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Sample records for bone sonometer measurements

  1. Comparing the T scores from bone sonometer measurements in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droege M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity is an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Non-Hispanic white or Asian women are commonly considered at higher risk than other ethnicities. Hispanics in the U.S. are of Mexican, Caribbean, Central American, or South American descent. Conclusive data on the relative risk of osteoporosis in Hispanic women based upon heritage within the Hispanic population are not available. Objective: To investigate whether Hispanic white women are at a significantly lower risk than non-Hispanic whites for the development of osteoporosis. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Community health screenings. Participants: Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Intervention: Bone density measurements of the non-dominant heel. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including regression analyses were performed using SPSS 14.0. Main Outcomes Measure: T scores. Results: Overall, measurements were obtained from 352 women (209 Hispanic & 143 non-Hispanic white ranging in age from 55-97 years old. The mean T score obtained for Hispanic women was -1.194 and -1.280 for non-Hispanic white women. The correlation between the obtained T score and age was negative (r = -0.36, p<0.01, reflecting bone loss with increasing age. Regression analysis using age and ethnicity showed that ethnicity was a non-significant contributor to the best-fit regression line (t=0.60, p=0.55. Conclusion: This study indicates that Hispanic white women may be at comparable risk of developing osteoporosis as non-Hispanic white women.

  2. Measurement of fluoride in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mernagh, J.R.; Harrision, J.E.; Hancock, R.; McNeill, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    The fluorine concentration in bone biopsy samples was measured by neutron activation analysis. The fluorine content was expressed in terms of the calcium content. Samples were irradiated in a reactor to induce the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reactions and after rapid transport from the reactor the resulting activities were measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Reproducibility was better than 10% for the F/Ca ratio. The detection limit for F is 50 μg. This nondestructive technique will be used to assess the effect of fluoride therapy on bone metabolism of patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. (author)

  3. Measures of Complexity to quantify Bone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparin, Peter; Gowin, Wolfgang; Kurths, Jürgen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    1998-03-01

    We propose a technique to assess structure of the bone in its spatial distribution by describing and quantifying the structural architecture as a whole. The concept of measures of complexity based on symbolic dynamics is applied to computed tomography (CT) - images obtained from human lumbar vertebra. CT-images have been transformed into images consisting of 5 different symbols, whereby both statical and dynamical coding are included. Different aspects of the bone structure are quantified by several measures which have been introduced: index of global ensemble of elements composing the bone; complexity, homogeneity and dynamics within the bone architecture; complexity and inhomogeneity of the trabecular net. This leads to new insides to the understanding of bone's internal structure. The results give the first experimental and quantitative evidence of the theoretical prediction that complexity of bone structure declines rapidly with the increased disintegration of bone structures leading to the loss of bone mass and specify experimentally that bone structure is exponentially related to its density. Especially, osteoporotic vertebrae are less complex organized than normal ones. In addition, this method is significantly sensitive to changes in bone structure and provides improvements of diagnostic of pathological structural loss.

  4. Diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiography in detection of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sunanda; Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Pagare, Sandeep S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded) of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW) in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months). Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape) were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as speed of sound in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard). The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P panoramic radiograph are effective indicators of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women.

  5. Bone assessment via thermal photoacoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Tian, Chao; Perosky, Joseph; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of an innovative biomedical diagnostic technique, thermal photoacoustic (TPA) measurement, for nonionizing and non-invasive assessment of bone health is investigated. Unlike conventional photoacoustic PA methods which are mostly focused on the measurement of absolute signal intensity, TPA targets the change in PA signal intensity as a function of the sample temperature, i.e. the temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which is closely relevant to the chemical and molecular properties in the sample. Based on the differentiation measurement, the results from TPA technique is less susceptible to the variations associated with sample and system, and could be quantified with improved accurately. Due to the fact that the PA signal intensity from organic components such as blood changes faster than that from non-organic mineral under the same modulation of temperature, TPA measurement is able to objectively evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and its loss as a result of osteoporosis. In an experiment on well established rat models of bone loss and preservation, PA measurements of rat tibia bones were conducted over a temperature range from 370 C to 440 C. The slope of PA signal intensity verses temperature was quantified for each specimen. The comparison among three groups of specimens with different BMD shows that bones with lower BMD have higher slopes, demonstrating the potential of the proposed TPA technique in future clinical management of osteoporosis.

  6. Bone mineral content measurement in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L.M.; Gross, M.D.

    1987-02-01

    Objective determinations of bone mineral content (BMC) are seldom required for the diagnosis of the metabolic and hormonal disorders which may result in osteoporosis. They are, however, required to document the osteoporosis itself as this is usually subclinical until late in the natural history of the disease process. Measurement of BMC in these disease processes is an important research tool in determining the effect of the disorder on the skeleton at different stages of the natural history and in investigating the effects of therapy and other interventions. Measurements of BMC may be useful in clinical practice in deciding whether to intervene in certain circumstances (e.g. asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism) or to withhold certain therapies (e.g. glucocorticoids) or to alter therapy (e.g. change from glucocorticoids to nonsteroidal immunosuppressives in autoimmune diseases). It may also play a role in monitoring the responses to therapeutic interventions.

  7. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Test Do? The T-Score World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Low Bone Mass ... number, the more severe the osteoporosis. World Health Organization Definitions Based on Bone Density Levels Level Definition Normal ...

  8. Diagnostic Efficacy of Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. Materials and Methods: The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months. Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as "speed of sound" in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard. Results: The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P < 0.001, partial eta squared [η2 ] =0.85, a non-significant correlation with mandibular CW, (F = 1.6, P = 0.23, η2 = 0.86, and a more significant correlation with combined cortical shape and width (F = 3.3, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.70. Conclusion: The study concludes that the combined mandibular

  9. Non-invasive clinical measurements of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are now available for measurement of both compact and trabecular bone on both the appendicular and axial skeleton. Radiogrammetry and photodensitometry both are subject to large errors in areas of heavy tissue cover but precise measurements can be made on the hand bones. Single-photon absorptiometry with 125 I provides a more accurate and precise measure of appendicular compact bone, which is particularly useful for screening of metabolic bone disease and for monitoring renal osteodystrophy. Dual-photon absorptiometry with 153 Gd provides a measurement of the femoral neck and of the lumbar spine and hence is the most diagnostically sensitive measurement method. It is also the most sensitive for monitoring bone changes

  10. Measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content using dual photon absorptiometry. Usefulness in metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, P.D.; Duboeuf, F.; Braillon, P.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone density using an accurate, non-invasive method is a crucial step in the clinical investigation of metabolic bone diseases, especially osteoporosis. Among the recently available techniques, measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) using dual photon absorptiometry appears as the primary method because it is simple, inexpensive, and involves low levels of radiation exposure. In this study, we measured the BMC in 168 normal adults and 95 patients. Results confirmed the good reproducibility and sensitivity of this technique for quantifying bone loss in males and females with osteoporosis. Significant bone loss was found in most females with primary hyperparathyroidism. Dual photon absorptiometry can also be used for quantifying increases in bone mass in Paget disease of bone and diffuse osteosclerosis. Osteomalacia is responsible for a dramatic fall in BMC reflecting lack of mineralization of a significant portion of the bone matrix, a characteristic feature in this disease. Furthermore, in addition to being useful for diagnostic purposes and for evaluation of the vertebral fracture risk, lumbar spine absorptiometry can be used for monitoring the effectiveness of bone-specific treatments [fr

  11. Bone mineral density and computer tomographic measurements in correlation with failure strength of equine metacarpal bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Tóth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding bone mineral density and fracture characteristics of the equine metacarpus are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties of the equine metacarpal bone and its biomechanical and morphometric properties. Third metacarpal bones were extracted from horses euthanized unrelated to musculoskeletal conditions. In total, bone specimens from 26 front limbs of 13 horses (7.8 ± 5.8 years old including Lipizzaner (n = 5, Hungarian Warmblood (n = 2, Holsteiner (n = 2, Thoroughbred (n = 1, Hungarian Sporthorse (n = 1, Friesian (n = 1, and Shagya Arabian (n = 1 were collected. The horses included 7 mares, 4 stallions and 2 geldings. Assessment of the bone mineral density of the whole bone across four specific regions of interest was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bones were scanned using a computer tomographic scanner to measure cross-sectional morphometric properties such as bone mineral density and cross-sectional dimensions including cortical area and cortical width. Mechanical properties (breaking force, bending strength, elastic modulus were determined by a 3-point bending test. Significant positive linear correlations were found between the breaking force and bone mineral density of the entire third metacarpal bones (P P P in vivo investigations.

  12. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of bone mineral mass in clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N.R. van Berkum (Frank)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIt has now became possible to measure the bone mineral content in the axial as well as the peripheral skeleton. Moreover, with the use of computed tomography a selective assessment can be made of cancellous (trabecular) versus cortical bone mineral density. These technical

  14. Measurement of absolute bone blood flow by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmias, C.; Cockshott, W.P.; Garnett, E.S.; Belbeck, L.W.

    1986-03-01

    A method of measuring bone blood flow has been developed using /sup 18/F sodium fluoride and positron emission tomography. The blood flow levels are in line with those obtained experimentally from microsphere embolisation. This investigative method could be applied to elucidate a number of clinical questions involving bone perfusion.

  15. Estimation of Penetrated Bone Layers During Craniotomy via Bioimpedance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; Rohe, Lucas; Niesche, Annegret; Mueller, Meiko; Radermacher, Klaus; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    Craniotomy is the removal of a bone flap from the skull and is a first step in many neurosurgical interventions. During craniotomy, an efficient cut of the bone without injuring adjoining soft tissues is very critical. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of estimating the currently penetrated cranial bone layer by means of bioimpedance measurement. A finite-element model was developed and a simulation study conducted. Simulations were performed at different positions along an elliptical cutting path and at three different operation areas. Finally, the validity of the simulation was demonstrated by an ex vivo experiment based on use of a bovine shoulder blade bone and a commercially available impedance meter. The curve of the absolute impedance and phase exhibits characteristic changes at the transition from one bone layer to the next, which can be used to determine the bone layer last penetrated by the cutting tool. The bipolar electrode configuration is superior to the monopolar measurement. A horizontal electrode arrangement at the tip of the cutting tool produces the best results. This study successfully demonstrates the feasibility to detect the transition between cranial bone layers during craniotomy by bioimpedance measurements using electrodes located on the cutting tool. Based on the results of this study, bioimpedance measurement seems to be a promising option for intra operative ad hoc information about the bone layer currently penetrated and could contribute to patient safety during neurosurgery.

  16. Usefulness of bone mineral content measurement. Value of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fery-Lemonnier, E.; Viens-Bitker, C.; Roux, C.; Hazebroucq, V.; Legmann, P.

    1993-01-01

    The current interest in bone mineral density measurements is related to the frequency, the morbidity and the cost of osteoporosis, which is considered to be a public health problem in developed countries. The main risk factor of osteoporotic fractures is the reduction of bone mineral density. This risk factor can be prevented by hormonal therapy in post-menopausal women. So it is of interest to develop the bone mineral density measurement methods, in osteoporotic bone areas or the entire skeleton (absorptiometry). But the interpretation of the result in term of individual fracture risk, the choice of the bone site to be examined, and the indication of the measurement are still being discussed. A new method of bone status evaluation is currently available: the broad band ultrasonic attenuation, which measures the attenuation of ultrasounds through the calcaneus bone. The device is portable, inexpensive and radiation free, and may give quantitative and qualitative assessment of bone. However, the normal values, the relation with the absorptiometry results and the contribution of this method in fracture risk evaluation are currently studied. Osteoporosis risk evaluation is an important point of health management in post-menopausal women and elderly people. Large prospective studies with the different methods are in progress

  17. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  18. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  19. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, Sandra; Man, Stella A. de; Boot, Annemieke M.; Heus, Karen G.C.B.B.; Huijbers, Wim A.R.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  20. Bone mineral measurements and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteopenia) is a major factor in the development of osteoporotic fractures in women after the menopause. The pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been pursued by dual lines of investigation: (1) development of a model to describe involutional bone loss, (2) identification of those factors which result in some healthy women having a greater risk for osteoporosis than others. Bone mineral measurements have been made using in vivo neutron activation analysis and whole body counting for the measurement of total body calcium (TBCa), single photon absorptiometry for the measurement of bone mineral content of the distal radius and dual photon absorptiometry for measurement of the bone density of the spine. TBCa is higher in men than women and is lost at a slow linear rate in men. Blacks have a skeletal mass about 8-9% higher than Caucasians. Women have a similar loss of TBCa to men prior to menopause, but then have an accelerated rate of loss after menopause. The change in bone density of the radius and spine with increasing age is also best described by a 2 phase regression in women, with appreciable loss after age 50

  1. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  2. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1991-01-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.)

  3. Measurements of Strontium Levels in Human Bone In Vivo Using Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Mostafaei, Farshad; Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of bone strontium (Sr) is vital to determining the effectiveness of Sr supplementation, which is commonly used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Previous technology uses radioisotope sources and bulky equipment to measure bone Sr. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for bone Sr measurement and validates it using data from a population of 238 children. We identified correlations between bone Sr and age in our participants.

  4. Comparison of bone density measurement techniques: DXA and Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Jones, K L; Delany, J P; Kime, J C; Melancon, L E; Tulley, R T; Hong, K D

    1997-11-01

    The standard method for determination of density (g/cm3) of bones from small animals has been the application of Archimedes' principle. A recent development has been software for the determination of "density" (g/cm2) of small animal bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared Archimedes' principle and DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) in the measurement of the densities of whole and hollowed femurs of 5- to 6-month-old retired female breeder rats. In an attempt to ensure detectable treatment differences, rats were used from a low-vitamin D Holtzman and a supplemental-vitamin D Sprague-Dawley colony. Whole femur densities were higher for supplemental-vitamin D colony rats than for low vitamin D rats using both techniques (Archimedes' principle, p Archimedes' principle than for DXA. Other variables such as femur ash weight and calcium content were also highly correlated to densities with both techniques. Hollowed femur density values were higher than whole femur values with Archimedes' principle but lower with DXA. Colony effects for hollowed femur densities were diminished with Archimedes' principle (p < 0.03) and eliminated with DXA (p < 0.53). Investigation of whole bones is more biologically relevant, and both techniques were effective in detecting differences between whole femurs from low-vitamin D and supplemental-vitamin D colony rats.

  5. DXA measurements in rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine

    2011-01-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients...

  6. Measurement of bone density in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Doyle, Shevaun M; Vogiatzi, Maria G

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive synopsis of pediatric bone density. Osteoporosis of the adult is a well established clinical problem, and algorithms to diagnose and treat this disease are recognized throughout the medical community. Osteoporosis or 'low bone mass' in pediatrics, on the other hand, is a rather new and evolving area, with certain unique diagnostic and clinical challenges. Recent findings in the literature include benefits and limitations of pediatric bone densitometry techniques, proper interpretation of the results of these various techniques, efforts to establish standards and guidelines for diagnosing low bone mass in children and adolescents, optimization of bone growth and mineral accrual for life, pediatric bone mineral density and fracture risk prediction, as well as a clearer awareness of bone fragility in children. Throughout the last decade, great strides have been made in our understanding of pediatric metabolic bone disease. These will be the focus of this review.

  7. Precision of pQCT-measured total, trabecular and cortical bone area, content, density and estimated bone strength in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, W R D; Björkman, K M; Kawalilak, C E; Kehrig, A M; Wiebe, S; Kontulainen, S

    2017-06-01

    To define pQCT precision errors, least-significant-changes, and identify associated factors for bone outcomes at the radius and tibia in children. We obtained duplicate radius and tibia pQCT scans from 35 children (8-14yrs). We report root-mean-squared coefficient of variation (CV% RMS ) and 95% limits-of-agreement to characterize repeatability across scan quality and least-significant-changes for bone outcomes at distal (total and trabecular area, content and density; and compressive bone strength) and shaft sites (total area and content; cortical area content, density and thickness; and torsional bone strength). We used Spearman's rho to identify associations between CV% and time between measurements, child's age or anthropometrics. After excluding unanalyzable scans (6-10% of scans per bone site), CV% RMS ranged from 4% (total density) to 19% (trabecular content) at the distal radius, 4% (cortical content) to 8% (cortical thickness) at the radius shaft, 2% (total density) to 14% (trabecular content) at the distal tibia and from 2% (cortical content) to 6% (bone strength) at the tibia shaft. Precision errors were within 95% limits-of-agreement across scan quality. Age was associated (rho -0.4 to -0.5, p⟨0.05) with CV% at the tibia. Bone density outcomes and cortical bone properties appeared most precise (CV% RMS ⟨5%) in children.

  8. Annual bone loss and success rates of dental implants based on radiographic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, W.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Y.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Bone loss around dental implants is generally measured by monitoring changes in marginal bone level using radiographs. After the first year of implantation, an implant should have <0.2 mm annual loss of marginal bone level to satisfy the criteria of success. However, the process of

  9. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    Changes in trabecular bone composition during development of osteoporosis are used as a model for bone loss in microgravity conditions during a space flight. Symbolic dynamics and measures of complexity are proposed and applied to assess quantitatively the structural composition of bone tissue from...

  10. Safety of ultrasonic bone curette in ear surgery by measuring skull bone vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tsukasa; Mochizuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Kubota, Toshinori; Furukawa, Takatoshi; Koike, Takuji; Kakehata, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    Mastoidectomy using an ultrasonic bone curette (UBC) is as safe for the inner ear as a mastoidectomy using a high-speed drill. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) is a minimally invasive, secure, and functional technique, which has been performed using high-speed drills. We have started to use a UBC instead of the high-speed drill because a UBC allows for simultaneous bone cutting, irrigation, and aspiration. These features of the UBC make it an excellent candidate for use in one-handed TEES, but the safety of the UBC still needs to be confirmed. We thus measured skull vibrations caused by the UBC to estimate the effects of UBC on the inner ear. Eight patients with cholesteatoma underwent mastoidectomy using a Sonopet UST-2001 UBC (Stryker, MI, USA) and 2 high-speed drills (drills A and B). Skull vibrations were measured using polyvinylidene difluoride film taped to the forehead as a piezoelectric vibration sensor. The recorded data were transformed to the power spectrum in the frequency domain by fast Fourier transform. The mean and peak values of vibrations were analyzed in four frequency bands: 200 to 500 Hz, 500 to 2,000 Hz, 2,000 to 8,000 Hz, and 8,000 Hz to 20 kHz. Both the mean values and the peak values of skull vibrations caused by the UBC were significantly smaller than those values obtained for drill B between 500 and 8,000 Hz, (p vibration levels generated by the UBC were found to be comparable or even lower than those levels associated with conventional high-speed drills. These findings indicated that the UBC can be safely applied to TEES without the risk of harmful effects on the inner ear.

  11. DXA measurements in Rett syndrome reveal small bones with low bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roende, Gitte; Ravn, Kirstine; Fuglsang, Kathrine; Andersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jytte Bieber; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2011-09-01

    Low bone mass is reported in growth-retarded patients harboring mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene causing Rett syndrome (RTT). We present the first study addressing both bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in RTT. Our object was to determine whether patients with RTT do have low BMD when correcting for smaller bones by examination with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared areal BMD (aBMD(spine) and aBMD(total hip) ) and volumetric bone mineral apparent density (vBMAD(spine) and vBMAD(neck) ) in 61 patients and 122 matched healthy controls. Further, spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD of patients were associated with clinical risk factors of low BMD, low-energy fractures, MECP2 mutation groups, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Patients with RTT had reduced bone size on the order of 10% and showed lower values of spine and hip aBMD and vBMAD (p bone mass and small bones are evident in RTT, indicating an apparent low-bone-formation phenotype. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    values decreased with age (P shoulder BMD levels increased significantly with increased body mass index (BMI) (P positive relationship between the increased hip/shoulder BMD differential with BMI supports the conclusion that the shoulder is subject......The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... of osteoporosis compared with hip scans, the latter representing a weight-bearing part of the skeleton. We developed a scanning procedure, including a shoulder fixation device, and determined the most appropriate software in order to establish a reference material with the highest possible precision. Duplicate...

  13. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  14. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  15. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  16. Three-dimensional measurement of temporal bone by using personal computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hiroki; Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Azuma, Hiroji; Itou, Akihiko [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of anatomical indices in human temporal bone has been reported only sporadically using high resolution CT. We developed a method for measuring such indices by computer assisted processing of images obtained by high resolusion CT. Intensive measurement of distances between all anatomical points in the entire temporal bone structure became possible with this method. (author)

  17. Basic concepts of optical measuring of bone thickness with IR-beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Regine; Deppe, Herbert; Lueth, Tim C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept for measuring bone thickness via optically analyzing of hard tissue. In many surgical disciplines effecting bone treatment, like oral and maxillofacial surgery or otolaryngology, the knowledge of existing bone material is very important in order not to hurt anatomically sensitive structures. The existing bone material can be determined preoperatively using imaging procedures. However, the surgeon has no information about the residual bone thickness during the intervention. As a consequence of this, the distance between the tip of his instrument and sensitive structures is also unknown. Therefore, it would be very useful, if the bone thickness could be measured concurrently to the bone ablation. In this work, bone was irradiated with IR-Light and the reflection was detected. It would be examined, if there was an interrelation between bone thickness and reflection and how it could be measured. The results of the experiments show, that by means of this method it is possible to detect different bone thicknesses for a bone thickness < 1 mm.

  18. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The associations between QCT-based vertebral bone measurements and prevalent vertebral fractures depend on the spinal locations of both bone measurement and fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. E.; Demissie, S.; Allaire, B. T.; Bruno, A. G.; Kopperdahl, D. L.; Keaveny, T. M.; Kiel, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We examined how spinal location affects the relationships between quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based bone measurements and prevalent vertebral fractures. Upper spine (T4–T10) fractures appear to be more strongly related to bone measures than lower spine (T11–L4) fractures, while lower spine measurements are at least as strongly related to fractures as upper spine measurements. Introduction Vertebral fracture (VF), a common injury in older adults, is most prevalent in the mid-thoracic (T7–T8) and thoracolumbar (T12–L1) areas of the spine. However, measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) are typically made in the lumbar spine. It is not clear how the associations between bone measurements and VFs are affected by the spinal locations of both bone measurements and VF. Methods A community-based case–control study includes 40 cases with moderate or severe prevalent VF and 80 age- and sex-matched controls. Measures of vertebral BMD, strength (estimated by finite element analysis), and factor of risk (load:strength ratio) were determined based on QCT scans at the L3 and T10 vertebrae. Associations were determined between bone measures and prevalent VF occurring at any location, in the upper spine (T4–T10), or in the lower spine (T11–L4). Results Prevalent VF at any location was significantly associated with bone measures, with odds ratios (ORs) generally higher for measurements made at L3 (ORs=1.9–3.9) than at T10 (ORs=1.5–2.4). Upper spine fracture was associated with these measures at both T10 and L3 (ORs=1.9–8.2), while lower spine fracture was less strongly associated (ORs=1.0–2.4) and only reached significance for volumetric BMD measures at L3. Conclusions Closer proximity between the locations of bone measures and prevalent VF does not strengthen associations between bone measures and fracture. Furthermore, VF etiology may vary by region, with VFs in the upper spine more strongly related to skeletal fragility. PMID:23925651

  20. Feasibility of Quantitative Ultrasound Measurement of the Heel Bone in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, S.; Lobker, B.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures are common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Reduced mobility in case of motor impairment and the use of anti-epileptic drugs contribute to the development of low BMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of the heel bone is a non-invasive and radiation-free method for measuring bone…

  1. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L; Oldknow, Karla J; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2014-12-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1(-/-) and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1(-/-)). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality. Copyright © 2014

  2. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  3. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nieman, Fred H.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. {sup 18}F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  4. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  5. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references

  6. Method to measure the force to pull and to break pin bones of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Murat O; Jie, Hubert; Yin Yee, Yin; Alçiçek, Zayde

    2015-02-01

    A texture measurement device was modified to measure the force required to pull pin bones from King salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), snapper (Pagrus auratus), and kahawai (Arripis trutta). Pulled bones were also subjected to tension to measure the breaking force. For all fish, the pulling force depended on the size of the fish, and on the length of the pin bone (P bones. For example, fresh small salmon (about 1500 g whole) required 600 g on average to pull pin bones, and large fish (about 3700 g whole) required 850 g. Longer bones required greater pulling force. The breaking force followed the same trend. In general, the breaking force was greater than the pulling force. This allows the removal of the bones without breaking them. There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference between the forces (both pulling and breaking) from fresh and frozen/thawed samples, although in general frozen/thawed samples required less force to pull. With the quantification of pulling and breaking forces for pin bones, it is possible to design and build better, "more intelligent" pin bone removal equipment. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Phantom studies of triple photon absorptiometry and bone mineral measurement at a hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, T.J.; Webber, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using triple photon absorptiometry (TPA) for the measurement of bone mineral mass about a hip prosthesis was examined. A theoretical expression describing the variance of TPA measurements was verified using a triple photon source and phantom materials which simulate the soft tissue-bone mineral-metal prosthesis system. The expression for the variance was used to determine an optimized set of photon energies. It was shown that a precision of 3% could be obtained for reasonable measurement times using this optimized set of energies and that TPA should be a feasible approach for measurement of bone mineral about a hip prosthesis. (orig.)

  8. Human biology at the interface of paediatrics: measuring bone mineral accretion during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemel, Babette S

    2012-09-01

    Professor Tanner established a paradigm for the study of growth and development that demands precise growth measurements, description of normal variability through development to adulthood, consideration of the effects of tempo and the study of factors that influence growth outcomes. The relatively new field of paediatric bone health assessment fits this paradigm and reflects the collaboration of human biologists and paediatricians in understanding the growth of the human skeleton. This review describes the reasons for clinical assessment of bone density in children, the technological developments in bone health assessment in children, the development of reference curves and the effects of growth, body composition, pubertal timing, genetics and lifestyle on bone health outcomes.

  9. Intercomparison of techniques for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of methods are presently available for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass of both normal individuals and patients with metabolic disorders. Chief among these methods are radiographic techniques such as radiogrammetry, photon absorptiometry, computer tomography, Compton scattering and neutron activation analysis. In this review, the salient features of the bone measurement techniques are discussed along with their accuracy and precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques for measuring bone mass are summarized. Where possible, intercomparisons are made of the various techniques

  10. Mechanical characterization and optoelectronic measurement of parietal bone thickness before and after monocortical bone graft harvest: design and validation of a test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Boris; Geais, Laurent; Tranquart, François; Goga, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Parietal bone grafts are commonly used in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, bone removal may weaken the parietal bone and lead to deleterious complications. The aim of our study was to design a test protocol for characterization of the impact resistance of parietal bone before and after monocortical bone graft harvest and to validate an optoelectronic measurement of parietal bone thickness. Twelve fresh human cadaver heads were used for the validation study. To evaluate impact resistance, we developed a pendulum Charpy impact testing machine. The impact force was gradually increased until failure (fracture) of the defined parietal bone area. According to the protocol, we measured the maximum absorbable energy or impact force to failure. With our test setup, measurement of the impact resistance of parietal bone was accurate to within 0.025 J. We defined a range of values and particularly a threshold value. The initial maximal impact must not to exceed 4 J. For more accuracy, we compared 5 nondestructive measurement methods using a surgical navigation system with optoelectronic tracking. We achieved an algorithm based on 2 methods that ensured a measurement resolution of 0.1 mm. Validation of this protocol will allow us to evaluate the loss of strength resulting from bone removal and the correlation between strength and thickness of the parietal bone.

  11. Three-dimensional quantification of structures in trabecular bone using measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2009-01-01

    evaluate different aspects of organization and complexity of 3D structures, such as complexity of its surface or shape variability. We apply these measures to 3D data acquired by high-resolution microcomputed tomography (µCT) from human proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae at different stages...... of osteoporotic bone loss. The outcome is compared to the results of conventional static histomorphometry and exhibits clear relationships between the analyzed geometrical features of trabecular bone and loss of bone density, but also indicate that the measures reveal additional information about the structural...

  12. Measurement of maxillary sinus volume and available alveolar bone height using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hak; Han, Won Jeong; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    To aid in determining the volume of graft bone required before a maxillary sinus lift procedure and compare the alveolar bone height measurements taken by panoramic radiographs to those by CT images. Data obtained by both panoramic radiographs and CT examination of 25 patients were used in this study. Maxillary sinus volumes from the antral floor to heights of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm , were calculated. Alveolar bone height was measured on the panoramic images at each maxillary tooth site and corrected by magnification rate (PBH). Available bone height (ABH) and full bone height (FBH) was measured on reconstructed CT images. PBH was compared with ABH and FBH at the maxillary incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Volumes of the inferior portion of the sinuses were 0.55 {+-} 0.41 cm{sup 3} for 5 mm lifts, 2.11 {+-} 0.68 cm{sup 3} for 10 mm, 4.26 {+-} 1.32 cm{sup 3} for 15 mm, 6.95 {+-} 2.01 cm{sup 3} for 20 mm. For the alveolar bone measurement, measurements by panoramic images were longer than available bone heights determined by CT images at the incisor and canine areas, and shorter than full bone heights on CT images at incisor, premolar, and molar areas (p<0.001). In bone grafting of the maxillary sinus floor, 0,96 cm{sup 3} or more is required for a 5 mm - lift, 2.79 cm{sup 3} or more for a 10 mm - lift, 5.58 cm{sup 3} or more for a 15 mm - lift, and 8.96 cm{sup 3} or more for a 20 mm - lift. Maxillary implant length determined using panoramic radiograph alone could result in underestimation or overestimation, according to the site involved.

