal voxel sizes between 6-30 μm on trabecular bone outcomes quantified in mouse vertebral body trabecular bone. Additionally, two methods for determining a global segmentation threshold were compared: based on qualitative assessment of 2D images, or based on quantitative assessment of image histograms. It was found that nominal voxel size had a strong effect on several commonly reported trabecular bone parameters, in particular connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and bone tissue mineral density. Additionally, the two segmentation methods provided similar trabecular bone outcomes for scans with small nominal voxel sizes, but considerably different outcomes for scans with larger voxel sizes. The Qualitatively Selected segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness across different voxel sizes, but the Histogram segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular number, trabecular separation, and structure model index. Altogether, these results suggest that high-resolution scans be used whenever possible to provide the most accurate estimation of trabecular bone microstructure, and that the limitations of accurately determining trabecular bone outcomes should be considered when selecting scan parameters and making conclusions about inter-group variance or between-group differences in studies of trabecular bone microstructure in small animals.

  14. The study of in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique for gadolinium (Gd) measurements in human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, F.; Nie, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    An in vivo K x-ray fluorescence system, based on 109Cd source, for the detection of gadolinium has been investigated. Gd is of interest because of the extensive use of Gd-based contrast agents in MR imaging. A human simulating bone phantom set has been developed. The phantoms were doped with seven concentrations of Gd. Additional elements important for in vivo x-ray fluorescence, Na, Cl and Ca, were also included to create an overall elemental composition consistent with the Reference Man. A new 5 GBq 109Cd source was purchased to improve the source activity in comparison to the previous study (0.17 GBq). The previously published minimum detection limit (MDL) for Gd phantom measurements using KXRF system was 3.3 ppm. In this study the minimum detection limit for bare bone phantoms was found to reduce the MDL to 0.8, a factor of 4.1. The previous published data used only three layers of plastic as soft tissue equivalent materials and found the MDL of 4–4.8 ppm. In this study we have used the plastic with more realistic thicknesses to simulate a soft tissue at tibia. The detection limits for phantoms with Lucite as a tissue equivalent, using a new source, was determined to be 1.81 to 3.47 ppm (μg Gd per gram phantom). Our next study would be testing an in vivo K x-ray fluorescence system, based on 109Cd source on human volunteers who went through MR imaging and were injected by Gd.

  15. A reliable method for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Rolf, Marijn P.; Roos, Jan C.; Burcksen, Jos; Knol, Dirk L.; de Groot, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a standardized protocol for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Ten able-bodied individuals (7 males) participated in this study. During one measuremen

  16. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Nielsen, H; Thomsen, C;

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow...

  17. Relationship between serum adiponectin and bone mineral density in preterm infants%早产儿血清脂联素与骨密度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 陈平洋; 赵子艳; 赵亚凡; 罗开菊; 贺鸣凤; 杨勇晖

    2015-01-01

    目的:检测早产儿血清脂联素水平,探讨早产儿血清脂联素与骨密度的关系。方法共选取72例新生适于胎龄儿为研究对象,根据胎龄分为早期早产儿组(31~33+6周,13例)、晚期早产儿组(34~36+6周,16例)、足月儿组(37~42周,43例)。生后1周内采集静脉血测定血清脂联素水平;同时行超声定量技术测量左侧胫骨声波的传导速度(SOS)来评估骨密度。结果早期早产儿组胫骨SOS值低于晚期早产儿组和足月儿组,晚期早产儿组胫骨SOS值低于足月儿组,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。早期早产儿组血清脂联素水平低于晚期早产儿组和足月儿组,晚期早产儿组血清脂联素水平低于足月儿组,差异均具有统计学意义/(P<0.05)。早产儿血清脂联素水平与胫骨SOS值呈正相关(r=0.664,P<0.05)。多元线性回归分析显示血清脂联素和出生体重是早产儿胫骨SOS值的独立影响因素。结论早产儿血清脂联素水平低于足月儿,与早产儿骨密度呈正相关。%Objective To examine serum adiponectin level in preterm infants and to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and bone mineral density in preterm infants. Methods Seventy-two appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates were classiifed into three groups according to their gestational ages:early preterm (31-33+6 weeks, 13 cases), late preterm (34-36+6 weeks, 16 cases), and full-term (37-42 weeks, 43 cases). Venous blood was collected at one week of their life to measure serum adiponectin concentration. During the period, omnisense ultrasound bone sonometer was applied to measure speed of sound (SOS) of the left tibia. Results The median of tibia SOS in the early preterm group was signiifcantly lower than in the late preterm and full term groups (P<0.05), and the median of tibia SOS in the late preterm group was lower than in the full-term group (P<0.05). Serum adiponectin

  18. Técnicas de medida de densidad de masa ósea Bone mineral density measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ibáñez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los densitómetros por absorciometría fotónica simple y dual dejaron paso a las técnicas no isotópicas, absorciometría de rayos X simple y dual, que son las que más se usan en la actualidad. La técnica más extendida es la absorciometría de doble energía de rayos X, DXA, especialmente los densitómetros que analizan cadera y columna lumbar. Es una técnica precisa, fiable, y se ha demostrado que es capaz de predecir fracturas. Sin embargo, los densitómetros periféricos, tanto los que se basan en tecnología dexa como los de ultrasonidos, también han demostrado su utilidad. La topografía cuantificada computerizada es el único densitómetro tridimensional, capaz de diferenciar entre hueso cortical y trabecular. Tiene el inconveniente de la alta radiación y el alto coste económico. Repasamos las características, así como las ventajas e inconvenientes, de cada una de estas técnicas de medida de masa ósea. En el presente articulo se repasan las distintas técnicas densitométricas desarrolladas en los últimos años y los distintos criterios sobre las indicaciones de densitometría. No existen criterios unánimes al respecto, sin embargo distintos organismos y sociedades científicas han elaborado recomendaciones, basadas en los factores de riesgo de osteoporosis o de fractura, que pueden ser una guía útil para la práctica clínica.Different techniques for measuring bone mass density developed in the last years are revised. Single and dual fotonic absorciometry are now outdated by the use of single and dual x-ray absorciometry which don’t need an isotope source. The most widely used technique now is the dual energy x-ray asbsorciometry , specially the ones who analyse lumbar spine and hip. It is an accurate and precise tool and has proved to be a good predictor of fractures. Nevertherless, peripheral densitometers based on dual energy x-ray or on broadband ultrasonic attenuation, have also proved to be of utility

  19. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  20. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Annual report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes results obtained in seven areas. Five subjects with well defined Am-241 body burdens have been measured using NaI-CsI(T1) detectors surrounding the head or positioned over the anterior knee surfaces. The observed ratio of net count-rate at the skull to net count-rate at the anterior knee surfaces was found to vary with values ranging from 1.16 to 2.45. Previously developed calibration values for men have been determined to be inadequate for application to female workers due to the variability in chest wall thickness and different photon attenuation characteristics of breast tissue in women. The relative count-rates for each individual among the counting geometries reflected the attenuation of the Nb-92m x-rays in the overlying tissue. The measurement performed with a single phoswich detector positioned centrally over the sternum surprisingly gave the highest count-rate for two out of the four subjects. It is expected that the net counts/x-ray emitted for each individual, when plotted as a function of overlying absorber thickness, will produce a series of single exponential curves which can be used to predict the absolute calibration value for Nb-92m in the lungs. Additional studies describing the time-related fate and distribution in the body of radon and radon daughters present as a result of drinking this well water are currently in progress. There appears to be a possibility of obtaining a significantly increased and variable whole body count-rate as related to a function of the quantity of water consumed and the time of in vivo measurement. Subjects who were treated therapeutically with radon seeds 25 to 34 years ago were observed in our whole body counting facility using NaI-CsI(T1) detectors. The radiation dose due to the characteristic Pu x-ray, the bremsstrahlung continuum and any beta radiation penetrating the gold sheath, is being determined

  1. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  2. Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) versus axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) to detect and measure bone metastases in prostate cancer (PCa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) in detecting and measuring bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). WB-MRI and AS-MRI examinations were performed in 60 patients with PCa at high risk of metastases. Two radiologists separately categorised the AS-MRI and WB-MRI as negative or positive for metastases, and measured focal metastases using the ''Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours'' (RECIST) criteria transposed to bone. One radiologist reviewed all examinations 2 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreements in establishing the presence/absence of metastases were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement between AS-MRI and WB-MRI. Strong to perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements were found between AS-MRI and WB-MRI in defining the presence/absence of bone metastases. There were no patients with isolated ''peripheral'' metastases at WB-MRI, missed at AS-MRI. There was no difference in lesion count between the two radiologists. AS-MRI and WB-MRI provided statistically equivalent RECIST values for one radiologist and slightly lower values at AS-MRI for the other. In our series of PCa patients, AS-MRI and WB-MRI were equivalent in determining the presence/absence of bone metastases and provided similar evaluation of the metastatic burden. (orig.)

  3. Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) versus axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) to detect and measure bone metastases in prostate cancer (PCa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecouvet, F.E.; Simon, M.; Berg, B.C.V.; Simoni, P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Tombal, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Urology, Brussels (Belgium); Jamart, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clinique Universitaire de Mont-Godinne, Center of Biostatistics and Medical Documentation, Yvoir (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) in detecting and measuring bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). WB-MRI and AS-MRI examinations were performed in 60 patients with PCa at high risk of metastases. Two radiologists separately categorised the AS-MRI and WB-MRI as negative or positive for metastases, and measured focal metastases using the ''Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours'' (RECIST) criteria transposed to bone. One radiologist reviewed all examinations 2 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreements in establishing the presence/absence of metastases were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement between AS-MRI and WB-MRI. Strong to perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements were found between AS-MRI and WB-MRI in defining the presence/absence of bone metastases. There were no patients with isolated ''peripheral'' metastases at WB-MRI, missed at AS-MRI. There was no difference in lesion count between the two radiologists. AS-MRI and WB-MRI provided statistically equivalent RECIST values for one radiologist and slightly lower values at AS-MRI for the other. In our series of PCa patients, AS-MRI and WB-MRI were equivalent in determining the presence/absence of bone metastases and provided similar evaluation of the metastatic burden. (orig.)

  4. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  5. Comparison of dual-photon absorptiometry systems for total-body bone and soft tissue measurements: Dual-energy X-rays versus gadolinium 153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 81 subjects (41 males and 40 females) were scanned by dual-photon absorptiometry by 153Gd source (DPA; Lunar DP4) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar-DPX) within a 24 h period. Total-body bone mineral density (TBMD), calcium content (Ca), and soft tissue mass (ST) were determined with a precision of about 1-1.5% using DPA and 0.5-1.0% using DEXA. Measurements of TBMD, Ca, ST, bone area (area), percentage fat, and regional bone mineral densities (BMD) were compared. Paired t-tests showed small but significant differences between all measurements. Correlations (r) for TBMD, Ca, area, ST, percentage fat, arm BMD, leg BMD, and trunk BMD were 0.99, 0.99, 0.97, 0.99, 0.97, 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98. There were small systematic differences for TBMD (less than 1%), calcium (3%), bone area (3%), soft tissue mass (7%), and percentage fat (9%) between the two approaches. Regression equations are given relating these measurements

  6. Three-dimensional measurement of the craniofacial bone in Zhuang nationality%广西壮族成人颅面骨三维测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵家松; 邱维加; 岳毅刚; 周海; 花鸣春; 张敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the craniofacial bone in Zhuang nationality by 3-D-CT. Methods: The craniofacial bones of 100 Zhuang were scanned via spiral CT, and three-dimensional reconstruction and three-dimensional measurement were performed. All data were compared with those of Han people. Results: The results showed a difference between the genders of Zhuang people. Compared with Han people, Zhuang people had their facial characteristics,such as wider orbital, wider and higher cheek bone, while nasal bone was wider, shorter and lower. The middle part of the face was wider and shorter. Conclusion: The data of the craniofacial bone of Zhuang people can be measured by spiral CT scan and three-dimensional reconstruction, which may offer reference for the study on anthropology and nationality and provide information for the plastic operation of the craniofacial bone in Zhuang people.%目的:利用CT研究壮族正常成人颅面骨的结构特征.方法:通过对100名壮族成人行头颅CT扫描,行三维重建后测量,获得颅面骨相关数据,与汉族人相比较.结果:壮族正常成人颅面骨男、女间有性别差异,与北方汉族人相比,壮族人具有眶宽及颧骨宽大、突出,而鼻骨宽、短、低平,中面部宽、短等特征.结论:头颅CT三维重建及三维测量,可获得壮族正常成人颅面骨有关数据,对人类学和民族学有意义,而且可为壮族人面部整形手术提供治疗参考.

  7. The ratio 1660/1690 cm(-1 measured by infrared microspectroscopy is not specific of enzymatic collagen cross-links in bone tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Farlay

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal osteoporosis, an impairment in enzymatic cross-links (ECL occurs, leading in part to a decline in bone biomechanical properties. Biochemical methods by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC are currently used to measure ECL. Another method has been proposed, by Fourier Transform InfraRed Imaging (FTIRI, to measure a mature PYD/immature DHLNL cross-links ratio, using the 1660/1690 cm(-1 area ratio in the amide I band. However, in bone, the amide I band composition is complex (collagens, non-collagenous proteins, water vibrations and the 1660/1690 cm(-1 by FTIRI has never been directly correlated with the PYD/DHLNL by HPLC. A study design using lathyritic rats, characterized by a decrease in the formation of ECL due to the inhibition of lysyl oxidase, was used in order to determine the evolution of 1660/1690 cm(-1 by FTIR Microspectroscopy in bone tissue and compare to the ECL quantified by HPLC. The actual amount of ECL was quantified by HPLC on cortical bone from control and lathyritic rats. The lathyritic group exhibited a decrease of 78% of pyridinoline content compared to the control group. The 1660/1690 cm(-1 area ratio was increased within center bone compared to inner bone, and this was also correlated with an increase in both mineral maturity and mineralization index. However, no difference in the 1660/1690 cm(-1 ratio was found between control and lathyritic rats. Those results were confirmed by principal component analysis performed on multispectral infrared images. In bovine bone, in which PYD was physically destructed by UV-photolysis, the PYD/DHLNL (measured by HPLC was strongly decreased, whereas the 1660/1690 cm(-1 was unmodified. In conclusion, the 1660/1690 cm(-1 is not related to the PYD/DHLNL ratio, but increased with age of bone mineral, suggesting that a modification of this ratio could be mainly due to a modification of the collagen secondary structure related to the mineralization process.

  8. Can lung function measurements be used to predict which patients will be at risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation?

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, H J; Prentice, H G; du Bois, R M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung function often deteriorates after bone marrow transplantation for haematological malignancies. Whether pulmonary function measurements are useful for monitoring patients' progress after transplantation and for alerting clinicians to the development of pneumonitis is uncertain. METHODS: Serial pulmonary function measurements were made in 39 patients with a haematological malignancy, and the values from 18 recipients of T cell depleted allogeneic (n = 17) or autologous (n = 1) ...

  9. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  10. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  11. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  12. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  13. Measurements of natural radionuclides in human teeth and animal bones as markers of radiation exposure from soil in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th in extracted human teeth, animal bones, and soil. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy in extracted human teeth and animal bones from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31±7.27 Bq g−1, 0.48±0.21 Bq g−1, 0.56±0.21 Bq g−1, 0.55±0.23 Bq g−1, 1.82±1.28 Bq g−1, and 0.50±0.14 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in bones were found to be 3.79±0.81 Bq g−1, 0.07±0.02 Bq g−1, 0.08±0.02 Bq g−1, 0.16±0.04 Bq g−1, 0.51±1.08 Bq g−1, and 0.06±0.02 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations in teeth from smokers were higher than those in non-smokers, and the corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. A positive correlation was found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone samples. - Highlights: • Radionuclides in teeth from smokers higher than non-smokers, except 40K. • Radionuclides slightly higher in female teeth than male teeth. • Positive correlation found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone

  14. Technique for bone volume measurement from human femur head samples by classification of micro-CT image histograms

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Marinozzi; Fabiano Bini; Andrea Marinozzi; Francesca Zuppante; Annalisa De Paolis; Raffaella Pecci; Rossella Bedini

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Micro-CT analysis is a powerful technique for a non-invasive evaluation of the morphometric parameters of trabecular bone samples. This elaboration requires a previous binarization of the images. A problem which arises from the binarization process is the partial volume artifact. Voxels at the external surface of the sample can contain both bone and air so thresholding operates an incorrect estimation of volume occupied by the two materials. AIM: The aim of this study is the ext...

  15. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  16. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  17. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of bone-Impact of sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henss, Anja; Hild, Anne; Rohnke, Marcus; Wenisch, Sabine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-06-07

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enables the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ions and fragments with high mass and spatial resolution. Due to recent technical developments, ToF-SIMS has been increasingly applied in the life sciences where sample preparation plays an eminent role for the quality of the analytical results. This paper focusses on sample preparation of bone tissue and its impact on ToF-SIMS analysis. The analysis of bone is important for the understanding of bone diseases and the development of replacement materials and new drugs for the cure of diseased bone. The main purpose of this paper is to find out which preparation process is best suited for ToF-SIMS analysis of bone tissue in order to obtain reliable and reproducible analytical results. The influence of the embedding process on the different components of bone is evaluated using principal component analysis. It is shown that epoxy resin as well as methacrylate based plastics (Epon and Technovit) as embedding materials do not infiltrate the mineralized tissue and that cut sections are better suited for the ToF-SIMS analysis than ground sections. In case of ground samples, a resin layer is smeared over the sample surface due to the polishing step and overlap of peaks is found. Beside some signals of fatty acids in the negative ion mode, the analysis of native, not embedded samples does not provide any advantage. The influence of bismuth bombardment and O2 flooding on the signal intensity of organic and inorganic fragments due to the variation of the ionization probability is additionally discussed. As C60 sputtering has to be applied to remove the smeared resin layer, its effect especially on the organic fragments of the bone is analyzed and described herein.

  18. 新生适于胎龄儿骨转换标志物与骨声波传导速度的关系%Relationship between bone turnover markers and bone sound of speed in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺鸣凤; 陈平洋; 赵亚凡; 赵子艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of gestational age (GA) with carboxyterminal propeptide of type Ⅰ procollagen (PICP),deoxypyridinoline (DPD),and bone sound of speed (SOS) in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates,as well as the relationship between bone turnover markers and bone SOS.Methods Sixtyfive AGA neonates were included in the study.The neonates were divided into three groups:preterm infant (GA ≤ 34 weeks,14 cases),late preterm infant (34 weeks<GA<37 weeks,13 cases),and full-term infant (GA ≥ 37 weeks,38 cases).Birth weight and length were measured in all cases,and Ponderal index (PI) was used to estimate their nutritional status.Venous blood was collected within 7 days after birth to measure blood PICP concentration.Urine was collected to measure urinary DPD and creatinine (Cr) levels.Omnisense 7000P ultrasound bone sonometer was applied to measure the SOS of the left tibia in all cases within 7 days after birth.Results There were significant differences in GA (F=140.199,P<0.001),birth weight (F=47.042,P<0.001),birth length (F=46.877,P<0.001),and PI (F=11.898,P<0.001) between the three groups; the higher the GA,the higher the birth weigh,birth length,and PI.There were significant differences in PICP (F=30.384,P<0.001),DPD/Cr (F=21.761,P<0.001),and SOS (F=20.052,P<0.001) between the three groups; the higher the GA,the lower the PICP and DPD/Cr and the higher the bone SOS.PICP and DPD/Cr were negatively correlated with GA,birth weight and bone SOS (P<0.01),while bone SOS was positively correlated with GA and birth weight (P<0.01),which still held true after adjustment for GA and birth weight.Conclusions Among AGA neonates,bone turnover markers are negatively correlated with GA,birth weight and bone SOS.High bone turnover is bad for bone health in AGA neonates.%目的 研究新生适于胎龄儿Ⅰ型前胶原羧基端前肽(PICP)、尿脱氧吡啶啉(DPD)及骨声波的传导速度(SOS)随胎龄变化的规律,探

  19. Sire carcass breeding values affect body composition in lambs--2. Effects on fat and bone weight and their distribution within the carcass as measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F; Williams, A; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of paternal Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post weaning c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD) and fat depth (PFAT), and post weaning weight (PWWT) on the composition of lamb carcasses. Composition was measured using computed tomography scans of 1665 lambs which were progeny of 85 Maternal, 115 Merino and 155 Terminal sires. Reducing sire PFAT decreased carcass fat weight by 4.8% and increased carcass bone by 1.3% per unit of PFAT (range 5.1 mm). Increasing sire PEMD reduced carcass fat weight by 3.8% in Maternal and 2% in Terminal sired lambs per unit of PEMD (range 4.3 and 7.8 mm), with no impact on bone. Increasing sire PWWT reduced carcass fat weight, but only at some experimental locations. Differences in composition varied between sire types with Maternal sired lambs having the most fat and Merino sired lambs the greatest bone weight. Genetic effects on fatness were greater than the environmental or production factor effects, with the converse true of bone. PMID:26914513

  20. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik L; Kusk, Philip; Madsen, Bente Elmfelt;

    2004-01-01

    to the controls. Patients with a combination of the highest quartile of S-OPG and presence of the G allele ( n = 23) had a significantly elevated fracture odds ratio, 4.0 (95% CI, 1.7-9.9). A significant negative association between S-OPG with peripheral measures of bone mass and with increased fracture odds......The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter with peripheral measures of bone mass and with odds ratios for wrist and hip fracture in a case-control study of postmenopausal Danish women. The study included......163G genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. S-OPG levels correlated positively with age ( r = 0.45; P negatively with distal forearm BMD ( r = -0.31; P

  1. Evaluation of the performance of a motion capture system for small displacement recording and a discussion for its application potential in bone deformation in vivo measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Pengfei; Sanno, Maximilian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a motion capture system and discuss the application potential of the proposed system in in vivo bone-segment deformation measurements. In this study, the effects of the calibration procedure, camera distance and marker size on the accuracy and precision of the motion capture system have been investigated by comparing the captured movement of the markers with reference movement. The results indicated that the system resolution...