  13. Bone height measurements of implant sites: Comparison of panoramic radiography and spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the bone height of implant sites measured using panoramic radiography and spiral CT. The available bone height was determined for 263 maxillary and mandibular implant sites in 59 patients. Distortion was calculated using the metal bar for the panoramic radiographs. Significant differences in mean bone height between the two imaging modalities were found in maxillary and mandibular anterior regions (p<0.05). The mean difference in bone height recorded by the two techniques was smallest in the maxillary and mandibular molar areas (0.8 mm), and greatest in the mandibular anterior region (1.3 mm). With the exception of the mandibular anterior region, ninety percent of all the sites showed measurement differences within 2 mm. A safety margin of 2 to 3 mm is called for when utilizing panoramic radiography, otherwise additional imaging modality such as computed tomography is necessary to obtain accurate measurements.

  14. Natural Ca Isotope Composition of Urine as a Rapid Measure of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Morgan, J.; Romaniello, S. J.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring stable Ca isotope variations in urine are emerging as a powerful tool to detect changes in bone mineral balance. Bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases isotopically light Ca into soft tissue. Previously published work found that variations in Ca isotope composition could be detected at 4 weeks of bed rest in a 90-day bed rest study (data collected at 4, 8 and 12 weeks). A new 30-day bed rest study involved 12 patients on a controlled diet, monitored for 7 days prior to bed rest and 7 days post bed rest. Samples of urine, blood and food were collected throughout the study. Four times daily blood samples and per void urine samples were collected to monitor diurnal or high frequency variations. An improved chemical purification protocol, followed by measurement using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) allowed accurate and precise determinations of mass-dependent Ca isotope variations in these biological samples to better than ±0.2% (δ44/42Ca) on biomarker. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged over this period. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Using a mass-balance model, our results indicate an average loss of 0.62 ± 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. This is consistent with the rate of bone loss in longer-term studies as seen by X-ray measurements. This Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  15. Measurement of the dispersion and attenuation of cylindrical ultrasonic guided waves in long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi; Wang, YuanYuan; Le, Lawrence H; Zhou, Yuqing

    2009-04-01

    Osteoporotic bones are likely to have less cortical bone than healthy bones. The velocities of guided waves propagating in a long cylindrical bone are very sensitive to bone properties and cortical thickness (CTh). This work studies the dispersion and attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves propagating in long cylindrical bone. A hollow cylinder filled with a viscous liquid was used to model the long bone and then to calculate the theoretical phase and group velocities, as well as the attenuation of the waves. The generation and selection of guided wave modes were based on theoretical dispersive curves. The phase velocity and attenuation of cylindrical guided wave modes, such as L(0,1), L(0,2) and L(0,3), were measured in bovine tibia using angled beam transducers at various propagation distances ranging from 75 to 160 mm. The results showed that the phase velocity of the L(0,2) guided wave mode decreased with an increase in CTh. The attenuation of the low cylindrical guided wave modes was a nonlinear function that increased with propagation distance and mode order. The L(0,2) mode had a different attenuation for each CTh. The experimental results were in good agreement with the predicted values. Cylindrical guided waves of low-frequency and low-order have been shown to demonstrate more dispersion and less attenuation and should, therefore, be used to evaluate long bone.

  16. Automatic methods for alveolar bone loss degree measurement in periodontitis periapical radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P L; Huang, P Y; Huang, P W

    2017-09-01

    Periodontitis involves progressive loss of alveolar bone around the teeth. Hence, automatic alveolar bone loss measurement in periapical radiographs can assist dentists in diagnosing such disease. In this paper, we propose an automatic length-based alveolar bone loss measurement system with emphasis on a cementoenamel junction (CEJ) localization method: CEJ_LG. The bone loss measurement system first adopts the methods TSLS and ABLifBm, which we presented previously, to extract teeth contours and bone loss areas from periodontitis radiograph images. It then applies the proposed methods to locate the positions of CEJ, alveolar crest (ALC), and apex of tooth root (APEX), respectively. Finally the system computes the ratio of the distance between the positions of CEJ and ALC to the distance between the positions of CEJ and APEX as the degree of bone loss for that tooth. The method CEJ_LG first obtains the gradient of the tooth image then detects the border between the lower enamel and dentin (EDB) from the gradient image. Finally, the method identifies a point on the tooth contour that is horizontally closest to the EDB. Experimental results on 18 tooth images segmented from 12 periodontitis periapical radiographs, including 8 views of upper-jaw teeth and 10 views of lower-jaw teeth, show that 53% of the localized CEJs are within 3 pixels deviation (∼ 0.15 mm) from the positions marked by dentists and 90% have deviation less than 9 pixels (∼ 0.44 mm). For degree of alveolar bone loss, more than half of the measurements using our system have deviation less than 10% from the ground truth, and all measurements using our system are within 25% deviation from the ground truth. Our results suggest that the proposed automatic system can effectively estimate degree of horizontal alveolar bone loss in periodontitis radiograph images. We believe that our proposed system, if implemented in routine clinical practice, can serve as a valuable tool for early and accurate

  17. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, L.

    2003-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  18. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M. Jayed, E-mail: zed.hossain06@gmail.com; Rahman, M. Moshiur, E-mail: razib-121@yahoo.com; Alam, Morshed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  19. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity.

  20. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity

  1. Reproducibility of techniques using Archimedes' principle in measuring cancellous bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L; Bloebaum, R D; Bachus, K N

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have been interested in developing techniques to accurately and reproducibly measure the volume fraction of cancellous bone. Historically bone researchers have used Archimedes' principle with water to measure the volume fraction of cancellous bone. Preliminary results in our lab suggested that the calibrated water technique did not provide reproducible results. Because of this difficulty, it was decided to compare the conventional water method to a water with surfactant and a helium method using a micropycnometer. The water/surfactant and the helium methods were attempts to improve the fluid penetration into the small voids present in the cancellous bone structure. In order to compare the reproducibility of the new methods with the conventional water method, 16 cancellous bone specimens were obtained from femoral condyles of human and greyhound dog femora. The volume fraction measurements on each specimen were repeated three times with all three techniques. The results showed that the helium displacement method was more than an order of magnitudes more reproducible than the two other water methods (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis also showed that the conventional water method produced the lowest reproducibility (p < 0.05). The data from this study indicate that the helium displacement technique is a very useful, rapid and reproducible tool for quantitatively characterizing anisotropic porous tissue structures such as cancellous bone.

  2. Autoradiography of lyophilized animal sections. Bone density measurement in osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Hideki; Asahara, Nobumitsu; Baba, Shigeo; Kimata, Hideki; Tateishi, Mitsuru; Koide, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    To gain a better understanding on the β-ray radiography of lyophilized animal sections, the bone densities of the osteoporosis rats were measured using a 147 Pm planar radiation source. An imaging plate as a radiation sensor was overlaid on the animal section together with a density calibrator. After exposure, radioactivity recorded on the sensor was quantified using a bio-imaging analyzer. The density calibration curve showed linearity in the wide range with a good correlation coefficient (R 2 ≥0.999). The inter- and intra-plate variability showed CV values less than 3.7%. On the measurement of bone density, bone density differences between the sham group and ovariectomized (OVX) group were statistically significant in the femoral cortical (p=0.001) and trabecular bone (p=0.07), and vertebral trabecular bone (p=0.043). Based on these results, we developed a new and valuable method, which made it possible to measure bone density of axial skeleton of a rat, as an alternative to commonly used methods. (author)

  3. Bone densitometry by gamma ray attenuation measurement. Development of an apparatus for use on medullary casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, E.J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    We proposed to follow changes in the bone mineral content of medullary damage cases by measuring the attenuation of a monoenergetic gamma ray according to the Cameron and Sorenson technique. Apart from their high cost, existing instruments are not designed for this bedside observation of patients. Our aim was therefore to design and develop an easily portable, inexpensive apparatus. The γ radiation is supplied by a sealed 125 I source fitted with a narrow collimator. The battery-operated scintillation detector is that used to detect post-operative phlebites after injection of radio-fibrinogen. The source-detector unit can move to allow a transverse bone mineral content measurement. Data from the detector are processed electronically and the results given: - either graphically on a tracing board which gives an area proportional to the bone mineral content, - or numerically by means of an integrator computing this area and supplying the linear bone density directly. Experiments carried out in vivo showed the apparatus to be sensitive and the measurements reproducible, the results obtained being comparable with those of other authors. Using pieces of embalmed bone moreover an excellent correlation was observed between the bone mineral content obtained after incineration and the results displayed by our apparatus, which can therefore be calibrated [fr

  4. Measurement of skull bone thickness for bone-anchored hearing aids: an experimental study comparing both a novel ultrasound system (SonoPointer) and computed tomographic scanning to mechanical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, Philipp A; Tretbar, Steffen H; Böhlen, Friederike H; Rohde, Stefan; Glaser, Simon; Plinkert, Peter K

    2010-04-01

    A-mode ultrasound scanning with coded signals allows bone thickness measurements at the site of bone-anchored hearing aid surgery as compared to computed tomographic scanning and mechanical measurements. Adequate bone thickness is a prerequisite for successful, long-lasting osseointegration of titanium fixtures for bone-anchored hearing aids. Computed tomography can be used to measure bone thickness but has several drawbacks. Bone thickness was measured at the site of bone-anchored hearing aids surgery in 28 formaldehyde-preserved human cadaver temporoparietal bones. Four blinded investigators used a hand-held, A-mode ultrasound system with direct coupling at 2.25 MHz transducer using coded signals (SonoPointer) and repeated the measurements twice. Comparisons were made with high-resolution computed tomographic scanning and mechanical micrometer caliper measurements. There was significant anatomical variation in the temporoparietal bones. Computed tomography was in good agreement with the mechanical reference. All specimens could be measured by the SonoPointer. The mean difference between the mechanical control and ultrasound scanning averaged for all measurements by all investigators was 0.3 mm (standard deviation, 1.2 mm). Trained ultrasound experts yielded better results (mean difference, 0.3 mm; standard deviation, 1.0 mm). Agreement was best for bone thickness up to 5 mm. Outliers occurred in bones thicker than 7.5 mm. The SonoPointer is a promising, noninvasive, hand-held tool for real-time measurement of bone thickness in bone-anchored hearing aid surgery, especially for children. Even disregarding the absolute thickness reading, the SonoPointer could be used to search intraoperatively for a local maximum of bone thickness.

  5. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD spine ) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC forearm ) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD spine and BMC forearm showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD spine or BMC forearm with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC forearm had an intermediate position, whereas BMD spine had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD spine or BMC forearm , whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author)

  6. Measurement of trace cadmium and elements in bone by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlati, R.; Jervis, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was applied to measure quantitatively Cd and other elements in bone samples from control and Cd-fed rats. This method was found to be non-destructive to the bone samples, with no sign of 'radiolytic charring' and was sensitive enough to detect and quantify Cd in bone samples at normal levels for mammals (viz. 0.5-1.0 μg/g) and higher. Two different thermal neutron shield materials were utilized, namely cadmium and boron. The boron shield resulted in a 27% improvement in the detection limit of Cd in bone. The accuracy of ENAA for Cd was assessed by intercomparison with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS), and the results in fair agreement (±23%) with those from ENAA

  7. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used.

  8. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  9. Architectural measures of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle identified by principal components analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, E.B.W.; Ding, M.; Dalstra, M.; Eijden, T.M. van

    2003-01-01

    As several morphological parameters of cancellous bone express more or less the same architectural measure, we applied principal components analysis to group these measures and correlated these to the mechanical properties. Cylindrical specimens (n = 24) were obtained in different orientations from

  10. A new digital tool for radiographic bone level measurements in longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus, Hans R; Torgersen, Gerald Ruiner; Koldsland, Odd Carsten; Hansen, Bjørn Frode; Aass, Anne Merete; Larheim, Tore Arne; Sandvik, Leiv

    2015-09-08

    The reproducibility of measurements on radiographs is influenced by the techniques by which the images as well as the measurements are obtained. Thus, bias resulting from errors in the image and/or image examinations at two points in time may result in wrongful registrations of true biological or pathological changes. The aim of the present study was to propose and evaluate an indirect radiological examination technique, by which bias, when measuring radiographic bone level, could be substantially reduced as compared to the technique using direct mm measurements. A plugin to ImageJ was designed to reduce bias when measuring bone loss on radiographic images. In human dry mandibles, radiographic images of 20 teeth were obtained parallel with the tooth axis (alpha = 0) and at an angle of 30° deviation. The direct technique of measuring radiographic bone level (RBL) and the indirect, length-adjusted RBL were registered by four researchers in a double blinded fashion. When mean RBL measured at 0° angle was 7.0 mm, the corresponding mean RBL measured at 30° angle was 7.8 mm, signifying an 11.4% increase (p = 0.032), whereas the mean length-adjusted RBL increased by 0.6% (p = 0.9). This study showed that the use of the original, direct technique (ImageJ) resulted in markedly biased radiographic bone level at 30° angle, while the proposed indirect length-adjusted technique (ImageJ plugin) did not.

  11. Quantification of bone strength by intraoperative torque measurement: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhm, Norbert; Haenni, Markus; Schwyn, Ronald; Hirschmann, Michael; Müller, Andreas Marc

    2008-06-01

    Bone strength describes the resistance of bone against mechanical failure. Bone strength depends on both the amount of bone and the bone's quality, and the bone strength may be looked upon as a relevant parameter to judge an osteosynthesis' stability. Information about bone strength was barely available intraoperatively in the past. The previous work of our group reported on development and laboratory evaluation of mechanical torque measurement as a method for the intraoperative quantification of bone strength. With the clinical series presented here we intend to verify that the im gesamten Text DensiProbe instrumentation for intraoperative torque measurement and the related measurement method are eligible for intraoperative use based on the following criteria: application of the method may not create complications, the measurement can be performed by the surgeon himself and may only cause a limited increase in the procedure time. From December 2006 until May 2007 ten patients with a pertrochanteric femoral fracture or a lateral femoral neck fracture eligible for stabilization with DHS were included in the study after having received informed consent. Any medication and comorbidity that might have influenced bone quality or bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients was documented. Bone strength was intraoperatively measured with DensiProbe. Complications that were obviously related with torque measurement were documented as well as any deviation from the suggested procedure; 6 and 12 weeks postoperative follow-up included clinical and radiological examination. The time required for torque measurement, the overall operating time and the number of persons present in the operating room were protocolled. BMD values of the contralateral femoral neck were postoperatively assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and compared to intraoperative peak torque values measured by DensiProbe. No major complication was observed during intraoperative application of

  12. Intraoperative mechanical measurement of bone quality with the DensiProbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sven; Uhlmann, Michael; Schwyn, Robert; Suhm, Norbert; Benneker, Lorin M

    2015-01-01

    Reduced bone stock can result in fractures that mostly occur in the spine, distal radius, and proximal femur. In case of operative treatment, osteoporosis is associated with an increased failure rate. To estimate implant anchorage, mechanical methods seem to be promising to measure bone strength intraoperatively. It has been shown that the mechanical peak torque correlates with the local bone mineral density and screw failure load in hip, hindfoot, humerus, and spine in vitro. One device to measure mechanical peak torque is the DensiProbe (AO Research Institute, Davos, Switzerland). The device has shown its effectiveness in mechanical peak torque measurement in mechanical testing setups for the use in hip, hindfoot, and spine. In all studies, the correlation of mechanical torque measurement and local bone mineral density and screw failure load could be shown. It allows the surgeon to judge local bone strength intraoperatively directly at the region of interest and gives valuable information if additional augmentation is needed. We summarize methods of this new technique, its advantages and limitations, and give an overview of actual and possible future applications. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations

  14. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I. Methodologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations. 31 refs.

  15. Structure model index does not measure rods and plates in trabecular bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil L Salmon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure model index (SMI is widely used to measure rods and plates in trabecular bone. It exploits the change in surface curvature that occurs as a structure varies from spherical (SMI = 4, to cylindrical (SMI = 3 to planar (SMI = 0. The most important assumption underlying SMI is that the entire bone surface is convex and that the curvature differential is positive at all points on the surface. The intricate connections within the trabecular continuum suggest that a high proportion of the surface could be concave, violating the assumption of convexity and producing regions of negative differential. We implemented SMI in the BoneJ plugin and included the ability to measure the amounts of surface that increased or decreased in area after surface mesh dilation, and the ability to visualize concave and convex regions. We measured SMI and its positive (SMI+ and negative (SMI- components, bone volume fraction (BV/TV, the fraction of the surface that is concave (CF, and mean ellipsoid factor (EF in trabecular bone using 38 X-ray microtomography (XMT images from a rat ovariectomy model of sex steroid rescue of bone loss, and 169 XMT images from a broad selection of 87 species' femora (mammals, birds, and a crocodile. We simulated bone resorption by eroding an image of elephant trabeculae and recording SMI and BV/TV at each erosion step. Up to 70%, and rarely less than 20%, of the trabecular surface is concave (CF 0.155 – 0.700. SMI is unavoidably influenced by aberrations from SMI-, which is strongly correlated with BV/TV and CF. The plate-to-rod transition in bone loss is an erroneous observation resulting from SMI's close and artefactual relationship with BV/TV. SMI cannot discern between the distinctive trabecular geometries typical of mammalian and avian bone, whereas EF clearly detects birds' more plate-like trabeculae. EF is free from confounding relationships with BV/TV and CF. SMI results reported in the literature should be treated with

  16. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  17. Predicting Diaphyseal Cortical Bone Status Using Measures of Muscle Force Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Simon; Sokolowski, Chester M; Vishwanathan, Megha; Anderson, Jessica G; Schmidt, Michael D; Lewis, Richard D; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-02-16

    Muscle cross sectional area (MCSA) is often used as a surrogate for the forces applied to bones during physical activity. Though MCSA is a strong predictor of cortical bone status, its use makes assumptions about the relationship between muscle size and force that are inaccurate. Furthermore, to measure MCSA and other muscle force surrogates typically requires expensive and/or radiative laboratory equipment. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether clinical lab- and field-based methodologies for measuring muscular force capacity accounted for similar variance in diaphyseal cortical bone status as a commonly used muscular force surrogate; MCSA, at the mid-tibia in young men and women. Healthy young adults (n = 142, 19.7 ± 0.7 yo, 52.8% female) were assessed via peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the mid-tibia for cortical bone status and MCSA. Muscle force capacity was measured via Biodex dynamometer, Nottingham leg extensor power rig, and Vertec vertical jump. Regression analysis compared the independent variance predicted by each muscle force measure to that of MCSA, accounting for relevant confounders. MCSA, knee extension peak torque, and peak anaerobic power from vertical jump were independent predictors of select cortical structural outcomes (cortical thickness and area, periosteal and endosteal circumference, and estimated strength) accounting for up to 78.4% of the variance explained (all p<.05). However, cortical volumetric bone mineral density was unrelated to any measure or surrogate of muscle force capacity. MCSA is a strong independent predictor of cortical bone structure; however, both lab- and field-based measures of peak torque and/or peak anaerobic power are promising alternatives, explaining similar and sometimes greater variance than MCSA.

  18. Development of compton scatter X-ray technique for bone density measurement in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.K.; Clarke, R.L.; Barton, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for bone density measurement in vivo based on the fact that cross-section for compton scattering depends directly upon the electron density of the scattering material has been developed and described. The theory is explained. Electron density is converted to mass density by using weighted average of atomic number to mass number of the material. The method uses a low energy X-ray source and three scintillation detectors. The method has the advantage of permitting measurement of bones in vivo of different sizes and shapes without recalibration and without any specific knowledge of absorption of scattering properties of the surrounding tissue. (M.G.B.)

  19. In vivo measurement of bone aluminum in population living in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K; Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; Chettle, D R

    2008-11-01

    The harmful biological effect of excessive aluminum (Al) load in humans has been well documented in the literature. Al stored in bone, for instance due to dialysis treatment or occupational exposure, can interfere with normal bone remodeling leading to osteodystrophy, osteoarthritis, or osteomalacia. On the other hand, the relationship between chronic Al exposure and the risk of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. In this work, the feasibility of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) for measuring Al levels in the human hand bone, using the thermal neutron capture reaction 27Al(n, gamma)28 Al, is reported. This noninvasive diagnostic technique employs a high beam current Tandetron accelerator based neutron source, an irradiation/shielding cavity, a 47pi NaI(Tl) detector system, and a new set of hand bone phantoms. The photon spectra of the irradiated phantom closely resemble those collected from the hands of nonexposed healthy subjects. A protocol was developed using the newly developed hand phantoms, which resulted in a minimum detectable limit (MDL) of 0.29 mg Al in the human hand. Using the ratio of Al to Ca as an index of Al levels per unit bone mass, the MDL was determined as 19.5 +/- 1.5 microg Al/g Ca, which is within the range of the measured levels of 20-27 microg Al/g Ca [ICRP Report of the Task Group on Reference Man, Publication 23 (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975)] found in other in vivo and in vitro studies. Following the feasibility studies conducted with phantoms, the diagnostic technique was used to measure Al levels in the hand bones of 20 healthy human subjects. The mean hand bone Al concentration was determined as 27.1 +/- 16.1 (+/-1 SD) microg Al/g Ca. The average standard error (1sigma) in the Al/Ca is 14.0 microg Al/g Ca, which corresponds to an average relative error of 50% in the measured levels of Al/Ca. These results were achieved with a dose equivalent of 17.6 mSv to a hand and an effective dose of 14.4 microSv. This effective dose

  20. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  1. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  2. [Evaluation with different measuring methods for the alveolar bone change of ridge preservation in molar sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-ping; Zhan, Ya-lin; Hu, Wen-jie; Xu, Tao; Wei, Yi-ping; Zhen, Min; Wang, Cui

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the changes of the vertical height and width of the alveolar bone six months after the alveolar ridge preservation in periodontal compromised molar sites of severe alveolar bone defects with clinical direct measurement, parallel periapical radiographs, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to analyze the effect of the three different methods of measurement. In this study, 20 subjects requiring tooth extraction on account of periodontal disease with a total of 23 extracted molars were enrolled. Extractions were performed atraumatically and patients were received alveolar ridge preservation procedure with Bio-Oss and Bio-Gide. Clinical direct measurements were taken after tooth extraction and during the implant surgery 6 months later, CBCT scans and parallel periapical radiographs were taken immediately after ridge preservation and 6 months later. The changes of alveolar ridge width and vertical height after six months were measured and analyzed through the above-mentioned three methods and the similarities and differences of the measured effect were compared. There were no significant difference of alveolar vertical height in the center of the extraction sites, the center of distal aspect, and distobuccal aspect between the clinical direct measurements and the CBCT measurements (P>0.05), alveolar vertical height in other points and alveolar width measurements were statically significant (Palveolar increased significantly and the changes of alveolar vertical height of clinical direct and CBCT measurement were (6.15 ± 1.73) mm and (6.59 ± 2.53) mm, respectively. The measurements of the width of the alveolar bone were (8.45 ± 1.18) mm and (8.52 ± 1.27) mm, respectively. The measurements of the two methods were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The change of the alveolar height in the center of the extraction socket after six months measured by parallel periapical was (5.84 ± 4.28) mm, which was closed to the clinical direct measurement

  3. Comparison between inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic imaging in periodontal bone loss measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Scaf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in digital imaging technology in dentistry have provided an alternative to film-based radiography and have given new options to detect periodontal bone loss. The purpose of this study was to compare inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic imaging in periodontal bone loss measurements. Thirty-five film-based periapical radiographs of patients suffering from moderate to advanced untreated periodontal bone loss associated to lower premolar and molars was selected from the department files, with 40 bone loss areas. The film-based radiographs were digitized with a flatbed scanner with a transparency and radiograph adapter used for transilluminating the radiograph imaging. Digitization was performed at 600 dpi and in gray scale. The images were digitized using Image Tool software by applying image inversion, that is, transformation of radiopaque structures into radiolucent structures and vice-versa. The digital data were saved as JPEG files. The images were displayed on a 15-inch and 24-bit video monitor under reduced room lighting. One calibrated examiner performed all radiographic measurements, three times, from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss, in both types of image (inverted and unprocessed. Brightness and contrast were adjusted according to the examiner's individual demand. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to compare the measurements from both types of images. The means of radiographic measurements, in mm, for inverted and unprocessed digitized imaging were 6.4485 and 6.3790, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient was significant (0.99 The inverted and unprocessed digitized radiographic images were reliable and there was no difference in the diagnostic accuracy between these images regarding periodontal bone loss measurements.

  4. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkanl, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.; Gunel, U.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density, BMD, of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last RCM in San Diego, CA, October 7-10,1996. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone. To this end, bone mineral density measurements, trace element studies, neutron activation analysis, fluoride analysis and atomic absorption analysis were undertaken and resulting data were analysed

  5. An approach for determining quantitative measures for bone volume and bone mass in the pediatric spina bifida population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Rachel E; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Mueske, Nicole M; Fisher, Carissa L; Wren, Tishya A L

    2015-08-01

    The pediatric spina bifida population suffers from decreased mobility and recurrent fractures. This study aimed to develop a method for quantifying bone mass along the entire tibia in youth with spina bifida. This will provide information about all potential sites of bone deficiencies. Computed tomography images of the tibia for 257 children (n=80 ambulatory spina bifida, n=10 non-ambulatory spina bifida, n=167 typically developing) were analyzed. Bone area was calculated at regular intervals along the entire tibia length and then weighted by calibrated pixel intensity for density weighted bone area. Integrals of density weighted bone area were used to quantify bone mass in the proximal and distal epiphyses and diaphysis. Group differences were evaluated using analysis of variance. Non-ambulatory children suffer from decreased bone mass in the diaphysis and proximal and distal epiphyses compared to ambulatory and control children (P≤0.001). Ambulatory children with spina bifida showed statistically insignificant differences in bone mass in comparison to typically developing children at these sites (P>0.5). This method provides insight into tibial bone mass distribution in the pediatric spina bifida population by incorporating information along the whole length of the bone, thereby providing more information than dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. This method can be applied to any population to assess bone mass distribution across the length of any long bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the effect of bone density and soft tissue thickness on phantom measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Shim, Dong-Oh [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung-Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho-Sung [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae-Cheol [Shin Heung College University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Eun-Hoe [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woon-Kwan [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    This study examined whether there would be a difference in bone density through a phantom test because of the effect of the thickness of the soft tissue on the bone density measured by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Three scan modes were used: standard, thin and thick modes correspondly to a normal, an underweight and an overweight patient, respectively. Also, the three phantoms used were the Lunar aluminum spine phantom (ASP), the Hologic spine phantom (HSP), and the European spine phantom (ESP). Three acrylic plates of different thicknesses were used, and a water bath was used as the tissue equivalent material for the soft tissue. The ASP, HSP and ESP were measured 20 times without repositioning. In addition, measurements were carried out three times with the HSP and the ESP covered by an acrylic plate. In regard to controlling the depth of the water, the bone density was measured in the standard mode, where the depth of the water was adjusted using the ASP only and was then determined based on the judgment of the investigators. To confirm the accuracy of the mode selection, we measured the dependence of the bone density of the phantom on the depth of the water. The percentage coefficients of variation (CV%) of the bone mineral density (BMD) in the ASP, HSP and ESP were measured to be 0.17%, 0.45%, and 0.95%, respectively. When the soft tissue thickness was increased, the CV% of the BMD in the ASP, HSP and ESP were 0.65%, 2.24%, and 0.79%, respectively. A correlation analysis also revealed a significant positive correlation between the soft tissue thickness and the bone density (ASP: r{sup 2} = .926, HSP: r{sup 2} = .899). In contrast, a generalized phantom, ESP, showed a significant negative correlation between the tissue thickness and the bone density, which was different from those for the other two phantoms (ESP: r{sup 2} = -.733). After assessing the scan mode and the soft tissue thickness, the mean bone densities in the standard and the thick

  7. Measurements of the static friction coefficient between bone and muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Sharon; Castel, David; Gefen, Amit

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed at measuring the static coefficient of friction (mu) between bone and skeletal muscle tissues in order to support finite element (FE) modeling in orthopaedic and rehabilitation research, where such contact conditions need to be defined. A custom-made friction meter (FM) that employs the load cell and motion-controlled loading arm of a materials testing machine was designed for this study. The FM was used to measure mu between fresh ulna bones and extensor muscles surrounding the ulna, which were harvested from five young adult pigs. Mean bone-muscle mu were between 0.36 and 0.29, decreased with the increase in loads applied on the bone (p<0.05) and plateaued at a mean approximately 0.3 for loads exceeding 4 N. Hence, for FE modeling of bone-muscle contacts through which loads with magnitudes of kgs to 10s-of-kgs are transferred, assuming mu of approximately 0.3 appears to be appropriate.