  2. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758 and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pourlis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (P<0.05; in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (P<0.05. In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species.

  3. ICTP in Bone Metastases of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Franjević, Ana; Pavićević, Radomir; Bubanović, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases often appear in advanced stages of lung cancer. They are the result of modulation of bone metabolism by tumor cells that migrated into bone microenvironment and degraded bone organic matrix. Measurement of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in the serum of subjects with lung cancer with and without bone metastases and healthy population is the way to explore bone resorption. In 343 subjects included in this research ICTP level was significantly higher...

  4. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  5. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  6. The value of calcaneal bone mass measurement using a dual X-ray laser calscan device in risk screening for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Kayalar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured by a dual energy X-ray laser (DXL correlates with bone mineral density in the spine and hip in Turkish women over 40 years of age and to determine whether calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser variables are associated with clinical risk factors to the same extent as axial bone mineral density measurements obtained using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DXA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,884 Turkish women, aged 40-90 years, living in Ankara were randomly selected. Calcaneal bone mineral density was evaluated using a dual energy X-ray laser Calscan device. Subjects exhibiting a calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T- score <-2.5 received a referral for DXA of the spine and hip. Besides dual energy X-ray laser measurements, all subjects were questioned about their medical history and the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Using a T-score threshold of -2.5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, dual energy X-ray laser calcaneal measurements showed that 13% of the subjects had osteoporosis, while another 56% had osteopenia. The mean calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score of postmenopausal subjects who were smokers with a positive history of fracture, hormone replacement therapy (HRT, covered dressing style, lower educational level, no regular exercise habits, and low tea consumption was significantly lower than that obtained for the other group (p<0.05. A significant correlation was observed between the calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score and age (r=-0.465, p=0.001, body mass index (BMI (r=0.223, p=0.001, number of live births (r=-0.229, p=0.001, breast feeding time (r=-0.064, p=0.001, and age at menarche (r=-0.050, p=0.008. The correlations between calcaneal DXL and DXA T-scores (r=0.340, p=0.001 and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.360, p=0.001 at the spine, and calcaneal DXL and DXA T- scores (r=0.28, p=0.001 and calcaneal

  7. Effects of metal implants on whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral content and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, L.M. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Kinesiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of metal implants on measurements of bone mineral content and body composition by x-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry. Four whole-body dual-photon absorptiometry scans were performed on 13 participants with metal rods either present or absent during the scans. The influence of the amount of metal (50 g, 100 g and 150 g), the proximity of the metal rod to the x-ray source and the reproducibility of any metal-induced effects were evaluated by altering the position or the size of the metal rod used, or both. The presence of metal rods weighing 100 g or 150 g significantly increased reported total body mass and bone mineral content (p < 0.034). Soft-tissue mass was increased when the scan included the 100-g rod (p < 0.003). The proximity of the metal to the x-ray source did not have a significant influence on the body composition changes induced by the metal. The effects of the metal rods on body composition variables were reproducible. The presence of metal rods inflated body composition variables measured by dual-photon absorptiometry; however, the effects are reproducible during repeat scans of an individual patient. Metal had the largest impact on whole-body bone mineral content, causing errors of 1.5%-3%. (author)

  8. Natural history of malignant bone disease in breast cancer and the use of cumulative mean functions to measure skeletal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Matthew R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are a common cause of skeletal morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. The pattern of skeletal morbidity is complex, and the number of skeletal complications is influenced by the duration of survival. Because many patients with cancer die before trial completion, there is a need for survival-adjusted methods to accurately assess the effects of treatment on skeletal morbidity. Methods Recently, a survival-adjusted cumulative mean function model has been generated that can provide an intuitive graphic representation of skeletal morbidity throughout a study. This model was applied to the placebo-control arm of a pamidronate study in patients with malignant bone disease from breast cancer. Results Analysis by bone lesion location showed that spinal metastases were associated with the highest cumulative mean incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs, followed by chest and pelvic metastases. Metastases located in the extremities were associated with an intermediate incidence of SREs, and those in the skull were associated with the lowest incidence of SREs. Conclusion Application of this model to data from the placebo arm of this trial revealed important insight into the natural history of skeletal morbidity in patients with bone metastases. Based on these observations, treatment for the prevention of SREs is warranted regardless of lesion location except for metastases on the skull.

  9. Nondestructive measurements of implant-bone interface shear modulus and effects of implant geometry in pull-out tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Berzins; B. Shah; H.H. Weinans (Harrie); D.R. Sumner (Dale)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPush-out and pull-out tests are used for destructive evaluation of implant-bone interface strength. Because nondestructive mechanical tests would allow maintenance of an intact interface for subsequent morphological study, we developed such a test to determine the shear modulus of the in

  10. Measurements of fluorine in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the fluorine concentration in 35 people in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Measurement and precision data of this second generation NAA system were determined in 2013, and the results were compared with the performance of a first generation system used in a pilot study of 33 participants from the Hamilton area in 2008. Improvements in precision in line with those predicted by phantom studies were observed, but the use of fewer technicians during measurement seemed adversely to affect performance. We compared the levels of fluorine observed in people between the two studies and found them to be comparable. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3  ±  0.3 mg and 3.5  ±  0.4 mg F/g Ca for 2013 and 2008 measurements respectively. Ten people were measured in both studies; the observed average change in bone fluorine in this subgroup was consistent with that predicted by the observation of the relationship between bone fluorine and age in the wider group. In addition, we observed differences in the relationship between bone fluorine level and age between men and women, which may be attributable either to sex or gender differences. The rate of increase in fluorine content for men was found to be 0.096  ±  0.022 mg F/g Ca per year while the rate of increase for women was found to be slightly less than half that of men, 0.041  ±  0.017 mg F/g Ca per year. A discontinuity in the rate of increase in fluorine content with age was observed in women at around age 50. Bone fluorine content was significantly lower (p<0.01) in women age 50 to 59 than in women age 40 to 49, which we suggest may be attributable to bone metabolism changes associated with menopause. We also observed increased fluorine levels in tea drinkers as compared to non-tea drinkers, suggesting tea may be a significant source of exposure in Canada. The rate of increase in fluorine content

  11. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Surgery is often the main treatment for bone cancer. Other treatments may include amputation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Because bone cancer can come back after treatment, regular follow-up visits are important. NIH: National ...

  12. The Influence of Tube Potential on Periodontal Bone Level Measurements and Subjective Image Quality Using a Digital Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhilde Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the measurement accuracy and subjective image quality for periodontal disease diagnosis when using two X-ray tube voltages with a digital photostimulable storage phosphor sensor.Material and Methods: A digital photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP sensor (Vistascan and a multipulse X-ray generator (Prostyle Intra with two tube voltages were used in this study. The front, premolar and molar region of two adult human cadaver skulls jaws were imaged using the X-ray tube at 63 kV and 70 kV, both at 8 mA and decreasing exposure times (160 ms, 120 ms and 80 ms. A standardized exposure protocol containing waxed occlusal keys and an aiming device ensured proper and reproducible beam alignment. Three observers assessed the digital radiographs for 31 selected periodontal bone loss sites. Radiographic measurements were compared to physical measurements (Standard. Subjective ratings of lamina dura, crater defect and furcation involvement visibility, contrast perception and bone quality were also performed.Results: Multiple regression equation of the variables kV and exposure time demonstrated no significant difference for the periodontal bone level measurements (P > 0.05. In 90.3% and 96.7% of the measurements for 70 kV and 63 kV respectively, deviation was within 1 mm. The subjective ratings produced similar findings in terms of image quality for both tube voltages and the three exposure times.Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that tube voltages of 63 kV and 70 kV provided similar accuracy and image quality for periodontal disease diagnosis.

  13. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content. [Comparison of findings in patients with primary osteoporosis and healthy marathon runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Colbert, C; Bachtell, R; Thompson, K; Aloia, J; Cohn, S

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners.

  14. Fractal dimension of trabecular bone: comparison of three histomorphometric computed techniques for measuring the architectural two-dimensional complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappard, D; Legrand, E; Haettich, B; Chalès, G; Auvinet, B; Eschard, J P; Hamelin, J P; Baslé, M F; Audran, M

    2001-11-01

    Trabecular bone has been reported as having two-dimensional (2-D) fractal characteristics at the histological level, a finding correlated with biomechanical properties. However, several fractal dimensions (D) are known and computational ways to obtain them vary considerably. This study compared three algorithms on the same series of bone biopsies, to obtain the Kolmogorov, Minkowski-Bouligand, and mass-radius fractal dimensions. The relationships with histomorphometric descriptors of the 2-D trabecular architecture were investigated. Bone biopsies were obtained from 148 osteoporotic male patients. Bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular characteristics (Tb.N, Tb.Sp, Tb.Th), strut analysis, star volumes (marrow spaces and trabeculae), inter-connectivity index, and Euler-Poincaré number were computed. The box-counting method was used to obtain the Kolmogorov dimension (D(k)), the dilatation method for the Minkowski-Bouligand dimension (D(MB)), and the sandbox for the mass-radius dimension (D(MR)) and lacunarity (L). Logarithmic relationships were observed between BV/TV and the fractal dimensions. The best correlation was obtained with D(MR) and the lowest with D(MB). Lacunarity was correlated with descriptors of the marrow cavities (ICI, star volume, Tb.Sp). Linear relationships were observed among the three fractal techniques which appeared highly correlated. A cluster analysis of all histomorphometric parameters provided a tree with three groups of descriptors: for trabeculae (Tb.Th, strut); for marrow cavities (Euler, ICI, Tb.Sp, star volume, L); and for the complexity of the network (Tb.N and the three D's). A sole fractal dimension cannot be used instead of the classic 2-D descriptors of architecture; D rather reflects the complexity of branching trabeculae. Computation time is also an important determinant when choosing one of these methods. PMID:11745685

  15. Liquid scintillation based quantitative measurement of dual radioisotopes ({sup 3}H and {sup 45}Ca) in biological samples for bone remodeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: huixx019@umn.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 494, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Sharma, M. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 494, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bhattacharyya, M.H. [Department of Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Acute and prolonged bone complications associated with radiation and chemotherapy in cancer survivors underscore the importance of establishing a laboratory-based complementary dual-isotope tool to evaluate short- as well as long-term bone remodeling in an in vivo model. To address this need, a liquid scintillation dual-label method was investigated using different scintillation cocktails for quantitative measurement of {sup 3}H-tetracycline ({sup 3}H-TC) and {sup 45}Ca as markers of bone turnover in mice. Individual samples were prepared over a wide range of known {sup 45}Ca/{sup 3}H activity ratios. Results showed that {sup 45}Ca/{sup 3}H activity ratios determined experimentally by the dual-label method were comparable to the known activity ratios (percentage difference {approx}2%), but large variations were found in samples with {sup 45}Ca/{sup 3}H activity ratios in range of 2-10 (percentage difference {approx}20-30%). Urine and fecal samples from mice administered with both {sup 3}H-TC and {sup 45}Ca were analyzed with the dual-label method. Positive correlations between {sup 3}H and {sup 45}Ca in urine (R=0.93) and feces (R=0.83) indicate that {sup 3}H-TC and {sup 45}Ca can be interchangeably used to monitor longitudinal in vivo skeletal remodeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liquid scintillation cocktails support accurate dual-label analysis of {sup 3}H and {sup 45}Ca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 3}H-tetracycline and {sup 45}Ca were highly correlated in mice urine and feces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 3}H-tetracylcine and {sup 45}Ca can be used to monitor in vivo temporal bone remodeling.

  16. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  17. Correlations among biochemical markers of bone turnover,bone speed of sound and postnatal age in early infancy%婴儿早期骨代谢生化指标与声波速度值和出生后年龄间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖祥鹏; 张立; 卫雅蓉; 张伟利; 何稼敏; 孙建华; 黄萍

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨婴儿早期骨代谢生化指标与声波速度值和出生后年龄间的关系.方法 采用骨定量超声(QUS)仪对167例出生3月内的婴儿进行胫骨声波速度(SOS)测量.其中包括53例早产儿(胎龄:32.6±2.7周)和114例足月儿(胎龄:39.1±1.2周);同时在部分婴儿中测量血钙、磷、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和骨碱性磷酸酶(BALP).结果 ①早产儿和足月儿的血钙、磷、ALP和BALP值之间均差异无显著性.②婴儿骨SOS值与ALP呈显著负相关(n=167,r=-0.139,P=0.036)、与BALP也显著负相关(n=32,r=-0.410,P=0.010);SOS值与血钙、血磷及血钙磷乘积无显著性相关.在早产儿中,ALP和BALP与日龄均显著相关,相关系数r分别为0.286(n=53,P=0.019)和0.946(n=7,P=0.001);在足月儿中未发现显著相关性.血磷与日龄呈显著负相关(n=24,r=-0.509,P=0.005).③ALP与BALP高度相关(n=32,r=0.958,P=0.001),BALP占ALP活力的47.3%.早产儿在出生时BALP和Ⅰ型胶原羧基端肽(IcTP)显著正相关(n=36,r=0.768,P=0.001).结论 定量超声技术测量SOS有助于我们评估婴儿早期骨状况;在此横向研究中我们发现骨SOS与骨代谢生化指标之间存在相关性,然而,二者间的纵向关系有待于进一步研究.%Objective To examine the correlations among biochemical markers of bone turnover,bone speed of sound and postnatal age in early infancy. Materials and methods: A quantitative ultrasound bone sonometer was used to measure the bone speed of sound (SOS) of the tibia in 167 infants within 3 months of birth, including 53 preterm infants (gestational age 32.6±2.7 weeks) and 114 full-term infants (gestational age 39.1±1.2 weeks). Serum calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were examined at the same time among some of them. Results: 1) There were no significant differences of serum calcium, phosphorus, ALP and BALP between preterm infants and full-term infants. 2) There were significantly inverse

  18. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans; Malo, Markus K H; Liukkonen, Jukka; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Overlying soft tissues attenuate ultrasound backscattered from bone, complicating diagnostics of osteoporosis at the most important fracture sites. Dual-frequency ultrasound technique (DFUS) has been proposed to solve this problem through determination of thickness and composition of overlying soft tissue. This study applies DFUS technique for the first time with a phased-array transducer to investigate if the thickness of two interfering layers (oil and water) can be accurately determined in a variety of configurations. Results indicate that DFUS may be used with phased-array ultrasound systems, making them a suitable combination to consider in future development of clinical in vivo ultrasound methodologies. PMID:27187271

  19. The Effect of (99m)Tc on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Øbro; Dupont, Anders; Alslev, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Whether the γ-emission by radioisotopes influences the outcome of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antecedent administration of (99m)Tc on DXA measurements regarding body composition and bone mineral...... density (BMD) using a K-edge filter scanner. The phantom measurements were performed by placing a urinary bladder phantom containing 40mL of radioisotope solution on the pelvic region of a whole-body phantom. Twenty-seven patients attending our department for a routine examination involving...... the administration of a tracer marked with (99m)Tc were included. The patients underwent a whole-body DXA scan before and within 2h after tracer injection using a GE/Lunar Prodigy scanner. Control scans were performed on 40 volunteers, who had not received any radioactive tracer. In both phantom and patient...

  20. Estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull: contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurement of activity in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the initiation of NaI(Tl), spectrometric methods for detecting photon-emitting radionuclides in man, it became evident that the high background rates in the low energy regions precluded in vivo measurement of many bone-seeking nuclides. To meet these needs a dual crystal, low energy sensitive NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detector system was developed. To date this system, in combination with more routine bioassays, remains the optimum methodology for the determination of internal exposure to low energy, photon-emitting radionuclides. Since most occupational exposures occur by inhalation, internal deposits must be quantitated with these detectors placed over the lung area. Since many of the alpha-emitting nuclides are bone-seekers, the contribution of material which has been transported from the lung and deposited in the skeleton must be accounted for

  1. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  2. Weight Gain and Restoration of Menses as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Change in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa-1

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Prabhakaran, Rajani; Miller, Karen K.; Goldstein, Mark A.; Mickley, Diane; Clauss, Laura; Lockhart, Patrice; Cord, Jennalee; Herzog, David B.; Katzman, Debra K; Klibanski, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Context: Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) have low bone mineral density. However, the effect of disease recovery, first, on bone density measures assessed using the Molgaard approach, which differentiates between reported low bone density resulting from short bones (based on height Z-scores) and that resulting from thin bones [based on measures of bone area (BA) for height] or light bones [based on measures of bone mineral content (BMC) for BA]; and second, on height-adjusted bone densi...

  3. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  4. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  5. Bone tunnel diameter measured with CT after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-bundle auto-hamstring tendors: Clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Young Cheol; Bae, So Young; Wang, Joon Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the correlation between bone tunnel diameter after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction measured by computed tomography (CT) using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and stability or clinical scores. Forty-seven patients (41 men and 6 women, mean age: 34 years) who had undergone ACL reconstruction with the double bundle technique using auto-hamstring graft and had subsequently received CT scans immediately after the surgery (T1: range, 1-4 days, mean, 2.5 days) and at a later time (T2: range, 297-644 days, mean, 410.4 days) were enrolled in this study. The diameter of each tunnel (two femoral and two tibial) at both T1 and T2 were independently measured using MPR technique by two radiologists. Stability and clinical scores were evaluated with a KT-2000 arthrometer, International Knee Documentation Committee objective scores, and the Lysholm score. Statistical analysis of the correlation between the diameter at T2 or the interval diameter change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and clinical scores or stability was investigated. The tibial bone tunnels for the anteromedial bundles were significantly widened at T2 compared with T1 (observer 1, 0.578 mm to 0.698 mm, p value of < 0.001; observer 2, 0.581 mm to 0.707 mm, p value of < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the diameter at T2 and stability or clinical scores and between the interval change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and stability or clinical scores (corrected p values for all were 1.0). Intraobserver agreement for measurements was excellent (> 0.8) for both observers. Interobserver agreement for measurement was excellent (> 0.8) except for the most distal portion of the femoral bone tunnel for anterior medial bundle in immediate postoperative CT, which showed moderate agreement (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.6311).Neither the diameter nor its change ratio during interval follow-up is correlated with stability or clinical scores.

  6. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  7. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  8. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p 2 = 0.39; p Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

  9. Volumetric measurements of bone mineral density of the lumbar spine: comparison of three geometrical approximations using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, M F; van Driel, A P; van Lingen, A; Roos, J C; de Ridder, C M; Manoliu, R A; David, E F; Netelenbos, J C

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) gives area values (g cm-2) rather than true volumetric values (g cm-3). To calculate the vertebral volume using planar postero-anterior and lateral DXA values, several different geometrical approximations were used: cubic, cylindrical with a circular cross-section and cylindrical with an elliptical cross-section. The aim of this study was to compare these geometrical approximations with each other and with a reference standard, defined as the volume found on a computed tomographic (CT) scan. L2 and L3 were evaluated in a phantom study. Volume approximations by the cube or cylinder with circular cross-section geometry showed more than a 50% overestimation (range 54-74%). However, the elliptical cylinder approach showed very good agreement: 2.1% and 1.2% for L2 and L3, respectively, when compared to the CT volumes. In addition, we performed four patient studies with both CT and DXA to evaluate the elliptical cylinder estimate in a clinical setting. For L2 and L3, the mean relative difference was less than 2%. We conclude that the elliptical cylinder approach results in the most accurate bone volume estimates in both the phantom and patients. PMID:9751926

  10. 2型糖尿病患者骨密度的测定%Measurement of bone mineral density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉华; 康后生; 毛淑芳; 严宗逊

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate into the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: BMD of lumbar ver-tebrae 2 -4 and femur in 63 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes mel-litua were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) andwere compared with age, sex and BMI-matched normal controlgroup. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in BMD of lumbarvertebrae 2 -4 in female of menopause with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05), but BMD of total were lower than that of the controls (P<0. 05), BMD of neck were significantly lower than thai of the controls (P<0.01); No significant differences were found in BMD of I2-4 and femurin male of 50 years old above with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: BMD of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is different according todifferent sex, BMD of female of menopause with type 2 diabetes mellituswere descended easily, especially in areas of neck BMD, it should cause topay attention to in order to prevent pathologic bone fracture; BMD of maleof 50 years old above with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have no the obviouschanges than that of the controls.

  11. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best counting geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs

  12. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraleda, M.; Lopez, M. A.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Navarro, T.; Navarro, J. F.

    2002-07-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best countring geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. Evaluation of bone marrow irradiation by area under the curve of blood counts measurements in hemodialyzed patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with 131Iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The administration of 131I is a well established treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Uncommon situations, such as DTC in patients on hemodialysis (HD), can generate logistic problems with personnel and disposables materials, as well as with suitable calculation of the activity to be administered, in order to avoid excessive irradiation to critical organs such as bone marrow, due to excretion impairment. Objectives: To estimate the risk of bone marrow irradiation in patients with DTC and end stage renal disease (ESRD) in HD, requiring radioiodine ablation therapy, and to make radiation safety considerations during HD. Methods: 2 patients (p) with ESRD in HD with DTC with indication of post surgical 131I ablation of the thyroid remnant were submitted. An interdisciplinary approach between Nuclear Medicine, Endocrinology and Nephrology departments was addressed. Both patients received a 3.7GBq dose of 131I. Extended high flux HD was performed 24 hours after therapeutic dose (dialysis flow 800ml/min and blood flow 400ml/min during 6 hours). External exposition was measured with a portable monitor at 1 meter distance from the p and serial blood count teams of the inlet and outlet blood lines of the HD blood circuit were obtained; chip monitors were used by the Nephrology personnel in order to measure their external exposition. At the end of the procedure, residual activity of the HD machine, dialyser and lines were measured with a portable monitor. In order to evaluate the bone marrow irradiation, the radionuclide clearance, the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated, taking into account the different values of the effective half life described in the literature. Results: In the 2 p, 94 and 90% of the 131I dose had been removed at the end of the first HD session respectively (76% and 66% in the first hour of HD). A parallel reduction was observed in the external dosimetry. The effective intradialysis 131I T 1/2 was 1.4 and 1.8 hours. Conclusions

  14. Cross calibration of QDR-2000 and QDR-1000 dual-energy X-ray densitometers for bone mineral and soft-tissue measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Gram, J; Hansen, T B;

    1995-01-01

    ) and fan beam (FB) modes (n = 40-62) as a quality control measure. A total of 83 subjects (79 females and four males) with a wide range of bone mineral densities (BMD) were studied. There was a linear relationship between results with the QDR-1000W and QDR-2000 in SB mode, and between SB and FB mode on...... the QDR-2000, but the magnitude of the coefficients and constants differed for the different anatomic regions. In SB mode the QDR-2000 underestimated whole body and forearm BMD by 3% relative to the QDR-1000W, even after cross calibration using a spine phantom. Femoral total BMD was slightly, but not...... device. Soft-tissue composition with FB (enhanced analysis protocol) on the QDR-2000 differed greatly from that obtained using SB (standard protocol). Lean tissue mass was 4 kg lower and fat mass 4 kg higher in FB mode.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  15. Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia • In addition to a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, your doctor may recommend taking calcium ... What can be done to treat low bone mass? Following all of the above prevention measures is ...

  16. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  17. Effects of dietary pH and phosphorus source on performance, gastrointestinal tract digesta, and bone measurements of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, M L; Kornegay, E T; Evans, J L; Wood, C M

    1991-11-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 144, average age and weight = 28 +/- 3 d, 7.5 kg) were used in two 6-wk trials to assess the effects of dietary pH and P source on growth performance, gastrointestinal digesta pH and chloride ion concentration (Cl-), and bone characteristics. Treatments were randomly allotted within blocks (based on weight within gender) to a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three dietary pH levels (5.4, 6.0, and 6.7) and two P sources: dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP). Pigs fed the pH 6.7 diet had reduced ADG (P less than .01) and average daily feed intakes (ADFI; P less than .001) during wk 1 to 3 and overall compared with pigs fed the pH 6.0 diet, but ADG and ADFI were not affected when the pH 5.4 diet was fed. There was a dietary pH x P source interaction (P less than .05) for ADFI. Pigs had decreased ADFI as dietary pH was increased from 6.0 to 6.7 for both DCP and DFP, but ADFI was similar for the pH 6.0 and 5.4 diets with DFP, whereas ADFI was greater for the pH 5.4 diet with DCP. Dietary pH did not influence ADFI:ADG ratio (F:G; P greater than .05), and P source had no effect (P greater than .05) on either ADG, ADFI, or F:G.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Assessment of bone tissue mineralization by conventional x-ray microcomputed tomography: Comparison with synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography and ash measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakia, G. J.; Burghardt, A J; Cheung, S; Majumdar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of bone tissue mineral density (TMD) may provide information critical to the understanding of mineralization processes and bone biomechanics. High-resolution three-dimensional assessment of TMD has recently been demonstrated using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRμCT); however, this imaging modality is relatively inaccessible due to the scarcity of SR facilities. Conventional desktop μCT systems are widely available and have been used extensively to assess bone mic...

  19. The reliability and representativity of non-dynamic bone histomorphometry in uremic osteodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, J G; Pødenphant, J; Gammelgaard, Bente

    1993-01-01

    trabecular bone indices are reliable variables and, with the possible exception of bone mass determination, indicative of systemic bone disease. Bone aluminium concentration and cortical bone indices are unreliable measures of uremic bone disease. These reservations apply to the diagnostic use of biopsy...

  20. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  1. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  2. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  3. Cross-calibration of Lunar DPX-IQ and DPX dual-energy x-ray densitometers for bone mineral measurements in women: effect of body anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelainen, J; Honkanen, R; Vanninen, E; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Niskanen, L; Jurvelin, J S

    2005-01-01

    When dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments are replaced, it is essential to determine if systematic differences in measurements occur. As a part of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study (N=14,220), a group of women, aged 36 to 69 yr underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2 to L4 (n=89) and proximal femur scans (n=88) by the Lunar DPX and DPX-IQ, respectively, during the same visit. A high linear association (r from 0.944 to 0.989, p<0.001) between the two scanners was established for lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The average DPX values for BMD were 1.1% and 2.0% higher than those of DPX-IQ for the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and Ward's triangle (p=0.001), respectively. Femoral neck BMD values by the DPX were 1.4% lower (p<0.001) compared to DPX-IQ. The difference between trochanter BMD results (0.1%) was not significant (p=0.809). In the femoral neck and trochanter, but not in the lumbar spine or Ward's triangle, the differences in BMD values of the two machines were found to depend on body mass index. After linear formulas based on simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were calculated, the differences were negligible, enabling objective comparison of longitudinal measurements.

  4. Bone metabolism in thyroidectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone mineral content in the patients who had undergone operation for thyroid carcinoma was measured by quantitative CT. Thirty-eight cases were enrolled as the subjects. All cases were papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. The totally thyroidectomized group consisted of 3 males and 14 females, and the non-totally thyroidectomized group (post-lobectomy) 3 males and 18 females. Thirty-eight healthy males and females were assigned to the control group. For evaluation of bone mineral content, quantitative CT was used and bone mineral content in the patient's lumbar vertebrae was measured. Concurrently, bone metabolic parameter in serum was determined. No significant difference was observed in the mean bone mineral content among the above three groups. To make correction by sex and age, BMC-index was defined as the value that the bone mineral content in each case was divided by the standard mean by the same age and sex. No significant difference was observed in BMC-index among the above three groups. No significant correlation was observed in serum calcitonin level with the bone mineral content and BMC-index. It suggests that no influence is exerted on bone metabolism if serum calcitonin is maintained in the physiological level. (author)

  5. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  6. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  7. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, J.S.; Dobritz, M.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Baum, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wolf, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD{sub MDCT} values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. (orig.)

  8. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  9. Continuous MR bone density measurement using water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI) for PET attenuation correction in PET-MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the lack of signal from solid bone in normal MR sequences for the purpose of MR-based attenuation correction, investigators have proposed using the ultrashort echo time (UTE) pulse sequence, which yields signal from bone. However, the UTE-based segmentation approach might not fully capture the intra- and inter-subject bone density variation, which will inevitably lead to bias in reconstructed PET images. In this work, we investigated using the water- and fat-suppressed proton projection imaging (WASPI) sequence to obtain accurate and continuous attenuation for bones. This approach is capable of accounting for intra- and inter-subject bone attenuation variations. Using data acquired from a phantom, we have found that that attenuation correction based on the WASPI sequence is more accurate and precise when compared to either conventional MR attenuation correction or UTE-based segmentation approaches. (note)

  10. Continuous MR bone density measurement using water- and fat-suppressed projection imaging (WASPI) for PET attenuation correction in PET-MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Ouyang, J; Reese, T G; Wu, Y; El Fakhri, G; Ackerman, J L

    2015-10-21

    Due to the lack of signal from solid bone in normal MR sequences for the purpose of MR-based attenuation correction, investigators have proposed using the ultrashort echo time (UTE) pulse sequence, which yields signal from bone. However, the UTE-based segmentation approach might not fully capture the intra- and inter-subject bone density variation, which will inevitably lead to bias in reconstructed PET images. In this work, we investigated using the water- and fat-suppressed proton projection imaging (WASPI) sequence to obtain accurate and continuous attenuation for bones. This approach is capable of accounting for intra- and inter-subject bone attenuation variations. Using data acquired from a phantom, we have found that that attenuation correction based on the WASPI sequence is more accurate and precise when compared to either conventional MR attenuation correction or UTE-based segmentation approaches. PMID:26405761

  11. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  12. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  13. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  14. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  16. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

  17. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Willems

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  18. Investigations of Diabetic Bone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Jakob Starup

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of fracture with and current fracture predictors underestimate fracture risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, further understanding of the underlying causes of diabetic bone disease may lead to better fracture predictors and preventive...... measures in patients with diabetes. This PhD thesis reports the results of two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, a state-of-the-art intervention study, a clinical cross-sectional study and a registry-based study all examining the relationship between diabetes, glucose, and bone. Patients with type 2...... diabetes had lower bone turnover markers compared to patients with type 1 diabetes and bone mineral density and tissue stiffness were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The bone turnover markers were inversely associated with blood glucose in patients with diabetes and both an oral glucose...

  19. Measurement of bone mineral density at proximal femur by dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry%股骨近端骨密度的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华俦

    2012-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry can be regarded as "gold standard" for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up. The measurement of BMD at proximal femur can not only predict an occurrence of the hip fracture but also in the other part of body fracture. The elderly population with high incidence of osteoporosis often combine with many degenerative disease, such as degenerative scoliosis, osteophyte formation, intervertebral disc herniation etc. These pathological changes in the lumbar spine might reduce the accuracy of BMD in anterposterior position. So the measurement of BMD at proximal femur become more and more popular in the clinical trial or diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Europen and American areas in recently. This article reviews the anatomy characteristics of proximal femur, method and purport of measurement of BMD at proximal femur, and refers to some matters must be paid more attention in the procedures of measurement of BMD and facilitate clinicians and technicians to assess the clinical meaning of measurement of BMD at proximal femur comprehensively.%双能X线骨密度仪检测骨密度是诊断骨质疏松症和疗效随访的金标准,特别是髋部骨密度的测量对于骨折的预测尤其测定部位本身骨折的预测作用较大.由于脊柱部位的骨密度测量值易受到脊柱退行性疾病的病理改变如退行性侧凸、骨赘增生、腰椎间盘突出等影响,测量的准确性下降.因而近年来欧美国家临床试验也好或者骨质疏松诊疗也好,大都以股骨近端的BMD测定为标准.本文就股骨近端解剖特点、骨密度测量的意义、方法以及测量的注意点作一个综述,以期帮助临床医生或技术员全面评估股骨近端骨密度测定的意义.

  20. In vivo measurement of lead in the bones of smelter workers using the four-element 'clover-leaf' geometry detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behinaein, Sepideh; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Atanackovic, Jovica [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Dosimetry Services, K0J 1J0, Ontario (Canada); Fleming, David E B [Department of Physics, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1E6 (Canada); Nie, Linda H [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Richard, Norbert; Stever, Susan, E-mail: behinas@mcmaster.ca [Occupational Health Services, Xstrata Zinc, Brunswick Smelter, Belledune, New Brunswick, E8G 2M1 (Canada)

    2011-02-07

    A total of 497 smelter employees from New Brunswick participated in a bone lead survey conducted by McMaster University in 2008 to examine the efficiency of lead exposure control programmes and a four-element 'clover-leaf' geometry detector system. Nearly 42% of the subjects had participated in both the previous surveys performed in 1994 and 1999. After developing the clover-leaf geometry system in 2006, the reliability of the system based on examining the consistency of four detectors and improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) was tested for the first time in 2008 by measuring lead levels of a large population that was occupationally exposed to lead. The Z test was used to study the distribution of the lead concentration calculated based on K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} lead x-rays, where the results were broadly consistent with a normal distribution criterion, with relatively small means and standard deviations of between 1 and 2. The MDL of the clover-leaf geometry system was improved on average for tibia and calcaneus by a factor of 3.1 compared to the 1999 and 1994 surveys in which a conventional system (one detector) was used. Furthermore, by comparing the results of the three mentioned surveys, the 2008 results were found to represent the highest precision.

  1. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''2 sup 4 sup 1 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    CERN Document Server

    Moraleda, M; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T

    2002-01-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in det...

  2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and micro-computed tomography techniques are discordant for bone density and geometry measurements in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ivy L; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to examine agreement among bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) estimates obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and micro-computed tomography (μCT) against high-resolution μCT and bone ash of the guinea pig femur. Middle-aged (n = 40, 86 weeks) male guinea pigs underwent in vivo followed by ex vivo DXA (Hologic QDR 4500A) scanning for intact and excised femur BMC and areal density. To assess bone architecture and strength, excised femurs were scanned on pQCT (Stratec XCT 2000L) as well as on two μCT scanners (LaTheta LCT-200; Skyscan 1174), followed by three-point bending test. Reproducibility was determined using triplicate scans; and agreement assessed using Bland-Altman plots with reference methods being high-resolution μCT (Skyscan) for BMD and bone ashing for BMC. All techniques showed satisfactory ex vivo precision (CV 0.05-4.3 %). However, bias compared to the reference method was highest (207.5 %) in trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) measured by LaTheta, and unacceptable in most total femur and cortical bone measurements. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BV/TV derived by LaTheta and pQCT at the distal metaphysis were biased from the Skyscan by an average of 49.3 and 207.5 %, respectively. Variability of vBMD, BV/TV and cross-sectional area at the diaphysis ranged from -5.5 to 30.8 %. LaTheta best quantified total femur BMC with an upper bias of 3.3 %. The observed differences among imaging techniques can be attributable to inherent dissimilarity in construction design, calibration, segmentation and scanning resolution used. These bone imaging tools are precise but are not comparable, at least when assessing guinea pig bones.

  3. 长期冬泳对老年人骨健康指标的影响%Effect of long-term winter swimming on bone health in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春琪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of long-term winter swimming on bone mineral density ( BMD ) and bone metabolism in the elderly.Methods A total of 114 elderly people, aging from 55 to 65 years old, were selected and divided into winter swimming group and control group.BUA, SOS, QUI, and BMD values of the calcaneus were determined using the Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer.The serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and ALP were determined using MODULAR automatic biochemical analyzer.The content of osteocalcin ( BGP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b ( TRACP5b) was determined using S200 type microplate reader.Results The average values of BUA, SOS, QUI, and BMD in the winter swimming group were higher than those in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01).The average value of ALP between the groups was significantly different (P<0.05).The significant difference of the average serum levels of Ca, BGP, and TRACP5b between two groups was also observed ( P <0.01).Conclusion Winter swimming can improve the bone metabolism and BMD in the elderly men.It has a positive significance to improve the overall health of the elderly.So it is a good exercise for the elderly people.%目的:了解长期冬泳运动对老年人骨密度和骨代谢指标的影响。方法以114名55~65岁的老年人为研究对象,分为冬泳组和对照组。采用Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer 超声骨密度测定仪测定跟骨宽带超声衰减(BUA)、超声声速(SOS)、定量超声指数(QUI)和骨密度(BMD)。采用MODULAR全自动生化分析仪测定血清钙(Ca)、磷(P)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)含量,同时采用S200型酶标仪测定骨钙素( BGP)、抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶5b ( TRACP5b)含量。结果冬泳组男性老年人的BUA、SOS、QUI和BMD均值高于对照组,且存在非常显著的组间差异( P<0.01);冬泳组和对照组老年人的ALP均值存在显著的组间差异(P<0

  4. Effect of long-term winter swimming on bone health in the elderly%长期冬泳对老年人骨健康指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春琪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of long-term winter swimming on bone mineral density ( BMD ) and bone metabolism in the elderly.Methods A total of 114 elderly people, aging from 55 to 65 years old, were selected and divided into winter swimming group and control group.BUA, SOS, QUI, and BMD values of the calcaneus were determined using the Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer.The serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and ALP were determined using MODULAR automatic biochemical analyzer.The content of osteocalcin ( BGP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b ( TRACP5b) was determined using S200 type microplate reader.Results The average values of BUA, SOS, QUI, and BMD in the winter swimming group were higher than those in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01).The average value of ALP between the groups was significantly different (P<0.05).The significant difference of the average serum levels of Ca, BGP, and TRACP5b between two groups was also observed ( P <0.01).Conclusion Winter swimming can improve the bone metabolism and BMD in the elderly men.It has a positive significance to improve the overall health of the elderly.So it is a good exercise for the elderly people.%目的:了解长期冬泳运动对老年人骨密度和骨代谢指标的影响。方法以114名55~65岁的老年人为研究对象,分为冬泳组和对照组。采用Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer 超声骨密度测定仪测定跟骨宽带超声衰减(BUA)、超声声速(SOS)、定量超声指数(QUI)和骨密度(BMD)。采用MODULAR全自动生化分析仪测定血清钙(Ca)、磷(P)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)含量,同时采用S200型酶标仪测定骨钙素( BGP)、抗酒石酸酸性磷酸酶5b ( TRACP5b)含量。结果冬泳组男性老年人的BUA、SOS、QUI和BMD均值高于对照组,且存在非常显著的组间差异( P<0.01);冬泳组和对照组老年人的ALP均值存在显著的组间差异(P<0

  5. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchin; Adeeb, Samer; Doschak, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone microarchitectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA) can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of Micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived grayscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two- and three-dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX) rats (n = 10/group). A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA, because Micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three-dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation, and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading. PMID:26042089

  6. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  7. The peak bone mass concept: is it still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönau, Eckhard

    2004-08-01

    researchers is shifting away from bone mass to bone geometry or bone strength. Bone mass is one surrogate marker of bone strength. Widely available techniques for measurement of bone mass, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, radiogrammetry, and computed tomography, can also be used to measure variables of bone geometry such as cortical thickness, cortical area, and moment of inertia. PMID:15197638

  8. Vibrational spectroscopy in biomedical science: bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsjäger, Sonja; Zoehrer, R.; Roschger, P.; Fratzl, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Mendelsohn, R.; Paschalis, E. P.

    2009-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIR) and Raman Microspectroscopy are powerful tools for characterizing the distribution of different chemical moieties in heterogeneous materials. FTIR and Raman measurements have been adapted to assess the maturity of the mineral and the quality of the organic component (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) of the mineralized tissue in bone. Unique to the FTIRI analysis is the capability to provide the spatial distribution of two of the major collagen cross-links (pyridinoline, and dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine) and through the study of normal and diseased bone, relate them to bone strength. These FTIR parameters have been validated based on analysis of model compounds. It is widely accepted that bone strength is determined by bone mass and bone quality. The latter is a multifactorial term encompassing the material and structural properties of bone, and one important aspect of the bone material properties is the organic matrix. The bone material properties can be defined by parameters of mineral and collagen, as determined by FTIR and Raman analysis. Considerably less attention has been directed at collagen, although there are several publications in the literature reporting altered collagen properties associated with fragile bone, in both animals and humans. Since bone is a heterogeneous tissue due to the remodeling process, microscopic areas may be carefully selected based on quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging or histological staining, thus ensuring comparison of areas with similar metabolic activity and mineral content. In conclusion, FTIRI and Raman vibrational spectroscopy are proving to be powerful tools in bone-related medical research.