  8. Measurements of inter-cochlear level and phase differences of bone-conducted sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Robert W. J.; Culling, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a widely used method of treating conductive hearing loss, but the benefit of bilateral implantation is limited due to interaural cross-talk. The present study measured the phase and level of pure tones reaching each cochlea from a single, mastoid placed bone transducer on normal hearing participants. In principle, the technique could be used to implement a cross-talk cancellation system in those with bilateral bone conductors. The phase and level of probe tones over two insert earphones was adjusted until they canceled sound from a bone transducer (i.e., resulting in perceived silence). Testing was performed in 50-Hz steps between 0.25 and 8 kHz. Probe phase and level results were used to calculate inter-cochlear level and phase differences. The inter-cochlear phase differences of the bone-conducted sound were similar for all three participants showing a relatively linear increase between 4 and 8 kHz. The attenuation characteristics were highly variable over the frequency range as well as between participants. This variability was thought to be related to differences in skull dynamics across the ears. Repeated measurements of cancellation phase and level of the same frequency produced good consistency across sessions from the same participant. PMID:28599562

  9. Current socio-economic measures, and not those measured during infancy, affect bone mass in poor urban South african children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Shane A; Sheppard, Zoë A; Griffiths, Paula L; Cameron, Noël; Pettifor, John M

    2008-09-01

    Understanding the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on physical development in children is important, especially in developing countries where considerable inequalities persist. This is the first study to examine the association between SES on bone development at the whole body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in black children living in Soweto and Johannesburg, South Africa. Linear regression models were used to study associations between SES during infancy and current SES, anthropometric, and DXA-derived bone mass in 9/10-yr-old children (n = 309). Findings suggest that current SES measures, rather than SES during infancy, are stronger predictors of current whole body bone area (BA) and whole body BMC after adjusting for body size, pubertal development, physical activity, habitual dietary calcium intake, and body composition. SES had no significant effect on either hip or spine bone mass. Caregiver's marital/cohabiting status (indicator of social support) and whether there was a television in the home (indicator of greater income) at age 9/10 yr were the most important socio-economic determinants of whole body BA and BMC. SES has a significant independent effect on whole body BMC through its impact on BA. This suggests that poverty alleviation policies in South Africa could have a positive effect on bone health.

  10. Validation of a dental image analyzer tool to measure alveolar bone loss in periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Coelho, L.; de Silva, A.; van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Lessmann, F.G.J.M.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Radiographs are an essential adjunct to the clinical examination for periodontal diagnoses. Over the past few years, digital radiographs have become available for use in clinical practice. Therefore, the present study investigated whether measuring alveolar bone loss,

  11. Instrument for bone mineral measurement using a microprocessor as the control and arithmetic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Hardy, W.H. II.

    1975-11-01

    A self-contained instrument for the determination of bone mineral content by photon absorptometry is described. A high-resolution detection system allows measurements to be made at up to 16 photon energies. Control and arithmetic functions are performed by a microprocessor. Analysis capability and limitations are discussed

  12. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  13. A measurement instrument for bone mineral content of adult and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaofang

    1996-01-01

    The γ radiation source was used in bone mineral content measurement analysis of adult and children and a new instrument is developed successfully. It's precision is +2%. The advantage of this instrument is light, cheap and reliable. It can be used widely in medical science and clinic for diagnosis on certain diseases and research work

  14. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Yilmaz, G.; Alkan, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Kuscu, L.; Laleli, Y.; Eksioglu, F.; Sepici, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish a relation, if any, between bone mineral density (BMD) of the healthy Turkish population of the ages between 15 and 50 with social and demographic information, family history of fractures, personal and inherited characteristic, smoking and alcohol habit, history of fertility, level of physical activity, food consumption especially trace elements and other variables. Most of these relations were discussed in the last two Research Coordinated Meetings, in San Diego, CA, October 1996 and Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 1998. Since then we have concentrated our work on more BMD and trace element measurements in bone

  15. Micro-computerised tomography optimisation for the measurement of bone mineral density around titanium dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.; Swain, M.; Duncan, W.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dental implants (screws) are commonly used to replace missing teeth by forming a biological union with bone ('osseointegration'). Micro-computerised tomography (μCT) may be useful for measuring bone mineral density around dental implants. Major issues arise because of various artefacts that occur with polychromatic X-rays associated bench type instruments that may compromise interpretation of the observations. In this study various approaches to minimise artefacts such as; beam hardening, filtering and edge effects are explored with a homogeneous polymeric material, Teflon, with and without an implant present. The implications of the limitations of using such polychromatic μCT systems to quantify bone mineral density adjacent to the implant are discussed. (author)

  16. Bone aluminum measurements in patients with end-stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders and trace aluminum contamination of dialysate solution have led to increased body burden of this metal in patients with end-stage renal disease. Aluminum accumulates in bone and has been associated with the development of a renal osteodystrophy, called aluminum-induced osteomalacia. At present, bone biopsy is the method of diagnosis of this condition. When examined by quantitative histomorphometry, the aluminum accumulation was reported to correlate with the severity of the osteomalacia. This project was therefore undertaken to investigate the possibility of developing a non-invasive technique using neutron activation analysis for the direct in vivo assessment of bone aluminum levels. A bilateral exposure of the patient's hand is performed at the patient port of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The induced activity is then counted for 5 min using four 4'' x 4'' x 16'' NaI(T1) detectors arranged in a quasi-4! geometry. In addition to Al, Ca is also detected and serves as each individual's internal standard for the volume of bone mass irradiated. The Al/Ca ratio provides an index of the amount of elevated aluminum per unit bone mass. When this ratio is multiplied by the total body calcium value, an estimate of total skeletal aluminum is obtained. These measurements will be presented for a pilot study of ten asymptomatic renal patients

  17. Feasibility of measurement of bone turnover markers in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaczewicz, Jaroslaw; Karczmarewicz, Elzbieta; Pludowski, Pawel; Zabek, Jakub; Kowalski, Jan; Lukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wozniacka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of bone turnover markers (BTMs) for the assessment of bone metabolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to the guidelines of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The study included 43 female SLE patients. Serum procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin, PTH, 25(OH)D, anti-cardiolipin, anti-dsDNA, and anti-nucleosome levels were measured. PINP and CTX levels were elevated in SLE patients aged > 45 in comparison to those aged 45 (p < 0.001). No significant difference in PINP, osteocalcin or CTX levels was found with respect to season, neither in the entire SLE group, nor in the under-45 or over-45 groups. Previous glucocorticoid treatment was not associated with difference in BTMs. Increased BTMs in SLE appear to predominantly reflect the pattern of bone remodeling related to age. Increased PINP is expected to be the most frequent outcome among BTMs. Better diagnoses of bone disturbances with BTMs performed in accordance with international reference standards need to be included in the approach to SLE patients, in addition to bone mineral density assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density, trace elements and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K; Alkan, S.; Yilmaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary purposes of the coordinated research program was to measure BMD of the healthy population of the ages between 15 and 49 based on the protocol discussed during the first research coordination meeting, RCM, in Vienna, December 12-15, 1994. The work carried out since then can be divided into several topics. Each of these subjects will be summarized in the following sections. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used for determination of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn and Cu in bone samples. Sample preparation is a critical step prior to AAS. It requires the oxidation of organic matter of biological samples to prepare a solution ready for analysis of mineral elements. For bone samples, for dissolution purposes several acid or acid mixtures can be used. For the preparation of bone samples for AAS, cleaned, separated from blood, muscle and fat, powdered and homogenized bone samples were dissolved in nitric acid. Different dissolution procedures such as hot plate dissolution, dissolution at room temperature and microwave dissolution were tried. After these experiments, microwave dissolution procedure was chosen as the main digestion method for its following advantages: Rapid dissolution (only 8 minutes), complete digestion, minimal reagent consumption, sample integrity which allows volatile element determination, lower reagent blank and potential automation. Bone samples weighing approximately 300 mg will be irradiated with thermal neutrons at Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, TR-2 Reactor in Istanbul. Gamma rays of the radioactive isotopes of the samples will be measured with the nuclear spectroscopy system at the Department of Chemistry, METU. We have already analyzed five bone samples (cortical and trabecular parts separately) weighing approximately 200 mg, both short and long irradiation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NUT), USA

  19. 3H-tetracycline as a proxy for 41Ca for measuring dietary perturbations of bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Connie; Cheong, Jennifer; Jackson, George; Elmore, David; McCabe, George; Martin, Berdine

    2007-01-01

    Our group is interested in evaluating early effects of dietary interventions on bone loss. Postmenopausal women lose bone following reduction in estrogen which leads to increased risk of fracture. Traditional means of monitoring bone loss and effectiveness of treatments include changes in bone density, which takes 6 months to years to observe effects, and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, which are highly variable and lack specificity. Prelabeling bone with 41 Ca and measuring urinary 41 Ca excretion with accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, specific, and rapid approach to evaluating effectiveness of treatment. To better understand 41 Ca technology as a tool for measuring effective treatments on reducing bone resorption, we perturbed bone resorption by manipulating dietary calcium in rats. We used 3 H-tetracycline ( 3 H-TC) as a proxy for 41 Ca and found that a single dose is feasible to study bone resorption. Suppression of bone resorption, as measured by urinary 3 H-TC, by dietary calcium was observed in rats stabilized after ovariectomy, but not in recently ovariectomized rats

  20. Development of the in vivo measurement system of bone mineral content using monoenergetic gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardocci, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    A system, developed for in vivo measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) using monoenergetic gamma-rays of 241 Am, is described. It presents a discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of the technique, with details of acquisition and data processing and also discusses the calibration procedure used. The results obtained with in vivo measurements are presented and BMC values of clinically normal subjects and chronic renal patients are compared. (author)

  1. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals. (HLW)

  2. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Progress report, September 1, 1977--February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull; contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurements of activity in the lung; design and optimization characterictics of in vivo detection system; development of a calibration phantom structure for determining activity deposited in the thoracic skeleton; computer assisted in vivo measurements of internally deposited radionuclides using dual-crystal scintillation detectors; low energy, photon-emitting nuclides; reference spectra library; and in vivo measurements of exposed individuals

  3. Stereological measures of trabecular bone structure: comparison of 3D micro computed tomography with 2D histological sections in human proximal tibial bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Laib, A.; Koller, B.

    2005-01-01

    Stereology applied on histological sections is the 'gold standard' for obtaining quantitative information on cancellous bone structure. Recent advances in micro computed tomography (microCT) have made it possible to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data non-destructively. However, before the 3D...... methods can be used as a substitute for the current 'gold standard' they have to be verified against the existing standard. The aim of this study was to compare bone structural measures obtained from 3D microCT data sets with those obtained by stereology performed on conventional histological sections...... and analysed with a computerized method. Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and connectivity density (CD) were estimated in both modalities, whereas trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) was estimated on the histological sections only. Trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), number (Tb.N) and separation (Tb...

  4. Automated method for measuring alveolar bone resorption by three-dimensional image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Jiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Yamada, Shohzoh; Naitoh, Munetaka

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a method for estimating regions of alveolar bone resorption and automatically measuring resorption depth using dental 3-D CT images by applying 3-D image processing techniques. The depth of alveolar bone resorption is an important index of the severity of periodontitis. Conventional methods for evaluating alveolar bone resorption have suffered from the limitations of not permitting inspection on the interproximal sides and not providing a 3-D description of resorption. In our proposed method, dental 3-D X-ray CT images are used to estimate the region of resorption and to automatically measure the resorption depth around the tooth of interest. Detailed information concerning the distribution of resorption can be obtained using this method. Regions of resorption are estimated using morphological operations and labeling. Limits are established by fitting convex hulls to the region of the target tooth before searching for the lowest points of resorption. The resorption depth is calculated as the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the lowest point of resorption. The experimental results and comparison of these results against measurements obtained by experts using cross-sectional CT images and the findings of clinical examination showed that the proposed method can be used to measure the resorption depth around the entire tooth automatically. (author)

  5. A comparison of hand-wrist bone and cervical vertebral analyses in measuring skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Mancini, Marta; Andreani, Federico

    2006-11-01

    To compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand-wrist bone analysis and by cervical vertebral analysis. A radiographic hand-wrist bone analysis and cephalometric cervical vertebral analysis of 30 patients (14 males and 16 females; 7-18 years of age) were examined. The hand-wrist bone analysis was evaluated by the Bjork index, whereas the cervical vertebral analysis was assessed by the cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) method. To define vertebral stages, the analysis consisted of both cephalometric (13 points) and morphologic evaluation of three cervical vertebrae (concavity of second, third, and fourth vertebrae and shape of third and fourth vertebrae). These measurements were then compared with the hand-wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed by the Cohen kappa concordance index. The same procedure was repeated after 6 months and showed identical results. The Cohen kappa index obtained (mean +/- SD) was 0.783 +/- 0.098, which is in the significant range. The results show a concordance of 83.3%, considering that the estimated percentage for each case is 23.3%. The results also show a correlation of CVMS I with Bjork stages 1-3 (interval A), CVMS II with Bjork stage 4 (interval B), CVMS III with Bjork stage 5 (interval C), CVMS IV with Bjork stages 6 and 7 (interval D), and CVMS V with Bjork stages 8 and 9 (interval E). Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand-wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects.

  6. Bone mineral density (BMD) and computer tomographic measurements of the equine proximal phalanx in correlation with breaking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, P; Horváth, C; Ferencz, V; Tóth, B; Váradi, A; Szenci, O; Bodó, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important fracture risk predictor in human medicine, studies in equine orthopedic research are still lacking. We hypothesized that BMD correlates with bone failure and fatigue fractures of this bone. Thus, the objectives of this study were to measure the structural and mechanical properties of the proximal phalanx with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to correlate the data obtained from DXA and computer tomography (CT) measurements to those obtained by loading pressure examination and to establish representative region of interest (ROI) for in vitro BMD measurements of the equine proximal phalanx for predicting bone failure force. DXA was used to measure the whole bone BMD and additional three ROI sites in 14 equine proximal phalanges. Following evaluation of the bone density, whole bone, cortical width and area in the mid-diaphyseal plane were measured on CT images. Bones were broken using a manually controlled universal bone crusher to measure bone failure force and reevaluated for the site of fractures on follow-up CT images. Compressive load was applied at a constant displacement rate of 2 mm/min until failure, defined as the first clear drop in the load measurement. The lowest BMD was measured at the trabecular region (mean +/- SD: 1.52 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; median: 1.48 g/cm2; range: 1.38-1.83 g/cm2). There was a significant positive linear correlation between trabelcular BMD and the breaking strength (P = 0.023, r = 0.62). The trabecular region of the proximal phalanx appears to be the only significant indicator of failure of strength in vitro. This finding should be reassessed to further reveal the prognostic value of trabecular BMD in an in vivo fracture risk model.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Panoramic Radiography, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and Clinical Measurement in Determining Bone Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Babaloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calculation of the bone dimensions is of great importance for implant treatment. Several radiographic modalities have been used for this purpose. This study compared the accuracy of mesiodistal measurements of bone using panoramic radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, and the clinical methods. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, panoramic and CBCT images were obtained from 100 implant patients. Mesiodistal bone dimensions (distance between tooth CEJ in the mesial of edentulous region and CEJ of the tooth in distal of edentulous region were calculated using a scaled ruler on the orthopantomograms and the system software in the CBCT images. During the implant insertions, a mucoperiosteal flap was raised and clinical dimensions of the bone were measured by a periodontal probe and bone gauge. The differences of bone height and thickness measurements between gold standard and CBCT or panoramic modalities were analyzed using Student’s t- test. Results: The mean bone height was 10.64±1.55, 11.44±1.51, and 10.68±1.6 mm in the clinical, panoramic and CBCT modalities, respectively. Statistically significant difference was noted between the clinical and panoramic techniques (P0.05. During the bone height calculations, 79%, 62% and 78% of the images were ranked in the normal range using CBCT, panoramic and gold standard measurements, respectively. The mean areas under the ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.83 in CBCT and panoramic techniques, respectively. Conclusion: Accuracy of the CBCT images was higher than panoramic technique in measuring the bone dimensions and this technique can be confidently used to calculate the bone dimensions for the implant surgeries.   Keywords: Partially edentulous jaw; panoramic radiography; cone-beam computed tomography; bone dimensions

  8. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G.; Haras, G.; Mann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  9. Quantification of stiffness measurement errors in resonant ultrasound spectroscopy of human cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiran; Peralta, Laura; Gouttenoire, Pierre-Jean; Olivier, Cécile; Peyrin, Françoise; Laugier, Pascal; Grimal, Quentin

    2017-11-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is the state-of-the-art method used to investigate the elastic properties of anisotropic solids. Recently, RUS was applied to measure human cortical bone, an anisotropic material with low Q-factor (20), which is challenging due to the difficulty in retrieving resonant frequencies. Determining the precision of the estimated stiffness constants is not straightforward because RUS is an indirect method involving minimizing the distance between measured and calculated resonant frequencies using a model. This work was motivated by the need to quantify the errors on stiffness constants due to different error sources in RUS, including uncertainties on the resonant frequencies and specimen dimensions and imperfect rectangular parallelepiped (RP) specimen geometry. The errors were first investigated using Monte Carlo simulations with typical uncertainty values of experimentally measured resonant frequencies and dimensions assuming a perfect RP geometry. Second, the exact specimen geometry of a set of bone specimens were recorded by synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. Then, a "virtual" RUS experiment is proposed to quantify the errors induced by imperfect geometry. Results show that for a bone specimen of ∼1° perpendicularity and parallelism errors, an accuracy of a few percent ( <6.2%) for all the stiffness constants and engineering moduli is achievable.

  10. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  11. Dual energy x-ray laser measurement of calcaneal bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulinen, M A [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Saarakkala, S [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Kroeger, H [Department of Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Applied Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland)

    2003-06-21

    In dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) the photon attenuation is assumed to be similar in soft tissue overlying, adjacent to and inside the measured bone. In the calcaneal dual energy x-ray laser (DXL) technique, this assumption is not needed as attenuation by soft tissues at the local bone site is determined by combining DXA and heel thickness measurements. In the present study, 38 subjects were measured with DXL Calscan, Lunar PIXI and Lunar DPX-IQ DXA instruments and Hologic Sahara ultrasound instrument, and the performance and agreement of the instruments were analysed. Furthermore, numerical simulations on the effect of non-uniform fat-to-lean tissue ratio within soft tissue in heel were conducted. In vivo short-term precision (CV%, sCV%) of DXL Calscan (1.24%, 1.48%) was similar to that of Lunar PIXI (1.28%, 1.60%). Calcaneal areal bone mineral densities (BMD, g cm{sup -2}) measured using DXL Calscan and Lunar PIXI predicted equally well variations in BMD of femoral neck (r{sup 2} = 0.63 and 0.52, respectively) or lumbar spine (r{sup 2} = 0.61 and 0.64, respectively), determined with Lunar DPX-IQ. BMD values measured with DXL Calscan were, on average, 19% lower (p < 0.01) than those determined with Lunar PIXI. Interestingly, the difference in BMD values between instruments increased as a function of body mass index (BMI) (r{sup 2} = 0.17, p < 0.02) or heel thickness (r{sup 2} = 0.37, p < 0.01). Numerical simulations suggested that the spatial variation of soft tissue composition in heel can induce incontrollable inaccuracy in BMD when measured with the DXA technique. Theoretically, in contrast to DXA instruments, elimination of the effect of non-uniform soft tissue is possible with DXL Calscan.

  12. In vivo, noninvasive functional measurements of bone sarcoma using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Hannah M.; Hoang, Bang H.; Geller, David; Yang, Rui; Gorlick, Richard; Berger, Jeremy; Tingling, Janet; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathon; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) is an emerging near-infrared imaging technique that noninvasively measures quantitative functional information in thick tissue. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using DOSI to measure optical contrast from bone sarcomas. These tumors are rare and pose technical and practical challenges for DOSI measurements due to the varied anatomic locations and tissue depths of presentation. Six subjects were enrolled in the study. One subject was unable to be measured due to tissue contact sensitivity. For the five remaining subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, optical properties, and quantitative tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids from tumor and contralateral normal tissues were assessed. Statistical differences between tumor and contralateral normal tissue were found in chromophore concentrations and optical properties for four subjects. Low signal-to-noise was encountered during several subject's measurements, suggesting increased detector sensitivity will help to optimize DOSI for this patient population going forward. This study demonstrates that DOSI is capable of measuring optical properties and obtaining functional information in bone sarcomas. In the future, DOSI may provide a means to stratify treatment groups and monitor chemotherapy response for this disease.

  13. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary

    2005-01-01

    calculated with respect to patient characteristics. Only 21% of the referred patients had osteoporosis and 34% had osteopenia. Of these, 24% had osteopenia and a Z-score below -1. Half of the referred patients were women less than 60 yr with a markedly low risk of osteoporosis. A BMI less than 20 kg/m(2....... Altogether, 1551 scans from first-time referred women were analyzed with respect to normal bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis as the outcome, and the results were compared with age and body mass index (BMI). Using multiple regression analysis, risk estimates for osteoporosis were......) increased the predictive value considerably. A low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 yr for measurements of bone density. Forty-five percent of the referred women from general practitioners had a normal BMD....

  14. Comparison of implant stability measurement devices for bone-anchored hearing aid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, Lindsey; Faulkner, Gary; Hodgetts, William; Raboud, Don

    2018-01-01

    The success of implants for bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) relies on proper osseointegration at the bone-implant interface. Clinical evaluation of implant stability is important in prescribing loading, identifying the risk of failure, and monitoring the long-term health of the implant. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate 2 measurement systems for BAHA implant stability: the most commonly used, Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ), and a newly developed advance system for implant stability testing (ASIST). BAHA implants (Oticon Medical Ponto and Cochlear BAHA Connect systems) were installed in plastic materials with adhesive to simulate implants integrated in bone with varying levels of interface stiffness. Different lengths of BAHA abutments were used with each implant specimen, and stability measurements were obtained with both the Osstell ISQ and the ASIST systems. The measurement systems were evaluated in terms of sensitivity to differences in interface stiffness and the effect of abutment length on the stability measurement. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc t tests were used for the comparisons with a Bonferroni adjusted alpha value of .05/15 = .003 to control for potential type 1 errors. Changing the abutment length of a single implant installation had minimal effect on the ASIST stability coefficient, whereas large variations were observed in the Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ). The Osstell showed a clear relationship of decreasing ISQ with increasing abutment length for both the Oticon Medical and the Cochlear implant systems. Both the ASIST and the Osstell were found to be sensitive to changes in interface properties, with the ASIST being more sensitive to these changes. The ASIST system is more sensitive to changes in interface properties and shows smaller variation because of changes in abutment length than the Osstell ISQ system. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  15. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  16. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.R. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: nemitala@dfn.if.usp.br; Aburaya, J.H.; Rizzutto, M.A. [IFUSP, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 {mu}C for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  17. Measurements of Sr/Ca in bones to evaluate differences in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P. R.; Added, N.; Aburaya, J. H.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Analysis of aragonite from sea shells and coral skeletons showed a clear correlation between the strontium and calcium concentrations for these crystals (Sr/Ca ratio) and seawater temperature obtained by satellites and ship readings. In this work we present the results of a study that correlates Sr/Ca ratio with formation temperature of another calcium crystal, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), main mineral compound of teeth and bones from vertebrates. These animals, independent of its thermoregulation pattern (endothermic or ectothermic) have variations of internal temperature along the body. One interesting application of this work is to differentiate warm-blooded animals from cold-blooded ones just by measuring Sr/Ca ratio in their bones. Bones from a crocodile from Caiman yacare species and two dogs, a poodle and a non defined race, were analyzed using PIXE technique and thick target correction. A 1.78 (18) MeV external proton beam was used in LAMFI-USP with an accumulated charge of about 10 μC for probing the samples. Emitted X-rays were collected using Si-PIN detectors (140 keV for Fe). As in coral skeletons, the Sr/Ca ratio of animals is lower in the body's warmer parts and higher in colder parts.

  18. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs

  19. Functional benefit of the bone-anchored hearing aid with different auditory profiles: objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, A; De Voecht, K; Bosman, A J; Wouters, J

    2011-04-01

    To examine sentence recognition and self-report outcomes in hearing-impaired persons with different auditory profiles and who were fitted unilaterally with a bone-anchored hearing aid. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral unit. Data were collected of six patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), seven with a mild to severe hearing loss at the bone-anchored hearing aid side and (near-)normal hearing at the other side and six with a severe bilateral hearing loss. Sound field thresholds, and sentence recognition in noise (presented from different angles) with bone-anchored hearing aid, without bone-anchored hearing aid and with bone-anchored hearing aid and other ear occluded. In addition, the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire were administered as self-report measures. Patients with single-sided deafness listened mainly with their non-bone-anchored hearing aid ear, although the bone-anchored hearing aid lifted the head shadow effect. Patients with mild to severe hearing loss at the bone-anchored hearing aid side and (near-)normal hearing at the other side performed significantly differently in aided and unaided conditions and even regained limited binaural sensitivity with the device. The latter was also true for the patients with severe bilateral hearing loss. However, their hearing loss at the non-bone-anchored hearing aid side was too great to contribute to hearing and they listened predominantly with their bone-anchored hearing aid. Self-report outcomes provided useful information on hearing disability, although this information was not significantly differently for the 3 groups of patients. The bone-anchored hearing aid enhanced performance in different hearing configurations, albeit to different extents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  2. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); King, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Vieira, N.E. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States); Woodhouse, L.R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Yergey, A.L. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  3. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  4. Determination of vertical interproximal bone loss topography: correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurement and clinical measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeli, Farzad; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Faramarzie, Masoumeh; Abolfazli, Nader; Rasouli, Hossein; Fallahi, Saied

    2012-06-01

    Diagnosis and accuracy in determining the exact location, extent and configuration of bony defects of the jaw are of utmost importance to determine prognosis, treatment planning and long-term preservation of teeth. If relatively accurate diagnosis can be established by radiography, proper treatment planning prior to treatment procedures will be possible. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between indirect digital radiographic measurements and clinical measurements in determining the topography of interproximal bony defects. Twenty interproximal bony defects, preferably in the mandibular and maxillary 5↔5 area were selected and radiographed using the parallel periapical technique. The radiographs were corrected and digitized on a computer using "Linear Measurement" software; then the three parameters of the base of defect (BD), alveolar crest (AC) and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were determined using a software. Subsequent to radiographic measurements, clinical measurements were carried out meticulously during flap procedures. Then linear measurements were carried out using a periodontal probe to determine the defect depth and its mesiodistal width. Then the amount of correlation between these two measurements was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements in defect depth determination, in the evaluation of defect angle and in determination of defect width were 88%, 98% and 90%, respectively. Indirect digital radiographic technique can be used to diagnose intra-osseous defects, providing a better opportunity to treat bony defects.

  5. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...... with DECT. DECT showed narrower limits of agreement than SECT. Inter-observer analysis showed small differences.Conclusion: BMD can be estimated with high intra- and inter-observer reliability with SECT and DECT around acetabular cups using custom software. The intra- and inter-observer agreement of DECT...

  6. LIBS analysis of hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine bone for Ca/P ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Usman; Haider, Zuhaib; Hussain, Rafaqat; Tufail, Kashif; Ali, Jalil

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite has been extensively used as a potential biocompatible ceramic in many orhtopedic applications. Hydroxyapatite is one of the members of calcium phosphate family and been used extensively as a bone substitute. The mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite itself, ceramics and bone cements prepared from hydroxyapatite vary greatly with slight variation in its Ca/P ratio. At present EDX, XRD, XRF and ICP-OES are being used for the determination of Ca/P ratio in hydroxyapatite. These techniques require special sample preparation, may also use toxic chemicals and usually are not very fast in giving the measurements. We report LIBS as a rapid alternative technique for calculation of Ca/P ratio in hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine bone (BHA). Ca/P ratio in laboratory prepared HA is calculated using LIBS and the results are validated against EDX results Ca/P ratio of the hydroxyapatite was calculated as 1.54±0.19 using LIBS while 1.63±0.03 using EDX. Ca/P ratio calculated by LIBS and EDX and showed comparable results with a difference of 5.5%. Moreover, plasma temperature and the ratio of the calcium (ion) line to calcium (atomic) line did not show significant variation in plasma conditions during measurements. The present study has demonstrated that LIBS can also be used for the determination of Ca/P ratio of hydroxyapatite and other calcium phosphates. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 24 May 2017.

  7. Vertical bone measurements from cone beam computed tomography images using different software packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Taruska Ventorini; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Moraes, Livia Almeida Bueno; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz, E-mail: tataventorini@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    This article aimed at comparing the accuracy of linear measurement tools of different commercial software packages. Eight fully edentulous dry mandibles were selected for this study. Incisor, canine, premolar, first molar and second molar regions were selected. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained with i-CAT Next Generation. Linear bone measurements were performed by one observer on the cross-sectional images using three different software packages: XoranCat®, OnDemand3D® and KDIS3D®, all able to assess DICOM images. In addition, 25% of the sample was reevaluated for the purpose of reproducibility. The mandibles were sectioned to obtain the gold standard for each region. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were calculated to examine the agreement between the two periods of evaluation; the one-way analysis of variance performed with the post-hoc Dunnett test was used to compare each of the software-derived measurements with the gold standard. The ICC values were excellent for all software packages. The least difference between the software-derived measurements and the gold standard was obtained with the OnDemand3D and KDIS3D (‑0.11 and ‑0.14 mm, respectively), and the greatest, with the XoranCAT (+0.25 mm). However, there was no statistical significant difference between the measurements obtained with the different software packages and the gold standard (p > 0.05). In conclusion, linear bone measurements were not influenced by the software package used to reconstruct the image from CBCT DICOM data. (author)

  8. Sex differences in bone marrow density measured by quantitative ultrasonometry: For 20 year old college student

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daejeon Health Institute of Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the bone marrow density measured by quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) between men and women. Questionnaires for general characteristics were obtained from 104 participants, and then their both calcaneus was measured by using QUS. Sex differences for bone marrow density (BMD) were analyzed by an Independent t-test using the SPSS 19.0 program. Of 104 participants, women and men were 69(66.3%) and 35(33.7%), respectively. T-value of left calcaneus was high significantly in women than that in men(0.443 vs. 0.031, p=0.161) as well as that of right calcaneus(0.555 vs. 0.049, p=0.093). T-value of right calcaneus was high than that of left calcaneus in women and men (not significant, p>0.05). T-value of both calcaneus was increasing with physical activity. T-value of calcaneus was no statistically significant with age and body mass index. The BMD of women is high significantly more than that of men, and BMD is relation with physical activity.