  9. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with 45Ca and [3H]proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more 45Ca and [3H]proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading

  10. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  11. 雪莲细胞培养物对卵巢切除大鼠骨密度的影响%Effect of cell cultures of Saussurea involucrata on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡薇; 刘雅萍; 张献; 王彦礼; 李涛; 张会会; 陈立; 庄帅星; 杨伟鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察雪莲细胞培养物对卵巢切除大鼠喂养90 d后股骨中骨钙含量和骨密度的影响。方法对60只大鼠进行卵巢切除术造成骨密度低下模型,给予雪莲细胞培养物16.7、33.3、100 mg/kg,连续90 d,观察大鼠体质量,用原子吸收法测定骨钙含量,用骨密度仪测定骨密度。结果雪莲细胞培养物低、中、高剂量均可明显增加骨钙含量[分别为(380.1±1.9)mg/g、(370.7±1.1)mg/g、(363.5±2.4)mg/g],与模型组(355.8±7.1)mg/g比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);明显增加股骨远端骨密度[分别为(0.041±0.017)g/cm2、(0.042±0.023)g/cm2、(0.040±0.008)g/cm2],与模型组(0.022±0.014)g/cm2比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或0.05)。雪莲细胞培养物低剂量可增加股骨中点骨密度(0.305±0.030)g/cm2,与模型组(0.259±0.061)g/cm2比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论雪莲细胞培养物具有增加骨密度的功能。%Objective To investigate the effects of Saussurea involucrate by cell culture on increasing the calcium content and bone density after 90 days feed in ovariectomized rats. Methods Osteoporosis model rats were induced by ovariectomy, treated with 16.7、33.3、100 mg/(kg•d)cell culture of Saussurea involucrate for 90 days. Body weight was observed, calcium content was measured through atomic absorption method and the bone density was detected by bone sonometers. Results cell culture of Saussurea involucrate(16.7、33.3、100 mg/kg)can increase the calcium content[(380.1 ± 1.9)mg/g、(370.7 ± 1.1)mg/g、(363.5 ± 2.4)mg/g] significantly(P<0.01)than the model group; increase distal femoral bone mineral density[(0.041 ± 0.017)g/cm2、(0.042±0.023)g/cm2、(0.040±0.008)g/cm2] significantly(P<0.01 or 0.05) than the model group(0.022±0.014)g/cm2; and also increase the middle femoral bone mineral density, the low-dose group (0.305±0.030)g/cm2

  12. 雪莲细胞培养物对卵巢切除大鼠骨密度的影响%Effect of cell cultures of Saussurea involucrata on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡薇; 刘雅萍; 张献; 王彦礼; 李涛; 张会会; 陈立; 庄帅星; 杨伟鹏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Saussurea involucrate by cell culture on increasing the calcium content and bone density after 90 days feed in ovariectomized rats. Methods Osteoporosis model rats were induced by ovariectomy, treated with 16.7、33.3、100 mg/(kg•d)cell culture of Saussurea involucrate for 90 days. Body weight was observed, calcium content was measured through atomic absorption method and the bone density was detected by bone sonometers. Results cell culture of Saussurea involucrate(16.7、33.3、100 mg/kg)can increase the calcium content[(380.1 ± 1.9)mg/g、(370.7 ± 1.1)mg/g、(363.5 ± 2.4)mg/g] significantly(P<0.01)than the model group; increase distal femoral bone mineral density[(0.041 ± 0.017)g/cm2、(0.042±0.023)g/cm2、(0.040±0.008)g/cm2] significantly(P<0.01 or 0.05) than the model group(0.022±0.014)g/cm2; and also increase the middle femoral bone mineral density, the low-dose group (0.305±0.030)g/cm2 significantly (P<0.05) than the model group(0.259±0.061)g/cm2. Conclusion The cell culture of Saussurea involucrate has the effect of increasing the bone density.%目的:观察雪莲细胞培养物对卵巢切除大鼠喂养90 d后股骨中骨钙含量和骨密度的影响。方法对60只大鼠进行卵巢切除术造成骨密度低下模型,给予雪莲细胞培养物16.7、33.3、100 mg/kg,连续90 d,观察大鼠体质量,用原子吸收法测定骨钙含量,用骨密度仪测定骨密度。结果雪莲细胞培养物低、中、高剂量均可明显增加骨钙含量[分别为(380.1±1.9)mg/g、(370.7±1.1)mg/g、(363.5±2.4)mg/g],与模型组(355.8±7.1)mg/g比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);明显增加股骨远端骨密度[分别为(0.041±0.017)g/cm2、(0.042±0.023)g/cm2、(0.040±0.008)g/cm2],与模型组(0.022±0.014)g/cm2比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或0.05)。雪莲细胞培养物低剂量可增加股骨中点骨密度(0.305±0.030

  13. Parallel mechanisms suppress cochlear bone remodeling to protect hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel J; Akil, Omar; Acevedo, Claire; Hall-Glenn, Faith; Tsai, Betty S; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Liebenberg, Ellen; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Ritchie, Robert O; Lustig, Lawrence R; Alliston, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling, a combination of bone resorption and formation, requires precise regulation of cellular and molecular signaling to maintain proper bone quality. Whereas osteoblasts deposit and osteoclasts resorb bone matrix, osteocytes both dynamically resorb and replace perilacunar bone matrix. Osteocytes secrete proteases like matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) to maintain the material quality of bone matrix through perilacunar remodeling (PLR). Deregulated bone remodeling impairs bone quality and can compromise hearing since the auditory transduction mechanism is within bone. Understanding the mechanisms regulating cochlear bone provides unique ways to assess bone quality independent of other aspects that contribute to bone mechanical behavior. Cochlear bone is singular in its regulation of remodeling by expressing high levels of osteoprotegerin. Since cochlear bone expresses a key PLR enzyme, MMP13, we examined whether cochlear bone relies on, or is protected from, osteocyte-mediated PLR to maintain hearing and bone quality using a mouse model lacking MMP13 (MMP13(-/-)). We investigated the canalicular network, collagen organization, lacunar volume via micro-computed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry. Despite finding defects in these hallmarks of PLR in MMP13(-/-) long bones, cochlear bone revealed no differences in these markers, nor hearing loss as measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) or distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs), between wild type and MMP13(-/-) mice. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed abundant PLR by tibial osteocytes, but near absence in cochlear bone. Cochlear suppression of PLR corresponds to repression of several key PLR genes in the cochlea relative to long bones. These data suggest that cochlear bone uniquely maintains bone quality and hearing independent of MMP13-mediated osteocytic PLR. Furthermore, the cochlea employs parallel mechanisms to inhibit remodeling by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and by

  14. Parallel mechanisms suppress cochlear bone remodeling to protect hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel J; Akil, Omar; Acevedo, Claire; Hall-Glenn, Faith; Tsai, Betty S; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Liebenberg, Ellen; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Ritchie, Robert O; Lustig, Lawrence R; Alliston, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Bone remodeling, a combination of bone resorption and formation, requires precise regulation of cellular and molecular signaling to maintain proper bone quality. Whereas osteoblasts deposit and osteoclasts resorb bone matrix, osteocytes both dynamically resorb and replace perilacunar bone matrix. Osteocytes secrete proteases like matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) to maintain the material quality of bone matrix through perilacunar remodeling (PLR). Deregulated bone remodeling impairs bone quality and can compromise hearing since the auditory transduction mechanism is within bone. Understanding the mechanisms regulating cochlear bone provides unique ways to assess bone quality independent of other aspects that contribute to bone mechanical behavior. Cochlear bone is singular in its regulation of remodeling by expressing high levels of osteoprotegerin. Since cochlear bone expresses a key PLR enzyme, MMP13, we examined whether cochlear bone relies on, or is protected from, osteocyte-mediated PLR to maintain hearing and bone quality using a mouse model lacking MMP13 (MMP13(-/-)). We investigated the canalicular network, collagen organization, lacunar volume via micro-computed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry. Despite finding defects in these hallmarks of PLR in MMP13(-/-) long bones, cochlear bone revealed no differences in these markers, nor hearing loss as measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) or distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs), between wild type and MMP13(-/-) mice. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed abundant PLR by tibial osteocytes, but near absence in cochlear bone. Cochlear suppression of PLR corresponds to repression of several key PLR genes in the cochlea relative to long bones. These data suggest that cochlear bone uniquely maintains bone quality and hearing independent of MMP13-mediated osteocytic PLR. Furthermore, the cochlea employs parallel mechanisms to inhibit remodeling by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and by

  15. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...

  16. A new method for cone beam CT measurements of cyst of jaw bone loss%锥体束CT测量颌骨囊肿骨量缺失的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 李锐; 李晓燕; 常平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨利用锥体束CT预测颌骨囊肿骨量缺失的新方法。方法:随机选取我院接诊的颌骨囊肿患者作为研究对象,拍摄锥体束CT,利用eXamVision软件进行测量,采用公式V=X*Y*Z对颌骨骨量缺失进行预测。结果:该方法所得数据能近似得出颌骨囊肿骨量缺失体积。结论:对颌骨囊肿缺失骨量的术前预测有助于术中植骨及手术方案的选择,锥体束CT能较准确的预测骨量的缺失体积,具有较好的临床指导意义。%Objective To study a new method for prediction of cyst of jaw bone loss by cone beam CT. Methods Random selection of jaw cyst patients as the research object, shooting cone beam CT,were measured using the eXamVision software, using the formula V=X*Y*Z to predict bone loss. Results The data from this method can approximate the missing volume of jaw cyst. Conclusion Contribute to bone grafting and operation scheme for the prediction of cyst of jaw bone loss of the preoperative selection. Cone beam CT can predict accurately the loss of bone volume, has better clinical directive significance.

  17. Accuracy and relaibiltiy of CBCT for alveolar bone measurement: a systematic review%锥形束CT牙槽骨测量的准确性与可靠性的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳; 李巍然

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价锥形束CT对牙槽骨线距测量的准确性与可靠性.方法 通过检索多个数据库(PubMed,EBSCO,Scopus,Web of Science,中国期刊全文专题数据库CNKI及中国科技期刊数据库)获得相关文献.设定纳入标准为对人类牙槽骨的测量,并评价其测量的准确性和/或可靠性,对检索获得的文献进行进一步筛选.利用方法学评价表对纳入的文献进行评价.结果 检索获得150篇文献,通过筛选共12篇文献纳入本系统综述.其中有8篇文章关注对牙槽骨厚度及/或高度的测量,4篇文章关注对牙槽骨缺损的测量.利用方法学评价表进行评价,仅有3篇文章的方法学质量较高,6篇文章方法学质量较低.锥形束CT对牙槽骨线距测量的准确性与可靠性较好,但应注意其有低估牙槽骨高度及厚度的趋势.CBCT测量与传统二维影像学检查的准确性有一定差异,当只有二维影像检查资料时,CBCT图像数据不宜纳入纵向比较.结论 锥形束CT对牙槽骨线距测量的准确性与可靠性较好.%Objective To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of CBCT for linear measurement of alveolar bone.Methods Databases are searched,including PubMed,EBSCO,Scopus,Web of Science,CNKI and VIP.Inclusion criteria were studies on measurement on human alveolar bone and evaluation on measurement accuracy and/or reliability.The articles met the criteria were then furthermore screened and then evaluated by methodology table.Results 150 literatures were selected from the databases.After screening,12 of them were included in this systemic review,8 of which were about the measurement on alveolar bone thickness and height and 4 of them were about measurement of the alveolar bone defects.According to the methodology table,only 3 articles got relative high score on study methods and 6 articles got relative low score.The result showed that CBCT is acceptable for alveolar bone linear measurements for its good accuracy and reliability

  18. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  19. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  20. Bone growth in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research performed in several laboratories has shown that artificially induced currents affect bone growth. Studies of various current characteristics produced by implanted electrodes indicate that continuous dc, interrupted dc, and asymmetric ac all increase osteogenesis at the cathode. Stimulation from an externally applied balanced ac field was reported to reduce bone loss from disuse. The purpose of the study being reported here was to examine the influence of a uniform ac electric field on the normal skeletal growth pattern of rats. Juvenile rats received whole body exposure to uniform, vertical 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m for 30 days. There were no marked alterations in the general growth pattern of the exposed animals compared to controls maintained under similar conditions. Bone growth rate, measured by tetracycline labeling, morphology of lumbar vertebrae and tibias and cortical bone area and marrow space area of tibias were not disturbed by exposure to the electric fields. (author)

  1. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  2. Reduced Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-tian; MA Qing-jie; HE Cheng-yan; WANG Cai-xia; GAO Shi; HOU Xia; MA Tong-hui

    2007-01-01

    An overt phenotype of aquaporin-1 knockout(AQP1 ko) mice is growth retardation, suggesting possible defects in bone development and metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed the bone mineral density(BMD), bone calcium and phosphorus contents, and bone metabolism in an AQP1 ko mouse model. The BMD of femurs in AQP1 ko mice was significantly lower than that of litter-matched wildtype mice as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Consistently, the contents of bone total calcium and phosphorus were also significantly lower in AQP1 ko mice. The reduced BMD caused by AQP1 deficiency mainly affect male mice. Bone metabolic activity, as indicated by 99mTc-MDP absorption measurements, was remarkably reduced in AQP1 ko mice. These results provide the first evidence that AQP1 play an important role in bone structure and metabolism.

  3. A quantification strategy for missing bone mass in case of osteolytic bone lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fränzle, Andrea, E-mail: a.fraenzle@dkfz.de; Giske, Kristina [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens [Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bendl, Rolf [Medical Informatics, Heilbronn University, Max-Planck-Strasse 39, 74081 Heilbronn, Germany and Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean

  4. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - discharge; ...

  5. Measuring muscle and bone in individuals with neurologic impairment; lessons learned about participant selection and pQCT scan acquisition and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, L M; Gibbs, J C; Craven, B C

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) can be used to examine bone strength outcomes and muscle size and fatty infiltration. Our research team and others have used it to examine bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the high prevalence of restricted lower extremity range of motion, spasticity, edema, excessive muscle atrophy, or severe osteoporosis necessitates changes to standard protocols for screening, positioning during scan acquisition, and analysis methods. This manuscript outlines the challenges that we experienced using pQCT in individuals with SCI, and provides solutions, ones that may also be applicable when using pQCT in individuals with other chronic conditions or in older adults. Suggestions for participant screening, positioning individuals for scanning while in a wheelchair, scan site selection, need for attendant assistance, and considerations in the presence of secondary complications, such as contracture, spasticity, and paralysis, are presented. In the presence of very low bone mineral density or severe muscle atrophy, the default analysis modes provided by the manufacturer may not provide valid estimates of bone or muscle indices; we propose alternates. We have used watershed segmentation methods to determine muscle size and density based on lower precision error compared to threshold-based edge-detection segmentation, particularly for adults with SCI, where more fatty infiltration was present. By presenting our "lessons learned," we hope to reduce the learning curve for researchers using pQCT in the future. PMID:27026329

  6. The role of bone centers in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis: An embryologic approach using CT measurements in isolated craniosynostosis and Apert and Crouzon syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.J. Mathijssen (Irene); J.M. Vaandrager (Michiel); J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques); H. Pieterman; F.W. Zonneveld; S. Kreiborg; C. Vermeij-Keers (Christl)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the role of the displacement of bone centers, i.e., the tubers, in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. This displacement was studied in 54 patients with isolated or syndromic craniosynostosis in the form of CT scans as well as in two dry neonate s

  7. Bone demineralisation in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M. A.; Wilson, J.; Price, W H

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the demineralisation associated with gonadal dysgenesis is analogous to post-menopausal osteoporosis was investigated. Bone mineral content of the distal forearm was measured in 11 adult patients with Turner's syndrome aged 18 to 57 years. As a group these patients were significantly demineralised (p less than 0.001) when compared with normal subjects. A bimodal distribution of bone mineral was demonstrated, the eight patients below the normal range having a bone mineral c...

  8. Measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in patients with the Wisconsin hip, an uncemented femoral stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, B J; Checovich, M M; McBeath, A A; Wilson, M A; Heiner, J P

    1996-02-01

    Although qualitative evidence of femoral bone remodeling, secondary to total hip arthroplasty (THA), is apparent on radiographs, quantification of change in bone mass from radiographs is limited. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry overcomes many of the limitations and yields accurate and precise bone mineral density (BMD) data. In this study, regional changes in femoral BMD were examined in 89 THA patients with a 2-year follow-up period. Thirty-two patients were evaluated initially before surgery and followed through the first 2 postoperative years. A second group was comprised of 57 patients whose surgery had been performed 1 to 6 years prior to entry into the study; they were also followed for 2 years hence. Thus, both immediate and later bone responses were evaluated prospectively. Maximal bone remodeling was seen in the first 6 months after THA and with a near plateau by the end of the first year. A slow yearly decline in BMD appeared to occur as long as 8 years after THA, thus demonstrating the long-term effects of the introduction of a femoral stem. Variance in preoperative BMD was explained by disease only; no other factors (age, weight, sex) showed significant associations, and body weight was the only variable that affected rate of remodeling after THA (not age, weight, sex, prosthesis size, nor disease). All patients were healthy, relatively young individuals who were good candidates for uncemented implantation, and none showed evidence of clinical complications or surgical failure. It is therefore suggested that the patterns and results reported here be viewed as normative data, that is, the typical skeletal adaptation to THA. In future application, observation of disparate BMD results as compared with these "normal" data may be predictive of abnormal response to surgery and potential for later problems.

  9. Bone mineral content measurement in 255 old patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病255例骨矿含量测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡万春; 张凡; 李晓卫

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of osteoporosis and influential factors of bone mineral content(BMC)in old diabetic patients. Methods BMC was measured in 255 old diabetic patients, using mode l SD-1000 single photoabsorptiometer. Results ①BMC was signific an tly higher in males than in females and decreased with increasing ages in males and femmales.②BMC decreased with lengthening medical history. ③In male diabeti c patients BMC correlated positively with the body mass indices (BMI), but there was no significant difference between the group with BMI 20-25 kg/m2 and the group with BMI over 25 kg/m2 in female patients. ④The incidence of osteoporo sis in this group was 38.04%(32.45% for male:46.15% for female) Conclusion Combined osteoporosis is a common chronic complication in old patients with diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨老年糖尿病患者合并骨质疏松的发病率及骨矿含量的影响因素。  方法使用SD-1000型骨矿物仪测量255例老年糖尿病患者。结果 ①男性糖尿病患者BMC显著高于女性,男、女性BMC均随年龄的增高 而降低;②随着病程的增加BMC降低,呈显著负相关;③男性糖尿病患者BMC与体重指数(BMI)呈显著正相关,女性患者BMI20~25 kg/m2组与大 于25 kg/m2组之间BMC相差不显著;④本组糖尿病合并骨质疏松发病率为38.04%,其中男 性为32.45%,女性为46.15%。结论 糖尿病合并骨质疏松是糖尿病的一种常见慢性并发症。

  10. Repair of microdamage in osteonal cortical bone adjacent to bone screw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Up to date, little is known about the repair mode of microdamage in osteonal cortical bone resulting from bone screw implantation. In this study, self-tapping titanium cortical bone screws were inserted into the tibial diaphyses of 24 adult male rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at 1 day, 2 weeks, 1 month and 2 months after surgery. Histomorphometric measurement and confocal microscopy were performed on basic fuchsin stained bone sections to examine the morphological characteristics of microdamage, bone resorption activity and spatial relationship between microdamage and bone resorption. Diffuse and linear cracks were coexisted in peri-screw bone. Intracortical bone resorption was significantly increased 2 weeks after screw installation and reach to the maximum at 1 month. There was no significant difference in bone resorption between 1-month and 2-months groups. Microdamage was significantly decreased within 1 month after surgery. Bone resorption was predisposed to occur in the region of <100 µm from the bone-screw interface, where had extensive diffuse damage mixed with linear cracks. Different patterns of resorption cavities appeared in peri-screw bone. These data suggest that 1 the complex microdamage composed of diffuse damage and linear cracks is a strong stimulator for initiating targeted bone remodeling; 2 bone resorption activities taking place on the surfaces of differently oriented Haversian and Volkmann canals work in a team for the repair of extensive microdamage; 3 targeted bone remodeling is a short-term reaction to microdamage and thereby it may not be able to remove all microdamage resulting from bone screw insertion.

  11. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  12. 骨源性碱性磷酸酶与血钙测定结果比较及临床探讨%Bone alkaline phosphatase compared with the serum calcium measurement results and clinical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎智彪

    2013-01-01

      Objective: To investigate the to study bone alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium measurement results, analysis of bone alkaline phosphatase test value, in order to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment of calcium deficiency patients. Methods: August 2009 to October 2012 infants undergo a medical examination of 150 patients for the study, given the determination of bone alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium al samples caught. Comparative observation test results, analysis of the significance of the detection of the two indicators of lack of calcium. Results: 150 cases of infants and young children, 37 cases of abnormalities of bone alkaline phosphatase, calcium abnormalities in 15 cases, two methods difference was significantly (p <0.05), the difference was statisticaly significant. Conclusion: bone alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium response to a lack of calcium infants, abnormal bone alkaline phosphatase detection rate higher, but also help the reaction of calcium nutrition of patients, doctors are required to pay close attention.%  目的探讨研究骨源性碱性磷酸酶与血钙的测定结果,分析骨源性碱性磷酸酶的检验价值,以提高临床对缺钙患者的诊治效果。方法选择2009年8月~2012年10月我院进行体检的婴幼儿150例为研究对象,对所有被检者均给予骨源性碱性磷酸酶和血钙的测定。对比观察检查结果,分析两种指标对钙离子缺乏的检测意义。结果150例婴幼儿中,骨源性碱性磷酸酶异常者37例,血钙异常15例,两种方法比较差异明显,p <0.05,差异有统计学意义。结论骨源性碱性磷酸酶与血钙均可以反应婴幼儿的钙缺乏,其中骨源性碱性磷酸酶异常的检出率更高,更有助于反应患者的钙营养情况,需要医生引起高度重视。

  13. Hypergravity suppresses bone resorption in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Tesshu; Kawaguchi, Amu; Okabe, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Nakamura, Midori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2011-04-01

    The effects of gravity on bone metabolism are unclear, and little has been reported about the effects of hypergravity on the mature skeleton. Since low gravity has been shown to decrease bone volume, we hypothesized that hypergravity increases bone volume. To clarify this hypothesis, adult female rats were ovariectomized and exposed to hypergravity (2.9G) using a centrifugation system. The rats were killed 28 days after the start of loading, and the distal femoral metaphysis of the rats was studied. Bone architecture was assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Hypergravity increased the trabecular bone volume of ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that hypergravity suppressed both bone formation and resorption and increased bone volume in ovariectomized rats. Further, the cell morphology, activity, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts exposed to hypergravity were evaluated in vitro. Hypergravity inhibited actin ring formation in mature osteoclasts, which suggested that the osteoclast activity was suppressed. However, hypergravity had no effect on osteoblasts. These results suggest that hypergravity can stimulate an increase in bone volume by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

  14. The temporal response of bone to unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were suspended by their tails with the forelimbs bearing the weight load to simulate the weightlessness of space flight. Growth in bone mass ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae in growing rats, while growth in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. The effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of suspension was investigated using radio iostope incorporation (with Ca-45 and H-3 proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. This model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed in the accretion of bone mass, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days, despite continued skeletal unloading. This cycle of inhibition and resumption of bone formation has profound implication for understanding bone dynamics durng space flight, immobilization, or bed rest and offers an opportunity to study the hormonal and mechanical factors that regulate bone formation.

  15. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  16. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  17. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  18. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  19. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo;

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  20. Three-dimensional virtual bone bank system workflow for structural bone allograft selection: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Lucas Eduardo; Farfalli, German Luis; Milano, Federico Edgardo; Ayerza, Miguel Angel; Muscolo, Domingo Luis; Aponte-Tinao, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Structural bone allograft has been used in bone defect reconstruction during the last fifty years with acceptable results. However, allograft selection methods were based on 2-dimensional templates using X-rays. Thanks to preoperative planning platforms, three-dimensional (3D) CT-derived bone models were used to define size and shape comparison between host and donor. The purpose of this study was to describe the workflow of this virtual technique in order to explain how to choose the best allograft using a virtual bone bank system. We measured all bones in a 3D virtual environment determining the best match. The use of a virtual bone bank system has allowed optimizing the allograft selection in a bone bank, providing more information to the surgeons before surgery. In conclusion, 3D preoperative planning in a virtual environment for allograft selection is an important and helpful tool in order to achieve a good match between host and donor.