  9. Impact of attenuation on guided mode wavenumber measurement in axial transmission on bone mimicking plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Foiret, Josquin; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2011-12-01

    Robust signal processing methods adapted to clinical measurements of guided modes are required to assess bone properties such as cortical thickness and porosity. Recently, an approach based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of multidimensional signals recorded with an axial transmission array of emitters and receivers has been proposed for materials with negligible absorption, see Minonzio et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 2913-2919 (2010)]. In presence of absorption, the ability to extract guided mode degrades. The objective of the present study is to extend the method to the case of absorbing media, considering attenuated plane waves (complex wavenumber). The guided mode wavenumber extraction is enhanced and the order of magnitude of the attenuation of the guided mode is estimated. Experiments have been carried out on 2 mm thick plates in the 0.2-2 MHz bandwidth. Two materials are inspected: polymethylacrylate (PMMA) (isotropic with absorption) and artificial composite bones (Sawbones, Pacific Research Laboratory Inc, Vashon, WA) which is a transverse isotropic absorbing medium. Bulk wave velocities and bulk attenuation have been evaluated from transmission measurements. These values were used to compute theoretical Lamb mode wavenumbers which are consistent with the experimental ones obtained with the SVD-based approach. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  10. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  11. Influence of the chemical shift artifact on measurements of compact bone thickness in equine distal limb MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Abigail N; Spriet, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the chemical shift artifact, resulting from misregistration or phase cancellation at the interface between compact and trabecular bone, on apparent bone thickness was quantified in six isolated equine limbs. Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo (SE) and in-phase three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images were acquired twice with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) unit, switching the frequency encoding direction between acquisitions. Out-of-phase SPGR images were also obtained. MR images with different frequency encoding directions were compared with each other and to radiographs made from corresponding 3-mm-bone sections. Compact bone thickness was significantly different when comparing images acquired with different frequency encoding directions for both SE and SPGR sequences. Significant differences were identified in the frequency but not the phase encoding direction when measurements of compact bone in MR images were compared with measurements obtained from thin section radiographs for the majority of surfaces studied (P 0.05). Measurements of compact bone from out-of-phase SPGR sequences were significantly different than from in-phase sequences (P echo sequences.

  12. Bone calcium measurement: correlation between compartimental analysis and neutron activation determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauran-Clavel, M.-J.; Oustrin, Jean; Maziere, Bernard; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1980-01-01

    In cadmium exposed rats correlation analysis of calcium deep bone assessed by compartimental analysis and results of bone calcium determination by neutron activation shows a significative relationship between both values [fr

  13. Relationship between bone strength and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Hald; McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography and a 3-point bending test were performed on the metacarpal bones of adult production pigs to test the hypothesis that bone strength is strongly correlated with areal bone mineral density (BMD) in this population. The aim of the study was to subject material from adult product...... modulus, 108 N/mm2 (P relationship between BMD and bone strength and indicate that BMD screening can be used in fracture risk assessments in production pigs....

  14. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  15. Mechanical torque measurement in the proximal femur correlates to failure load and bone mineral density ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Grote

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of local bone quality is essential for surgeons to determine operation techniques. A device for intraoperative measurement of local bone quality has been developed by the AO-Research Foundation (DensiProbe®. We used this device to experimentally measure peak breakaway torque of trabecular bone in the proximal femur and correlated this with local bone mineral density (BMD and failure load. Bone mineral density of 160 cadaver femurs was measured by ex situ dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The failure load of all femurs was analyzed by side-impact analysis. Femur fractures were fixed and mechanical peak torque was measured with the DensiProbe® device. Correlation was calculated whereas correlation coefficient and significance was calculated by Fisher’s Z-transformation. Moreover, linear regression analysis was carried out. The unpaired Student’s t-test was used to assess the significance of differences. The Ward triangle region had the lowest BMD with 0.511 g/cm2 (±0.17 g/cm2, followed by the upper neck region with 0.546 g/cm2 (±0.16 g/cm2, trochanteric region with 0.685 g/cm2 (±0.19 g/cm2 and the femoral neck with 0.813 g/cm2 (±0.2 g/cm2. Peak torque of DensiProbe® in the femoral head was 3.48 Nm (±2.34 Nm. Load to failure was 4050.2 N (±1586.7 N. The highest correlation of peak torque measured by Densi Probe® and load to failure was found in the femoral neck (r=0.64, P<0.001. The overall correlation of mechanical peak torque with T-score was r=0.60 (P<0.001. A correlation was found between mechanical peak torque, load to failure of bone and BMD in vitro. Trabecular strength of bone and bone mineral density are different aspects of bone strength, but a correlation was found between them. Mechanical peak torque as measured may contribute additional information about bone strength, especially in the perioperative testing.

  16. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura; Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  17. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  18. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Joel A.; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M.; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J.; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Scadden, David T.; Lin, Charles P.

    2014-04-01

    Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change markedly after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment.

  19. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  20. Evaluation of unilateral cleft lip and palate using anthropometry measurements post-alveolar bone grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorangkir, H. J.; Hak, M. S.; Tofani, I.

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) requires multiple steps and coordination of multidisciplinary sciences to produce optimal results. Alveolar bone-grafting (ABG) is an important procedure in the treatment of such patients because it influences the eruption of teeth and stabilizes the maxilla. To evaluate the effect and suitability of alveolar bone grafting procedure at Cleft Center Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital on nasal deformity from anthropometry with photogrammetry and aesthetic proportional in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with UCLP. Patients with UCLP were evaluated post-ABG using anthropometry and photogrammetry to investigate the results anteriorly, laterally, and basally. Anthropometric measurements taken photogrammetrically used 14 points and 11 distance items. Evaluations were made of upper lip length, upper lip projection, and nostril sill elevation for both the cleft and non-cleft sides of patients’ faces. A t-test showed that the values for upper lip length and projection were significantly increased, and a correction test using a Fisher exam gave a value of 1. The ABG treatment protocol for patients with UCLP at the Cleft Lip and Palate Unit at Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital is suitable to be performed; it aesthetically satisfies patients and their families.

  1. Relationship of anthropometric measures with bone mineral density in postmenopausal non-osteoporotic, osteopenic and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, S.; Lone, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be a more important predictor of bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of anthropometric measures including body mass index with bone mineral density in postmenopausal non-osteoporotic, osteopenic and osteoporotic women. Methods: In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into three groups: non-osteoporotic (n=52), osteopenic (n=69) and osteoporotic females (n=47). Anthropometric measures and bone mineral density were assessed. ANOVA was applied to compare groups while Post hoc Tuckey's test was used for multiple comparisons between the groups. Spearman's rho correlation was used to establish correlations. Results: Body mass index (p = 0.034) and hip circumference (p = 0.013) were significantly higher in osteopenic as compared to osteoporotic females and waist to hip ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in osteoporotic as compared to non-osteoporotic females. Significant positive correlation of body mass index was found with T-score (p = 0.022) and ultrasound bone profile index (p< 0.001) in postmenopausal females. Conclusion: High body mass index is associated with high bone mineral density and reduced fracture risk in postmenopausal females. Increasing age and high waist to hip ratio can also lead to reduced bone mineral density in postmenopausal females. (author)

  2. Relationship of anthropometric measures with bone mineral density in postmenopausal non-osteoporotic, osteopenic and osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sundus; Tariq, Saba; Lone, Khalid Parvez

    2017-04-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be a more important predictor of bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of anthropometric measures including body mass index with bone mineral density in postmenopausal non-osteoporotic, osteopenic and osteoporotic women. In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into three groups: non-osteoporotic (n=52), osteopenic (n=69) and osteoporotic females (n=47). Anthropometric measures and bone mineral density were assessed. ANOVA was applied to compare groups while Post hoc Tuckey's test was used for multiple comparisons between the groups. Spearman's rho correlation was used to establish correlations. Body mass index (p = 0.034) and hip circumference (p = 0.013) were significantly higher in osteopenic as compared to osteoporotic females and waist to hip ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in osteoporotic as compared to non-osteoporotic females. Significant positive correlation of body mass index was found with T-score (p = 0.022) and ultrasound bone profile index (p< 0.001) in postmenopausal females. High body mass index is associated with high bone mineral density and reduced fracture risk in postmenopausal females. Increasing age and high waist to hip ratio can also lead to reduced bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

  3. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone density, trace elements, biomechanical properties and immunocytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aras, N.K.; Korkusuz, F.; Akkas, N.; Laleli, Y.; Kuscu, L.; Gunel, U.

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as an absolute decrease in the amount of bone to a level below required for mechanical support. It is an important bone disease in elderly people in many countries. Unfortunately, there is no reliable statistical data in Turkey for the incidence of osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mass is the important cause in fractures in osteoporosis. Therefore, we intend to study both bone density and other variables such as trace elements, biomechanical properties and other immunocytochemicals in bone, all combined might give an information about the cause and prevention of osteoporosis. (author)

  4. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV and scala tympani (ST is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures.

  5. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Human Temporal Bones with an Off-the-Shelf Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Rolf; Püschel, Klaus; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    The standard method to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation to the inner ear is measurement of vibration response of the stapes in human cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) by laser Doppler vibrometry. However, this method is reliable only if the intact ossicular chain is stimulated. For other stimulation modes an alternative method is needed. The differential intracochlear sound pressure between scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) is assumed to correlate with excitation. Using a custom-made pressure sensor it has been successfully measured and used to determine the output level of acoustic and mechanical stimulation. To make this method generally accessible, an off-the-shelf pressure sensor (Samba Preclin 420 LP, Samba Sensors) was tested here for intracochlear sound pressure measurements. During acoustic stimulation, intracochlear sound pressures were simultaneously measurable in SV and ST between 0.1 and 8 kHz with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios with this sensor. The pressure differences were comparable to results obtained with custom-made sensors. Our results demonstrated that the pressure sensor Samba Preclin 420 LP is usable for measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in SV and ST and for the determination of differential intracochlear sound pressures. PMID:27610377

  6. Evaluation of bone mineral density measurement of lumbar vertebrae by volumetric quantitative CT in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuezeng; Wang Liying; Lan Jing; Li Jingxue; Wu Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the validity of volumetric QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) in bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and compare the difference in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Methods: One hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women [mean age (62.1±7.0) years] who received thoracolumbar radiographic examination were enrolled and divided into four groups (normal, osteopenia, osteoporotic and osteoporotic fractured group) also based on their BMD value of lumbar vertebra(AP-SPINE) measured by DXA: >(x-bar)-1s, (x-bar)-1s-(x-bar)-2s, 3 . Apparent bone volume to total volume ratio (App BV/TV% ) was calculated on the base of trabecular bone whose CT values were among 60 HU, 80 HU, 100 HU, 120- 400 HU, respectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and calculation of coefficient of determination (R 2 ) were performed for each parameter among the 4 groups. Results: The values of 2D-TRAB, 3D-INT, 3D-TRAB, App 60 BV/TV%, App 80 BV/TV%, App 100 BV/TV% and App 120 BV/TV% in osteoporotic fractured group [(48.8 ± 24.9) mg/cm 3 , (94.4 ± 20.2) mg/cm 3 , (59.3 ± 28.0) mg/cm 3 , (56.1 ± 22.8)%, (43.2 ± 22.2)%, (31.3 ± 19.4)%, (21.3 ± 15.6)%] were significantly lower than those in osteoporotic group [(74.9 ± 21.0) mg/cm 3 , (115.0 ± 14.3) mg/cm 3 , (82.0 ± 23.7) mg//cm 3 , (75.2 ± 16.8)%, (62.6 ± 20.5)%, (48.8 ± 21.7)%, (35.5 ± 20.1)%], osteopenia group [(89.2 ± 23.8) mg/cm 3 , (126.9 ± 12.9)mg/cm 3 , (97.8 ± 25.2) mg/cm 3 , (85.1 ± 13.7)%, (75.1 ± 17.9)%, (62.8 ± 20.9)%, (49.2 ± 21.9)%], and normal group [(120.6 ± 19.4) mg/cm 3 , (154.0 ± 16.3) mg/cm 3 , (131.1 ± 21.1)mg/cm 3 , (95.6 ± 5.3)%, (91.4 ± 8.7)%, (84.7 ± 12.4)% (75.2 ± 15.5)%], P 2 ] and osteoporotic groups [(0.85 ± 0.06) g//cm 2 , P>0.05]. In osteoporotic groups, AP-SPINE was not correlated significantly with other variables except 3D-CORT (R 2 =0.189, P 60,80,100,120 BV/TV% were correlated significantly with 3D

  7. Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Slatkin, D.N.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a 125 I or a 109 Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays, used in the technique developed for this study, are compared with those of K-x-rays

  8. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara [Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakakura, Celso Eduardo [Barretos Dental School, Barretos Educational Fundation, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  9. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara; Sakakura, Celso Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC 95% :6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC 95% :6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  10. Lumbar spine degenerative disease : effect on bone mineral density measurements in the lumbar spine and femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhng, Seon Kwan; Koplyay, Peter; Jeffrey Carr, J.; Lenchik, Leon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine on bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We reviewed radiographs and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of the lumbar spine and hip in 305 Caucasian women with suspected osteoporosis. One hundred and eight-six patient remained after excluding women less than 40 years of age (n=18) and those with hip osteoarthritis, scoliosis, lumbar spine fractures, lumbar spinal instrumentation, hip arthroplasty, metabolic bone disease other than osteoporosis, or medications known to influence bone metabolism (n=101). On the basis of lumbar spine radiographs, those with absent/mild degenerative disease were assigned to the control group and those with moderate/severe degenerative disease to the degenerative group. Spine radiographs were evaluated for degenerative disease by two radiologists working independently; discrepant evaluations were resolved by consensus. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density was compared between the two groups. Forty-five (24%) of 186 women were assigned to the degenerative group and 141 (76%) to the control group. IN the degenerative group, mean bone mineral density measured 1.075g/cm? in the spine and 0.788g/cm 2 in the femoral neck, while for controls the corresponding figures were 0.989g/cm 2 and 0.765g/cm 2 . Adjusted for age, weight and height by means of analysis of variance, degenerative disease of the lumbar spine was a significant predictor of increased bone mineral density in the spine (p=0.0001) and femoral neck (p=0.0287). Our results indicate a positive relationship between degenerative disease of the lumbar spine and bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and suggest that degenerative disease in that region, which leads to an intrinsic increase in bone mineral density in the femoral neck, may be a good negative predictor of osteoporotic hip fractures

  11. Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Schlager, Stefan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-11-01

    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2° for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. XRF-measured bone lead (Pb) as a biomarker for Pb exposure and toxicity among children diagnosed with Pb poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Lin, Yanfen; Weisskopf, Marc; Yan, Chonghuai; Hu, Howard; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning remains a global issue, especially in industrial areas. In this study, 115 children with average age 5.7 years were recruited as either patient diagnosed with Pb poisoning or controls at Xinhua Hospital in China. The subjects' bone Pb was measured with a K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) and a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system. A significant correlation between KXRF bone Pb and blood Pb and portable XRF and KXRF measurements were observed. The half-life of blood-lead was calculated to be 9.96 ± 3.92 d. Our results indicate that bone is a useful biomarker for Pb in children.

  13. Comparison of two methods for alveolar bone loss measurement in an experimental periodontal disease model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Nique Liberman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that evaluate possible risk factors for periodontal diseases in animals. Most of them have focused only on the biological aspects of disease occurrence; therefore, it has been difficult to compare studies of the different methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to compare different methods - linear and area - of the evaluation of morphometrical alveolar bone loss. Sixty hemimaxillae, defleshed and stained with 1% methylene blue to delineate the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest, were obtained from a previous study that induced periodontal disease by means of ligatures in two groups of fifteen Wistar rats during 9 weeks. Ligatures were placed around the right upper second molars, and the contra-lateral teeth remained as intra-group controls. Digital photographs were taken from the specimens and submitted to a single, calibrated, blind examiner who performed the morphometrical evaluation of alveolar bone loss using both linear and area methods. Mean values of linear and area measurements were obtained from each side - buccal and palatal - of the specimens. The degree of association between the two methods was determined by Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. An almost perfect association (0.98 was determined between the linear and area evaluations. A mathematical formula was subsequently created to estimate the total area of alveolar bone loss, from linear mean measurements. Both methods were suitable for detecting bone level alterations. The results of the present study allow for the transformation of data and better compilation of results from different studies.

  14. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoJung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD in healthy young college women.Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4 and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck. The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm, weight (kg, fat free mass (FFM, kg, percent body fat (%, and body mass index (BMI. Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire.There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014 and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007, while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05. When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024, while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015. Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004. There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025, but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05.BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in life.

  15. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  16. Accounting for structural compliance in nanoindentation measurements of bioceramic bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Vivanco; Joseph E. Jakes; Josh Slane; Heidi-Lynn Ploeg

    2014-01-01

    Structural properties have been shown to be critical in the osteoconductive capacity and strength of bioactive ceramic bone scaffolds. Given the cellular foam-like structure of bone scaffolds, nanoindentation has been used as a technique to assess the mechanical properties of individual components of the scaffolds. Nevertheless, nanoindents placed on scaffolds may...

  17. Measurement of guided mode wavenumbers in soft tissue-bone mimicking phantoms using ultrasonic axial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Foiret, Josquin; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-05-21

    Human soft tissue is an important factor that influences the assessment of human long bones using quantitative ultrasound techniques. To investigate such influence, a series of soft tissue-bone phantoms (a bone-mimicking plate coated with a layer of water, glycerol or silicon rubber) were ultrasonically investigated using a probe with multi-emitter and multi-receiver arrays in an axial transmission configuration. A singular value decomposition signal processing technique was applied to extract the frequency-dependent wavenumbers of several guided modes. The results indicate that the presence of a soft tissue-mimicking layer introduces additional guided modes predicted by a fluid waveguide model. The modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate covered by the soft-tissue phantom are only slightly modified compared to their counterparts in the free bone-mimicking plate, and they are still predicted by an elastic transverse isotropic two-dimensional waveguide. Altogether these observations suggest that the soft tissue-bone phantoms can be modeled as two independent waveguides. Even in the presence of the overlying soft tissue-mimicking layer, the modes propagating in the bone-mimicking plate can still be extracted and identified. These results suggest that our approach can be applied for the purpose of the characterization of the material and structural properties of cortical bone.

  18. A fully implantable telemetry system for the long-term measurement of habitual bone strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. C.; Koolstra, J. H.; van Ruijven, L. J.; Korfage, J. A. M.; Langenbach, G. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term in-vivo recordings of habitual bone strain in freely moving animals are needed to better understand the everyday mechanical loading environment responsible for bone-tissue maintenance. However, wireless methods to make such recordings are scarce. We report on the successful customisation

  19. Influence of object location in different FOVs on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of human mandible: a cone beam CT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, N.; Parsa, A.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Nambiar, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different object locations in different fields of view (FOVs) of two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of a human mandible. A block of dry human mandible was scanned at five different locations (centre,

  20. Quantitative measurement of bone mineral contents in patients with senile osteoporosis and chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography using X-ray (XCT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using sup(99m)Tc-MDP of the skull were performed in patients with ''senile osteoporosis'' and with chronic renal failure, in order to quantitatively determine bone mineral contents. XCT: In females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (6th decade), the EMI number of frontal bone was significantly low compared with that of control group, of the same age. The EMI number in ''senile osteoporosis'' correlated with the value of serum 25 (OH) D and 1 α - 25 (OH) 2 D. The EMI number in hemodialyzed patients was significantly low compared with that in the control group. On the other hand, the EMI number in non-hemodialyzed chronic renal failure patients showed no significant difference compared with findings in the control group. The EMI number of the frontal bone in patients with partial parathyroidectomy showed a slight rise compared with findings before surgery. Bone scintigram, Bone scan SPECT: Positive scan was seen in patients with long term hemodialysis and increased values of serum Alk-Pase and PTH were often apparent. Scintigraphic improvement in patients with renal osteodystrophy treated with vitamin D 3 showed a good correlation with improvement in serum Alk-Pase values. On SPECT, frontal bone activity in patients with renal osteodystrophy was significantly high compared with that in the control group. In case of renal osteodystrophy treated with partial parathyroidectomy, the frontal bone activity was markedly decreased compared with findings before surgery. (J.P.N.)

  1. Precision of periprosthetic bone mineral density measurements using Hologic Windows versus DOS-based analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Nitin R; Hamer, Andrew J; Stockley, Ian; Eastell, Richard; Wilkinson, J Mark

    2006-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a precise tool for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) around total joint prostheses. The Hologic "metal-removal hip" analysis package (Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA) is a Microsoft DOS-based analysis platform that has undergone a change in the operating platform to a Microsoft Windows-based system that has also incorporated changes to DXA image manipulation on-screen. We evaluated the impact of these changes on instrument precision by analysis of sequential DXA scans taken on the same day using the Hologic QDR-4500A fan beam densitometer (Hologic Inc.) in 29 subjects after total hip arthroplasty. The coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) for the net pelvic region was 3.04 for Windows versus 2.36 for DOS (p>0.05). The CV% for the net femoral region was 1.75 for Windows versus 1.51 for DOS (p>0.05). Absolute BMD values for the net pelvic and net femoral regions were similar (Bland-Altman, Windows minus DOS; pelvic region mean=-1.0%; femoral region mean=1.3%; p>0.05 for both comparisons). Our results suggest that scans analyzed using each platform may be used interchangeably without the need for a calibration correction.

  2. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: Pitfalls in measurement and interpretation of bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is common disorder of elderly population all over the world as well as in India. The presence of osteoporosis predicts fracture risk. Fragility fracture has marked morbidity as well as mortality. Thus, osteoporosis has marked therapeutic and economic implications. Osteoporosis is defined by low bone mineral density (BMD. The gold-standard method to assess BMD is dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In India, hologic and lunar machines are most commonly used to measure BMD; these machines have their own normative data from which patients BMD is compared and results are generated. As per recommendations, all postmenopausal women and men above 70 years need BMD estimation other than quite a few other specific indications as well. With increasing life expectancy, increased awareness of osteoporosis, and availability of DXA machines, there is flooding of requests for BMD estimation. In view of all this, it becomes imperative on part of physicians, orthopedicians, rheumatologists, and endocrinologists alike to be fully aware about pitfalls in BMD assessment by DXA and interpretation of BMD reports.

  3. Radon in bone as measured in neonatal, juvenile, and mature beagles and in adult St. Bernards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Mays, C.W.; Jones, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone following 226 Ra injection of 5-year-old mature beagles and adult St. Bernards was similar to that predicted by an equation derived from data of beagles injected as young adults. However, Rn/Ra ratios were significantly lower in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection, but were indistinguishable thereafter from the values predicted by the equation associated with young adult beagles. A 2-term equation was developed from the data for juveniles, the first term of which was the equation for young adults. For beagles injected as juveniles, the skeletal Rn/Ra ratio as a function of time after injection (t, in days) was Rn/Ra = 0.075 t 0 158 (1-e/sup -0.181t/) - 0.058 (e/sup -0.0061t/-e/sup -0.162t/). Beagles injected as 2-day-old neonates exhibited ratios for the first 2 weeks which were similar enough to those of juveniles that a separate equation was not derived for neonatal beagles

  4. Cross calibration of Hologic QDR2000 and GE Lunar Prodigy for forearm bone mineral density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D; Horton, B; Green, D J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an in vivo cross calibration for forearm bone mineral density (BMD) between a Hologic QDR2000 (Hologic Inc., Bedford MA, USA) and Lunar Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison WI, USA) during equipment upgrade. Nineteen subjects (17 females and 2 males, mean age 57 yr, range: 42-79yr) attending for routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning were recruited. BMD of the nondominant forearm was measured on both instruments. Cross-calibration equations were derived for total forearm, ultradistal radius and ulna, and 33% radius and ulna. A Bland & Altman plot was used to calculate the mean difference and limits of agreement between instruments. There were significant differences in BMD at all sites. The Prodigy BMD was 15% higher at the total forearm and 20-25% higher in the cortical regions of the 33% ulna and 33% radius. The differences are smaller in the ultradistal regions, as it appears that the Prodigy underestimates BMD at low BMD. The standard error of estimate about the cross calibration was such that it cannot be used to transfer individual patients between instruments, but could be applied to clinical trial data.

  5. Bone Mineral Density Measurements Around Osseointegrated Implants: A Precision Study and Validation of Scan Protocol for Transfemoral Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rehne Lessmann; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Petersen, Klaus Kjær; Søballe, Kjeld; Stilling, Maiken

    Visual evaluation of bone changes around an osseointegration (OI) implant in femoral amputees examined on plain radiographs shows that periprosthetic bone resorption takes place during the first years after OI surgery, but the bone mineral density (BMD) change has not been previously quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Precision is vital when monitoring BMD changes around implants, and thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and feasibility of a scan protocol for BMD measurements in proximity of OI implants. The proximal part of 2 human cadaveric femoral bones (specimens A and B) with OI implants were mounted in a positioning jig and DXA scans were repeated 5 times in increments of 5° from neutral (0°) to 20° flexion and rotation. BMD changes as a result of change in leg position were evaluated. Repeated patient examinations (n = 20) were conducted in a clinical setting and the precision error was calculated for each of 7 periprosthetic custom-made regions of interest (ROIs). The precision of cadaveric BMD measurements in neutral position was square standard deviation ranged from 0.031 g/cm 2 to 0.047 g/cm 2 and %CV ranged from 3.12% to 6.57% depending on ROI. Simulated hip flexion or rotation of the femur affected periprosthetic BMD measurements around OI implants in cadaveric femoral bones, which stresses the importance of a reproducible set-up during DXA scans to reduce measurement errors caused by variation in leg position. Adherence to the scan protocol with a relaxed position of the residual limb resulted in an acceptable short-term precision below 6.6%. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and design of a bone-equivalent cortical shell phantom to determine accuracy measures on DXA and PQCT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, B.C.C.; Beck, T.J. Johns; Turk, B.; Price, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    were fairly accurately rendered by pQCT, less accurately by DXA HSA. These encouraging results provide impetus towards the design of an anthropometric hip phantom, using this CSC mixture as a cortical-bone equivalent material, for more clinically realistic accuracy measures of structural geometry derived from pQCT, DXA HSA and CT. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  7. A Novel Portable Apparatus for Noninvasively Measuring Bone Density, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The bone loss associated with extended space missions in astronaut represents a serious health threat, both over the flight period and upon returning to...

  8. Rapid Measurements of Bone Loss Using Tracer-less Calcium isotope Analysis of Blood and Urine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The resorption of bone when astronauts are exposed to microgravity is a major challenge for humans engaged in long-term space travel. The goal of our research is to...

  9. A multiscale theoretical investigation of electric measurements in living bone : piezoelectricity and electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, T; Capiez-Lernout, E; Kaiser, J; Naili, S; Rohan, E; Sansalone, V

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the multiphysical phenomena that govern cortical bone behaviour. Taking into account the piezoelectricity of the collagen-apatite matrix and the electrokinetics governing the interstitial fluid movement, we adopt a multiscale approach to derive a coupled poroelastic model of cortical tissue. Following how the phenomena propagate from the microscale to the tissue scale, we are able to determine the nature of macroscopically observed electric phenomena in bone.

  10. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  11. Comparison of the Mandibular Bone Densitometry Measurement between Normal, Osteopenic and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to compare the mandibular bone density between postmenopausal women with normal skeletal bone mass density (BMD and those with low skeletal BMD using digital panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: One hundred fifteen postmenopausal women were divided into normal and osteoporotic/osteopenic groups. Digital panoramic radiographs were prepared using Digora PCT Sorodex equipment and Promax panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland, Kvp=68 and mA=9. The mandibular bone density of an area (approximately 4×4 mm, exactly near the distal edge of the right mental foramen was determined in digital panoramic radiographs using Digora for Windows (DfW Software.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mandibular bone density between the normal and osteoporotic/osteopenic participants (P >0.05. Mandibular bone density was not statistically different in normal and osteoporotic individuals with SBMD or FBMD T-score -2.5 (P >0.05. Density of the region of interest differed significantly between the normal and the osteoporotic group with SBMD and FBMD T-score -2.5 (P <0.05. The same results also gained in women who were osteoporotic only in the femoral region (P <0.05.Conclusion: Mandibular bone density in subjects with low BMD was related to FBMD. So, digital panoramic radiographs could be beneficial in the diagnosis of postmenopausal women who are at risk of osteoporosis.

  12. A signature dissimilarity measure for trabecular bone texture in knee radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloszynski, T.; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W.; Kurzynski, M. [Tribology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Chair of Computer Systems and Networks, Faculty of Electronics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a dissimilarity measure for the classification of trabecular bone (TB) texture in knee radiographs. Problems associated with the traditional extraction and selection of texture features and with the invariance to imaging conditions such as image size, anisotropy, noise, blur, exposure, magnification, and projection angle were addressed. Methods: In the method developed, called a signature dissimilarity measure (SDM), a sum of earth mover's distances calculated for roughness and orientation signatures is used to quantify dissimilarities between textures. Scale-space theory was used to ensure scale and rotation invariance. The effects of image size, anisotropy, noise, and blur on the SDM developed were studied using computer generated fractal texture images. The invariance of the measure to image exposure, magnification, and projection angle was studied using x-ray images of human tibia head. For the studies, Mann-Whitney tests with significance level of 0.01 were used. A comparison study between the performances of a SDM based classification system and other two systems in the classification of Brodatz textures and the detection of knee osteoarthritis (OA) were conducted. The other systems are based on weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM) and local binary patterns (LBP). Results: Results obtained indicate that the SDM developed is invariant to image exposure (2.5-30 mA s), magnification (x1.00-x1.35), noise associated with film graininess and quantum mottle (<25%), blur generated by a sharp film screen, and image size (>64x64 pixels). However, the measure is sensitive to changes in projection angle (>5 deg.), image anisotropy (>30 deg.), and blur generated by a regular film screen. For the classification of Brodatz textures, the SDM based system produced comparable results to the LBP system. For the detection of knee OA, the SDM based system

  13. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piert, Morand; Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A.; Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [ 18 F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K 1 values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f H2O ) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [ 15 O]H 2 O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [ 18 F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K 1 values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K i ), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K i and k 3 (P H2O , f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [ 18 F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [ 18 F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f H2O and K i values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [ 18 F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [ 18 F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy is mainly related to an up-regulation of the amount of ionic exchange of [ 18 F]fluoride with the bone matrix, while tracer delivery remains unchanged. (orig.)

  14. Coupling of porcine bone blood flow and metabolism in high-turnover bone disease measured by [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piert, Morand [Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich (Germany); Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Stahlschmidt, Anke; Becker, Georg A. [Radiopharmacy Section, PET Center, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Jahn, Michael; Zittel, Tilman T. [Department of Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we identified a parathyroid hormone-related high-turnover bone disease after gastrectomy in mini pigs. Dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) revealed that bone metabolism was significantly increased, but that bone blood flow derived from permeability-surface area product (PS product)-corrected K{sub 1} values was not. Since bone blood flow and metabolism are coupled in normal bone tissues, we hypothesised that the capillary permeability and/or surface area might be altered in high-turnover bone disease. The ''true'' bone blood flow (f{sub H2O}) was measured in vertebral bodies by dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET, followed by a 120-min dynamic [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET study, 6 months after total gastrectomy (n=5) and compared with results in sham-operated animals (n=5). Estimates for bone blood flow based on PS-corrected K{sub 1} values (f) and the net uptake of fluoride in bone tissue (K{sub i}), representing the bone metabolic activity, were calculated using standard compartmental modelling and non-linear fitting. Gastrectomy was followed by a significant elevation of K{sub i} and k{sub 3} (P<0.05), which was mainly caused by an increase of the fraction of bound tracer in tissue (P<0.01). In contrast, f{sub H2O}, f, the single-pass extraction fraction of [{sup 18}F]fluoride (E) and the volume of distribution (DV) of [{sup 18}F]fluoride were not significantly different between groups. In both groups, a coupling of the mean f{sub H2O} and K{sub i} values was found, but the intercept with the y-axis was higher in high-turnover bone disease. It is concluded that in high-turnover bone disease following gastrectomy, the PS product for [{sup 18}F]fluoride remains unchanged. Therefore, even in high-turnover bone diseases, [{sup 18}F]fluoride ion PET can provide reliable blood flow estimates (f), as long as a proper PS product correction is applied. The increased bone metabolism in high-turnover bone disease

  15. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  16. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  17. Simulated change in body fatness affects Hologic QDR 4500A whole body and central DXA bone measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen M; Mojtahedi, Mina C; Kessinger, Renee B; Misic, Mark M

    2006-01-01

    Changes in body fatness may impact the accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to determine if DXA can accurately assess BMC and BMD with changes in exogenous fat (lard) placed to simulate weight change. Whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), and proximal femur (PF) DXA scans (Hologic QDR 4500A) were performed on 30 elderly (52-83 yr) and 60 young (18-40 yr) individuals (i.e., 45 females and 45 males) of varying body mass index (mean+/-standard deviation: 26.1+/-4.9 kg/m2). When scans were repeated with lard packets (2.54 cm thick, 25.4x17.8 cm, 1 kg), WB BMD decreased 1.1% and 1.6% after chest and thigh packet placement, respectively (p=0.001), PF BMD increased 0.7% (p=0.02) and LS BMD decreased 1.6% (p=0.001) primarily due to a 2.2% reduction in LS BMC (p<0.001). Initial LS BMC and trunk mass were related to error in LS BMC measures due to lard-loading (r=0.64 and 0.45, respectively, p<0.001). We conclude that on average simulated weight change minimally impacts PF bone measures and moderately impacts WB and LS bone measures; however, individual variability in measurement error was noteworthy and may be impacted by body thickness.

  18. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  19. Voxel effects within digital images of trabecular bone and their consequences on chord-length distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajon, D.A.; Shah, A.P.; Watchman, C.J.; Bolch, W.E.; Jokisch, D.W.; Patton, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Chord-length distributions through the trabecular regions of the skeleton have been investigated since the early 1960s. These distributions have become important features for bone marrow dosimetry; as such, current models rely on the accuracy of their measurements. Recent techniques utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy to acquire 3D images of trabecular bone that are then used to measure 3D chord-length distributions by Monte Carlo methods. Previous studies have shown that two voxel effects largely affect the acquisition of these distributions within digital images. One is particularly pertinent as it dramatically changes the shape of the distribution and reduces its mean. An attempt was made to reduce this undesirable effect and good results were obtained for a single-sphere model using minimum acceptable chord (MAC) methods (Jokisch et al 2001 Med. Phys. 28 1493-504). The goal of the present work is to extend the study of these methods to more general models in order to better quantify their consequences. First, a mathematical model of a trabecular bone sample was used to test the usefulness of the MAC methods. The results showed that these methods were not efficient for this simulated bone model. These methods were further tested on a single voxelized sphere over a large range of voxel sizes. The results showed that the MAC methods are voxel-size dependent and overestimate the mean chord length for typical resolutions used with NMR microscopy. The study further suggests that bone and marrow chord-length distributions currently utilized in skeletal dosimetry models are most likely affected by voxel effects that yield values of mean chord length lower than their true values. (author)

  20. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary analysis of osteocyte lacunar density in long bones of tetrapods: all measures are bigger in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen W H Stein

    Full Text Available Osteocytes harbour much potential for paleobiological studies. Synchrotron radiation and spectroscopic analyses are providing fascinating data on osteocyte density, size and orientation in fossil taxa. However, such studies may be costly and time consuming. Here we describe an uncomplicated and inexpensive method to measure osteocyte lacunar densities in bone thin sections. We report on cell lacunar densities in the long bones of various extant and extinct tetrapods, with a focus on sauropodomorph dinosaurs, and how lacunar densities can help us understand bone formation rates in the iconic sauropod dinosaurs. Ordinary least square and phylogenetic generalized least square regressions suggest that sauropodomorphs have lacunar densities higher than scaled up or comparably sized mammals. We also found normal mammalian-like osteocyte densities for the extinct bovid Myotragus, questioning its crocodilian-like physiology. When accounting for body mass effects and phylogeny, growth rates are a main factor determining the density of the lacunocanalicular network. However, functional aspects most likely play an important role as well. Observed differences in cell strategies between mammals and dinosaurs likely illustrate the convergent nature of fast growing bone tissues in these groups.

  2. Preliminary analysis of osteocyte lacunar density in long bones of tetrapods: all measures are bigger in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Koen W H; Werner, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Osteocytes harbour much potential for paleobiological studies. Synchrotron radiation and spectroscopic analyses are providing fascinating data on osteocyte density, size and orientation in fossil taxa. However, such studies may be costly and time consuming. Here we describe an uncomplicated and inexpensive method to measure osteocyte lacunar densities in bone thin sections. We report on cell lacunar densities in the long bones of various extant and extinct tetrapods, with a focus on sauropodomorph dinosaurs, and how lacunar densities can help us understand bone formation rates in the iconic sauropod dinosaurs. Ordinary least square and phylogenetic generalized least square regressions suggest that sauropodomorphs have lacunar densities higher than scaled up or comparably sized mammals. We also found normal mammalian-like osteocyte densities for the extinct bovid Myotragus, questioning its crocodilian-like physiology. When accounting for body mass effects and phylogeny, growth rates are a main factor determining the density of the lacunocanalicular network. However, functional aspects most likely play an important role as well. Observed differences in cell strategies between mammals and dinosaurs likely illustrate the convergent nature of fast growing bone tissues in these groups.

  3. Denosumab improves density and strength parameters as measured by QCT of the radius in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genant, H K; Engelke, K; Hanley, D A; Brown, J P; Omizo, M; Bone, H G; Kivitz, A J; Fuerst, T; Wang, H; Austin, M; Libanati, C

    2010-07-01

    Bone strength is determined by both cortical and trabecular bone compartments and can be evaluated radiologically through measurement of bone density and geometry. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) separately assesses cortical and trabecular bone reliably at various sites, including the distal radius where there is a gradation of cortical and trabecular bone. We evaluated the effect of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits RANK ligand, on distal radius QCT in women with low bone mass to assess the impact of this novel therapy separately on trabecular and cortical bone. Postmenopausal women (n=332) with spine areal bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores between -1.0 and -2.5 received denosumab 60 mg or placebo every 6 months during the 24-month study. QCT measurements along the distal radius were made using a whole-body computed tomography scanner and were used to determine the percentage change from baseline in volumetric BMD; volumetric bone mineral content (BMC); cortical thickness; volume; circumference; and density-weighted polar moment of inertia (PMI), a derived index of bone strength. Denosumab treatment significantly increased total BMD and BMC along the radius (proximal, distal, and ultradistal sections). At 24 months, the ultradistal region had the greatest percentage increase in total BMD (4.7% [95% CI, 3.6-5.7]; Pproximal and distal regions were separately assessed, cortical bone had significant (Pradius over 24 months. Additionally, denosumab prevented the decrease in QCT-measured cortical thickness observed in the placebo group. These data extend the evidence from previous dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies for a positive effect of denosumab on both the cortical and trabecular bone compartments and propose a possible mechanism for the reduction in fracture risk achieved with denosumab therapy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing a method for the retrospective estimation of radon exposure from in vivo measurements of 210Pb activity in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, R.J.; Johnston, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which has been linked to lung cancer in occupationally exposed uranium mine workers. Where monitoring of an individual's exposure to radon and radon progeny has not occurred or is incomplete, it may be possible to determine this exposure retrospectively by the measurement of the long lived decay product 210 Pb which accumulates in the bones of exposed individuals. This paper describes a method being developed at the whole body monitor (WBM) facility of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to estimate the time integrated exposure to radon over a period of up to several decades from the in vivo measurements of 210 Pb activity in the knee of human subjects. Initial work has concentrated on characterising the WBM facility for this work using artificial bone phantoms. This project will serve as a test of the feasibility of the method before undertaking further studies on human subjects

  5. A Comparison of Hand Wrist Bone Analysis with Two Different Cervical Vertebral Analysis in Measuring Skeletal Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. M...

  6. Measurements of bone mineral density of the proximal femur by two commercially available dual energy X-ray absorptiometric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, O.L.; Marslew, U.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C. (Glostrup Sygehus, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    Two dual energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) instruments have recently become commercially available for local bone densitometry: the QDR-1000 (Hologic Inc.) and the DPX (Lunar Radiation Corp.). We report the precision, influence of femoral, rotation, correlation and agreement of bone mineral measurements of the proximal fermur by these two instruments. In vitro (femur phantom) short-term precision was 1.1%-3.5%, and the long-term precision was 1.2%-3.8%. In vivo (groups of 10 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal women) short-term precision of duplicate measurements was 1.6%-4.7%, and long-term precision was 1.9%-5.5%. Overall, the precision for Ward's triangle was over 3% and that for the femoral neck and trochanter, 2%-3%. Rotation of the femur phantom produced a statistically significant change in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck. Within a clinically relevant range of femoral rotation (20deg inward rotation {+-}5deg) the coefficient of variation (CV%) increased by a mean factor of 1.1-1.4. Although the correlation (r<0.9) between BMD measurements of the proximal femur by the DPX and QDR-1000 in 30 postmenopausal women was high, there was lack of agreement between the two instruments. We found no statistically significant differences between the right and left femur in 30 postmenopausal women. A bilateral femur scan took a mean total time of about 22 min. We conclude that with the introduction of DXA instruments, the precision of bone mineral measurments of the proximal femur has improved. However, for comparability between commercially available DXA instruments, it might be advantageous if units were standardized. (orig.).

  7. Three-dimensional measurement of bone loss at implants in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Marcus; Swierkot, Katrin; Mengel, Reiner

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the three-dimensional marginal bone level around implants 5 to 15 years after loading in partially edentulous patients treated for generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Seventeen patients with GCP and 17 patients with GAgP were treated with a total of 119 implants. Patients were examined clinically on a 3-month recall schedule after insertion of the superstructure, and radiographs were taken at fixed intervals. At the end of the observation period, cone-beam computed tomography was used for the analysis of the circumferential three-dimensional bone level (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual/palatal) and determination of keratinized mucosa thickness (KMT). In both groups, a significant bone loss at implants was observed buccally (GAgP group: 4.49 ± 2.93 mm; GCP group: 3.57 ± 2.94 mm) with significantly more average bone loss in patients with GAgP (3.00 ± 1.67 mm) compared to in patients with GCP (2.45 ± 1.08 mm). The lowest values for KMT in both groups were found in the anterior mandible (GAgP group: 0.99 ± 1.13 mm; GCP group: 0.82 ± 0.91 mm). There were significant correlations between clinical parameters and bone loss in mandibles of patients with GAgP. The lowest value for KMT in both groups was found in the mandible. Bone loss was observed buccally and was more pronounced in patients with GAgP, with a significant correlation with keratinized mucosa and increased inflammation.

  8. Pediatric radiation dose and risk from bone density measurements using a GE Lunar Prodigy scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilakis, J; Solomou, G; Manios, G E; Karantanas, A

    2013-07-01

    Effective radiation doses associated with bone mineral density examinations performed on children using a GE Lunar Prodigy fan-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner were found to be comparable to doses from pencil-beam DXA devices, i.e., lower than 1 μSv. Cancer risks associated with acquisitions obtained in this study are negligible. No data were found in the literature on radiation doses and potential risks following pediatric DXA performed on GE Lunar DXA scanners. This study aimed to estimate effective doses and associated cancer risks involved in pediatric examinations performed on a GE Lunar Prodigy scanner. Four physical anthropomorphic phantoms representing newborn, 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old patients were employed to simulate DXA exposures. All acquisitions were carried out using the Prodigy scanner. Dose measurements were performed for spine and dual femur using the phantoms simulating the 5- and 10-year-old child. Moreover, doses associated with whole-body examinations were measured for the four phantoms used in the current study. The gender-average effective dose for spine and hip examinations were 0.65 and 0.36 μSv, respectively, for the phantom representing the 5-year-old child and 0.93 and 0.205 μSv, respectively, for the phantom representing the 10-year-old child. Effective doses for whole-body examinations were 0.25, 0.22, 0.19, and 0.15 μSv for the neonate, 1-, 5-, and 10-year old child, respectively. The estimated lifetime cancer risks were negligible, i.e., 0.02-0.25 per million, depending on the sex, age, and type of DXA examination. A formula is presented for the estimation of effective dose from examinations performed on GE Lunar Prodigy scanners installed in other institutions. The effective doses and potential cancer risks associated with pediatric DXA examinations performed on a GE Lunar Prodigy fan-beam scanner were found to be comparable to doses and risks reported from pencil-beam DXA devices.

  9. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, J M; Fleming, D E B

    2009-04-21

    In order to quantify the bone lead concentration from an in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurement, typically two estimates of the lead concentration are determined by comparing the normalized x-ray peak amplitudes from the Kalpha(1) and Kbeta(1) features to those of the calibration phantoms. In each case, the normalization consists of taking the ratio of the x-ray peak amplitude to the amplitude of the coherently scattered photon peak in the spectrum. These two Pb concentration estimates are then used to determine the weighted mean lead concentration of that sample. In calculating the uncertainties of these measurements, it is important to include any covariance terms where appropriate. When determining the uncertainty of the lead concentrations from each x-ray peak, the standard approach does not include covariance between the x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered feature. These spectral features originate from two distinct physical processes, and therefore no covariance between these features can exist. Through experimental and simulated data, we confirm that there is no observed covariance between the detected Pb x-ray peaks and the coherently scattered photon signal, as expected. This is in direct contrast to recent work published by Brito (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6125-39). There is, however, covariance introduced in the calculation of the weighted mean lead concentration due to the common coherent normalization. This must be accounted for in calculating the uncertainty of the weighted mean lead concentration, as is currently the case. We propose here an alternative approach to calculating the weighted mean lead concentration in such a way as to eliminate the covariance introduced by the common coherent normalization. It should be emphasized that this alternative approach will only apply in situations in which the calibration line intercept is not included in the calculation of the Pb concentration from the spectral data: when the source of the intercept is

  10. Association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density measurements in early postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T; Yavuz, D G

    2015-06-01

    To determine the association of serum paraoxonase concentration with serum lipid levels and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal Turkish women. One hundred healthy postmenopausal women were included in a cross-sectional study in a University hospital clinic. Blood was drawn from women who had bone mineral density (BMD) measurements during routine visits. BMD of the lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The serum paraoxonase concentration and serum lipid levels were measured. Women were divided into two groups: those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD and those with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae. Serum paraoxonase concentration was compared between the groups. The correlation between serum paraoxonase concentration and bone mass parameters was performed using Pearson's test. The paraoxonase concentration in the osteopenic group was significantly lower than in the group with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. The paraoxonase concentration was moderately correlated with total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels among early postmenopausal Turkish women. Early postmenopausal women with osteopenic lumbar vertebrae have significantly lower paraoxonase concentration than those with normal lumbar vertebrae BMD. Further studies are needed to clarify the associations between the osteoporosis risk factors and paraoxonase concentration during late postmenopausal years.

  11. Quantitative measures of damage to subchondral bone are associated with functional outcome following treatment of displaced acetabular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubovsky, Omri; Kreder, Michael; Wright, David A; Kiss, Alex; Gallant, Aimee; Kreder, Hans J; Whyne, Cari M

    2013-12-01

    Current analysis of displaced acetabular fractures is limited in its ability to predict functional outcome. This study aimed to (1) quantify initial acetabular damage following acetabular fracture through measurement of subchondral bone density and fracture lines, and (2) evaluate associations between acetabular damage and functional outcomes following fracture. Subchondral bone intensity maps were created for 24 patients with unilateral acetabular fractures. Measures of crack length and density differences between corresponding regions in the fractured acetabuli, normalized by the unfractured side, were generated from preoperative CT images. Damage measures were compared to quality of life survey data collected for each patient at least 2 years post-injury (Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment [MFA] and Short Form-36 [SF-36], with specific focus on parameters that best describe patients' physical health). CT image quantification of initial damage to acetabular subchondral bone was associated with functional outcome post-injury. In general, damage as quantified through differences in density in the superior dome region (zones 8 and 12) and the central anterior region of the acetabulum (zone 3) were found to be the strongest significant predictors of functional outcome (adjusted R(2) = 0.3-0.45, p fractures toward improving clinical prognoses. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  12. Osteopoikilosis: A Cause of Elevated Bone Mineral Density on Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Measurement in a Young Woman: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asylbek Kaparov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopoikilosis (OPK is an asymptomatic, rare bone dysplasia. It causes an increase in bone density. The etiology and pathogenesis is unknown. OPK is generally diagnosed incidentally on plain radiographies which were performed for other locomotor system symptoms. Diagnostic lesions of OPK are typically diffuse, round, symmetrically shaped sclerotic bone areas. Laboratory findings and bone scintigraphy are usually normal. OPK should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteoblastic bone disorders. OPK is a benign disease and invasive diagnostic procedures as well as aggressive treatment modalities should be avoided. In young individuals who have elevated scores on dual-energy X-Ray absoptiometry measurement, OPK as well as other sclerosing bone disorders would be considered. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:25-8

  13. The measurement of gonadal and bone-marrow doses from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The method of calculation of the radiation doses to the gonads and to the active bone marrow arising from dental radiography is described. The bone-marrow doses have been calculated using a computer model of X-ray depth doses within the skull for typical dental radiographic examinations as performed in Australia. The ovarian and testicular doses, as a percentage of skin dose have been determined experimentally. The dependence of the gonadal doses on X-ray tube voltage, face to cone distance and direction of the X-ray beam relative to the face is detailed

  14. Usefulness of bone mineral content measurement. Value of ultrasound. Interet des techniques de mesure de la masse osseuse. Methodes radiologiques et apport des ultrasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fery-Lemonnier, E. (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 75 - Paris (France) Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)); Viens-Bitker, C. (Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 75 - Paris (France)); Roux, C.; Hazebroucq, V.; Legmann, P. (Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-05-01

    The current interest in bone mineral density measurements is related to the frequency, the morbidity and the cost of osteoporosis, which is considered to be a public health problem in developed countries. The main risk factor of osteoporotic fractures is the reduction of bone mineral density. This risk factor can be prevented by hormonal therapy in post-menopausal women. So it is of interest to develop the bone mineral density measurement methods, in osteoporotic bone areas or the entire skeleton (absorptiometry). But the interpretation of the result in term of individual fracture risk, the choice of the bone site to be examined, and the indication of the measurement are still being discussed. A new method of bone status evaluation is currently available: the broad band ultrasonic attenuation, which measures the attenuation of ultrasounds through the calcaneus bone. The device is portable, inexpensive and radiation free, and may give quantitative and qualitative assessment of bone. However, the normal values, the relation with the absorptiometry results and the contribution of this method in fracture risk evaluation are currently studied. Osteoporosis risk evaluation is an important point of health management in post-menopausal women and elderly people. Large prospective studies with the different methods are in progress.

  15. The Effect of Scapula Tilt and Best-Fit Circle Placement When Measuring Glenoid Bone Loss in Shoulder Instability Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Plachel, Fabian; Huettner, Anna; Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Minkus, Marvin; Boehm, Elisabeth; Gerhardt, Christian; Scheibel, Markus

    2018-02-01

    To analyze the effect of lack of standardization on the reliability of current measurement techniques for glenoid bone loss in clinical practice. Ten consecutive patients with anterior glenoid bone loss due to recurrent anterior shoulder instability and available computed tomographic (CT) scans of the affected shoulder were included in this study. One hundred seventy 3-dimensional en-face view images of the 10 glenoids with up to 20° degrees of tilt in the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior direction were rendered. Three independent observers first identified the en-face view images and subsequently performed measurements of the defect surface and diameter as well as the glenoid surface and diameter on all 170 images. Measurements were completed based on the conventional best-fit circle technique using the edge of the visible glenoid bone as reference and additionally based on the so-called spoon technique, which places the best-fit circle on the edge of the visible glenoid concavity. The overall agreement regarding en-face view image selection between the observers was 30% (K-alpha = 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.22). Tilt of the en-face view in any direction resulted in significant alterations of all 4 measurement parameters as well as the relative defect area and diameter (P techniques rendered significantly different results regarding all 4 measurement parameters as well as the relative defect area (P best-fit circle placement significantly alter glenoid defect size measurement results. Because the glenoid defect size plays an important role in the choice of treatment for anterior shoulder instability, measurement techniques need to be as precise as possible. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  17. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and

  18. Effects of plasma magnesium and prolactin on quantitative ultrasound measurements of heel bone among schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renn Jenn-Huei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a bone disease that can reduce both bone mass and bone strength. It can cause serious fractures of bones, along with causing significant and even devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences for patients and their family members. Many reports have revealed that the prevalence of decreased bone density is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the non-psychological diseased population. The previous report of our group revealed that chronic schizophrenia patients have poorer BUA levels since they were young as compared to the general community population. Hyperprolactinemia and antipsychotics are reported to be among the risk factors for osteoporosis in chronic schizophrenic patients. Methods 93 schizophrenic patients with severely poor adjusted BUA values and 93 age and gender matched patients with normal adjusted BUA values from a previous survey study were selected. Data were collected via questionnaires and via reviews of antipsychotic medications. Blood samples were drawn, and serum levels of prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, Cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTX, thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone were checked. The association between BUA levels and serum levels of the above items, along with the type of received antipsychotic medication, was evaluated. Results There was no significant association found between reduced BUA levels and serum prolactin, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, NTX, thyroid stimulating hormone and parathyroid hormone levels. There was also no association between BUA levels and types of currently received antipsychotics. There was no association between BUA levels and menstruation condition in female patients. Hypermagnesemia had a borderline association with classical and combined (classical and atypical antipsychotic medications in male patients. Nevertheless, hypermagnesemia is a significant

  19. Panoramic measures for oral bone mass in detecting osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, E; Donos, N; Park, J C; Petrie, A; Mardas, N

    2015-03-01

    Different quantitative and qualitative indices calculated on oral panoramic radiographs have been proposed as useful tools to screen for reduced skeletal bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to systematically review the literature on linear and qualitative panoramic measures and to assess the accuracy of these indices by performing a meta-analysis of their sensitivity and specificity. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed. Fifty studies were included in the qualitative appraisal and 19 were considered for meta-analysis. The methodological quality of the retrieved studies, assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool, was on average low. Three indices were reported by most of the studies: mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and the Klemetti index. Mandibular cortical width presented with a better accuracy in excluding osteopenia/osteoporosis (specificity), since patients with a cortical width more than 4 mm had a normal BMD in 90% of the cases. Almost all studies used a cutoff of 0.3 for the panoramic mandibular index, resulting in an estimated sensitivity and specificity in detecting reduced BMD, respectively, of 0.723 (SE 0.160; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.352-0.926) and 0.733 (SE 0.066; 95% CI, 0.587-0.841). The presence of any kind of mandibular cortical erosion gave an estimated sensitivity and specificity in detecting reduced BMD, respectively, of 0.789 (SE 0.031; 95% CI, 0.721-0.843) and 0.562 (SE 0.047; 95% CI, 0.47-0.651) and a sensitivity and specificity in detecting osteoporosis, respectively, of 0.806 (SE 0.105; 95% CI, 0.528-0.9200) and 0.643 (SE 0.109; 95% CI, 0.417-0.820). The mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index, and Klemetti index are overall useful tools that potentially could be used by dentists to screen for low BMD. Their limitations are mainly related to the experience/agreement between different operators and the different image quality and

  20. A comparison of hand wrist bone analysis with two different cervical vertebral analysis in measuring skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. Hand wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 72 subjects aged between 7 and 16 years both male and female from the patients visiting Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, R.V. Dental College and Hospital. The 9 stages were reduced to 5 stages to compare with cervical vertebral maturation stage by Baccetti et al. The Bjork, Grave and Brown stages were reduced to six intervals to compare with cervical vertebral maturational index (CVMI) staging by Hassel and Farman. These measurements were then compared with the hand wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference between the hand wrist analysis and the two different cervical vertebral analyses for assessing skeletal maturation. There was no significant difference between the two cervical vertebral analyses, but the CVMI method, which is visual method is less time consuming. Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects.