  1. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  2. Multiple verification in computational modeling of bone pathologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liò, Pietro; Paoletti, Nicola; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.8

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a model checking approach to diagnose the emerging of bone pathologies. The implementation of a new model of bone remodeling in PRISM has led to an interesting characterization of osteoporosis as a defective bone remodeling dynamics with respect to other bone pathologies. Our approach allows to derive three types of model checking-based diagnostic estimators. The first diagnostic measure focuses on the level of bone mineral density, which is currently used in medical practice. In addition, we have introduced a novel diagnostic estimator which uses the full patient clinical record, here simulated using the modeling framework. This estimator detects rapid (months) negative changes in bone mineral density. Independently of the actual bone mineral density, when the decrease occurs rapidly it is important to alarm the patient and monitor him/her more closely to detect insurgence of other bone co-morbidities. A third estimator takes into account the variance of the bone density, which could address the...

  3. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  4. [Clinical usefulness of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a state of elevated risk for bone fracture due to depressed bone strength, which is considered to be the sum of bone mineral density and bone quality. Since a measure of bone quality has not been established, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are the only way to evaluate bone strength. Bone turnover markers are classified into bone formation marker and resorption marker, which are correlated with the bone formation rate and resorption rate, respectively, and bone matrix-related marker. Bone is always metabolized; old tissue is resorbed by acids and proteases derived from osteoclasts, whereas new bone is produced by osteoblasts. Bone formation and resorption rates should be balanced (also called coupled). When the bone resorption rate exceeds the formation rate(uncoupled state), bone volume will be reduced. Thus, we can comprehend bone metabolism by measuring both formation and resorption markers at the same time. Increased fracture risk is recognized by elevated bone resorption markers and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which reflects vitamin K insufficiency and bone turnover. These values and the time course give us helpful information to choose medicine suitable for the patients and to judge the responsiveness. If the value is extraordinarily high without renal failure, metabolic bone disorder or bone metastatic tumor should be considered. Bone quality may be assessed by measuring bone matrix-related markers such as homocystein and pentosidine. Since recent studies indicate that the bone is a hormone-producing organ, it is possible that glucose metabolism or an unknown mechanism could be assessed in the future. PMID:24369600

  5. Characterization of bone quality in prostate cancer bone metastases using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Patil, Chetan; Morrissey, Colm; Roudier, Martine P.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common primary tumor in men, with a high propensity to metastasize to bone. Bone metastases in prostate cancer are associated with active pathologic bone remodeling, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Detailed characterization of bone metastases is important in the management of prostate cancer. Raman spectroscopy was applied in this study to investigate the structure and composition of metastatic bone in prostate cancer with the ultimate goal of identifying spectral features that are related to the alterations in bone quality as the bone metastases develop. Osteoblastic-, osteolytic- and tumor-absent bone specimens from prostate cancer patients were investigated using bench-top Raman microspectroscopy. Raman derived measurements of collagen mineralization, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution were calculated. The osteolytic lesions demonstrated significantly lower collagen mineralization, determined by phosphate ν1/proline, and higher carbonate substitution than normal and osteoblastic bones. Mineral crystallinity was significantly lower in both blastic and lytic specimens. In addition, a significant increase in the ratio of hydroxyproine: proline was observed in the osteoblastic specimen, indicating an increase in the content of hydroxyproline at the blastic lesions. This study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy shows promise in determining alterations in osteoblastic and osteolytic bone metastases as well as assessing the response of metastatic bone to therapies.

  6. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women...... with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61...

  7. Trabecular bone as a hierarchical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiuk, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Trabecular bone is studied as a hierarchical material. The analysis includes the experimental characterization of bone's structure, the measurement of its mechanical properties, and the mechanics modeling at several different length scales: nanoscale (under 1 micron, crystal/fiber level), sub-microscale (1-10 microns, single lamella level), microscale (10-500 microns, single trabecula level), and mesoscale (1 mm - 10 cm, trabecular structure, random network of struts or plates). Experiments include the characterization of bone's ultrastructure using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) at nano and sub-microscale levels. In addition, we use the x-ray microtomography, a nondestructive technique, which can provide the three-dimensional details of bone at mesostructural level. Measurements of mechanical properties are done using the MTS machine and nanoindentation apparatus. We use the MTS testing machine to determine constitutive relations of bone at mesoscale and the nanoindentation technique to determine the properties at lower scales. The experimental observations of bone's hierarchical structure are used in the theoretical analysis of bone's mechanical properties. The calculated results are compared with the experimentally measured ones. The material properties are determined at each scale both analytically (using micromechanics theories) and numerically (using a finite element method, a spring network, and beam network approaches). The computational challenges include a complex irregular, random structure at each level, spatial heterogeneity of bone's structure, applicability of separation of scales law, size of the representative volume element, and in general the dependence of properties on specimen size and boundary conditions.

  8. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  9. 锥形束CT测量牙槽骨高度准确性和可靠性研究%Accuracy and reliability of cone-beam computed tomography in measuring alveolar bone height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯驭驰; 许天民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in measuring alveolar bone height.Methods Eight human cadaver head samples were scanned with CBCT technology.Measurements were made on each tooth from the cusp or the middle point of incisal margin to the cementoenamel junction (T-CEJ),from the cusp or the middle point of incisal margin to the alveolar bone margin (T-BM) and from the cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone margin (CEJ-BM) along the long axis of the tooth.Measurements were made both in the CBCT images and on the real samples.The paired-t test was made between the two different measurements to evaluate the accuracy of the CBCT measurements.And 210 sites from 6 samples were measured.The Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate the reliability of CBCT measurements.Results The values of CBCT measurement were smaller than those of the direct measurement.Significant difference was found in the values of T-BM and CEJ-BM.The mean deviations were - 0.268 mm and - 0.208 mm.The values of T-CEJ showed no significant difference and the mean deviation was -0.041 mm. The ICC of all the measurement was above 0.96.Conclusions Significant difference was found in the measurement of alveolar bone height between CBCT and direct measurement. But the mean deviation was very small. The CBCT measurement showed high reliability.%目的 评价在锥形束CT(cone beam compnted tomography,CBCT)图像上测量牙槽骨高度的准确性和可靠性.方法 8个人类湿颅标本经CBCT扫描后测量图像上牙尖点到釉牙骨质界距离(T-CEJ)、牙尖点到牙槽嵴顶距离(T-BM)、釉牙骨质界到牙槽嵴顶距离(CEJ-BM).在标本上实际测量以上项目.将两种测量值进行配对t检验.选择一定数量的位点重复测量,计算组内相关系数(ICC),进行一致性检验.结果 CBCT测量值均略小于标本实际测量值.其中对T-CEJ的测量两种方法无统

  10. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  11. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Belinda A., E-mail: Belinda.Campbell@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Simoens, Nathalie [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Everitt, Sarah [Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Burbury, Kate [Department of Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  12. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required

  13. Biochemical Bone Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients with Local and Advanced Bone Metastates

    OpenAIRE

    AKSOY, Hülya

    2001-01-01

    In the present study involving patients with bone metastases arising from prostate cancer, we measured urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as a marker of collagen breakdown activity, serum total and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). This study included 20 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 23 patients with carcinoma, 11 of had with bone metastases. DPD excretion in urine was significantly greater in prostate cancer patients w...

  14. Fiber-matrix interface studies on bioabsorbable composite materials for internal fixation of bone fractures. I. Raw material evaluation and measurement of fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivka, M A; Chu, C C; Adisaputro, I A

    1997-09-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the performance of various fiber-matrix composite systems by studying the mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the fiber and matrix components, and by studying the fiber-matrix interface adhesion strength using both microbond and fragmentation methods. The composites studies were poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix reinforced with continuous fibers of either nonabsorbable AS4 carbon (C), absorbable calcium phosphate (CaP), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), or chitin. Carbon and CaP single fibers had high Young's moduli and failed in a brittle manner. PGA and chitin single fibers had relatively lower Young's moduli and relatively higher ductility. Upon in vitro hydrolysis, CaP fibers retained 17% of their tensile strength and 39% of their Young's modulus after 12 h, PCA fibers retained 10% of their tensile strength and 52% of their Young's modulus after 16 days, and chitin fibers retained 87% of their tensile strength and 130% of their Young's modulus after 25 days. PLLA films had much lower strength and Young's moduli, but much higher ductility relative to the single fibers. Using the microbond method, the initial fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of C/PLLA and CaP/PLLA microcomposites was 33.9 and 12.6 MPa, respectively. Upon in vitro hydrolysis, C/PLLA retained 49% of IFSS after 15 days and CaP/PLLA retained 46% of IFSS after 6 h. Using a fiber fragmentation method, the initial IFSS of C/PLLA, CaP/PLLA, and chitin/ PLLA was 22.2, 15.6, and 28.3 MPa, respectively. The performance of carbon fibers and C/PLLA composites was superior to the other fibers and fiber/PLLA systems, but the carbon fiber was nonabsorbable. CaP had the most suitable modulus of the absorbable fibers for fixing cortical bone fracture, but its rapid deterioration of mechanical properties and loss of IFSS limits its use. PGA and chitin fibers had suitable mechanical properties and their retention for fixing cancellous

  15. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  16. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. PMID:27322315

  17. Determination of bone property by sound transfer function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shengyou

    2001-01-01

    Sound transfer functions of bones were measured in vivo and in vitro with two accelerometers. Experimental results show that bones behave as a sound low-pass filter, and vibrate in several modes. Characteristics of sound traasfer function vary with individuals, but data obtained in both legs of one person are comparable. The resonant frequency of the sound transfer function indicates the size of defect in bone well, so it can be used for diagnosis of bone disease and assessment of fracture healing.

  18. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass. PMID:12699292

  19. Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Rodriguez García, Minerva; Gómez Alonso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Among the chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone formation and bone resorption, and less new bone is formed to replace bone losses. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization as "a disease characterized by low bone mineral density and micro architectural deterioration leading to low bone strength and increased risk of fractures." In the general population, there is a good correlation between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements and bone fractures, but this is not the case with CKD patients. Despite the fact that we have a great number of active antiosteoporotic drugs, the experience in CKD patients is limited. Adynamic bone is suspected based on biochemical parameters, mainly parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone alkaline phosphatase, but it needs to be proven using a bone biopsy, where a low or zero bone formation rate and a reduction or absence of osteoblasts and osteoclasts should be found. The clinical management of adynamic bone has important limitations and currently does not allow taking many active measures. Treatment is mainly based on the prevention of risk factors known to induce PTH oversuppression, such as aluminium and calcium load and very high doses of vitamin D receptor activators. Due to the limitations in the treatment of both conditions, prevention plays a key role in the management of these disorders. PMID:23023723

  20. 锥形束CT用于评价离体牙槽骨高度准确性的研究%Evaluation of the accuracy of alveolar bone height measurement in vitro by cone beam computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方冬; 江寰; 林志勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of alveolar bone height measurement in vitro by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to provide theoretical application of CBCT in periodontal clinic. Methods Eight dry mandibles with 236 selected markers were scanned by CBCT scanner, and the distance from alveolar ridge crest to cemento-enamel junction were measured on every marker by the images of CBCT. Meanwhile the distances on the dry mandibles were measured directly by vernier caliper. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 statistics software. Results There was no significant difference between the two repeated measurements by the CBCT images (P〉0.05), and no significant difference were found between the measurement by the CBCT images and by vernier cali-peras well (P〉0.05). Conclusion The CBCT images could demonstrate the three-dimensional relationships between tooth and alveolar bone accurately. As far as the height of alveolar bone measurement was concerned, CBCT show good accuracy and repeatability in vitro.%目的 评价锥形束CT (CBCT)图像测量离体牙槽骨高度的准确性和可重复性,为其应用于牙周病的临床诊断和预后评价提供理论依据.方法 使用CBCT对8具干燥下颌骨进行扫描,在图像上重复测量236个人工选择标志点处牙槽嵴顶至釉牙骨质界的距离;同时使用游标卡尺直接测量以上标志点处牙槽嵴项至釉牙骨质界的距离.应用SPSS 13.0软件对所得数据进行统计学分析.结果 CBCT图像对牙槽嵴顶至釉牙骨质界距离的重复测量结果间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);CBCT图像与游标卡尺对牙槽嵴顶至釉牙骨质界距离的测量结果间差异也无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CBCT图像可清晰显示牙与牙槽骨之间的空间解剖关系,其对牙槽骨高度体外测量的结果具有准确性和可重复性.

  1. 儿童前牙区牙槽骨和基骨骨密度的锥形束CT测量%Density of the anterior area of alveolar and basal bones on the children measured by cone beam computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 任卫萍; 龙飞; 栗震亚

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate density value on anterior of the alveolar and basal bones on children. Methods 138 cases cone beam computed tomography images were selected. The densities of these bones were measured in Hounsfield units(Hu) for the incisor, canine of the anterior area of alveolar and basal bones on the children. Results There is no significant difference on the same position of the maxillary bilateral(right and left) incisors of the density value(P>0.05). To compare with the incisors of the density value on the same position of the mandibule on left and right, there is significant difference on the base bone on cortical bone density of lingual, P=0.012. There is no significant difference on the same position of the maxillary bilateral(right and left) canine of the density value. To compare with the canine of the density value on the same position of the mandibule on left and right, there is significant difference on the alveolar bone and basal bone cancellous density, P=0.046 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion These might provide determinate data for anterior teeth zone when selecting sites and placement methods for microscrew implants in the dental arch.%目的 评估儿童前牙区上下颌牙槽骨和基骨的骨密度.方法 选择138例患者的锥形束CT扫描图像,以亨斯菲尔德单位(X线衰减单位Hu)来测定其上下颌切牙区、尖牙区牙槽嵴和基骨骨密质及骨松质的骨密度.结果 上颌切牙区左右两侧相同部位间的骨密度值相比较,差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05);下颌切牙区左右两侧相同部位的骨密度值相比较,基骨区舌侧骨密质的骨密度值差异有统计学意义(P=0.012);上颌尖牙区左右两侧相同部位的骨密度值相比较,差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05):下颌尖牙区左右两侧相同部位的骨密度值相比较,牙槽骨和基骨区骨松质的骨密度值差异有统计学意义,P值分别为0.046和0.002.结

  2. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with bone cancer. Accurate diagnosis of a bone tumor often depends on combining information about its location (what bone is affected and even which part of the bone is involved), appearance on x-rays, and appearance under a microscope. ...

  3. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology.In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, ... Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in ...

  4. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  5. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  6. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has been called a childhood disease with old age consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps ... stronger. Weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity is the best exercise for bone. ...

  7. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  8. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  9. Distribution of Caesium-137 in Samples Consisting of Soft Tissue, Bone and Bone Marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations which were performed up to now on the distribution of-caesium-137 in the human organism could not explain exactly the distribution of the radiocaesium between bone and bone marrow. That is why a reliable estimation of the radiation burden of the skeleton caused by the incorporation of atmospheric caesium-137 is not given in the literature. Therefore, the concentration of caesium-137 in compact bones as well as in bone marrow was determined. Furthermore, the concentration of caesium-137 in the soft tissue of the same individuals was measured. (author)

  10. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological p...

  11. BONE MECHANOTRANSDUCTION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Joana; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Queiroga, Cristina; Lucena, Sónia; Potes, José

    2011-01-01

    This review focus on the bone physiology and mechanotransduction elements and mechanisms. Bone biology and architecture is deeply related to the mechanical environment. Orthopaedic implants cause profound changes in the biomechanics and electrophysiology of the skeleton. In the context of biomedical engineering, a deep reflexion on bone physiology and electromechanics is needed. Strategic development of new biomaterials and devices that respect and promote continuity with bone str...

  12. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  13. 吉林省老年人群周围骨骨矿含量测定结果分析%Analysis of peripheral bone mineral content measurement results in the elderly of Jilin province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利则; 邹允庚; 刘志刚; 高雷; 邓小明; 吴东辉; 王春萍; 赵丽丽; 张瑾; 刘阔; 杨柏梁

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过测定所得骨矿含量数值更好的评估骨强度,监测骨质疏松的发生、发展,提高高危患者骨折风险识别能力.方法 选取吉林省2375例50-89岁体检者运用美国OSTEOMETERDTX200周围骨骨密度测量仪测量受检者非受力侧前臂桡尺骨远端三分之一处的骨密度、骨矿含量,应用采用SPSS 17.0软件分析处理,数据用X±S表示.进行统计分析.结果 男性50~59岁年龄组OP发生率为9.33%,女性为7.38%;60~69岁男性OP发生率为18.59%,女性为26.26%;70~79岁男性OP发生率为40.00%,女性为55.90%;80岁以上男性OP发生率63.93%,女性为71.42%.结论 提示随着年龄增加,男女骨密度及BMC均呈下降趋势,女性下降速度明显较男性快,OP发生率也随之增加,各年龄组之间OP发生率女性亦均高于男性;T值大于-1的受检者中有5.74%骨量丢失率在13%~24%之间,亦为骨量减少范围,这类人群远期骨质疏松症的发病率及骨折的发生率很高,故骨矿含量(BMC)在临床骨质疏松症的诊断、治疗、预防骨质疏松骨折发生等方面起着重要作用.%Objective To evaluate bone intensity, to monitor the occurrence and development of osteoporosis (OP), and to increase the ability of identifying the patients at high risk of bone fracture by measuring the bone mineral content. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the distal one-third of the radius and ulna of the non-dominant forearm were measured with a peripheral bone absorptiometry (Osteometer DTX200, USA) in 2375 cases aged from 50 to 89 years old in Jilin. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software and expressed as -x ± s. Results The incidences of OP in males and females were 9.33% and 7. 38%, respectively, in 50-59 years old group;18.59% and 26.26% , respectively, in 60-69 years old group; 40.00% and 55.90%, respectively, in 70-79 years old group; and 63.93% and 71.42%, respectively, in over 80

  14. Postmenopausal bone loss and the risk of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, C

    1994-01-01

    The two most important risk factors for long-term skeletal health are the peak bone mass and the subsequent rate of bone loss. The rate of bone loss after skeletal maturity is determined by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Furthermore, all factors that impair estrogen production will increase bone loss. The present risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures may be assessed by bone mass measurements in the total skeleton, or in local parts of the skeleton such as the spine, hip and forearm, by single-photon/X-ray absorptiometry (SPA or SXA), dual-photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPA or DXA), or quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Furthermore, the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women may be assessed by means of a number of biochemical markers. The fútúre risk of developing osteoporosis may thus be determined by combining the values for bone mineral content and bone loss. PMID:8081059

  15. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  16. Clinical evaluation of the Serum CrossLaps One Step ELISA, a new assay measuring the serum concentration of bone-derived degradation products of type I collagen C-telopeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, S; Rosenquist, C; Alexandersen, P;

    1998-01-01

    The Serum CrossLaps One Step ELISA is a sandwich assay using two monoclonal antibodies specific for a beta-aspartate form of the epitope EKAHDGGR derived from the carboxy-terminal telopeptide region of type I collagen alpha1-chain. Our objective was to assess the clinical value of the Serum Cross...... >0.8 for all studies). The serum and urine CrossLaps measurements showed a significant decrease among the women treated with clinically relevant doses of either of the antiresorptive agents. Furthermore, the annual percentage change in bone mineral density (BMD) correlated with the measured changes...... of the convenient Serum CrossLaps One Step ELISA is at least equivalent to that of the urine text for follow up of antiresorptive treatment in osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to optimize its use in this and other clinical applications....

  17. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  18. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  19. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  20. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  1. Role of bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Badr Wisam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal osteodystrophy (ROD, the abnormal bone histology that occurs in the context of kidney disease, is a disease spectrum and not a uniform progressive bone disease. It is an important component of the broad disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. There are multiple pathogenetic factors which contribute to the histological abnormalities seen on bone biopsy. The patients with ROD are rarely symp-tomatic in the early stages of CKD. It is also noteworthy that the clinical manifestations are usually preceded by biochemical changes that are insidious and subtle. This makes it difficult for the clinician to suspect the presence of bone and mineral metabolism abnormalities without direct testing. The serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels are usually normal until late in the course of CKD. The main screening test for abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is the measurement of parathyroid hormone which is also somewhat delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are also challenging to interpret because of their slow and non-specific nature which may include vague, ill-defined, bone aches and pains, and muscle weakness. The gold standard for diagnosis of ROD is bone biopsy with mineralized bone histology after double tetracycline labeling, iron staining and aluminum staining. The currently used histomorphometric descriptions of bone histology are not well integrated clinically and a new nomenclature that is clinically more relevant and useful has been proposed. Additional studies are required to define the spectrum of ROD in the current therapeutic era, and to find clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers to improve the treatment and monitoring of the abnormal bone in the setting of CKD.

  2. Comparative study of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balliu, E., E-mail: eballiu@gmail.co [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Boada, M.; Pelaez, I. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, J.C. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta Caterina, Girona (Spain); Barcelo-Vidal, C. [Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Girona (Spain); Rubio, A.; Galofre, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Castro, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Pedraza, S. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy in the detection of metastases to bone. Material and methods: Forty randomly selected patients with known malignant tumours were prospectively studied using bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI. Two patients were excluded. Symptoms of bone metastasis were present in 29 (76%) patients and absent in nine (24%). Findings were classified into four categories according to the probability of bone metastasis: (1) negative, (2) probably negative, (3) probably positive, and (4) positive. Diagnostic accuracy was determined according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The definitive diagnosis was reached using other imaging techniques, biopsy, or 12 months clinical follow-up. Results: Metastases were present in 18 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 94, 90, and 92%, respectively, for whole-body MRI and 72, 75, and 74%, respectively, for bone scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (96%) than for bone scintigraphy (77%; p<0.05). Interobserver agreement measured by the kappa index was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (0.895) than for bone scintigraphy (0.524; p<0.05). Whole-body MRI detected lesions in tissues other than bone in 17 (45%) patients. Conclusions: Whole-body MRI is more accurate and more objective than bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. Whole-body MRI can also detect lesions in tissues other than bone.