  1. A Comparison of Hand Wrist Bone Analysis with Two Different Cervical Vertebral Analysis in Measuring Skeletal Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. Materials and Methods: Hand wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 72 subjects aged between 7 and 16 years both male and female from the patients visiting Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, R.V. Dental College and Hospital. The 9 stages were reduced to 5 stages to compare with cervical vertebral maturation stage by Baccetti et al. The Bjork, Grave and Brown stages were reduced to six intervals to compare with cervical vertebral maturational index (CVMI) staging by Hassel and Farman. These measurements were then compared with the hand wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test. Results: There was no significant difference between the hand wrist analysis and the two different cervical vertebral analyses for assessing skeletal maturation. There was no significant difference between the two cervical vertebral analyses, but the CVMI method, which is visual method is less time consuming. Conclusion: Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects. PMID:25395791

  2. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  3. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-01-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions. (orig.) [de

  4. Application of Measurements of Serum CA15-3 and B-AKP in Diagnosis of Bone Metastasis in Patients with Post-operative Mammary Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhang Xia; Yuan Shiqiang

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnosis value of serum CA15-3 and B-AKP measurements in diagnosis of bone metastasis images in patients with post-operative mammary cancer, retrospective study on the bone scan images and serum CA15-3 and bone alkaline phosphatase (B-AKP) levels were performed in 92 patients with confirmed post-operative mammary gland cancer. The results showed that the serum levels of CA15-3 and B-AKP were increased step by step significantly along with the advancement of bone metastatic grading from M0 to M3 (P<0.01). The serum levels of CA15-3 and B-AKP were positively correlated with the number of bone metastasis. The positive rate of bone metastasis was 63.2% with serum CA15-3 more than 25U/mL; and the negative predictive value of bone metastasis was 94.5% with serum CA15-3 less than 25U/mL. The positive rate of bone metastasis was 59.6% with serum B-AKP levels more than 20U/L; and the negative predictive value of bone metastasis was 73.5% with serum B-AKP levels less than 20U/L. The negative predictive value of bone metastasis was 100% with serum CA15-3 less than 25U/mL and serum B-AKP levels less than 20U/L. The combined measurement of the serum CA15-3 and B-AKP levels would play an important role in diagnosis of bone scan images in patients with post-operative mammary cancer. (authors)

  5. Validation and application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density in rabbit vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, S A; Pettifor, J M; Gray, D A; Biscardi, A; Buffenstein, R

    2000-01-01

    The rabbit could be a superior animal model to use in bone physiology studies, for the rabbit does attain true skeletal maturity. However, there are neither normative bone mineral density (BMD) data on the rabbit nor are there any validation studies on the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure spinal BMD in the rabbit. Therefore, our aim was twofold: first, to investigate whether DXA could be used precisely and accurately to determine the bone mineral content (BMC). bone area (BA). and BMD of the rabbit lumbar spine: Second. to evaluate the new generation fan-beam DXA (Hologic QDR-4500) with small animal software by comparing two DXA methodologies QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 with each other, as well as against volumetric bone density (VBMD) derived from Archimedes principle. As expected. there was a magnification error in the QDR-4500 (BMC, BA. and BMD increased by 52%. 38%. and 10%, respectively, when the vertebrae were positioned flat against the scanning table). With the magnification error kept constant (vertebrae positioned 10 cm above the scanning table to match the height in vivo). there were no differences among the mean BMC. BA. and BMD of the rabbit vertebrae (Ll-L7) in vivo and in vitro using the QDR-4500 (p > 0.05). BMC, BA, and BMD differed between QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 in vitro because of a magnification error when the vertebrae were flat on the table (p 0.05). However, the BMC, BA, and BMD of the two DXAs did significantly correlate with each other in vivo and in vitro when the magnification error was compensated for (r = 0.44 and 0.52. i2 = 0.45 and 0.63. and 12 = 0.41 and 0.60. respectively. p < 0.05-0.008). The BMC and BMD (in vivo and in vitro) of the rabbit vertebrae measured by QDR-4500 was significantly correlated with VMBD, ash weight, and mineral content (,2 = 0.67-0.90,j <0.01-0.0001). Therefore, the QDR-4500 can be used to yield precise and accurate measurements of the rabbit spine.

  6. Evaluation of in-vivo measurement errors associated with micro-computed tomography scans by means of the bone surface distance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2015-11-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning is an important tool for longitudinal monitoring of the bone adaptation process in animal models. However, the errors associated with the usage of in vivo µCT measurements for the evaluation of bone adaptations remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement errors using the bone surface distance approach. The right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6 J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size (10.4 µm) and the tibiae were repositioned between each scan. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration and a region of interest was selected in the proximal tibia metaphysis for analysis. The bone surface distances between the repeated and the baseline scan datasets were evaluated. It was found that the average (±standard deviation) median and 95th percentile bone surface distances were 3.10 ± 0.76 µm and 9.58 ± 1.70 µm, respectively. This study indicated that there were inevitable errors associated with the in vivo µCT measurements of bone microarchitecture and these errors should be taken into account for a better interpretation of bone adaptations measured with in vivo µCT. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The half-life of DNA in bone: measuring decay kinetics in 158 dated fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentoft, Morten E; Collins, Matthew; Harker, David; Haile, James; Oskam, Charlotte L; Hale, Marie L; Campos, Paula F; Samaniego, Jose A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Zhang, Guojie; Scofield, R Paul; Holdaway, Richard N; Bunce, Michael

    2012-12-07

    Claims of extreme survival of DNA have emphasized the need for reliable models of DNA degradation through time. By analysing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 158 radiocarbon-dated bones of the extinct New Zealand moa, we confirm empirically a long-hypothesized exponential decay relationship. The average DNA half-life within this geographically constrained fossil assemblage was estimated to be 521 years for a 242 bp mtDNA sequence, corresponding to a per nucleotide fragmentation rate (k) of 5.50 × 10(-6) per year. With an effective burial temperature of 13.1°C, the rate is almost 400 times slower than predicted from published kinetic data of in vitro DNA depurination at pH 5. Although best described by an exponential model (R(2) = 0.39), considerable sample-to-sample variance in DNA preservation could not be accounted for by geologic age. This variation likely derives from differences in taphonomy and bone diagenesis, which have confounded previous, less spatially constrained attempts to study DNA decay kinetics. Lastly, by calculating DNA fragmentation rates on Illumina HiSeq data, we show that nuclear DNA has degraded at least twice as fast as mtDNA. These results provide a baseline for predicting long-term DNA survival in bone.

  8. Estimation of femoral bone density from trabecular direct wave and cortical guided wave ultrasound velocities measured at the proximal femur in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Dencks, Stefanie; Bremer, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    and of guided waves through cortical bone could be used to estimate BMD. In two centres, Kiel and Odense, we measured time-of-flight (TOF) of waves through the trabecular greater trochanter and cortical intertrochanter as well as a wave through soft tissue only. TOF was adjusted for leg width using ultrasound......Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur is a predictor of hip fracture risk. We developed a Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) scanner for measurements at this site with similar performance (FemUS). In this study we tested if ultrasound velocities of direct waves through trabecular bone...

  9. Liquid scintillation based quantitative measurement of dual radioisotopes (3H and 45Ca) in biological samples for bone remodeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Sharma, M; Bhattacharyya, M H

    2012-01-01

    Acute and prolonged bone complications associated with radiation and chemotherapy in cancer survivors underscore the importance of establishing a laboratory-based complementary dual-isotope tool to evaluate short- as well as long-term bone remodeling in an in vivo model. To address this need, a liquid scintillation dual-label method was investigated using different scintillation cocktails for quantitative measurement of (3)H-tetracycline ((3)H-TC) and (45)Ca as markers of bone turnover in mice. Individual samples were prepared over a wide range of known (45)Ca/(3)H activity ratios. Results showed that (45)Ca/(3)H activity ratios determined experimentally by the dual-label method were comparable to the known activity ratios (percentage difference ∼2%), but large variations were found in samples with (45)Ca/(3)H activity ratios in range of 2-10 (percentage difference ∼20-30%). Urine and fecal samples from mice administered with both (3)H-TC and (45)Ca were analyzed with the dual-label method. Positive correlations between (3)H and (45)Ca in urine (R=0.93) and feces (R=0.83) indicate that (3)H-TC and (45)Ca can be interchangeably used to monitor longitudinal in vivo skeletal remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid scintillation based quantitative measurement of dual radioisotopes (3H and 45Ca) in biological samples for bone remodeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Sharma, M; Bhattacharyya, M H

    2011-01-01

    Acute and prolonged bone complications associated with radiation and chemotherapy in cancer survivors underscore the importance of establishing a laboratory-based complementary dual-isotope tool to evaluate short- as well as long-term bone remodeling in an in vivo model. To address this need, a liquid scintillation dual-label method was investigated using different scintillation cocktails for quantitative measurement of 3H-tetracycline (3H-TC) and 45Ca as markers of bone turnover in mice. Individual samples were prepared over a wide range of known 45Ca/3H activity ratios. Results showed that 45Ca/3H activity ratios determined experimentally by the dual-label method were comparable to the known activity ratios (percentage difference ~2%), but large variations were found in samples with 45Ca/3H activity ratios in range of 2–10 (percentage difference ~ 20–30%). Urine and fecal samples from mice administered with both 3H-TC and 45Ca were analyzed with the dual-label method. Positive correlations between 3H and 45Ca in urine (R = 0.93) and feces (R = 0.83) indicate that 3H-TC and 45Ca can be interchangeably used to monitor longitudinal in vivo skeletal remodeling. PMID:21900015

  11. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, window settings with magnification. For uric acid calculi the measurement error was observed only in standard soft tissue window settings. In vivo 4.0x

  12. Computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. II. Intra- and inter-examinar variation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, F.R.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Hellden, L.; Lavstedt, S.; Salonen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The study was aimed at analyzing intra- and inter-examiner variations in computerized measurement and in non-measurability of alveolar bone level in a cross-sectional, epidemiologic material. At each interproximal tooth surface, alveolar bone height in percentage of root length (B/R) and tooth length (B/T) were determined twice by one examiner and once by a second examiner from X5-magnified periapical radiographs. The overall intra- and inter-examiner variations in measurement were 2.85% and 3.84% of root length and 1.97% and 2.82% of tooth length, respectively. The varations were different for different tooth groups and for different degrees of severity of marginal periodontitis. The overall proportions on non-measurable tooth surfaces varied with examiner from 32% to 39% and from 43% to 48% of the available interproximal tooth surfaces for B/R and B/T, respectively. With regard to the level of reliability, the computerized method reported is appropriate to cross-sectional, epidemiologic investigations from radiographs.

  13. Bone mineral density measurements using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). An evaluation of its clinical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yoshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    Bone densitometry has become a major tool for the risk assessment of osteoporosis. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) has the potential to measure true volumetric bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm 3 ) separating cortical and trabecular BMD. The most widely used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides areal BMD (mg/cm 2 ). The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical usefulness of pQCT as a method for bone mineral measurement. The pQCT measurements were carried out at the ultradistal- and mid-radius and the tibia using a Densiscan-1000 (Scanco Medical AG). In both sexes, radial and tibial BMDs in the elderly group (aged more than 60 y.o., 17 men, and 26 women) were significantly lower than those in the young group (aged 20-44 y.o., 107 men and 78 women). The percent difference between the two groups was the greatest in trabecular BMD (D50). As to the sex-related difference, the mean values of radial and tibial BMD in men were significantly higher than in women in elderly groups. The radial BMDs measured by pQCT correlated significantly with BMDs in the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck measured by DXA (p<0.001). Lumbar BMD measured by DXA showed the highest correlation to rD50 measured by pQCT. Diagnostic ability of pQCT and DXA to detect osteoporosis was determined by comparing BMD measurements. Kappa statistics showed that in general the diagnostic agreement between these measurements was fair or moderate. The discriminative ability of these methods for vertebral fracture was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.68, 0.71, 0.69 and 0.78 for D50, D100, P100 and L-BMD, respectively. These results indicate that BMD measurements made by pQCT can provide information regarding both trabecular and cortical BMD, and that this method has potential for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. (author)

  14. Measurement of bone marrow lesions by MR imaging in knee osteoarthritis: The sensitivity to change assessed by two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming Kromann; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Peters, David Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two quantitative methods of measuring BMLs in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one with computer assisted automatic segmentation (CAS) and one with manual segmentation (MS). Methods and Materials: Eighteen females and four males (mean age 61 years) with KOA confined to the medial fe...... changes over time. The BML-volumes measured by the two methods were not comparable.......Purpose: To compare two quantitative methods of measuring BMLs in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one with computer assisted automatic segmentation (CAS) and one with manual segmentation (MS). Methods and Materials: Eighteen females and four males (mean age 61 years) with KOA confined to the medial...... values and standard deviations (STD) of the signal intensity (SI) of the normal marrow of the lateral femoral and tibial condyles were obtained by both methods. In three slices of the medial femoral condyle the volume of bone marrow with SIs exceeding the threshold values (BML) were measured. Threshold...

  15. The fracture toughness of small animal cortical bone measured using arc-shaped tension specimens: Effects of bisphosphonate and deproteinization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunckler, Michael D; Chu, Ethan D; Baumann, Andrew P; Curtis, Tyler E; Ravosa, Matthew J; Allen, Matthew R; Roeder, Ryan K

    2017-12-01

    Small animal models, and especially transgenic models, have become widespread in the study of bone mechanobiology and metabolic bone disease, but test methods for measuring fracture toughness on multiple replicates or at multiple locations within a single small animal bone are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a method to measure cortical bone fracture toughness in multiple specimens and locations along the diaphysis of small animal bones. Arc-shaped tension specimens were prepared from the mid-diaphysis of rabbit ulnae and loaded to failure to measure the radial fracture toughness in multiple replicates per bone. The test specimen dimensions, crack length, and maximum load met requirements for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness. Experimental groups included a control group, bisphosphonate treatment group, and an ex vivo deproteinization treatment following bisphosphonate treatment (5 rabbits/group and 15 specimens/group). The fracture toughness of ulnar cortical bone from rabbits treated with zoledronic acid for six months exhibited no difference compared with the control group. Partially deproteinized specimens exhibited significantly lower fracture toughness compared with both the control and bisphosphonate treatment groups. The deproteinization treatment increased tissue mineral density (TMD) and resulted in a negative linear correlation between the measured fracture toughness and TMD. Fracture toughness measurements were repeatable with a coefficient of variation of 12-16% within experimental groups. Retrospective power analysis of the control and deproteinization treatment groups indicated a minimum detectable difference of 0.1MPa·m 1/2 . Therefore, the overall results of this study suggest that arc-shaped tension specimens offer an advantageous new method for measuring the fracture toughness in small animal bones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The outcome of bone mineral density measurements on patients referred from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Sofia Inez; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Rosenzweig, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing and the general practitioner is integral to identifying these patients. It is, therefore, of interest to characterize the referral pattern of patients scheduled for determination of bone density by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning...... calculated with respect to patient characteristics. Only 21% of the referred patients had osteoporosis and 34% had osteopenia. Of these, 24% had osteopenia and a Z-score below -1. Half of the referred patients were women less than 60 yr with a markedly low risk of osteoporosis. A BMI less than 20 kg/m(2...

  17. Bone mineral density measurements using the Hologic QD2000 in 175 Singaporean women aged 20-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, K H; Feng, P H

    1997-01-01

    The first aim is to obtain a reference database of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements for Singaporean women across different age groups and to compare this with an American database using the same machine. The second is to study the lifestyle factors that may influence bone mass in these women. Subjects were recruited from hospital staff and their relatives. They needed to fulfil inclusion criteria and those with confounding factors such as being on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were excluded. A lifestyle questionnaire was administered. Across every five-year age band, the mean BMD measurements of the Singaporean women were 3%-8% lower than their American counterparts at the AP spine and 6%-11% lower at the femoral neck. 40.6% either drank milk, ate cheese or took calcium supplements everyday. 16.6% did some form of weight bearing exercise at least once a week. A local reference database is needed for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurements as there is significant variation compared to Caucasian values.

  18. Accuracy of Bone Measurements in the Vicinity of Titanium Implants in CBCT Data Sets: A Comparison of Radiological and Histological Findings in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gröbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this animal study was the determination of accuracy of bone measurements in CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography in close proximity to titanium implants. Material and Methods. Titanium implants were inserted in eight Göttingen minipigs. 60 implants were evaluated histologically in ground section specimen and radiologically in CBCT in regard to thickness of the buccal bone. With random intercept models, the difference of histologic measurements and CBCT measurements of bone thickness was calculated. Results. The mean histological thickness of the buccal bone was 5.09 mm (CI 4.11–6.08 mm. The four raters measured slightly less bone in CBCT than it was found in histology. The random effect was not significant (p value 1.000. Therefore, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was 98.65% (CI 100.00–96.99%. Conclusion. CBCT is an accurate technique to measure even thin bone structures in the vicinity of titanium implants.

  19. Measured and Monte Carlo simulated surface dose reduction for superficial X-rays incident on tissue with underlying air or bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, John; Zawlodzka, Sylwia; Markwell, Tim; Chan, Millicent

    2018-02-01

    Measurement of surface dose reduction effects for superficial x-rays incident on tissue with underlying air or bone and comparison with Monte Carlo simulations of such effects. Further to investigate the correlation between surface dose reduction and changes in Compton backscatter spectra with tissue-bone separation. An Advanced Markus chamber with entrance window facing downstream on the surface of a solid water phantom was used to investigate changes in surface dose with an underlying air or bone interface located at various depths below the surface. Chamber readings were obtained for interface depths ranging from 1 to 100 mm using the 50 kV, 100 kV and 150 kV beams of an Xstrahl 150 x-ray unit, with field diameters (ϕ) = 2.5 cm and 5 cm. For each beam quality and field size the dose correction factor, DCF(t), namely the ratio of measured dose (t) to dose (t = 100 mm) was determined. Monte Carlo simulations of DCF(t) for air and bone interfaces in tissue are used to validate corresponding measured data. For a given beam and field size, the difference between simulated spectra with an air or bone interface at t = 3 mm was used to determine the Compton backscatter from bone at the surface. For air, DCF(t tube potentials corresponding factors, ϕ = 2.5 cm, for air(bone) are 0.94(0.96) and 0.92(0.99). Calculated DCF(t) based on Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with experimental observations to within 2%. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray spectra demonstrate the presence of Compton backscatter from underlying bone in tissue. With bone at 3 mm depth calculated backscatter spectra at the tissue surface suggest that surface dose is influenced by the proximity of bone and that this effect depends on beam quality. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using an Advanced Markus chamber with entrance window facing downstream to investigate surface dose reduction with underlying air or bone in tissue. As the field size decreases and beam quality increases surface

  20. Assessment of lumbar bone mineral density using QCT and DXA for measurement of osteoporotic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Toshikatsu; Ohdera, Kohzo; Ito, Masaaki; Tani, Masahiko; Yokogushi, Kazutoshi; Ishii, Seiichi (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)); Narasaki, Giichi

    1993-04-01

    Lumbar bone mineral density was assessed in 157 patients with primary osteoporosis and 75 with secondary osteoporosis by means of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The ratio of young reference (YR) to the peak bone mass (%YR) and the ratio of age matched (%AM) to the same sex and age were used as indicators. %AM for primary osteoporosis was found in 100% in the age-group of 75 years or more by QCT and in the age-group of 60 years or more by DXA. %AM in the age-group between 50 and 70 was significantly lower by QCT than by DXA, revealing the existence of D/Q dissociation. %AM for secondary osteoporosis was less than 100% in any age-group by both QCT and DXA. D/Q dissociation was seen in cases of gastrointestinal malabsorption, liver dysfunction and post steroid treatment, but not in cases of thyroid dysfunction, parathyroid dysfunction and sex hormone abnormality. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had the same %AM as control persons. These results suggest that the combination of QCT and DXA has the potential for assessing underlying diseases in osteoporosis. (N.K.).

  1. A probabilistic approach to measure the strength of bone cell adhesion to chemically modified surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, A; Thomas, C H; Healy, K E

    1997-01-01

    Patterned surfaces with alternating regions of amino silanes [N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (EDS)] and alkyl silanes [dimethyldichlorosilane (DMS)] have been used to alter the kinetics of spatial distribution of cells in vitro. In particular, we have previously observed the preferential spatial distribution of bone cells on the EDS regions of EDS/ DMS patterned surfaces (10). In this study, we examined whether the mechanism of spatial distribution of cells on the EDS regions was adhesion mediated. Homogeneous layers of EDS and DMS were immobilized on quartz substrates and characterized by contact angle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The strength of bone cell attachment to the modified substrates was examined using a radial flow apparatus, within either 20 min or 2 hr of cell incubation in the presence of serum. A Weibull distribution was chosen to characterize the strength of cell-substratum adhesion. Within 20 min of cell exposure, the strength of adhesion was significantly larger on EDS and clean surfaces, compared with DMS surfaces (p < 0.001). Within 2 hr of cell incubation, there was no statistical difference between the strength of cell adhesion to EDS, DMS, and clean surfaces. The results of this study suggest that the surface chemistry mediates adhesion-based spatial cell arrangement through a layer of adsorbed serum proteins.

  2. Effect of precision on longitudinal follow-up of bone mineral density measurements in elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenora, Janaka; Akesson, Kristina; Gerdhem, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Precision error of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry exceeds the expected annual rate of bone loss in the elderly. The capacity to detect changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm(2)) over a 5-yr period was assessed. Six hundred ninety-one women, 75.2 (0.1)yr, from the Malmö OPRA-study, were measured using Lunar DPX-L (GE Lunar, Madison, WI), and 211 men, 74.7 (3.2)yr, from the Malmö Mr Os-study, were measured using Lunar Prodigy (GE Lunar) with follow-up 5 yr later. Precision error was determined with 30 degrees of freedom. Least significant change (LSC, i.e., 2.77 × precision error) was calculated. Women's precision errors (g/cm(2)) for DPX-L were 0.028 (total hip [TH]) and 0.016 (lumbar spine [LS]), and for Prodigy, they were 0.009 (TH) and 0.039 (LS). In men, corresponding results for Prodigy were 0.014 and 0.031. In women, 41% and in men, 39% had aBMD changes exceeding the LSC at TH. Follow-up intervals (i.e., LSC/median rate of aBMD change) for both women and men were 8 yr (TH) and 13 yr (LS). Based on Prodigy precision data, follow-up intervals for women were 3 and 32 yr at TH and LS. In summary, several years were needed to detect change. Only when a high rate of bone loss is suspected, a short follow-up time is possible, in elderly persons. Copyright © 2010 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of plasma, serum, and platelet serotonin in individuals with high bone mass and mutations in LRP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace S; Simpson, Christine; Sun, Ben-Hua; Yao, Chen; Foer, Dinah; Sullivan, Becky; Matthes, Susann; Alenina, Natalia; Belsky, Joseph; Bader, Michael; Insogna, Karl L

    2014-04-01

    It has recently been suggested that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) regulates bone mass by suppressing secretion of serotonin from duodenal enterochromaffin cells. In mice with targeted expression of a high bone mass-causing (HBM-causing) LRP5 mutation and in humans with HBM LRP5 mutations, circulating serotonin levels have been reported to be lower than in controls whereas individuals with loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 have high blood serotonin. In contrast, others have reported that conditionally activating a knock-in allele of an HBM-causing LRP5 mutation in several tissues, or genetic deletion of LRP5 in mice has no effect on serum serotonin levels. To further explore the possible association between HBM-causing LRP5 mutations and circulating serotonin, levels of the hormone were measured in the platelet poor plasma (PPP), serum, and platelet pellet (PP) of 16 affected individuals from 2 kindreds with HBM-causing LRP5 mutations (G171V and N198S) and 16 age-matched controls. When analyzed by HPLC, there were no differences in levels of serotonin in PPP and PP between affected individuals and age-matched controls. Similarly, when analyzed by ELISA, there were no differences in PPP or PP between these two groups. By ELISA, serum levels of serotonin were higher in the affected individuals when compared to age-matched controls. A subgroup analysis of only the G171V subjects (n=14) demonstrated that there were no differences in PPP and PP serotonin between affected individuals and controls when analyzed by HPLC. PP serotonin was lower in the affected individuals when measured by ELISA but serum serotonin levels were not different. We conclude that there is no change in PPP serotonin in individuals with HBM-causing mutations in LRP5. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N.B.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  5. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: Estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr in the skeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    The rate of cortical bone resorption was assessed from long-term in vivo measurements of 90Sr content in the skeleton for men aged 50-80 years and for women 0-30 years after menopause. Measurements of 90Sr were conducted with a whole body counter for residents of the Techa Riverside communities (Southern Urals, Russia), who ingested large amounts of 90Sr as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes into the river from the Mayak plutonium facility in early 1950s. The results of this study showed an increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption in both men and women, as based on the use of accidentally ingested 90Sr as a tracer for bone metabolism. In men there was a continuous gradual increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after 55 years from 2.8 to 4.5%/year by the age of 75 years. In women, there was a doubled increase in the rate of cortical bone resorption after menopause of up to 6%/year; then the rate remained unchanged for 10-12 years with a subsequent gradual decline down to 5-5.5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption.

  6. Analysis of the roles of microporosity and BMP-2 on multiple measures of bone regeneration and healing in calcium phosphate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Samantha J; Levengood, Sheeny K Lan; Wheeler, Matthew B; Maki, Aaron J; Clark, Sherrie G; Johnson, Amy J Wagoner

    2011-04-01

    Osteoinductive agents, such as BMP-2, are known to improve bone formation when combined with scaffolds. Microporosity (bone regeneration in calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds. However, many studies use only the term "osteoconductive" to describe the effects of BMP-2 and microporosity on bone formation, and do not assess the degree of healing that occurred. The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of BMP-2 and microporosity on bone regeneration and healing in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds using multiple measures including bone volume fraction, radial distribution, and specific surface area. These measures were quantitatively compared by analyzing microcomputed tomography data and used to formally define and assess healing. A custom image segmentation program was used to segment >100 samples, with 900 images each, that were implanted in porcine mandibular defects for 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The assessment of healing presented in this work demonstrates the level of detail possible in evaluating scaffold-guided bone regeneration. The analysis shows that BMP-2 and microporosity accelerate healing up to 4-fold. BMP-2 and microporosity were shown to have different and complementary roles in bone formation that effect the time needed for a defect to heal. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  8. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Van den Bussche

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa, and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias.

  9. Theoretical modeling of a portable x-ray tube based KXRF system to measure lead in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Weisskopf, Marc G; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2017-03-01

    K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) techniques have been used to identify health effects resulting from exposure to metals for decades, but the equipment is bulky and requires significant maintenance and licensing procedures. A portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device was developed to overcome these disadvantages, but introduced a measurement dependency on soft tissue thickness. With recent advances to detector technology, an XRF device utilizing the advantages of both systems should be feasible. In this study, we used Monte Carlo simulations to test the feasibility of an XRF device with a high-energy x-ray tube and detector operable at room temperature. We first validated the use of Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP) for x-ray tube simulations, and found good agreement between experimental and simulated results. Then, we optimized x-ray tube settings and found the detection limit of the high-energy x-ray tube based XRF device for bone lead measurements to be 6.91 µg g -1 bone mineral using a cadmium zinc telluride detector. In conclusion, this study validated the use of MCNP in simulations of x-ray tube physics and XRF applications, and demonstrated the feasibility of a high-energy x-ray tube based XRF for metal exposure assessment.

  10. Measurement of spinal bone mineral density on a Hologic Discovery DXA scanner with and without leg elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekamwasam, Sarath; Rodrigo, Mahinda; Arachchi, Wasantha Kodikara; Munidasa, Duminda

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally recommended that patients keep their hips flexed by 90 degrees during the measurement of spinal bone mineral density (BMD), there is no uniform agreement among the manufacturers of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners regarding the positioning of legs while scanning the spine. We measured spinal BMD in 54 postmenopausal women, from L1 to L4 in posterior-anterior projection, using a Hologic Discovery scanner, first with their legs elevated as recommended by the manufacturer and then with their legs flat on the scanning table. Differences of bone mineral content (BMC), area of the region of interest (ROI), BMD, and T-score of the total spine between the 2 scans were compared. The mean (SD) age of the women was 54.3 yr (15 yr). Between the 2 scans, BMC, area of the ROI, BMD, and T-scores showed high correlations (r=0.98, 0.94, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively). BMC and the area of the ROI changed significantly between the 2 scans, but the changes of BMD and T-scores were not significant. The percentage changes of BMC and the area of the ROI were similar (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively), whereas T-scores showed no change and change of BMD was only 0.6%. The absolute difference in BMD between the 2 scans was only 0.005 (p=0.09). When spinal BMD was measured with their legs elevated, 31 women were found to have osteoporosis and further 13 were found to have osteopenia. When spinal BMD was measured with their legs flat, 32 women were found to have osteoporosis and further 12 were found to have osteopenia. In conclusion, no clinically or statistically significant difference in the total spinal BMD was found when the BMD in a group of women was measured on a Hologic Discovery DXA scanner with their legs positioned flat.

  11. Reliable measurement of 3D foot bone angles based on the frame-of-reference derived from a sole of the foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Lee, Dong Yeon; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clinical management of foot pathology requires accurate and robust measurement of the anatomical angles. In order to measure a 3D angle, recent approaches have adopted a landmark-based local coordinate system to establish bone angles used in orthopedics. These measurement methods mainly assess the relative angle between bones using a representative axis derived from the morphological feature of the bone and therefore, the results can be affected by bone deformities. In this study, we propose a method of deriving a global frame-of-reference to acquire consistent direction of the foot by extracting the undersurface of the foot from the CT image data. The two lowest positions of the foot skin are identified from the surface to define the base plane, and the direction from the hallux to the fourth toe is defined together to construct the global coordinate system. We performed the experiment on 10 volumes of foot CT images of healthy subjects to verify that the proposed method provides reliable measurements. We measured 3D angles for talus-calcaneus and talus-navicular using facing articular surfaces of paired bones. The angle was reported in 3 projection angles based on both coordinate systems defined by proposed global frame-of-reference and by CT image planes (saggital, frontal, and transverse). The result shows that the quantified angle using the proposed method considerably reduced the standard deviation (SD) against the angle using the conventional projection planes, and it was also comparable with the measured angles obtained from local coordinate systems of the bones. Since our method is independent from any individual local shape of a bone, unlike the measurement method using the local coordinate system, it is suitable for inter-subject comparison studies.

  12. Objective Longitudinal Measures of Physical Activity and Bone Health in Older Japanese: the Nakanojo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Sungjin; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2017-04-01

    To examine dose/response relationships between habitual physical activity and bone health in the elderly. Longitudinal. Community of Nakanojo. Community-living Japanese aged 65 to 84 (212 men, 284 women). Daily 24-h pedometer/accelerometer data were collected continuously for 5 years. A quantitative calcaneal osteosonic index (OSI) was determined annually. Year-end OSI values were higher in those with greater daily step counts and especially a greater duration of activity >3 metabolic equivalents (METs). However, after controlling for baseline OSI, age and body mass, final OSI values were not significantly greater in the fourth than in the third activity quartile, where men and women, respectively, took means of 7,700 and 7,500 steps/day and/or exercised at an intensity >3 METs for means of 19 and 17 min/day. A multivariate-adjusted proportional hazards model predicted that the OSI values of men and women were, respectively, 2.6 (1.4-4.4) and 3.3 (2.1-5.2) and/or 2.8 (1.5-5.6) and 3.9 (2.4-6.7) times more likely to drop below the OSI fracture threshold over 5 years in the two lowest activity quartiles (3 METs) than in the highest quartile (>9,100 and >8,800 steps/day and/or >30 and >25 min/day at >3 METs). After adjustment for potential confounders, the calcaneal health of seniors is associated with both the daily step count and the duration of activity at an intensity >3 METs. The bone health is optimal in elderly people who take at least 7,000-8,000 steps/day and/or spend at least 15-20 min/day at an intensity >3 METs. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Precision errors, least significant change, and monitoring time interval in pediatric measurements of bone mineral density, body composition, and mechanostat parameters by GE lunar prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Pludowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method is widely used in pediatrics in the study of bone density and body composition. However, there is a limit to how precise DXA can estimate bone and body composition measures in children. The study was aimed to (1) evaluate precision errors for bone mineral density, bone mass and bone area, body composition, and mechanostat parameters, (2) assess the relationships between precision errors and anthropometric parameters, and (3) calculate a "least significant change" and "monitoring time interval" values for DXA measures in children of wide age range (5-18yr) using GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer. It is observed that absolute precision error values were different for thin and standard technical modes of DXA measures and depended on age, body weight, and height. In contrast, relative precision error values expressed in percentages were similar for thin and standard modes (except total body bone mineral density [TBBMD]) and were not related to anthropometric variables (except TBBMD). Concluding, due to stability of percentage coefficient of variation values in wide range of age, the use of precision error expressed in percentages, instead of absolute error, appeared as convenient in pediatric population. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An accelerator based system for in vivo neutron activation analysis measurements of manganese in human hand bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M L; McNeill, F E; Stronach, I M; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; Waker, A

    2002-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient for growth and development. Unfortunately, overexposure can lead to neurological damage, which is manifested as a movement disorder marked by tremors. Preclinical symptoms have been found in populations occupationally exposed to the element, and it is suggested that in late stages of the disorder, removing the Mn exposure will not prevent symptoms from progressing. Hence, it is desirable to have a means of monitoring Mn body burden. In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) is a technique which allows the concentration of some elements to be determined within sites of the body without invasive procedures. Data in the literature suggests that the Mn concentration in bone is greater than other tissues, and that it may be a long term storage site following exposure. Therefore, using the McMaster KN-accelerator to produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, the feasibility of IVNAA for measuring Mn levels in the human hand bone was investigated. Mn is activated through the 55Mn(n,gamma)56Mn reaction, and the 847 keV gamma rays emitted when 56Mn decays are measured outside the body using NaI(Tl) detectors. An optimal incident proton energy of 2.00 MeV was determined from indium foil and microdosimetry measurements. Hand phantom data suggest a minimum detectable limit of approximately 1.8 ppm could be achieved with a reasonably low dose of 50 mSv to the hand (normal manganese levels in the human hand are approximately 1 ppm). It is recommended the technique be developed further to make human in vivo measurements.

  15. Change of Bone Mineral Density Measurement among Patients with Osteoporotic Fractures in Korean Population Using National Claim Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Ho; Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2017-08-01

    Prior osteoporotic fractures are strongly associated with subsequent fractures. To prevent this, the diagnosis of osteoporosis following an osteoporotic fracture is important. The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is the first step in the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed 1) to evaluate the rate of BMD measurement after osteoporotic fracture in the Korean population, and 2) to determine whether the rate of BMD measurement after osteoporotic fracture changed between 2005 and 2010. Using the database of the Health Insurance Review Assessment Service (HIRA), we identified patients with osteoporotic fractures (hip, spine, humerus, and wrist fractures) in 2005 and 2010. BMD examinations were evaluated by using procedure codes and medicines, exclusively approved for osteoporosis treatment. During the study period, about half of all patients with osteoporotic fractures had BMD measurement. Between 2005 and 2010, the rate of BMD measurement significantly increased from 42.0% (65,556/156,190) to 53.9% (103,785/192,556) ( P osteoporotic fractures had BMD measurement, and that screening for osteoporosis in patients with osteoporotic fractures increased between 2005 and 2010.

  16. Chronic low back pain is associated with reduced vertebral bone mineral measures in community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Andrew M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP experienced in middle-age may have important implications for vertebral bone health, although this issue has not been investigated as a primary aim previously. This study investigated the associations between CLBP and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-derived vertebral bone mineral measures acquired from postero-anterior and lateral-projections, among community-dwelling, middle-aged adults. Methods Twenty-nine adults with CLBP (11 male, 18 female and 42 adults with no history of LBP in the preceding year (17 male, 25 female were evaluated. Self-reported demographic and clinical data were collected via questionnaires. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD was measured in the lumbar spine by DXA. Apparent volumetric (ap.v BMD in the lumbar spine was also calculated. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between study group (CLBP and control and vertebral DXA variables by gender, adjusting for height, mass and age. Results There was no difference between groups by gender in anthropometrics or clinical characteristics. In the CLBP group, the mean (SD duration of CLBP was 13.3 (10.4 years in males and 11.6 (9.9 years in females, with Oswestry Disability Index scores of 16.2 (8.7% and 15.4 (9.1%, respectively. Males with CLBP had significantly lower adjusted lateral-projection aBMD and lateral-projection ap.vBMD than controls at L3 with mean differences (standard error of 0.09 (0.04 g/cm2 (p = 0.03 and 0.02 (0.01 g/cm3 (p = 0.04. These multivariate models accounted for 55% and 53% of the variance in lateral-projection L3 aBMD and lateral-projection L3 ap.vBMD. Conclusions CLBP in males is associated with some lumbar vertebral BMD measures, raising important questions about the mechanism and potential clinical impact of this association.

  17. Assessment of trabecular bone quality in human cadaver calcaneus using scanning confocal ultrasound and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yixian; Xia, Yi; Lin, Wei; Rubin, Clinton; Gruber, Barry

    2004-10-01

    Microgravity and aging induced bone loss is a critical skeleton complication, occurring particularly in the weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture. Advents in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) provide a unique method for evaluating bone strength and density. Using a newly developed scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic (SCAD) system, QUS assessment for bone quality in the real body region was evaluated. A total of 19 human cadaver calcanei, age 66 to 97 years old, were tested by both SCAD and nonscan mode. The scanning region covered an approximate 40×40 mm2 with 0.5 mm resolution. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz), energy attenuation (ATT, dB), and ultrasound velocity (UV, m/s) were measured. The QUS properties were then correlated to the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DEXA. Correlations between BMD and QUS parameters were significantly improved by using SCAD as compared to nonscan mode, yielding correlations between BMD and SCAD QUS parameters as R=0.82 (BUA), and R=0.86 (est. BMD). It is suggested that SCAD is feasible for in vivo bone quality mapping. It can be potentially used for monitoring instant changes of bone strength and density. [Work supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (TD00207), and New York Center for Biotechnology.

  18. IBA analyses and lead concentration measurements of AMS- 14C dated bones from two medieval sites in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Gianluca; Butalag, Karim; Calcagnile, Lucio; D'Elia, Marisa; Arthur, Paul; Tinelli, Marisa; Caramia, Annalisa

    2008-05-01

    AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dated human bone samples recovered in the deserted medieval village of Quattro Macine, Lecce, in Southern Italy, were analyzed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) and PIGE (particle induced gamma ray emission). The optimization of the PIXE-PIGE experimental set-up in term of beam energy and detection geometry resulted in the possibility to obtain information about major, minor and trace elements of the samples. Unexpectedly, all the analyzed samples showed a Pb concentration higher than 50 ppm. Two possible explanations of the measured high Pb concentration are discussed in the paper: the pre-mortem intake associated with the use of Pb-rich glazed pottery and the post-mortem intake from soil as the result of diagenetic processes.

  19. Grid-climbing Behaviour as a Pain Measure for Cancer-induced Bone Pain and Neuropathic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Gallego-Pedersen, Simone; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2017-01-01

    Despite affecting millions of people, chronic pain is generally treated insufficiently. A major point of focus has been the lack of translation from preclinical data to clinical results, with the predictive value of chronic pain models being a major concern. In contrast to current focus on stimulus......-based nociceptive responses in preclinical research, development of behavioural tests designed to quantify suspension of normal behaviour is likely a more equivalent readout for human pain-assessment tests. In this study, we quantified grid-climbing behaviour as a non-stimulus-evoked behavioural test for potential...... use as a measure of neuropathic and cancer-induced bone pain in mice. In both models, the grid-climbing test demonstrated pain-related sparing of the affected leg during climbing. In both models, the behaviour was reversed by administration of morphine, suggesting that the observed behaviour was pain-specific....

  20. Biomechanical validation of an artificial tooth-periodontal ligament-bone complex for in vitro orthodontic load measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie

    2013-05-01

    To develop an artificial tooth-periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone complex (ATPBC) that simulates clinical crown displacement. An ATPBC was created. It had a socket hosting a tooth with a thin layer of silicon mixture in between for simulating the PDL. The complex was attached to a device that allows applying a controlled force to the crown and measuring the resulting crown displacement. Crown displacements were compared to previously published data for validation. The ATPBC that had a PDL made of two types of silicones, 50% gasket sealant No. 2 and 50% RTV 587 silicone, with a thickness of 0.3 mm, simulated the PDL well. The mechanical behaviors (1) force-displacement relationship, (2) stress relaxation, (3) creep, and (4) hysteresis were validated by the published results. The ATPBC simulated the crown displacement behavior reported from biological studies well.

  1. Wideband acoustic immittance measurements in assessing crimping status following stapedotomy : A temporal bone study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Inge; Shahnaz, Navid; Grolman, Wilko; Bance, Manohar L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if wideband acoustic immitance (WAI) measurements are useful in assessing crimping status following stapedotomy. Design: WAI measurements were obtained using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system. Wideband chirp sound stimuli and a set of tone stimuli for nine frequencies

  2. Factors influencing spinal sagittal balance, bone mineral density, and Oswestry Disability Index outcome measures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamoto, Kazutaka; Otsuki, Bungo; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Koichiro; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Tanaka, Masao; Lyman, Stephen; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Tanida, Shimei; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    To identify the factors influencing spinal sagittal alignment, bone mineral density (BMD), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) outcome measures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We enrolled 272 RA patients to identify the factors influencing sagittal vertical axis (SVA). Out of this, 220 had evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebral deformity (VD) on the sagittal plane; 183 completed the ODI questionnaire. We collected data regarding RA-associated clinical parameters and standing lateral X-ray images via an ODI questionnaire from April to December 2012 at a single center. Patients with a history of spinal surgery or any missing clinical data were excluded. Clinical parameters included age, sex, body mass index, RA disease duration, disease activity score 28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, serum rheumatoid factor, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3, BMD and treatment type at survey, such as methotrexate (MTX), biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids. We measured radiological parameters including pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), and SVA. We statistically identified the factors influencing SVA, BMD, VD, and ODI using multivariate regression analysis. Multivariate regression analysis showed that larger SVA correlated with older age, higher DAS28-ESR, MTX nonuse, and glucocorticoid use. Lower BMD was associated with female, older age, higher DAS28-ESR, and MTX nonuse. VD was associated with older age, longer disease duration, lower BMD, and glucocorticoid use. Worse ODI correlated with older age, larger PI-LL mismatch or larger SVA, higher DAS28-ESR, and glucocorticoid use. In managing low back pain and spinal sagittal alignment in RA patients, RA-related clinical factors and the treatment type should be taken into consideration.

  3. Using optical tweezers for measuring the interaction forces between human bone cells and implant surfaces: System design and force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Madgavkar, Ashwin; Stjerndahl, Maria; Wu, Yanrong; Tan, Weihong; Duran, Randy; Niehren, Stefan; Mustafa, Kamal; Arvidson, Kristina; Wennerberg, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Optical tweezers were used to study the interaction and attachment of human bone cells to various types of medical implant materials. Ideally, the implant should facilitate cell attachment and promote migration of the progenitor cells in order to decrease the healing time. It is therefore of interest, in a controlled manner, to be able to monitor the cell adhesion process. Results from such studies would help foresee the clinical outcome of integrating medical implants. The interactions between two primary cell culture models, human gingival fibroblasts and bone forming human osteoblast cells, and three different implant materials, glass, titanium, and hydroxyapatite, were studied. A novel type of optical tweezers, which has a newly designed quadrant detector and a powerful 3 W laser was constructed and force calibrated using two different methods: one method in which the stiffness of the optical trap was obtained by monitoring the phase lag between the trap and the moved object when imposing a forced oscillation on the trapped object and another method in which the maximum trapping force was derived from the critical velocity at which the object escapes the trap. Polystyrene beads as well as cells were utilized for the calibrations. This is the first time that cells have been used directly for these types of force calibrations and, hence, direct measurements of forces exerted on cells can be performed, thus avoiding the difficulties often encountered when translating the results obtained from cell measurements to the calibrations obtained with reference materials. This more straightforward approach represents an advantage in comparison to established methods

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron irradiation facility developed for accelerator based in vivo neutron activation measurements in human hand bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Waker, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron irradiation facility developed at the McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator was employed to assess in vivo elemental content of aluminum and manganese in human hands. These measurements were carried out to monitor the long-term exposure of these potentially toxic trace elements through hand bone levels. The dose equivalent delivered to a patient during irradiation procedure is the limiting factor for IVNAA measurements. This article describes a method to estimate the average radiation dose equivalent delivered to the patient's hand during irradiation. The computational method described in this work augments the dose measurements carried out earlier [Arnold et al., 2002. Med. Phys. 29(11), 2718-2724]. This method employs the Monte Carlo simulation of hand irradiation facility using MCNP4B. Based on the estimated dose equivalents received by the patient hand, the proposed irradiation procedure for the IVNAA measurement of manganese in human hands [Arnold et al., 2002. Med. Phys. 29(11), 2718-2724] with normal (1 ppm) and elevated manganese content can be carried out with a reasonably low dose of 31 mSv to the hand. Sixty-three percent of the total dose equivalent is delivered by non-useful fast group (>10 keV); the filtration of this neutron group from the beam will further decrease the dose equivalent to the patient's hand

  5. Measurement of forearm bone mineral density in normal women by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.J.; Blake, G.M.; Fogelman, I. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-02-01

    The authors report the results of forearm measurements, without the use of a water bath, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 100 normal women aged 29-69 years (average age, 52 years). Studies were performed using the Hologic QDR-1000, with bone mineral density (BMD) measured at three sites in the non-dominant forearm: ultradistal, distal one-third and a region between these two. The precision of the technique was 0.74%, 0.55% and 0.58%, respectively. The normal range for forearm BMD and variation with age was established. BMD was also measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck. Linear regression analysis gave a range of correlation coefficients between forearm and axial sites of r 0.49-0.67. Standard errors of the estimate (SEE) in predicting axial from peripheral measurements gave average values from the three forearm sites of 0.085 g/cm{sup 2} for the femoral neck and 0.118 g/cm{sup 2} for the spine. (author).

  6. The natural history of bone bruise and bone remodelling in the traumatised hip: A prospective 2-year follow-up study of bone bruise changes and DEXA measurements in 13 patients with conservatively treated traumatic hip dislocations and/or fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikerøy, Annette K B; Clarke-Jenssen, John; Ovre, Stein A; Nordsletten, Lars; Madsen, Jan Erik; Hellund, Johan C; Røise, Olav

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the natural history of bone bruise and bone mineral density (BMD) after traumatic hip dislocations and conservatively treated acetabular fractures. Our hypothesis was that poor bone quality can influence degree of bone bruise and, in time, cause degenerative changes. Eight consecutive patients with traumatic hip dislocations and five patients with conservatively treated fractures in the femoral head and/or acetabulum were included. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained after 1, 17, 42, 82 and 97 weeks. Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements were made after 10 days and 2 years. Sizes of bone bruise lesions were measured and classified. At the 2-year follow-up, Harris hip score (HHS) was calculated and signs of radiological osteoarthritis (OA) registered. The bone bruise changes were small and all changes resolved within 42 weeks in all, except for three patients; one with a small Pipkin fracture had segmental avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, one had persisting1-3mm small spots of bone bruises in the femoral head and the third had hip dislocations and more pronounced in the acetabulum in the fractured acetabuli. We found no significant changes in BMD in four regions of interest (ROIs) after 2 years. No patients developed OA, and all had excellent HHS except for the one patient with AVN. The post-traumatic bone bruise changes in the dislocated hips and the fractured acetabuli were small and transient compared to findings of other authors examining traumatised knees. The patients had excellent function and no OA after 2 years if they did not develop AVN. In our small sample of relatively young patients with normal age-adjusted BMD, no post-traumatic osteopenia was observed. This might differ in the elderly with poorer bone quality; further studies are needed to assess that. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling elemental strontium in human bone based on in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurements in osteoporotic females self-supplementing with strontium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, H; Chettle, D R; Pejović-Milić, A

    2016-03-01

    An in-house custom I-125 excited in vivo x-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) system was used to perform bone strontium (Sr) measurements in individuals suffering from osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. These individuals, who were self-administering with Sr supplements of their choice, were measured frequently, ranging from weekly to biweekly to monthly, over four years, as part of the Ryerson and McMaster Sr in Bone Research Study. Based on these data collected, data from eight subjects were used to perform kinetic modeling of Sr in human bone. Power and exponential models were used to model the data based on one and two compartmental systems. Model parameters included: mean normalized baseline bone Sr signal, half-life and bone Sr uptake. A one compartmental exponential model applied to finger and ankle bone measurements gave half-lives of (508  ±  331) d and (232  ±  183) d, respectively, but did not show statistically significant differences (p  =  0.087 96). However, the values fall within literature estimates. When a two compartmental model was applied to finger bone measurements, half-lives of (300  ±  163) d and (2201  ±  1662) d were observed. Ankle bone data gave half-lives of (156  ±  117) d and (1681  ±  744) d. A two sample t-test, assuming unequal variances, showed these half-lives to be statistically different in both the finger and ankle bone measurements (p  =  0.0147 and p  =  0.00711, respectively). Common kinetic parameters amongst the different subjects could not be unambiguously identified due to the wide scatter of data, leading to an inconclusive kinetic model. The wide distribution of data is suggested to be physiological since technical and positioning factors were eliminated as possible causes. This outcome indicates the need for a more controlled study and further understanding of the physiological mechanism of Sr absorption.

  8. Correlation analysis between bone density measured by quantitative CT and blood sugar level of aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guizhi; Liang Ping; Qiao Junhua; Liu Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To approach the correlation between the bone density measured by quantitative CT and the blood sugar level of the aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and observe the effects of the blood sugar level on the bone density. Methods: The lumbar bone densities and the blood sugar levels of 160 aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia group 80 cases, euglycemia group 80 cases ) and the healthy aged people (80 cases) were detected by quantitative CT and serum biochemical detection; the correlation between the blood sugar level and the bone density and the osteoporosis occurrence status of aged people in various groups were analyzed. Results: The bone density in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hyperglycemia group was lower than those in normal (control) group and non-insulin-dependent diabetes and euglycemia group (P<0.05); the morbility of osteoporosis in the non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hyperglycemia group was higher than those in normal (control) group and non-insulin-dependent diabetes and euglycemia group (P<0.05); negative correlation was found between the bone density and the blood sugar level (aged male group: r=-0.7382, P=0.0013; aged female group: r=-0.8343, P=0.0007). Conclusion: The blood sugar level affects the bone density of the aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; the higher the blood sugar level, the lower the bone density. The non-insulin-dependent diabetes aged patients with hyperglycemia have the liability of osteoporosis. (authors)

  9. Quantitative analysis of bone mineral measurements in different types of dual-energy absorptiometry systems: Comparison of CT vs DEXA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Seong [Dept. of Radiology, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Generally assessing bone mineral density (BMD) were performed on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) the same as dual energy CT (DECT) with a rapid-kVp switching. The purpose of this study is to compare the different of BMD value between DEXA and DECT method, and evaluate usefulness of DECT method. Using scanner for BMD measurements were GE, Healthcare Discovery 750 HD for DECT and Hologic QDR 4500W for DEXA. For compare BMD value in each method, scanned lumbar spine phantom and subjects visiting Korean National Cancer Center from April 2015 to December 2015, records of 50 patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. The mean BMD value measures for spine phantom and for subjects in each scanners presented strong correlation (r=0.948 with p<0.05 for phantom; r=0.635 with p<0.05 and Kendall's tau (τ)=0.46 with p<0.05 for subjects) and linear relationship between DECT and conventional DEXA. DECT technique for BMD measurement will provide a very useful methodology without additional radiation dose.

  10. Palatal bone thickness measured by palatal index method using cone-beam computed tomography in nonorthodontic patients for placement of mini-implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W S Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the bone thickness of the palatal areas in different palatal index (PI groups. Materials and Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 10 subjects were selected with a mean age group of 18 years. The measurements of palatal bone thickness were made at 36 sites using CareStream 3D Imaging software. The PI was measured using Korkhaus ratio (palatal height/palatal width. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze intergroup differences, as well as the PI difference. Results: Bone thickness was higher in the anterior region than in the middle and posterior regions P<0.001. Furthermore, significant differences were found among the midline, medial, and lateral areas of the palate. Conclusions: These findings might be helpful for clinicians to enhance the successful use of temporary anchorage devices in the palate.

  11. The distribution of 210Pb in human bone and its impact on methods for the retrospective estimation of 222Rn exposure from in vivo measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter N; Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Martínez-Canet, María-José; Vasselli, Roberto; McKenzie, Raymond J; Solomon, Steven B; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to estimate radon exposure to man retrospectively by the in vivo measurement of the decay product (210)Pb, which accumulates in the bones. For in vivo methods, knowledge of the distribution of (210)Pb in the skeleton is needed to determine the optimal site for measurement, the skull or the knee. In this study the activity of (210)Pb in a variety of bone samples from 3 individuals have been measured in vitro using underground gamma-ray spectrometry. The individuals were unlikely to have had elevated intakes of Rn. These measurements give baseline data on the bone massic activity of (210)Pb. They show that the massic activity is similar for each of these people and there are similar massic activities of (210)Pb in the skull and the knee of the 2 individuals for which the skull was measured. Additionally for 2 of the individuals trabecular and cortical bone were separated and massic activities were found to be strongly correlated indicating that the (210)Pb is associated with the hydroxyapatite.

  12. The distribution of 210Pb in human bone and its impact on methods for the retrospective estimation of 222Rn exposure from in vivo measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Peter N.; Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Jogl; Martinez-Canet, Maria-Jose; Vasselli, Roberto; McKenzie, Raymond J.; Solomon, Steven B.; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to estimate radon exposure to man retrospectively by the in vivo measurement of the decay product 210 Pb, which accumulates in the bones. For in vivo methods, knowledge of the distribution of 210 Pb in the skeleton is needed to determine the optimal site for measurement, the skull or the knee. In this study the activity of 210 Pb in a variety of bone samples from 3 individuals have been measured in vitro using underground γ-ray spectrometry. The individuals were unlikely to have had elevated intakes of Rn. These measurements give baseline data on the bone massic activity of 210 Pb. They show that the massic activity is similar for each of these people and there are similar massic activities of 210 Pb in the skull and the knee of the 2 individuals for which the skull was measured. Additionally for 2 of the individuals trabecular and cortical bone were separated and massic activities were found to be strongly correlated indicating that the 210 Pb is associated with the hydroxyapatite

  13. The distribution of {sup 210}Pb in human bone and its impact on methods for the retrospective estimation of {sup 222}Rn exposure from in vivo measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Peter N. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Hult, Mikael [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)]. E-mail: mikael.hult@cec.eu.int; Gasparro, Jogl [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Martinez-Canet, Maria-Jose [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Vasselli, Roberto [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); McKenzie, Raymond J. [Department of Applied Physics, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Solomon, Steven B. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie 3085 (Australia); Lambrichts, Ivo [Department of Histology, Limburg University Centrum (LUC), Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    It is possible to estimate radon exposure to man retrospectively by the in vivo measurement of the decay product {sup 210}Pb, which accumulates in the bones. For in vivo methods, knowledge of the distribution of {sup 210}Pb in the skeleton is needed to determine the optimal site for measurement, the skull or the knee. In this study the activity of {sup 210}Pb in a variety of bone samples from 3 individuals have been measured in vitro using underground {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The individuals were unlikely to have had elevated intakes of Rn. These measurements give baseline data on the bone massic activity of {sup 210}Pb. They show that the massic activity is similar for each of these people and there are similar massic activities of {sup 210}Pb in the skull and the knee of the 2 individuals for which the skull was measured. Additionally for 2 of the individuals trabecular and cortical bone were separated and massic activities were found to be strongly correlated indicating that the {sup 210}Pb is associated with the hydroxyapatite.

  14. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  15. Measurement of 24-hr whole-body retention of Tc-99mMDP with a thyroid uptake probe: quantitative assessment of metabolic and metastatic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, H.; Futatsuya, R.; Kamei, T.; Furumoto, N.; Ishizaki, Y.; Hada, M.; Kakishita, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for measurement of 24-hr whole body retention (WBR) of Tc-99mMDP, using a thyroid uptake probe was established and its clinical significance was evaluated in 102 patients with various bone disorders, including metabolic and metastatic bone diseases, aged above 20 years old. Reproducibility of 24-hr WBR in 10 patients was very good (r=0.996). The 24-hr WBR of Tc-99mMDP in the normal subjects was 30.4 +- 4.6%. The WBR values of chronic renal failure, metastatic bone disease and hyperthyroidism groups were 98.4 +- 3.0, 44.0 +- 8.0, 40,6 +- 6.3% respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.001). However the WBR of steroid-induced osteoporotic group was significantly lower (17.3 +- 5.4%) as compared with the normal group (p < 0.001). Based on these results the method is simple, reproducible and accurate to measure 24-hr WBR of Tc-99mMDP. Quantification of WBR is of great clinical value to diagnose metabolic bone disease and to follow-up metabolic and metastatic bone disease after treatment

  16. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investigate...... the relationship between arch type and injury likelihood. Feiss Line is a valid clinical measure of the MLA. However, no study has investigated the reliability of the test....

  17. Comparison of digital panoramic radiography versus cone beam computerized tomography for measuring alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zunan; Liu, Xianchu; Chen, Kejia

    2017-02-22

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in dental implanting. However, the local hospitals usually don't have access to CBCT due to the cost and medical investment, especially in West of China. The doctors in local hospitals have to make reasonable dental planting using orthopantomography (OPG) to reduce risks. Therefore, it is clinically meaningful to determine the magnification rate of OPG to obtain correct diagnosis. This study investigated the magnification rate of OPG in measuring different maxillofacial loci compared with CBCT. Eighty-six patients demanding dental implanting were scanned by CBCT and OPG. The vertical distance between the alveolar ridge crest of the maxillary first molar and the sinus bottom of the upper jaw, the distance between the alveolar ridge crest of the mandibular first molars and the top of nerviduct in the mandibular alveolar, and the distance between the alveolar ridge crest of the maxillary central incisors and the bottoms of the nasal cavities were measured. The horizontal distance in those loci were also measured. The distances derived from CBCT were used as reference. The distances between the two methods were compared using paired t-test. The magnification rates at these positions were calculated. The relationship between the data acquired from the two methods was analyzed Pearson correlation. The correlation coefficients (R) between the paired samples obtained from OPG and CBCT were highly related (P < 0.05) with R values varying from 0.840 and 0.959 in vertical distances and R values varying from 0.703 and 0.904 in horizontal distances. Compared with data obtained from CBCT, the mean vertical magnification rates were 11.38% and 12.95% vertically and 8.55% and 9.43% horizontally for the first molars in the right and left maxilla respectively; 7.26% and 6.35% vertically and 5.33% and 4.96% horizontally for the first molars in the right and left mandible respectively; and 5.55% and 4.84% vertically and

  18. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Annual report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes results obtained in seven areas. Five subjects with well defined Am-241 body burdens have been measured using NaI-CsI(T1) detectors surrounding the head or positioned over the anterior knee surfaces. The observed ratio of net count-rate at the skull to net count-rate at the anterior knee surfaces was found to vary with values ranging from 1.16 to 2.45. Previously developed calibration values for men have been determined to be inadequate for application to female workers due to the variability in chest wall thickness and different photon attenuation characteristics of breast tissue in women. The relative count-rates for each individual among the counting geometries reflected the attenuation of the Nb-92m x-rays in the overlying tissue. The measurement performed with a single phoswich detector positioned centrally over the sternum surprisingly gave the highest count-rate for two out of the four subjects. It is expected that the net counts/x-ray emitted for each individual, when plotted as a function of overlying absorber thickness, will produce a series of single exponential curves which can be used to predict the absolute calibration value for Nb-92m in the lungs. Additional studies describing the time-related fate and distribution in the body of radon and radon daughters present as a result of drinking this well water are currently in progress. There appears to be a possibility of obtaining a significantly increased and variable whole body count-rate as related to a function of the quantity of water consumed and the time of in vivo measurement. Subjects who were treated therapeutically with radon seeds 25 to 34 years ago were observed in our whole body counting facility using NaI-CsI(T1) detectors. The radiation dose due to the characteristic Pu x-ray, the bremsstrahlung continuum and any beta radiation penetrating the gold sheath, is being determined

  19. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  20. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from 40 K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values

  1. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Nielsen, H; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow...