  3. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT images (16435 slices in 116 stacks were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus to tiger (Panthera tigris. Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  4. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  5. Osteocalcin: an emerging biomarker for bone turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Rathore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin (OC is produced by osteoblasts during bone formation. OC is excreted into urine by glomerular filtration and can be found as fragments in urine. The presence of three vitamin K-dependent and #947;-carboxyglutamic acid residues is critical for osteocalcin's structure, which appears to regulate the maturation of bone mineral. Recent bone biology research have highlighted the importance of bone not only as a structural scaffold to support the human body, but also as a regulator of a metabolic processes that are independent of mineral metabolism. Circulating osteocalcin is present either as carboxylated or as undercarboxylated forms. Increased serum level of osteocalcin is linked with increased bone mineral density. The importance of the bone and ndash;kidney relation in physiologic regulation of mineral ion has also been extensively studied and documented. Several workers have uncovered the role of insulin as an additional factor involved in the skeletal remodelling process. Evidences are available which shows that osteoblastic insulin signalling is important for glucose metabolism. The measurement of OC in urine samples could be used as an index of bone turnover in monitoring bone metabolism. In this review, we have tried to explain different roles of OC, however further studies are required to elucidate the metabolic and hormonal role of OC in human body. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3670-3674

  6. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  7. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  8. Experimental determination of bone cortex holding power of orthopedic screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolliger Neto Raul

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical specimens of bone measuring 15 mm in diameter were obtained from the lateral cortical layer of 10 pairs of femurs and tibias. A central hole 3.2 mm in diameter was drilled in each specimen. The hole was tapped, and a 4.5 mm cortical bone screw was inserted from the outer surface. The montage was submitted to push-out testing up to a complete strip of the bone threads. The cortical thickness and rupture load were measured, and the shear stress was calculated. The results were grouped according to the bone segment from which the specimen was obtained. The results showed that bone cortex screw holding power is dependent on the bone site. Additionally, the diaphyseal cortical bone tissue is both quantitatively and qualitatively more resistant to screw extraction than the metaphyseal tissue.

  9. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  10. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Witkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23 that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point

  11. Radiological safety of bone mineral densitometry equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease leading to increased risk of bone fractures. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) is a well accepted clinical tool for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. There are several different modalities for BMD such as Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, Radiographic Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computerized Tomography. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is now well established as the method of choice for osteoporosis assessment. This study was conducted to assess the radiation dose to patients and staff from the standard scan modes

  12. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  13. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  14. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S

    2012-04-01

    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  15. Sex Differences in Tibial Bone Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Torikoshi, S.; Hutchinson, K. J.; Hargens, Alan R.; Steele, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an instrument (MRTA or Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer) that measures bending stiffness (EI) non-Invasively to evaluate the strength of the tibia, a long bone in the weightbearing skeleton highly vulnerable to mineral loss during space flight. In healthy men, we found asymmetry in EI consistent with the bone's support function (L greater than R). In this study, we analyzed EI in women and compared the results to those in men.

  16. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  17. Bone Regeneration in Odontostomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli, P; Duvina, M.; Brancato, L.; Delle Rose, G.; Biondi, E.; Civitelli, V.

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary edentulism, together with periodontal disease, is the condition that most frequently induces disruption of alveolar bone tissue. Indeed, the stimulus of the periodontal ligament is lost and the local bone tissue becomes subject to resorption processes that, in the six months following the loss of the tooth, result in alveolar defects or more extensive maxillary atrophy. In both cases, loss of vestibular cortical bone is followed by reduction in the vertical dimension of the alveolar...

  18. Percutaneous Bone Tumor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ioniza...

  19. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  20. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  1. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  2. Experimental determination of the emissivity of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Cutting and drilling operations in bone are involved in many orthopedic and otolaryngological surgeries. The temperature elevation of these procedures is potentially harmful to bone and soft tissue cells. The research on this topic aims therefore at minimizing temperature elevation and finding optimal process parameters. Experimental studies are mostly carried out on ex vivo setups using bovine bone material. For temperature measurements, either thermocouples or infrared cameras are used. Infrared cameras have potential advantages, but the emissivity value of the material has to be known. Literature values are scattered and vary within a wide range. An experimental study was carried out to quantify the emissivity using freshly frozen bovine and human bone, as well as human bone samples which were either fixed with Formalin or Thiel solution. Additionally, different surface finishes were used and emissivity was evaluated at different temperatures. The mean emissivity of bone was determined to be ɛ=0.96±0.01 for temperature elevations up to 60 °C. A slightly higher value of ɛ=0.97±0.01 was found for temperatures around 80 °C. No significant differences for human or bovine bone samples, preparation or fixation techniques were found.

  3. Inter-observer agreement of CT measurement of the glenoid bone surface by the CT Pico method: Comparison with laser in a cadaveric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippo, Massimo; Saba, Luca; Negrini, Giulio; Silva, Mario [University of Parma, Department of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Pedrazzi, Giuseppe [Universita di Parma, Department of Neuroscience. Unita di Biofisica e Fisica Medica - Plesso Biotecnologico Integrato, Parma (Italy); Pogliacomi, Francesco [University of Parma, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Parma (Italy); Castagna, Alessandro [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Section of Orthopedic Surgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to test reproducibility of the CT Pico method in a cadaveric model and to compare CT Pico measurements with a high-precision laser probe for optical scanning. The glenoid surface of ten dried cadaveric scapulae (with intact surface) was measured by and high-precision laser probe for optical scanning, the latter being assumed as a reference standard. Measurements were done according to the Pico technique, using a circle-shaped region of interest (ROI) that was placed on the inferior glenoid rim. Measurements obtained using the CT Pico method (three readers) and with laser were compared to assess differences between radiological assessment and the reference standard. Each observer performed two repeated measurements from each scapulae (20 for each observer). Mean differences between laser measurements and each CT reader were 18.4 % (range, -4 to 61 %) for reader 1, 12.4 % (range, -15 to 64 %) for reader 2, and 11 % (range, -14 to 58 %) for reader 3. Considering all the 60 measurements made by the three readers, 39 measurements out of 60 (65 %) were outside the range [-5 %; +5 %] while 26 measurements (43 %) are outside the range [-10 %; +10 %]. The largest differences (positive and negative) were +64 and -14 %, respectively. Intra-operator reproducibility was high in most cases intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) =0.93, ICC = 0.91, ICC = 0.93 and Lin's Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.92, CCC = 0.90, CCC = 0.92 for reader 1 to 3, respectively. However, in five cases the CT Pico measurements showed absolute differences between the first and second measurements that exceeded 10 %. The inter-observer variability for CT measurement of the glenoid surface using the CT Pico method was high when compared with laser, in the assessment of glenoid surface in cadaveric specimens, thus the CT Pico method is not reliable and could cause errors in the clinical management of the patient. Level of evidence. Level II, Development of

  4. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  5. Functional adaptation of long bone extremities involves the localized ``tuning'' of the cortical bone composition; evidence from Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Birch, Helen L.; Gikas, Panagiotis D.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E.

    2014-11-01

    In long bones, the functional adaptation of shape and structure occurs along the whole length of the organ. This study explores the hypothesis that adaptation of bone composition is also site-specific and that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of bone (and, thus, its mechanical properties) varies along the organ's length. Raman spectroscopy was used to map the chemical composition of long bones along their entire length in fine spatial resolution (1 mm), and then biochemical analysis was used to measure the mineral, collagen, water, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content where site-specific differences were seen. The results show that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of the bone material in human tibiae varies by 10% toward the flared extremities of the bone. Comparisons with long bones from other large animals (horses, sheep, and deer) gave similar results with bone material composition changing across tens of centimeters. The composition of the bone apatite also varied with the phosphate-to-carbonate ratio decreasing toward the ends of the tibia. The data highlight the complexity of adaptive changes and raise interesting questions about the biochemical control mechanisms involved. In addition to their biological interest, the data provide timely information to researchers developing Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool for measuring bone composition in vivo (particularly with regard to sampling and measurement protocol).

  6. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

  7. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  9. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  11. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  12. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  13. Effects of microstructure and water on the electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M., E-mail: mmatsuka@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Wave Electronics Research Center, Laboratory of Ultrasonic Electronics, Doshisha University, 1-3, Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Mizuno, K. [Underwater Technology Collaborative Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yanagitani, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-16

    The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced electrical potentials in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced electrical potentials changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The potentials of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.

  14. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  15. BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

  16. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  17. Osteotransductive bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, F C; Planell, J A; Boltong, M G; Khairoun, I; Ginebra, M P

    1998-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPBCs) are osteotransductive, i.e. after implantation in bone they are transformed into new bone tissue. Furthermore, due to the fact that they are mouldable, their osteointegration is immediate. Their chemistry has been established previously. Some CPBCs contain amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and set by a sol-gel transition. The others are crystalline and can give as the reaction product dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), carbonated apatite (CA) or hydroxyapatite (HA). Mixed-type gypsum-DCPD cements are also described. In vivo rates of osteotransduction vary as follows: gypsum-DCPD > DCPD > CDHA approximately CA > HA. The osteotransduction of CDHA-type cements may be increased by adding dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCP) and/or CaCO3 to the cement powder. CPBCs can be used for healing of bone defects, bone augmentation and bone reconstruction. Incorporation of drugs like antibiotics and bone morphogenetic protein is envisaged. Load-bearing applications are allowed for CHDA-type, CA-type and HA-type CPBCs as they have a higher compressive strength than human trabecular bone (10 MPa).

  18. The turnover of Ca47 and Sr85 in bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External counting measurements of local calcium-47 and strontium-85 uptakes and turnover in normal bones and in bone metastases were performed. In many studies serum samples and excretions were collected and assayed. Measurements on patients with bone lesions revealed abnormalities in tracer turnover. 4 figs

  19. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Caiwen; Zhou Huifang; Fu Yao; Gu Ping; Fan Xianqun [Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu Guangpeng [Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhang Peng [Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science (China); Hou Hongliang; Tang Tingting, E-mail: drfanxianqun@126.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  20. Trabecular bone response to mechanical loading in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats depends on baseline bone quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young Jin; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Donghyun; Han, Paul; Bae, Kiho; Schreiber, Jürgen; Kim, Han Sung

    2012-07-26

    Mechanical loading is one of the determining factors for bone modulation, and is therefore frequently used to treat or prevent bone loss; however, there appears to be no data on the effects of baseline bone quantity on this response. This study aimed to verify whether baseline bone quantity affects osteoporotic trabecular bone adaptive response to mechanical stimulation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized (OVX). After 3 weeks of OVX, rats were divided into a high bone quantity and a low bone quantity group, and rats in each group were then subdivided into 4 groups that were exposed to different loading strategies. In the loading groups, tibiae were stimulated through axial loading at 2000με of strain, for 1500 cycles each of 75s, 150s, or 250s. The sham treatment groups received no loading. Changes in BV/TV for trabecular bone in the tibia were measured at the baseline (before loading), and at 3 weeks and 6 weeks after loading. BV/TVs in loading groups of the low baseline bone quantity group were significantly increased at 6 weeks, compared with those in the no-loading groups (p0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline BV/TV and its relative variations at 3 weeks or 6 weeks (p<0.05). These results indicate that adaptive responses of osteoporotic trabecular bone to mechanical loading depend on baseline bone quantity. PMID:22663762

  1. The Experimental Study of Constructing Tissue Engineered Bone by Compounding Zinc-sintered Bovine Cancellous Bone with Marrow Stromal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qi-xin; HAO Jie; GUO Xiao-dong; LIU Su-nan; Wu Yong-chao; YAN Yu-hua

    2004-01-01

    To study the osteogenic ability of tissue-engineered bone constructed by compounding zinc-sin-tered bovine cancellous bone with rabbit marrow stromal cells ( MSCs ) in vivo, the zinc- sintered bovine cancellousbone of beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) type was prepared by sintering the fresh calf cancellous bone twice andthen loading it with zinc-ion. The rabbit MSCs were cultured, induced and seeded onto the zinc- sintered bovine can-cellous bones. The tissue-engineered bones were then implanted into the rabbits' bock muscles. The newly formedbone tissues were observed by histological methods and the areas of new osseous tissues were measured at the end ofthe 4 th and 8 th week. The zinc-sintered bovine cancellous bones alone were implanted on the other side as control.The osteogenic activity of MSCs was identified by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and calcification nod chi-nalizarin staining. At the end of 4th week, a small amount of new bone tissues was observed. At the end of 8thweek, there were many newly formed bone mature tissues. Moreover, the area of the latter was significantly largerthan that of the former( P<0.01), while in the control group there was no new bone formation. The tissue-engi-neered bone, which was constructed by combining zinc-sintered bovine cancellous bone with MSCs, has satisfactoryosteogenic capabilities in vivo.

  2. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  3. Comparison of different measurement methods of the bone age in Uygur short stature children%不同骨龄测定方法在新疆维吾尔族矮小儿童骨龄中的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鑫鑫; 李白艳; 郭辉; 李永勇; 冯兆海; 姚晓龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To select the clinical application by comparing the bone age determination methods ( Greulich-Pyle method, TW2-RUS and TW2-C skeletal age score method) in Xinjiang Uygur short stature children.Methods X-ray films of 125 Uygur children of short stature in the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical University and the First People’ s Hospital were recruited (62 males and 63 females).They were divided into 4 groups:female and male immature group, and the corresponding development group.Results (1) In the Uygur female development group, statistically significant difference was identified between TW2-RUS and TW2-C skeletal age score method (F=2.208, P=0.041).(2) The backward children whose backward chronological age were 2 years and more, were 28, 19, and 33 cases according to Greulich-Pyle method, TW2-RUS, and TW2-C skeletal age score method, respectively.The backward cases were 15 according to all the three methods.Conclusion ( 1 ) In Uygur pre-puberty girls, TW2-C skeletal age score method is not recommended for bone age measurement.( 2 ) In the clinical work, after using Greulich-Pyle method and TW2-C skeletal age score method for evaluating bone age backward, it is necessary to use TW2-R skeletal age score method to reduce the false positive rate of bone age in Uygur short stature children.%目的:通过对比3种骨龄测定方法( G-P图谱法、TW2-RUS系列及TW2-C系列计分法)在新疆维吾尔族矮小儿童中的应用,了解其各自特点及价值,便于临床选择应用。方法在新医大第一附属医院和乌鲁木齐市第一人民医院选取父母为维吾尔族的矮小儿童125例X线腕部骨龄片,其中男62例,女63例。分为4组即女未发育组,女发育组,男未发育组,男发育组。结果(1)在维吾尔族女发育组中,TW2-RUS系列及TW2-C系列计分法比较差异有统计学意义,F=2.208,P=0.041。(2)骨龄落后生活年龄二岁以上者,G-P图谱法,TW2-RUS

  4. Changes in biochemical bone markers during pregnancy and puerperium.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, B. K.; Lee, J.W.; Choi, D. S.; Roh, C. R.; Lee, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the changes in bone turnover during pregnancy and puerperium, we measured serially the levels of serum osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline (Dpy) as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively, in 22 healthy women with normal pregnancy. Nineteen non-pregnant women served as control. The Dpy levels increased significantly at 16 weeks of pregnancy and remained elevated thereafter. The levels of osteocalcin, however, were significantly decreased at 16 weeks of pre...

  5. Bone mass and bone metabolic indices in male master rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwicka, Ewa; Nowak, Alicja; Zep, Wojciech; Leszczyński, Piotr; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess bone mass and bone metabolic indices in master athletes who regularly perform rowing exercises. The study was performed in 29 men: 14 master rowers and 15 non-athletic, body mass index-matched controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were performed for the total body, regional areas (arms, total forearms, trunk, thoracic spine, pelvis, and legs), lumbar spine (L1-L4), left hip (total hip and femoral neck), and forearm (33 % radius of the dominant and nondominant forearm). Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, visfatin, resistin, insulin, and glucose were determined. Comparative analyses showed significantly lower levels of body fat and higher lean body mass values in the rowers compared to the control group. The rowers also had significantly higher values of total and regional (left arm, trunk, thoracic spine, pelvis, and leg) BMD, as well as higher BMD values for the lumbar spine and the left hip. There were significant differences between the groups with respect to insulin, glucose, and the index of homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. In conclusion, the systematic training of master rowers has beneficial effects on total and regional BMD and may be recommended for preventing osteoporosis. PMID:25224128

  6. Longitudinal in vivo imaging of bone formation and resorption using fluorescence molecular tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, F M; Stuker, F; Weigt, C; Kuhn, G; Koch, K; Schulte, F A; Ripoll, J; Rudin, M; Müller, R

    2013-02-01

    Bone research often focuses on anatomical imaging of the bone microstructure, but in order to gain better understanding in how bone remodeling is modulated through interventions also bone formation and resorption processes should be investigated. With this in mind, the purpose of this study was to establish a longitudinal in vivo imaging approach of bone formation and resorption using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). In this study the reproducibility, accuracy and sensitivity of FMT for bone imaging were assessed by performing longitudinal measurements with FMT and comparing it to in vivo micro-computed tomography on a set of control mice, and mice in which load-adaptation was induced in the sixth caudal vertebra. The precision error for FMT measurements, expressed as coefficient of variation, was smaller than 16%, indicating acceptable reproducibility. A correlation was found between bone resorption measured with FMT and bone resorption rate measured with in vivo micro-computed tomography only over the first 14days (R=0.81, pbone formation measured with FMT and bone formation rate measured with in vivo micro-CT. Bone formation measured by FMT was 89-109% greater (pBone resorption was 5-8% lower, but did not reach a significant difference between groups, indicating moderate sensitivity for FMT. In conclusion, in vivo FMT in mouse tail bones is feasible but needs to be optimized for monitoring load adaptation in living mice.

  7. Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in children and adolescents with osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and bone scans in the management of patients with osteomalacia, radioisotope bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and BMD measurements of the lumbar spine and femur by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after therapy in 26 Saudi patients (17 females and nine males). Their mean age was 13.5 years (range, 5-16). BMD measurements were compared with those of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. Bone scan showed an increase in tracer uptake throughout the skeleton (''superscan'') in all children and demonstrated multiple stress fractures in eight. The mean BMD for the lumbar spine was 0.53 g/cm2(Z-score, -3.1) and for the femoral neck 0.55 g/cm 2(Z-score, -2.8). Repeated bone scan and BMD after 6 months of therapy with oral vitamin D, calcium and proper sun exposure demonstrated a significant increase (P <0.001) in BMD and healing of pseudofractures. In conclusion, as a non-invasive method with minimal radiation exposure, measurements of BMD in children with osteomalacia are to be recommended in the initial assessment of the severity of osteopenia and in the follow-up to monitor the response to therapy. Bone scintigraphy is valuable in demonstrating the site and severity of stress fractures. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Lv; Aisen Zhang; Wenjuan Di; Yunlu Sheng; Peng Cheng; Hanmei Qi; Juan Liu; Jing Yu; Guoxian Ding; Jinmei Cai; Bin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis,...

  9. The bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Connor; Mathews, Phillip; Yurtsev, Eugene; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David; Hansma, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Here we describe modifications that allow the bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) [P. Hansma et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 064303 (2008); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 075105 (2006)], developed to test human bone, to test the femora of mice. These modifications include reducing the effective weight of the instrument on the bone, designing and fabricating new probe assemblies to minimize damage to the small bone, developing new testing protocols that involve smaller testing forces, and fabricating a jig for securing the smaller bones for testing. With these modifications, the BDI was used to test the hypothesis that short-term running has greater benefit on the mechanical properties of the femur for young growing mice compared to older, skeletally mature mice. We measured elastic modulus, hardness, and indentation distance increase (IDI), which had previously been shown to be the best discriminators in model systems known to exhibit differences in mechanical properties at the whole bone level. In the young exercised murine femora, the IDI was significantly lower than in young control femora. Since IDI has a relation to postyield properties, these results suggest that exercise during bone development increases post yield mechanical competence. We were also able to measure effects of aging on bone properties with the BDI. There was a significant increase in the IDI, and a significant decrease in the elastic modulus and hardness between the young and old groups. Thus, with the modifications described here, the BDI can take measurements on mouse bones and obtain statistically significant results.

  10. Salicylic Acid-Based Polymers for Guided Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sangeeta; Mitchell, Ashley; Yu, Weiling; Snyder, Sabrina; Uhrich, Kathryn; O'Connor, J Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is used clinically to promote spinal fusion, treat complex tibia fractures, and to promote bone formation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Excessive bone formation at sites where BMP-2 has been applied is an established complication and one that could be corrected by guided tissue regeneration methods. In this study, anti-inflammatory polymers containing salicylic acid [salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester), SAPAE] were electrospun with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create thin flexible matrices for use as guided bone regeneration membranes. SAPAE polymers hydrolyze to release salicylic acid, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PCL was used to enhance the mechanical integrity of the matrices. Two different SAPAE-containing membranes were produced and compared: fast-degrading (FD-SAPAE) and slow-degrading (SD-SAPAE) membranes that release salicylic acid at a faster and slower rate, respectively. Rat femur defects were treated with BMP-2 and wrapped with FD-SAPAE, SD-SAPAE, or PCL membrane or were left unwrapped. The effects of different membranes on bone formation within and outside of the femur defects were measured by histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Bone formation within the defect was not affected by membrane wrapping at BMP-2 doses of 12 μg or more. In contrast, the FD-SAPAE membrane significantly reduced bone formation outside the defect compared with all other treatments. The rapid release of salicylic acid from the FD-SAPAE membrane suggests that localized salicylic acid treatment during the first few days of BMP-2 treatment can limit ectopic bone formation. The data support development of SAPAE polymer membranes for guided bone regeneration applications as well as barriers to excessive bone formation.

  11. Effect of elbow flexion angles on stress distribution of the proximal ulnar and radius bones under a vertical load: measurement using resistance strain gauges

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Zhi-Tao; Yuan, Feng; Li, Bing; Ma, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the surface stress at the proximal ends of the ulna and radius at different elbow flexion angles using the resistance strain method. Methods Eight fresh adult cadaveric elbows were tested. The forearms were fixed in a neutral position. Axial load increment experiments were conducted at four different elbow flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°). Surface stain was measured at six sites (tip, middle, and base of the coronoid process; back ulnar notch; olec...

  12. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Gulshan B., E-mail: gbsharma@ucalgary.ca [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Spine and Orthopaedic Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); University of Calgary, Schulich School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Robertson, Douglas D., E-mail: douglas.d.robertson@emory.edu [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Spine and Orthopaedic Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329 (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty success has been attributed to many factors including, bone quality, soft tissue balancing, surgeon experience, and implant design. Improved long-term success is primarily limited by glenoid implant loosening. Prosthesis design examines materials and shape and determines whether the design should withstand a lifetime of use. Finite element (FE) analyses have been extensively used to study stresses and strains produced in implants and bone. However, these static analyses only measure a moment in time and not the adaptive response to the altered environment produced by the therapeutic intervention. Computational analyses that integrate remodeling rules predict how bone will respond over time. Recent work has shown that subject-specific two- and three dimensional adaptive bone remodeling models are feasible and valid. Feasibility and validation were achieved computationally, simulating bone remodeling using an intact human scapula, initially resetting the scapular bone material properties to be uniform, numerically simulating sequential loading, and comparing the bone remodeling simulation results to the actual scapula’s material properties. Three-dimensional scapula FE bone model was created using volumetric computed tomography images. Muscle and joint load and boundary conditions were applied based on values reported in the literature. Internal bone remodeling was based on element strain-energy density. Initially, all bone elements were assigned a homogeneous density. All loads were applied for 10 iterations. After every iteration, each bone element’s remodeling stimulus was compared to its corresponding reference stimulus and its material properties modified. The simulation achieved convergence. At the end of the simulation the predicted and actual specimen bone apparent density were plotted and compared. Location of high and low predicted bone density was comparable to the actual specimen. High predicted bone density was greater than

  13. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoulder arthroplasty success has been attributed to many factors including, bone quality, soft tissue balancing, surgeon experience, and implant design. Improved long-term success is primarily limited by glenoid implant loosening. Prosthesis design examines materials and shape and determines whether the design should withstand a lifetime of use. Finite element (FE) analyses have been extensively used to study stresses and strains produced in implants and bone. However, these static analyses only measure a moment in time and not the adaptive response to the altered environment produced by the therapeutic intervention. Computational analyses that integrate remodeling rules predict how bone will respond over time. Recent work has shown that subject-specific two- and three dimensional adaptive bone remodeling models are feasible and valid. Feasibility and validation were achieved computationally, simulating bone remodeling using an intact human scapula, initially resetting the scapular bone material properties to be uniform, numerically simulating sequential loading, and comparing the bone remodeling simulation results to the actual scapula’s material properties. Three-dimensional scapula FE bone model was created using volumetric computed tomography images. Muscle and joint load and boundary conditions were applied based on values reported in the literature. Internal bone remodeling was based on element strain-energy density. Initially, all bone elements were assigned a homogeneous density. All loads were applied for 10 iterations. After every iteration, each bone element’s remodeling stimulus was compared to its corresponding reference stimulus and its material properties modified. The simulation achieved convergence. At the end of the simulation the predicted and actual specimen bone apparent density were plotted and compared. Location of high and low predicted bone density was comparable to the actual specimen. High predicted bone density was greater than

  14. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  15. Bone: Incretin Hormones Perceiver or Receiver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Dicembrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel incretin-based drugs, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i, have been last introduced in the pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the last few years, the interest on the relationship of gut hormones with bone metabolism in diabetes has been increasing. The aim of present paper is to examine in vitro and in vivo evidence on the connections between incretin hormones and bone metabolism. We also discuss results of clinical trials and metaanalysis, explore the effects of incretin drugs in vitro on osteogenic cells and osteoclasts, and speculate on the possibility of different effects of GLP-1 RA and DPP-4i on the risk of bone fractures risk in humans. Although existing preliminary evidence suggests a protective effect on the bone, at least for DPP-4i, further controlled, long-term studies with measurement of bone markers, bone density, and clinical fractures rates are needed to substantiate and confirm those findings.

  16. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces...... the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  17. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  18. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2 in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are frequent complications of breast cancer. Recent literature implicates multiple chemokines in the formation of bone metastases in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of metastatic bone disease in breast cancer remains unknown. We have recently made the novel observation of the BST2 protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines. The purpose of our present study is to investigate the expression and the role of BST2 in bone metastatic breast cancer. Methods cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the BST2 gene expression between a metastatic to bone human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO and a primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231. The BST2 expression in one bone metastatic breast cancer and seven non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines were also determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. We then employed tissue array to further study the BST2 expression in human breast cancer using array slides containing 20 independent breast cancer tumors that formed metastatic bone lesions, 30 non-metastasis-forming breast cancer tumors, and 8 normal breast tissues. In order to test the feasibility of utilizing BST2 as a serum marker for the presence of bone metastasis in breast cancer, we had measured the BST2 expression levels in human serums by using ELISA on 43 breast cancer patients with bone metastasis, 43 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis, and 14 normal healthy controls. The relationship between cell migration and proliferation and BST2 expression was also studied in a human breast recombinant model system using migration and FACS analysis. Results The microarray demonstrated over expression of the BST2 gene in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO compared to the primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231. The expression of the BST2 gene was significantly increased in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor

  19. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone metastases are frequent complications of breast cancer. Recent literature implicates multiple chemokines in the formation of bone metastases in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of metastatic bone disease in breast cancer remains unknown. We have recently made the novel observation of the BST2 protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines. The purpose of our present study is to investigate the expression and the role of BST2 in bone metastatic breast cancer. cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the BST2 gene expression between a metastatic to bone human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) and a primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The BST2 expression in one bone metastatic breast cancer and seven non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines were also determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. We then employed tissue array to further study the BST2 expression in human breast cancer using array slides containing 20 independent breast cancer tumors that formed metastatic bone lesions, 30 non-metastasis-forming breast cancer tumors, and 8 normal breast tissues. In order to test the feasibility of utilizing BST2 as a serum marker for the presence of bone metastasis in breast cancer, we had measured the BST2 expression levels in human serums by using ELISA on 43 breast cancer patients with bone metastasis, 43 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis, and 14 normal healthy controls. The relationship between cell migration and proliferation and BST2 expression was also studied in a human breast recombinant model system using migration and FACS analysis. The microarray demonstrated over expression of the BST2 gene in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) compared to the primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The expression of the BST2 gene was significantly increased in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues compared to non-bone metastatic breast cancer

  20. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  1. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Cefuroxime in Cortical and Cancellous Bone Obtained by Microdialysis - a Porcine Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Forsingdal Hardlei, Tore; Bendtsen, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in bone have been investigated using bone biopsies, but this approach suffers from considerable methodological limitations. Consequently, new methods are needed. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of the microdialysis...... (MD) technique for measurement of cefuroxime in bone, and to obtain pharmacokinetic profiles for the same drug in porcine cortical and cancellous bone. Measurements were conducted in bone-wax sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone, in drill holes in cancellous bone and in subcutaneous tissue....... As reference, free and total plasma concentrations were also measured. The animals received a bolus of 1500 mg cefuroxime over 30 min. No significant differences between key pharmacokinetic parameters for sealed and unsealed drill holes in cortical bone were found. The mean area under the concentration...

  3. Acidic microenvironment and bone pain in cancer-colonized bone

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Hiasa, Masahiro; Nagata, Yuki; Okui, Tatsuo; White, Fletcher A.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancers and hematologic cancers frequently colonize bone and induce skeletal-related complications. Bone pain is one of the most common complications associated with cancer colonization in bone and a major cause of increased morbidity and diminished quality of life, leading to poor survival in cancer patients. Although the mechanisms responsible for cancer-associated bone pain (CABP) are poorly understood, it is likely that complex interactions among cancer cells, bone cells and periphe...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  5. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S. K.; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  8. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  9. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo...... was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6...... weeks (left tibia). Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Removal torque test (RMT) was performed at the distal implants. Ground sections were made from the proximal and the central bone beds. The fraction of mineralized bone in contact to the implant (BIC) and the bone density within...

  10. Osteomyelitis of frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedil, V. N.; Raizada, R. M.; Singh, A. K. Kennedy; Puttewar, M. P.; Bali, S.

    2004-01-01

    A case of Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with a subperiosteal absces s, an extrudural abscess and a frontal sinus fistula is presented here for its rarity. A brief review of literature and management of the condition is also discussed.

  11. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  12. Microstructural Assessment of Cancellous Bone Using 3D Microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancellous bones have a porous microstructure and can be modeled as linear elastic solid, heterogeneous and anisotropic. Few studies regarding the morphometric analysis of trabecular bone samples with 3D microtomography have been published so far. The technique has spread worldwide for the characterization of trabecular structures in studies related to bone quality and its relationship with metabolic diseases bone like osteoporosis. In our study cancellous bone samples with cubic and cylindrical geometry were extracted from bovine femur were used to investigate the structural arrangement of bone through high resolution x-ray 3D microtomography (μCT). Four trabecular microstructural parameters (tissue volume, bone volume, bone volume fraction and tissue surface) were measured by 2D (stereological method) and 3D morphometric analysis using the software CTan Analyser supplied by the manufacturer of the microtomograph (SkyScan, model 1172, Belgium). The measurements were done in three main directions (superior-inferior, medial-lateral and anterior-posterior) to investigate the correlation between the 2D and 3D morphometric analysis. The results show a high correlation between the analysis. The x-ray 3D microtomography technique has a great potential for the assessment of bone quality.

  13. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which {sup 45}Ca release from {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with {sup 45}Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke.

  14. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  15. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  16. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  17. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan; Venkatesan Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography a...

  18. Fracture Nasal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan

    2013-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and u...

  19. Role of Soy Protein on Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haghighian roudsari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone mass loss is one of the commonest menopause symptoms, resulting from cessation of estrogen production. Compounds which have estrogen – like biological activity similar to “Isoflavones” present in plants especially soy, may reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women, because as they are similar in structure to estrogens. This study, therefore, was undertaken to assess the effect of soy protein on bone metabolism biomarkers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. This “before and after” clinical trial was carried out, on 15 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, between 45 to 64 years of age. The subjects were asked to consume 35 gram/day of soy protein for 12 weeks. Blood and urine samples, were taken at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Anthropometric measurements and a 2-day dietary recall were done at the beginning of the study, and at the 6 and 12 weeks. The food consumption data were analyzed by “Food Proccessor” software. Repeated measurement analysis was utilized to determine the changes in biochemical indices, anthropometric and dietary data. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Comparison of weight, BMI, physical activity and dietary intake of subjects during the study did not show any significant differences. Soy protein consumption, showed significant reductions in deoxypyridinoline (biochemical marker of bone resorption and significant increase in total alkaline phosphatase ( biochemical marker of bone formation.There were no significant differences in serum osteocalcin, C- telopeptide, insulin- like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, and type-I- collagen telopeptides. Considering the beneficial effects of soy protein consumption on bone metabolism biomarkers, inclusion of this inexpensive and available food item in postmenopausal women diet, may reduce bone loss and could be recommended for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  20. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  1. Bone Metabolism in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting young women, is characterized by self-imposed chronic nutritional deprivation and distorted body image. AN is associated with a number of medical co-morbidities including low bone mass. The low bone mass in AN is due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, which is the result of hormonal adaptations aimed at decreasing energy expenditure during periods of low energy intake. Importantly, the low bone mass in ...

  2. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  3. SWIMMING ENHANCES BONE MASS ACQUISITION IN GROWING FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne McVeigh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing bones are most responsive to mechanical loading. We investigated bone mass acquisition patterns following a swimming or running exercise intervention of equal duration, in growing rats. We compared changes in bone mineral properties in female Sprague Dawley rats that were divided into three groups: sedentary controls (n = 10, runners (n = 8 and swimmers (n = 11. Runners and swimmers underwent a six week intervention, exercising five days per week, 30min per day. Running rats ran on an inclined treadmill at 0.33 m.s-1, while swimming rats swam in 25oC water. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans measuring bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD and bone area at the femur, lumbar spine and whole body were recorded for all rats before and after the six week intervention. Bone and serum calcium and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations were measured at the end of the 6 weeks. Swimming rats had greater BMC and bone area changes at the femur and lumbar spine (p < 0.05 than the running rats and a greater whole body BMC and bone area to that of control rats (p < 0.05. There were no differences in bone gain between running and sedentary control rats. There was no significant difference in serum or bone calcium or PTH concentrations between the groups of rats. A swimming intervention is able to produce greater beneficial effects on the rat skeleton than no exercise at all, suggesting that the strains associated with swimming may engender a unique mechanical load on the bone

  4. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  5. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 ....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P

  6. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  7. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio.

  8. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio.

  9. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  10. Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters; Verificacao das doses de radiacao absorvidas durante a tecnica de irradiacao de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula ossea, por meio de dosimetros termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Cristina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Oliveira, Jose Salvador R. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: adelmogiordani@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. Two-hundred CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon tablets were calibrated in air and in 'phantom'. These tablets were randomly selected and divided in groups of five in the patients' body. The dosimetric readings were obtained using a Harshaw 4000A reader. Nine patients had their entire bodies irradiated in parallel and opposite laterals in a cobalt-60 Alcion II model, with a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min at 80.5 cm, {l_brace}(10 ? 10) cm{sup 2} field. The dosimetry of this unit was performed using a Victoreen 500 dosimeter. For the determination of the mean dose at each point evaluated, the individual values of the tablets calibrated in air or 'phantom' were used, resulting in a build up of 2 mm to superficialize the dose at a distance of 300 cm. In 70% of the patients a variation of less than 5% in the dose was obtained. In 30% of the patients this variation was less than 10%, when values obtained were compared to the values calculated at each point. A mean absorption of 14% was seen in the head, and an increase of 2% of the administered dose was seen in the lungs. In patients with latero-lateral distance greater than 35 cm the variation between the calculated doses and the measured doses reached 30% of the desired dose, without the use of compensation filters. The measured values of the absorbed doses at the various anatomic points compared to the desired doses (theoretic) presented a tolerance of {+-} 10%, considering the existent anatomical differences and when using the individual calibration factors of the tablets. (author)

  11. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  12. Culture of osteoblasts on bio-derived bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu; YANG Zhi-ming; GE Bao-feng; LIU Xue-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bio-derived bones, as substitutes of autogenous bone grafts and demineralized cadaver bones, on the attachment, spreading and proliferation of isolated osteoblasts. Methods: Osteoblasts were isolated from the calvaria of a fetal rabbit through sequential collagenase digestion. In the attachment study, the osteoblasts labeled with 3H-leucine were incubated with the bio-derived bone materials in sterile microcentrifugale tubes for 15, 90 and 180 minutes, and 24 hours, respectively. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. In the proliferation study, the osteoblasts were cultured with the bio-derived bone materials for 24 hours and 3H-thymidine was added during the last 2 hours of the incubation. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. Osteoblasts were seeded on the bone graft materials for 60 or 120 minutes, 24 or 48 hours, and 3 or 7 days, then the co-culture was processed for scanning electron microscopy to observe the interaction of osteoblasts and the bio-derived bone materials. Results: Osteoblasts attached to the bio-derived bone materials in a time-dependent manner. There were significantly (P<0.05) more attached cells after 180 minutes than after 15 and 90 minutes of incubations (P<0.05). Osteoblasts were proliferated in a large amount on the surface and in the materials. Osteoblasts seeded onto 100 mg bio-derived bones resulted in significantly (P<0.05) more measurable proliferation than those seeded onto 10 mg bones. Osteoblasts appeared round as they attached to the materials, then flattened and spread over with time passing. Conclusions: Bio-derived bones can provide a good environment for the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  13. The bone care nurse project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casentini, Cristiana; Chiaramonti, Giuseppe; Amedei, Antonietta; Cioppi, Federica; Falchetti, Alberto; Masi, Laura; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    In today's society, citizens are called to play an increasingly active role in decision planning related to the various aspects of work, social and political life. This trend has been also confirmed in the health's field. In fact, the citizen is also required to have the skills to take responsibility for his/her own health, to have knowledge of the health care system, understand the advice and instructions of health professionals, actively participating with them in the therapeutical path. The lack or an inadequate level of these skills will affect both the health of the individual and the costs related to the National Health System. The nursing staff that interfaces between physicians and patients plays a key role in health's promotion as an important determinant of health and welfare of the patient-citizen. With regard to osteoporosis, due to better knowledge of its determining causes, it is now possible an easy access to diagnosis and treatment options before fragility fractures occur, providing a real prevention to such complications. Prevention must be addressed to two different, but related, objectives: 1) prevention of osteoporosis; and 2) prevention of fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis. In the context of both primary and secondary prevention, the nurse can better informed the patients and/or citizens about either the risks related to an inappropriate behavior or situations and events particularly dangerous to health, as well as provide information to simply and effectively implement protective measures. This project aims to raise awareness and create competent and specialized nurse figures, with a good understanding of the bone diseases, through the organization of seminars and training courses. Thus, it will be create clinical pathways and welfare in which the figure of the "Bone Care Nurse" will be responsible for administration of questionnaires relating to lifestyle and, for patients in drug treatment, questionnaires designed to assess

  14. AN APPROACH OF BONE LOSS ESTIMATION THROUGH DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Maiti,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass or density. In osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD is reduced and bone micro-architecture is deteriorating. Bones are becomes brittle and subjected to breakage even at a normal load. Conventionally, bone mineral density is measured by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA to establish osteoporosis but is costly. In this study, images from digital X-ray have been used to measure bone mineral density. The selected radiograph is segmented to separate bone image frombackground and converted to a gray level intensity matrix. Each pixel value of the matrix is related to bone density. A set of gray level intensity matrix corresponds to a particular region is taken and perform the Tstatistics on those data sample. To detect osteoporosis, a comparative study between calculated T-score and standard T-score, maintained by WHO (World Health Organization is performed from the selected area. Tstatistics is also the measurement of probability of osteoporotic fracture risk.

  15. Bone mineral density in immigrants from southern China to Denmark. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Wang, S; Overgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Immigration from Japan to USA has been shown to increase bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat in women. The effects of immigration between other geographical areas on bone mass and body composition are largely unknown, especially in men. In the present study, we measured bone mass and body com...

  16. Biological and within-subject variability of calcium kinetics and biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone loss is a critical issue during space flight. Evaluating changes in bone and calcium metabolism in astronauts often requires multiple preflight data collection points. Bone turnover and calcium kinetics were measured in 4 healthy subjects, and the day-to-day and between-subject variations were ...

  17. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  18. Bone and muscle atrophy with suspension of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, A.; Marsh, C.; Evans, H.; Johnson, P.; Schneider, V.; Jhingran, S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to identify a suitable model for the study of muscle atrophy due to suspension in space, a modified version of the Morey tail suspension model was used to measure the atrophic responses of rat bone and muscle to 14-30 days of unloading of the hindlimbs. The progress of atrophy was measured by increases in methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. It is found that bone uptake of methylene diphosphonate followed a phasic pattern similar to changes in the bone formation rate of immobilized dogs and cats. Increased MDP uptake after a period of 60 days indicated an accelerated bone metabolism. Maximum muscle atrophy in the suspended rats was distinctly different from immobilization atrophy. On the basis of the experimental results, it is concluded that the tail suspension model is an adequate simulation of bone atrophy due to suspension.

  19. Selective heating of soft tissue-bone interfaces during scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone heating has been a frequent problem with clinical hyperthermia treatments induced by plane ultrasonic transducers. In this study, detailed temperature distributions were measured in dogs' (5 dogs) thigh muscles and bone in vivo while focussed ultrasound was applied to elevate the muscle temperature next to the bone. Significantly higher temperature elevations were measured at the bone surface than in the target volume in front of the bone. The temperature distribution was sharp decreasing fast inside the bone and also in front of it. By using more sharply focussed and multiple beams the temperature elevation at the bone surface was reduced and by suitable choice of the distance between the bone surface and the acoustical focus almost uniform temperature could be induced in the overlying muscle tissue from the surface down to the bone - the bone surface being in the same temperature as the muscle. Similar result was obtained by using single, higher frequency focussed beam (3.58 MHz). Also the utilization of nonlinear ultrasonic propagation appeared to reduce bone heating. The results showed that by carefully planning ultrasound hyperthermia treatments, tissues close to bone can be heated without extensive temperature elevation at bone surface

  20. High bone turnover in Irish professional jockeys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waldron-Lynch, F

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARY: Professional jockeys are routinely exposed to high impact trauma and sustain fractures frequently. We found that jockeys restrict their caloric intake in order to maintain regulation weights, and that bone turnover is high. There are significant health and safety implications for the racing industry. INTRODUCTION: Professional jockeys routinely sustain fractures from high impact falls. Jockeys maintain a low percentage body fat and a low body mass index (BMI) to achieve low weight targets in order to race. We evaluated dietary habits and bone metabolism in jockeys. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 27 male jockeys of the 144 jockeys licensed in Ireland. Fourteen (52%) had BMD T score below -1.0, of whom 12 consented to clinical review, nutritional survey, endocrine studies, and bone turnover markers (BTM). BTM were compared to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 16). RESULTS: BMI was 20.6 +\\/- 1.7 kg\\/m(2); previous fracture frequency was 3.2 +\\/- 2.0 per rider. All had normal endocrine axes. The jockeys\\' diet as determined by a 7-day dietary recall was deficient in energy, calcium, and vitamin D intake. Compared with the control group, the jockey group had evidence of increased bone turnover. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the professional jockeys in Ireland have low-normal BMD, low BMI, and high bone turnover that may result from weight and dietary restrictions. These factors seem to have a deleterious effect on their bone health and predispose the jockeys to a high fracture risk that should be remediated.

  1. Influence of cortical endplates on ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Kang Il [Dept. of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The present study investigated the influence of thick cortical endplates on the ultrasonic properties of trabecular bone in a femur with a high fracture risk. Twelve trabecular bone samples were prepared from bovine femurs, and acrylic plates with thicknesses of 1.25, 1.80, and 2.75 mm were manufactured to simulate the cortical endplates using acrylic with a density and a sound speed similar to cortical bone. Although the thickness of the acrylic plates attached to the two sides of the trabecular bone increased, high correlations were observed between the speed of sound and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.80-0.86. High correlations were also observed between the attenuation coefficient at 0.5 mm and the apparent bone density of the trabecular bone, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.84-0.91. These results suggest that the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient at a specific frequency measured in a femur with relatively thick cortical endplates compared to the calcaneus could be used as indices for predicting the bone mineral density of the femur.

  2. Kinetic Analysis of 18F-Fluoride PET Images of Breast Cancer Bone Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Doot, Robert K; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Schubert, Erin K; Gralow, Julie R.; Specht, Jennifer M.; Mankoff, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The most common site of metastasis for breast cancer is bone. Quantitative 18F-fluoride PET can estimate the kinetics of fluoride incorporation into bone as a measure of fluoride transport, bone formation, and turnover. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of 18F-fluoride model parameter estimates for characterizing regional kinetics in metastases and normal bone in breast cancer patients.

  3. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Feng Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT and bone mineral density (BMD by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466 located in the WNT16 gene (7q31, associated with CBT (effect size of -0.11 standard deviations [SD] per C allele, P = 6.2 × 10(-9. This SNP, as well as another nonsynonymous SNP rs2908004 (Gly>Arg, also had genome-wide significant association with forearm BMD (-0.14 SD per C allele, P = 2.3 × 10(-12, and -0.16 SD per G allele, P = 1.2 × 10(-15, respectively. Four genome-wide significant SNPs arising from BMD meta-analysis were tested for association with forearm fracture. SNP rs7776725 in FAM3C, a gene adjacent to WNT16, was associated with a genome-wide significant increased risk of forearm fracture (OR = 1.33, P = 7.3 × 10(-9, with genome-wide suggestive signals from the two missense variants in WNT16 (rs2908004: OR = 1.22, P = 4.9 × 10(-6 and rs2707466: OR = 1.22, P = 7.2 × 10(-6. We next generated a homozygous mouse with targeted disruption of Wnt16. Female Wnt16(-/- mice had 27% (P<0.001 thinner cortical bones at the femur midshaft, and bone strength measures were reduced between 43%-61% (6.5 × 10(-13bone strength, and risk of fracture.

  4. Microhardness of human cancellous bone tissue in progressive hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanik, Magdalena; Nikodem, Anna; Filipiak, Jarosław

    2016-12-01

    Bone tissue is a biological system in which the dynamic processes of, among others, bone formation or internal reconstruction will determine the spatial structure of the tissue and its mechanical properties. The appearance of a factor disturbing the balance between biological processes, e.g. a disease, will cause changes in the spatial structure of bones, thus affecting its mechanical properties. One of the bone diseases most common in an increasingly ageing population is osteoarthritis, also referred to as degenerative joint disease. It is estimated that in 2050 about 1300 million people will show symptoms of OA. The appearance of a pathological stimulus disturbs the balance of the processes of degradation and synthesis of articular cartilage, chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix, and the subchondral bone layer. As osteoarthritis progresses, study of the epiphysis reveals increasingly widespread changes of the articular surface and the internal structure of bone tissue. In this paper, the authors point out the differences in the mechanical properties of cancellous bone tissue forming the proximal epiphysis of the femoral bone during the progressive stages of OA. In order to determine microproperties of bone trabeculae, specimens from different stages of the disease (N=9) were subjected to microindentation testing, which made it possible to determine the material properties of bone tissue, such as microhardness HV and Young׳s modulus E. In addition, mechanical tests were supplemented with Raman spectroscopy, which determine the degree of bone mineralization, and measurements of structural properties based on analysis using microCT. The conducted tests were used to establish both quantitative and quantitative description of changes in the structural and mechanical properties connected with reorganization of trabeculae making up the bone in the various stages of osteoarthritis. The proposed description will supplement existing knowledge in the literature about

  5. Periostin action in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Periostin is a highly conserved matricellular protein that shares close homology with the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin 1. Periostin is expressed in a broad range of tissues including the skeleton, where it serves both as a structural molecule of the bone matrix and a signaling molecule through integrin receptors and Wnt-beta-catenin pathways whereby it stimulates osteoblast functions and bone formation. The development of periostin null mice has allowed to elucidate the crucial role of periostin on dentinogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as on the skeletal response to mechanical loading and parathyroid hormone. The use of circulating periostin as a potential clinical biomarker has been explored in different non skeletal conditions. These include cancers and more specifically in the metastasis process, respiratory diseases such as asthma, kidney failure, renal injury and cardiac infarction. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, serum levels have been shown to predict the risk of fracture-more specifically non-vertebral- independently of bone mineral density. Because of its preferential localization in cortical bone and periosteal tissue, it can be speculated that serum periostin may be a marker of cortical bone metabolism, although additional studies are clearly needed. PMID:26721738

  6. Bone metabolism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-01

    During pregnancy, mineral concentrations, of calcium and phosphorus in particular, are maintained at a high level in fetal blood so that the developing skeleton may accrete adequate mineral content. The placenta actively transports minerals for this purpose. Maternal intestinal absorption increases in order to meet the fetal demand for calcium, which is only partly dependent on calcitriol. Mineral regulation is essentially dependent on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates PTH and PTHrP production. If calcium intake is insufficient, the maternal skeleton will undergo resorption due to PTHrP. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal homeostasis occurs through increase in PTH and calcitriol, and developmental adaptation of the kidneys and intestines with bone turnover contributing additional mineral to the circulation. Calcium absorption becomes progressively active and dependent on calcitriol. The postnatal skeleton can transiently present with osteoposis but adequate mineral diet usually allows full restoration. Cases of primary osteoporosis must be identified. Loss of trabecular mineral content occurs during lactation in order to provide calcium to the newborn. This programmed bone loss is dependent on a "brain-breast-bone" circuit. The physiological bone resorption during reproduction does not normally cause fractures or persistent osteoporosis. Women who experience fracture are likely to have other causes of bone loss. PMID:27157104

  7. Inca bones at asterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical approach towards asterion has to be done with caution as many surgeons are unfamiliar with the anatomical variations. The asterion corresponds to the site of the posterolateral (mastoid fontanelle of the neonatal skull which closes at the end of the first year. Inca bones provide information as markers for various diseases, and can mislead in the diagnosis of fractures. Observation and Results: 150 dry skull bones from the Department of Anatomy at Goa Medical College, India and other neighboring medical colleges by examining the asterion, and its sutural articulations with parietal, temporal and occipital bones and also anatomical variations if any in adults. Discussion: The anatomical landmarks selected must be reliable and above all easy to identify. Bony structures are more suitable than soft tissue or cartilaginous landmarks because of their rigid and reliable location. Presence of these bones provides false impressions of fractures or the fractures may be interpreted for inca bones especially in the region of asterion either radiologically or clinically which may lead to complications during burr hole surgeries.

  8. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Bone Regeneration Using Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Various Biomaterial Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Sheikh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trauma and disease frequently result in fractures or critical sized bone defects and their management at times necessitates bone grafting. The process of bone healing or regeneration involves intricate network of molecules including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs. BMPs belong to a larger superfamily of proteins and are very promising and intensively studied for in the enhancement of bone healing. More than 20 types of BMPs have been identified but only a subset of BMPs can induce de novo bone formation. Many research groups have shown that BMPs can induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells into osteogenic cells which are capable of producing bone. This review introduces BMPs and discusses current advances in preclinical and clinical application of utilizing various biomaterial carriers for local delivery of BMPs to enhance bone regeneration.

  10. Bone printing: new frontiers in the treatment of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arealis, Georgios; Nikolaou, Vasileios S

    2015-12-01

    Bone defects can be congenital or acquired resulting from trauma, infection, neoplasm and failed arthroplasty. The osseous reconstruction of these defects is challenging. Unfortunately, none of the current techniques for the repair of bone defects has proven to be fully satisfactory. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is the field of regenerative medicine (RM) that focuses on alternative treatment options for bone defects that will ideally address all the issues of the traditional techniques in treating large bone defects. However, current techniques of BTE is laborious and have their own shortcomings. More recently, 2D and 3D bone printing has been introduced to overcome most of the limitations of bone grafts and BTE. So far, results are extremely promising, setting new frontiers in the management of bone defects.

  11. Comparison of whole calvarial bones and long bones during early growth in rats. Histology and collagen composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, J M; Klein, L

    1975-07-25

    The distribution of ossified collagen (bone) and uncalcified collagen (fibrous tissue and cartilage) was compared histologically for rat and dog calvaria at birth. The relative amount of bone and uncalcified collagen was quantitated morphologically for rat calvaria during the first four weeks of rapid growth. Whereas dog calvaria are essentially ossified at birth, rat calvaria at birth consist mostly of fibrous tissue but rapidly become ossified with growth. Bacterial collagenase was used to separate uncalcified collagen from calcified collagen of whole membranous bones (frontal and parietal) and long bones (femur and humerus) at birth from man, monkey, dog, guinea pig, rabbit and rat. By this means quantitative changes in the relative fractions of the two forms of collagen were determined during the first eight weeks of postnatal growth for each type of rat bone. Quantitative biochemical data on whole rat bones (calvarium, femur, humerus) confirmed measurements based on histology which showed that at birth rat calvaria are mostly uncalcified as compared to other species whose bones are mostly ossified at birth. With growth rat membranous bones ossify more rapidly than long bones.

  12. Urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and clinical usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baris Simsek; (O)zgul Karacaer; inci Karaca

    2004-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review the urine products of bone breakdown as markers of bone resorption and usefulness of urinary hydroxyproline. Data Related researches published in 1985 -2000 were systematically reviewed. Results Bone markers could be used for early diagnosis of bone metabolic diseases. Biochemical markers of bone resorption that reflect osteoclast activity and/or collagen degradation provide a new and potentially important clinical tool for the assessment and monitoring of bone metabolism. Assessment of bone resorption can be achieved with measurement of urinary hydroxylysine glycosides, urinary excretion of the collagen pyridinium cross-links, urinary excretion of type I collagen telopeptide breakdown products (cross-linked telopeptides) and urinary hydroxyproline. Conclusion Urinary hydroxyproline has been in use as a marker of bone resorption, but it lacks sensitivity and specificity. It is a modified aminoacid that is a metabolic product of collagen breakdown.Hydroxyproline may be released either free or with fragments of the collagen molecule attached during bone resorption, and it is also liberated by the breakdown of complement and nonskeletal collagen.

  13. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  14. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression. PMID:4077868

  15. Effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy and bone grafting on artificial bone defects in minipigs: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Regezi, J A; Fong, B; Hakim-Faal, Z; Rohrer, M; Tran, C; Schiff, T

    2002-06-01

    Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy has been advocated as an adjunct in the enucleation and curettage of locally aggressive lesions of the jaws. Simultaneous autogenous bone grafting has also been advocated to accelerate bone formation and reduce morbidity. There is, however, relatively little scientific basis for either of these hypotheses. In this study, nine Yucatan minipigs had artificial defects created in the mandible, which were treated with liquid nitrogen spray. Half of the defects were grafted with autogenous bone from the chin and half were closed primarily. Two animals were sacrificed 3 days postoperatively to measure the width of necrosis and the rest were sacrificed at 3 months to assess healing and new bone formation. It was found that drilling the artificial defects alone caused bone necrosis for a mean depth of 0.09 mm. Liquid nitrogen cryospray caused a mean depth of bone necrosis of 0.82 mm (range 0.51-1.52 mm). The defects that were bone grafted healed well clinically. Defects not bone grafted showed a 50% rate of wound breakdown and sequestrum formation with delayed healing. Vital staining showed a non-significantly greater rate of bone formation in the grafted defects. Digitally superimposed radiography showed a non-significantly greater bone density in the non-grafted defects at 3 months postoperatively. It appears that liquid nitrogen cryospray does devitalize an area of bone around defects in the mandible. The width of necrosis is usually less than 1 mm and subsequent healing is enhanced by autogenous bone grafting. This has clinical implications. PMID:12190137

  16. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  17. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly ...

  18. Restoring Bone Density in Women with Ovarian Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an estradiol patch, progestin pills, and an inactive placebo patch. The researchers used bone density scans of the hip and lower spine to measure the effects of the regimens. For comparison, the scientists also ...

  19. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  20. FRACTURE NASAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thaigarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and ultrasound in their diagnosis and their management.

  1. Computerized geometric features of carpal bone for bone age estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Wen Hsieh; Tai-Lang Jong; Yi-Hong Chou; Chui-Mei Tiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone age development is one of the significant indicators depicting the growth status of children.However, bone age assessment is an heuristic and tedious work for pediatricians. We developed a computerized bone age estimation system based on the analysis of geometric features of carpal bones.Methods The geometric features of carpals were extracted and analyzed to judge the bone age of children by computerized shape and area description. Four classifiers, linear, nearest neighbor, back-propagation neural network,and radial basis function neural network, were adopted to categorize bone age. Principal component and discriminate analyses were employed to improve assorting accuracy.Results The hand X-ray films of 465 boys and 444 girls served as our database. The features were extracted from carpal bone images, including shape, area, and sequence. The proposed normalization area ratio method was effective in bone age classification by simulation. Besides, features statistics showed similar results between the standard of the Greulich and Pyle atlas and our database.Conclusions The bone area has a higher discriminating power to judge bone age. The ossification sequence of trapezium and trapezoid bones between Taiwanese and the atlas of the GP method is quite different. These results also indicate that carpal bone assessment with classification of neural networks can be correct and practical.

  2. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  3. Compromised trabecular microarchitecture and lower finite element estimates of radius and tibia bone strength in adults with turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    Although bone mass appear ample for bone size in Turner syndrome (TS), epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of fracture in TS. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure standard morphological parameters of bone geometry and microar......Although bone mass appear ample for bone size in Turner syndrome (TS), epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of fracture in TS. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure standard morphological parameters of bone geometry...

  4. Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161575.html Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health Study finds heavy users ... 19, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana may be bad to the bone, a new ...

  5. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100112.htm Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  7. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... Find More Information? For Your Information What Is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a family of compounds ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ...

  9. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  10. [Pharmacology of bone anabolic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-10-01

    Bone is constantly remodeled to maintain its volume, structural integrity and strength Currently available bone anabolic agent is teriparatide. Teriparatide increases bone mass and strength via both remodeling-dependent and -independent mechanisms, although remodeling-dependent mechanism overweighs the other. Canonical Wnt signal plays an important role in enhancing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and its osteocyte-derived inhibitor, sclerostin, regulates bone formation via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Anti-sclerostin antibody stimulates Wnt signaling and enhances bone formation. Phase II clinical trials with anti-sclerostin antibodies, romosozumab and blosozumab, demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density after one year of treatment. The new modality of anabolic agents via remodeling-independent stimulation of bone formation may open up a new avenue for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  11. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Donate Now Select Page Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Late Effects of Treatment > Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer Limb salvage is a surgical procedure that replaces ...

  12. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin Denosumab Doxorubicin Hydrochloride ...

  13. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  14. Serum ferritin in liver and bone malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin concentration is increased during iron overload, however, during chronic infection and malignant diseases as well. In 383 patients with proven malignancy or suspicion of a malignant disease liver and/or bone scans were performed and serum ferritin was measured in addition. Although there exists a certain linkage between the tumorous disease and serum ferritin level, a definite correlation does not exist. Furthermore serum ferritin is not a measure to differentiate between infectious and malignant diseases. (orig.)

  15. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) MRI contrast agent for bone marrow imaging. Differentiating bone metastasis and osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored appropriate scan timing for bone marrow imaging enhanced using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and evaluated the usefulness of SPIO in differentiating metastasis and osteomyelitis in patients. The method of this study was to determine the adequate scan timing after administration of SPIO, 5 healthy subjects were examined using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanner. Sagittal images of their lumbar spines were obtained using short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) sequence before and 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours after intravenous injection of 8 μmol Fe/kg SPIO (ferucarbotran). MR signal intensities (SIs) were evaluated. Based on the results, 12 patients, five with bone metastasis and seven with vertebral osteomyelitis, were examined using the same procedure before and 3 hours after intravenous injection of ferucarbotran at the same dose. SIs of the bone metastases, osteomyelitis, and surrounding normal bone marrow were measured, and relative enhancement (RE) was calculated for each lesion. In the healthy volunteers, maximum reduction in signal was observed 3 to 24 hours (P<0.05) after administration of SPIO; thereafter and up to 48 hours, the SI gradually recovered. In the patients, the RE of the bone metastases was -12.2%, which was significantly higher than that in the osteomyelitis (- 35.0%, P<.001) and normal bone marrow (-46.6%, P<.0005). Maximum suppression of signal intensity in bone marrow was seen 3 hours after injection of ferucarbotran, the point at which ferucarbotran allows differentiation of bone metastasis from ostoemyelitis. (author)

  16. Quantitative ultrasound bone measurements of different gestational age premature infants at birth in Guangzhou zone%广州地区不同胎龄早产儿出生时骨定量超声值测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿柳红; 李思涛; 庄桂英; 徐庆活; 杨文欢; 肖昕

    2013-01-01

    目的 测定广州地区不同胎龄早产儿出生时的骨定量超声值,并与高加索白人种早产儿比较,了解广州地区早产儿骨骼发育的状况,评价定量超声技术的实用性.方法 采用以色列Sunlight公司生产的Omnisense定量超声仪,对2010年6月至2012年6月在广州市花都区妇幼保健院出生的不同胎龄的早产儿进行左侧胫骨声波速度(SOS)测量,并与高加索白人种进行比较.结果 广州地区出生的1039例不同胎龄早产儿根据胎龄分为A、B、C、D组(≤30周、30+1 ~32周、32+1~34周和34+1~ 36+6周4组).4组早产儿出生时所测得的SOS值分别为(2892.05±139.17) m/s、(2936.84±137.87) m/s、(2966.65±116.60) m/s和(2988.63±120.74) m/s,SOS值随胎龄增加而增加,差别有统计学意义(F=15.758,P=0.000),但各组中男女童之间SOS值无明显差异(F =2.665,P =0.103).广州地区不同胎龄的早产儿出生时SOS值的差距(定义为Z值)与高加索白人种比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.117),男女比较差异亦无统计学意义(F=3.494,P=0.062).结论 早产儿SOS值随早产儿成熟度增加而升高;广州地区的不同胎龄早产儿出生时骨强度与高加索白人种无明显差距;骨定量超声技术可用于临床评价早产儿骨发育情况.%Objective To measure the values of quantitative ultrasound(QUS) of different gestational age preterm infants at birth in Guangzhou area,and compare them with the values of Caucasian preterm infants in order to get insight into the bone development status of preterm infants in Guangzhou area and to evaluate the practicability of QUS.Methods The Omnisense quantitative ultrasound produced by Israel Sunlight company was used to measure the bone speed of sound(SOS) of left tibia of preterm infants born between Jun.2010 and Jun.2012 in Maternity and Children Health Hospital of Huadu District in Guangzhou,and the values of SOS of Caucasian preterm infants was compared.Results There were totally

  17. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Remodeling*

    OpenAIRE

    Raggatt, Liza J; Partridge, Nicola C

    2010-01-01

    Physiological bone remodeling is a highly coordinated process responsible for bone resorption and formation and is necessary to repair damaged bone and to maintain mineral homeostasis. In addition to the traditional bone cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) that are necessary for bone remodeling, several immune cells have also been implicated in bone disease. This minireview discusses physiological bone remodeling, outlining the traditional bone biology dogma in light of emerging ...

  18. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  19. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-02-01

    From a public health perspective, developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the well-known increase in fracture risk of human bone with age is essential. This also represents a challenge from materials science and fracture mechanics viewpoints. Bone has a complex, hierarchical structure with characteristic features ranging from nanometer to macroscopic dimensions; it is therefore significantly more complex than most engineering materials. Nevertheless, by examining the micro-/nano-structural changes accompanying the process of aging using appropriate multiscale experimental methods and relating them to fracture mechanics data, it is possible to obtain a quantitative picture of how bone resists fracture. As human cortical bone exhibits rising ex vivo crack-growth resistance with crack extension, its fracture toughness must be evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior. While the crack initiation toughness declines with age, the more striking finding is that the crack-growth toughness declines even more significantly and is essentially absent in bone from donors exceeding 85 years in age. To explain such an age-induced deterioration in the toughness of bone, we evaluate its fracture properties at multiple length scales, specifically at the molecular and nanodimensions using pico-force atomic-force microscopy, nanoindentation and vibrational spectroscopies, at the microscale using electron microscopy and hard/soft x-ray computed tomography, and at the macroscale using R-curve measurements. We show that the reduction in crack-growth toughness is associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging, and that this occurs at relatively coarse size-scales in the range of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Finally, we briefly describe how specific clinical treatments, e.g., with steroid hormones to treat various inflammatory conditions, can prematurely damage bone, thereby reducing its

  20. A clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome. (author)