  2. A reliable method for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Rolf, Marijn P.; Roos, Jan C.; Burcksen, Jos; Knol, Dirk L.; de Groot, Sonja

    Purpose: To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a standardized protocol for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Ten able-bodied individuals (7 males) participated in this study. During one

  3. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter region are related to peripheral measures of bone mass and fracture odds ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik L; Kusk, Philip; Madsen, Bente Elmfelt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the A163G polymorphism in the OPG promoter with peripheral measures of bone mass and with odds ratios for wrist and hip fracture in a case-control study of postmenopausal Danish women. The study included...

  4. Premenopausal and postmenopausal changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hetland, M L; Overgaard, K

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur was measured by DXA in 1238 healthy white women. In the 389 premenopausal women, aged 21-54 years, no bone loss was observed before the menopause, except in the femoral neck and Ward's triangle, in which BMD decreased by 0.3%/year...... (SEE 0.2-0.9%/year, p menopause (YSM) in all regions (-0.58 ... menopause. BMD correlated with body mass index (BMI) in the postmenopausal years, confirming...

  5. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able...... to investigate the relationship between arch type and injury likelihood. Feiss Line is a valid clinical measure of the MLA. However, no study has investigated the reliability of the test. Objectives: The purpose was to describe a modified version of the Feiss Line test and to determine the intra- and inter......-tester reliability of this new foot alignment test. To emphasize the purpose of the modified test, the authors have named it The Navicular Position Test. Methods: Intra- and inter-tester reliability were evaluated of The Navicular Position Test with the use of ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Bland...

  6. Comparison of bone volume measurements using conventional single and dual energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yung Kyoon; Park, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The study examines changes in calcium volume on born by comparing two figures; one is measured by dual energy computed tomography(DECT) followed by applying variation in monochromatic energy selection( keV), material decomposition(MD), and material suppressed iodine(MSI) analysis, and the other is measured by conventional single source computed tomography(CSCT). For this study, based on CSCT images taken by using human mimicked phantom, 70, 100, 140 keV and MSI, MD material calcium weighting( MCW) and MD material iodine weighting(MIW) of DECT were applied respectively. Then calculated calcium volume was converted to Agatston score for comparison. Volume of human mimicked phantom was in inverse proportion to keV. The volume decreased while keV increased(p<0.05). The most similar DECT volumes were reconstructed at 70 keV, the difference was showed 35.8±12.2 for rib, femur (16.1±24.1), pelvis(13.7±18.8), and spine(179.0±61.8). However, the volume of MSI was down for each organ; the volume of rib was 5.55%, femur(76.34%), pelvis(55.16%) and spine(87.58%). The volume of MSI decreased 55.9% for rib, femur(80.7%), pelvis(69.6%) and spine(54.2%) while MD MIW reduced for rib(83.51%), femur(87.68%), pelvis(86.64%), and spine(82.62%). With the results, the study found that outcomes were affected by the method which examiners employed. When using DECT, calcium volume of born dropped with keV increased. It also found that the most similar DECT images were reconstructed at 70 keV. The results of experiments implied that the users of MSI and MD should be cautious of errors as there are big differences in scores between those two methods.

  7. Bone-imaging and semiconductor probe measurements of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate in the detection of periapical pathology in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, D.A.; Jansons, D.; Kapur, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the external detection of an injected, bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical, technetium-99m-polyphosphate (Tc-PP), and intraoral radiography in the diagnosis of acute pulp infections of dog molars resulting in apical radiolucencies. Skeletal radioactivity was measured qualitatively by bone imaging and quantitatively with a small semi-conductor probe inserted in the oral cavity. Both radionuclide methods detected abnormally high Tc-PP uptake at the root apices within 1 week of infection as opposed to 4 weeks required for the appearance of periapical radiolucencies. However, Tc-PP data gave rise to false positive diagnoses in that a normal tooth could not be differentiated from its two infected neighbours. The semiconductor probe was found to provide more accurate diagnostic information than bone imaging.

  8. Lutein Enhances Bone Mass by Stimulating Bone Formation and Suppressing Bone Resorption in Growing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Watanabe, Kenta; Matsumoto, Chiho; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are known to prevent hypoxia-induced cell damage in the eye by removing free radicals. However, its role in other tissues is controversial, and the effects of lutein on bone tissues are unknown. To identify a possible role of lutein in bone tissues, we examined the effects of lutein on bone formation and bone resorption and on femoral bone mass in mice. Lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules in cultures of osteoblasts. On the other hand, lutein clearly suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced bone resorption as measured by pit formation in organ culture of mouse calvaria. In co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts, lutein suppressed 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 -induced osteoclast formation. In cultures of bone marrow macrophages, lutein suppressed soluble RANKL, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand, induced osteoclast formation. When five-week-old male mice were orally administered lutein for 4 weeks, the femoral bone mass was clearly enhanced in cortical bone, as measured by bone mineral density in dual X-ray absorptiometry and micro computed tomography (µCT) analyses. The present study indicates that lutein enhances bone mass in growing mice by suppressing bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Lutein may be a natural agent that promotes bone turnover and may be beneficial for bone health in humans.

  9. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Methods SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik. PMID:23730628

  10. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  11. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  12. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic; Archer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of the effect of strontium, lead, and aluminum in bone on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound measurements: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Deok Hyun; Da Silva, Eric; Tavakkoli, Jahan; Slatkovska, Lubomira; Cheung, Angela M; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique to measure areal bone mineral density (aBMD) for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Because DXA relies on the attenuation of photon to estimate aBMD, deposition of bone-seeking metallic elements such as strontium, lead, and aluminum that differ in atomic numbers from calcium can cause inaccurate estimation of aBMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is another technique available to assess bone health by measuring broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and an empirically derived quantity called stiffness index (SI). Because the acoustic properties are not prone to significant change due to changes in microscopic atomic composition of bone, it is hypothesized that QUS is unaffected by the presence of bone-seeking elements in the bone. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of strontium, lead, and aluminum on DXA-derived aBMD and QUS parameters using bone-mimicking phantoms compatible with both techniques. Bone-mimicking phantoms were produced by homogeneously mixing finely powdered hydroxyapatite compounds that contain varying concentrations of strontium, lead, or aluminum with porcine gelatin solution. Seven strontium-substituted phantoms were produced with varying molar ratio of Sr/(Sr + Ca) ranging from 0% to 2%. Four lead-doped phantoms and four aluminum-doped phantoms were constructed with the respective analyte concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 ppm. An additional 0 ppm phantom was produced to be used as a baseline for the lead and aluminum phantom measurements. All phantoms had uniform volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of 200 mg/cm 3 , and were assessed using a Hologic Horizon ® DXA device and a Hologic Sahara ® QUS device. Furthermore, theoretical aBMD bias for mol/mol% substitution of calcium with the three bone-seeking elements was calculated. Strong positive linear relationship was found between aBMD measured by DXA and strontium concentration

  14. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  15. Bone mineral content in the spongiosa of the lumbar spine of healthy perimenopausal women measured by QCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, M.; Meyer-Galander, H.M.; Peters, P.E.; Doeren, M.; Montag, T.

    1988-01-01

    Healthy perimenopausal women (152) were examined by QCT to quantify the mineral content of the axial skeleton. The density was measured in the spongiosa of the L 2-4, using single energy technique and the Cann-Genant calibration phantom. The women, aged 37 to 64, had no history of pathological fractures, ovariectomy, metabolic disease, or hormone therapy. The age-related mean values were 25 mg K2HP04/cm 3 lower than the normal values reported by Genant et al. for 203 healthy American women. The 95% confidence interval was distinctly narrower (±40 mg/cm 3 ) than the American confidence interval (±60 mg/cm 3 ). To evaluate the relationship of the BMC to mechanical stress, the BMC was compared with body weight, body mass index (weight/height 2 ), and the lumbar muscle mass was estimated from cross sections of the paravertebral muscles in the CT images. The assumption that higher mechanical stress results in higher bone mineralization could not be confirmed. (orig.) [de

  16. Prediction of bone mineral density and content from measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior in younger and older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori I. Braun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of engaging in sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during adolescence and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults to improve bone health in females.

  17. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  18. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  19. Measurement of elastic modulus and Vickers hardness of surround bone implant using dynamic microindentation--parameters definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Nunes, Sarah Arantes; Franco, Sinésio Domingues; Pires, Raphael Rezende; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    The clinical performance of dental implants is strongly defined by biomechanical principles. The aim of this study was to quantify the Vicker's hardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) surround bone to dental implant in different regions, and to discuss the parameters of dynamic microindantion test. Ten cylindrical implants with morse taper interface (Titamax CM, Neodent; 3.5 mm diameter and 7 mm a height) were inserted in rabbit tibia. The mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardness dynamic indenter with 200 mN load and 15 s penetration time. Seven continuous indentations were made distancing 0.08 mm between each other perpendicularly to the implant-bone interface towards the external surface, at the limit of low (Lp) and high implant profile (Hp). Data were analyzed by Student's t-test (a=0.05) to compare the E and VHN values obtained on both regions. Mean and standard deviation of E (GPa) were: Lp. 16.6 ± 1.7, Hp. 17.0 ± 2.5 and VHN (N/mm2): Lp. 12.6 ± 40.8, Hp. 120.1 ± 43.7. No statistical difference was found between bone mechanical properties of high and low profile of the surround bone to implant, demonstrating that the bone characterization homogeneously is pertinent. Dynamic microindantion method proved to be highly useful in the characterization of the individual peri-implant bone tissue.

  20. Comparison of two Hologic DXA systems (QDR 1000 and QDR 4500/A) for in vivo bone mass measurement in the baboon (Papio ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Ilario Dal; Biscardi, Anna; Ripamonti, Ugo

    2002-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for bone mass measurement in humans. New generation osteodensitometers have been introduced and numerous studies have been performed to compare new and old devices for in vivo measurements of bone mineral density (BMD). However similar studies in nonhuman primates have yet to be performed. In this longitudinal study, two generation of osteodensitometers from the same manufacturer (Hologic QDR 1000 and Hologic QDR 4500/A) were used to detect bone changes in a cohort of 24 ovariectomized (OVX) Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) during a period of 36 mo. Correlation between the same osteodensitometers were also obtained for the lumbar spine (L1-L4) area, BMD, and bone mineral content (BMC) in a cohort of 33 adult female baboons and for the total hip area, BMD, and BMC in a group of 25 adult female baboons. The QDR 1000 to QDR 4500/A area, BMC, and BMD correlation coefficient (r(2)) were 0.848, 0.939, and 0.916, respectively; r(2) for total hip BMD was 0.818. Percentage of variation (PV) among the total vertebral (L1-L4) area measured by the two osteodensitometers was 5.3 +/- 2.3 (mean +/- SD). BMC had the lowest PV and the highest r(2). The mean lumbar BMD was higher when measured by QDR 1000 with a PV% of 7.7 +/- 3.1 (mean +/- SD). The mean hip BMD was higher measured by QDR 1000 with a PV% of 9.3 +/- 7.1 (mean +/- SD). Slopes of two regression lines for the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip BMD were 0.928 and 0.914, respectively. Longitudinal analysis of lumbar BMD in OVX baboons showed that QDR 4500/A detected a significant bone density increase at 36 and 48 mo post- OVX, compared to time 12, whereas the QDR 1000 did not. Our results indicate that both osteodensitometers can be used to measure bone changes in longitudinal studies in primates, but that before upgrading to a newgeneration osteodensitometer, a calibration curve has to be obtained so that both devices can be equally used in regular experimental

  1. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  2. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-02-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion.

  3. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  4. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758 and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pourlis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (P<0.05; in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (P<0.05. In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species.

  5. Effect of degenerative change of lumbar spine on lateral bone mineral density measurement using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: usefulness of measurement in the supine lateral projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ja Young; Jo, Jin Man; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin; Cho, Su Hyeon

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of supine lateral bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using DXA by comparing AP and lateral spine BMD in patients with degenerative change Six hundred and seventy-two women underwnet AP and lateral BMD measurement of L-spine, using DXA. Spur changes and end-plate sclerosis were considered as degenerative change, and osteoporosis was defined according to WHO criteria. The ratio of mid-lateral BMD to AP BMD was calculated and the differences in ratio were analyzed in the degenerative group and controls, according to aging and osteoporosis, using the t test and ANOVA. The correlation coefficiency between aging and AP BMD and lateral BMD, respectively, was calculated. The mLat/AP ratio in the control and degenerative group was 0.710±0.005/0.622±0.028(p=3D0.003) in the 40-49-year-old group, 0.663±0.006/0.612±0.016 (p=3D0.002) in the 50-59-year-old group. 0.626±0.015/0.552±0.023 (p+0.007) in the 60-69-year-old group, and 0.717±0.028/0.600±0.045 (p=3D0.076) in those aged over 70. The ratio was 0.656±0.015/0.598±0.038(p=3D0.099) in osteoporosis, 0.684±0.008/0.596±0.016 (p=3D0.000) in osteopenia, and 0.688±0.005/0.583±0.019 (p=3D0.000) in normal subjects, showing that lateral BMD is more sensitive than AP BMD, espectially in the degenerative group. There was negative correlation between aging and AP BMD(r=3D-0.545), lateral BMD(r=3D0.571), and mid-lateral BMD(r=3D-0.583). In a selective group of patients with degenerative change, supine lateral BMD measurement of L-spine is useful

  6. Reproducibility of pediatric whole body bone and body composition measures by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the GE Lunar Prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Lauren; Horlick, Mary; Thornton, John C; Wang, Jack; Ioannidou, Elli; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2005-01-01

    The use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in pediatrics is increasing. It is safe, readily available, and easily performed, but there is little information on reproducibility. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of whole body DXA scans in children. Total and regional bone mineral density, bone mineral content, nonbone, lean fat mass, and percent fat were measured twice by whole body DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 49 subjects (5 to 17 yr). Within each subject, between subjects, and reading standard deviations for each body component were evaluated as well as intraclass correlations (IC) and coefficients of variation (CV). Total body measurements had better IC and CV than regional results from the whole body scan, with legs and arms better than trunk and spine. IC values were >or=0.989 for total body, >or=0.976 for legs and arms, and >or=0.875 for trunk and spine. CV values ranged 0.18 to 1.97% for total body, and 0.96 to 6.91% for regional measures. These values confirm that body composition and bone mass by DXA are highly reproducible among pediatric subjects. The results of this study can be used by clinicians and researchers for interpretation of longitudinal observations and for power calculations.

  7. Variations in glutamine deamidation for a Châtelperronian bone assemblage as measured by peptide mass fingerprinting of collagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welker, Frido; Soressi, Marie A.; Roussel, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    AbstractPeptide mass fingerprinting of bone collagen (ZooMS) has previously been proposed as a method to calculate the extent of the non-enzymatic degradation of glutamine into glutamic acid (deamidation). Temporal and spatial variation of glutamine deamidation at a single site, however, has...... not been investigated. Here we apply ZooMS screening of Châtelperronian and Early Holocene bone specimens from Quinçay, France, to explore temporal and spatial variation in glutamine deamidation. Our results indicate that chronological resolution is low, while spatial variation is high. Nevertheless, our...

  8. The petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adul...... of this study it is believed the petrous bone may be a new useful bone element and a supplement or a proxy for teeth in the analysis of early dietary patterns as it may reflect diet in fetal stages and early years of life....

  9. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake a...

  10. Monte Carlo investigations of distance-dependent effects on energy deposition in K-shell x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Naseer; Fleming, David E B; O'Meara, Joanne M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation energy deposition results are presented from a Monte Carlo code simulating the lower part of a leg during an in vivo 109 Cd K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) bone lead measurement. The simulations were run for a leg phantom model representing an adult subject, assuming concentrations of 10 μg Pb per gram bone mineral and tracing 500 million photons in each simulation. Trials were performed over a range (0.5-6.0 cm) of source-to-sample (S-S) distances. Energies deposited due to Compton and photoelectric processes occurring in the bone and the soft tissue were obtained. The data show an increase in the amount of energy deposited in the bone as the sample is moved closer to the source (from 2.0 cm to 0.5 cm). However, there is a decrease in the amount of energy deposited in the soft tissue as the sample is moved closer to the source over the same distance interval. In decreasing the S-S distance from 2.0 cm to 0.5 cm, the amount of energy deposited in the sample as a whole was found to increase by 11%. By calculating the energy deposition in the bone and in the soft tissue as a fraction of the total energy deposited in the sample, the corresponding changes are quantified as a function of S-S distance. Similarly, the proportions of energy deposited via the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering are presented as a function of S-S distance. (note)

  11. An Investigation Into the Differences in Bone Density and Body Composition Measurements Between 2 GE Lunar Densitometers and Their Comparison to a 4-Component Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laura P E; Venables, Michelle C; Murgatroyd, Peter R

    We describe a study to assess the precision of the GE Lunar iDXA and the agreement between the iDXA and GE Lunar Prodigy densitometers for the measurement of regional- and total-body bone and body composition in normal to obese healthy adults. We compare the whole-body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measurements by a 4-component (4-C) model. Sixty-nine participants, aged 37 ± 12 yr, with a body mass index of 26.2 ± 5.1 kg/cm 2 , were measured once on the Prodigy and twice on the iDXA. The 4-C model estimated fat mass from body mass, total body water by deuterium dilution, body volume by air displacement plethysmography, and bone mass by DXA. Agreements between measurements made on the 2 instruments and by the 4-C model were analyzed by Bland-Altman and linear regression analyses. Where appropriate, translational cross-calibration equations were derived. Differences between DXA software versions were investigated. iDXA precision was less than 2% of the measured value for all regional- and whole-body bone and body composition measurements with the exception of arm fat mass (2.28%). We found significant differences between iDXA and Prodigy (p Prodigy overestimated FM and underestimated lean mass. However, compared to 4-C, iDXA showed a smaller bias and narrower limits of agreement than Prodigy. No significant differences between software versions in FM estimations existed. Our results demonstrate excellent iDXA precision. However, significant differences exist between the 2 GE Lunar instruments, Prodigy and iDXA measurement values. A divergence from the reference 4-C observations remains in FM estimations made by DXA even following the recent advances in technology. Further studies are particularly warranted in individuals with large FM contents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The value of calcaneal bone mass measurement using a dual X-ray laser calscan device in risk screening for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Kayalar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured by a dual energy X-ray laser (DXL correlates with bone mineral density in the spine and hip in Turkish women over 40 years of age and to determine whether calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser variables are associated with clinical risk factors to the same extent as axial bone mineral density measurements obtained using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DXA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,884 Turkish women, aged 40-90 years, living in Ankara were randomly selected. Calcaneal bone mineral density was evaluated using a dual energy X-ray laser Calscan device. Subjects exhibiting a calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T- score <-2.5 received a referral for DXA of the spine and hip. Besides dual energy X-ray laser measurements, all subjects were questioned about their medical history and the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Using a T-score threshold of -2.5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, dual energy X-ray laser calcaneal measurements showed that 13% of the subjects had osteoporosis, while another 56% had osteopenia. The mean calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score of postmenopausal subjects who were smokers with a positive history of fracture, hormone replacement therapy (HRT, covered dressing style, lower educational level, no regular exercise habits, and low tea consumption was significantly lower than that obtained for the other group (p<0.05. A significant correlation was observed between the calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score and age (r=-0.465, p=0.001, body mass index (BMI (r=0.223, p=0.001, number of live births (r=-0.229, p=0.001, breast feeding time (r=-0.064, p=0.001, and age at menarche (r=-0.050, p=0.008. The correlations between calcaneal DXL and DXA T-scores (r=0.340, p=0.001 and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.360, p=0.001 at the spine, and calcaneal DXL and DXA T- scores (r=0.28, p=0.001 and calcaneal

  13. The value of calcaneal bone mass measurement using a dual X-ray laser Calscan device in risk screening for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalar, Gulseren; Cevikol, Alev; Yavuzer, Gunes; Sanisoglu, Yavuz; Cakci, Aytul; Arasil, Tansu

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate how bone mineral density in the calcaneus measured by a dual energy X-ray laser (DXL) correlates with bone mineral density in the spine and hip in Turkish women over 40 years of age and to determine whether calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser variables are associated with clinical risk factors to the same extent as axial bone mineral density measurements obtained using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry (DXA). A total of 2,884 Turkish women, aged 40-90 years, living in Ankara were randomly selected. Calcaneal bone mineral density was evaluated using a dual energy X-ray laser Calscan device. Subjects exhibiting a calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T- score energy X-ray laser measurements, all subjects were questioned about their medical history and the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis. Using a T-score threshold of -2.5, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), dual energy X-ray laser calcaneal measurements showed that 13% of the subjects had osteoporosis, while another 56% had osteopenia. The mean calcaneal dual energy X-ray laser T-score of postmenopausal subjects who were smokers with a positive history of fracture, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), covered dressing style, lower educational level, no regular exercise habits, and low tea consumption was significantly lower than that obtained for the other group (penergy X-ray laser T-score and age (r= -0.465, p=0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r=0.223, p=0.001), number of live births (r= -0.229, p=0.001), breast feeding time (r= -0.064, p=0.001), and age at menarche (r= -0.050, p=0.008). The correlations between calcaneal DXL and DXA T-scores (r=0.340, p=0.001) and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.360, p=0.001) at the spine, and calcaneal DXL and DXA T- scores (r=0.28, p=0.001) and calcaneal DXL and DXA Z-scores (r=0.33, p=0.001) at the femoral neck were statistically significant. Bone mineral density measurements in the calcaneus using a dual energy X-ray laser are valuable

  14. Precision and accuracy of measurements of whole-body bone mineral: comparisons between Hologic, Lunar and Norland dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, P; Avenell, A; Reid, D M

    1994-12-01

    Measurements of whole-body bone mineral made by Hologic, Lunar and Norland dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers have been compared. It was found that in each case the results were changed by new software protocols introduced by the manufacturers during the course of the study. With a moderately anthropomorphic model, the later software corrected some anomalies of regional bone mineral content (BMC) observed earlier. There was some slight dependence of total BMC on thickness and fat proportion and up to 15% difference between instruments. Measurements on volunteers showed good precision, but there were differences between instruments made by different manufacturers. There were high correlations, but the slopes of regression lines suggested differences of calibration of up to 8%; the standard errors of the estimates were 110 to 190 g. with maximum deviations from regression of 17%. There were regional disparities in BMC, particularly in the trunk, which arise (in part at least) from the imposition of a higher bone threshold by Hologic. From the pattern of results it was concluded that different assumptions were made by the manufacturers, particularly concerning the fat distribution model, which preclude the interchangeability of results from different instruments.

  15. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone ...

  16. Measurements of fluorine in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Wainman, B C; Pidruczny, A E; Prestwich, W V

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the fluorine concentration in 35 people in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Measurement and precision data of this second generation NAA system were determined in 2013, and the results were compared with the performance of a first generation system used in a pilot study of 33 participants from the Hamilton area in 2008. Improvements in precision in line with those predicted by phantom studies were observed, but the use of fewer technicians during measurement seemed adversely to affect performance. We compared the levels of fluorine observed in people between the two studies and found them to be comparable. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3  ±  0.3 mg and 3.5  ±  0.4 mg F/g Ca for 2013 and 2008 measurements respectively. Ten people were measured in both studies; the observed average change in bone fluorine in this subgroup was consistent with that predicted by the observation of the relationship between bone fluorine and age in the wider group. In addition, we observed differences in the relationship between bone fluorine level and age between men and women, which may be attributable either to sex or gender differences. The rate of increase in fluorine content for men was found to be 0.096  ±  0.022 mg F/g Ca per year while the rate of increase for women was found to be slightly less than half that of men, 0.041  ±  0.017 mg F/g Ca per year. A discontinuity in the rate of increase in fluorine content with age was observed in women at around age 50. Bone fluorine content was significantly lower ([Formula: see text]) in women age 50 to 59 than in women age 40 to 49, which we suggest may be attributable to bone metabolism changes associated with menopause. We also observed increased fluorine levels in tea drinkers as compared to non-tea drinkers, suggesting tea may be a significant source of exposure in Canada. The rate of increase in fluorine

  17. Measurements of fluorine in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V; Wainman, B C; Pidruczny, A E

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the fluorine concentration in 35 people in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Measurement and precision data of this second generation NAA system were determined in 2013, and the results were compared with the performance of a first generation system used in a pilot study of 33 participants from the Hamilton area in 2008. Improvements in precision in line with those predicted by phantom studies were observed, but the use of fewer technicians during measurement seemed adversely to affect performance. We compared the levels of fluorine observed in people between the two studies and found them to be comparable. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3  ±  0.3 mg and 3.5  ±  0.4 mg F/g Ca for 2013 and 2008 measurements respectively. Ten people were measured in both studies; the observed average change in bone fluorine in this subgroup was consistent with that predicted by the observation of the relationship between bone fluorine and age in the wider group. In addition, we observed differences in the relationship between bone fluorine level and age between men and women, which may be attributable either to sex or gender differences. The rate of increase in fluorine content for men was found to be 0.096  ±  0.022 mg F/g Ca per year while the rate of increase for women was found to be slightly less than half that of men, 0.041  ±  0.017 mg F/g Ca per year. A discontinuity in the rate of increase in fluorine content with age was observed in women at around age 50. Bone fluorine content was significantly lower (p<0.01) in women age 50 to 59 than in women age 40 to 49, which we suggest may be attributable to bone metabolism changes associated with menopause. We also observed increased fluorine levels in tea drinkers as compared to non-tea drinkers, suggesting tea may be a significant source of exposure in Canada. The rate of increase in fluorine content

  18. Measurement of attenuation coefficients for bone, muscle, fat and water at 140, 364 and 662keV {gamma}-ray energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55100 Samsun (Turkey); Baltas, H. [Department of Physics, Rize Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Korkmaz, F. [Department of Physics, Rize Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Okumusoglu, N.T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55100 Samsun (Turkey)]. E-mail: nazmituran@superonline.com

    2006-11-15

    The half-value thicknesses, linear and mass attenuation coefficients of biological samples such as bone, muscle, fat and water have been measured at 140, 364 and 662keV {gamma}-ray energies by using the ATOMLAB{sup TM}-930 medical spectrometer. The {gamma}-rays were obtained from {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-ray point sources. Also theoretical calculations have been performed in order to obtain the half-value thicknesses and, mass and linear attenuation coefficients at photon energies 0.001keV-20MeV for bone, muscle and water samples. The calculated value and the experimental results of this work and the other results in literature are found to be in good agreement.

  19. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, D; Rauch, F; Chabot, G; Dubois, J; Fiscaletti, M; Alos, N

    2016-09-07

    Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (pProdigy DXA system.

  20. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  1. Anomalies in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total-body bone mineral during weight change using Lunar, Hologic and Norland instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, P; Laskey, M A; Orphanidou, C I; van Wijk, M

    1999-07-01

    A previous study showed that measurements of total-body bone mineral changes made with a Hologic QDR 1000W were unreliable when the subjects underwent weight change. The study has been extended to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) apparatus from other manufacturers. Re-analysis of published results during weight loss using a Lunar DPX showed that they varied with the software used. Using the Extended mode, there was a 1% loss of bone mineral areal density (BMD), but no significant change in bone mineral content (BMC) or bone area (BA) following a weight loss of 16 kg, whereas the use of the Standard mode led to a larger fall of BMC and BMD. Similar findings arose from the consideration of two studies using Norland XR 26 HS absorptiometers. On the other hand, separation of two groups with similar weight changes from the population studied with a Hologic QDR 1000W confirmed that BMC changed directly with weight, but there was an inverse relationship for BMD, owing to an inappropriate change of BA. The use of Hologic Enhanced and Standard software modes led to significant differences in initial readings and measured changes. With each instrument there was a strong correlation between changes in BA and changes in BMC. When 6 kg of lard was wrapped around the limbs of volunteers or a semi-anthropomorphic phantom to simulate weight change, there were spurious increases of measured BMC and BA by about 5% with each instrument. There were no changes of BMD with Lunar, variable results with Norland, but decreases with Hologic. The results observed in vivo could be explained by the effects of fat changes, without there being any real change of bone mineral. Changes of BMD in the skeleton of the phantom were underestimated with all three brands. The anomaly observed with the Hologic QDR 1000W is less apparent with a Lunar DPX or a Norland XR 26, but there are sufficient uncertainties for all total-body measurements during weight change to be treated with suspicion.

  2. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in bone using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, Henry; Jenkins, Mark; Lodwick, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Full text. A new anthropometric phantom of the human leg has been developed for calibrating in vivo measurements of stable lead in the bone using x-ray fluorescence. The phantom reproduces the shape and radiological characteristics of the midshaft of the human leg and includes tissue substitutes for cortical bone, bone marrow, and muscle which have been formulated using polyurethanes and calcium carbonate to provide the desired characteristics of density x-ray attenuation, and calcium content. The phantom includes a set of simulated tibia bones, each containing a precisely known concentration of stable lead, that can be easily inserted into the leg. Formerly, of a set of plexiglas cylinders filled with plaster of-paris, each containing a known lead content, was the consensus standard calibration phantom. Tissue substitute materials used in the new anthropometric calibration phantom are much more uniform in density and composition than the plaster-of-paris phantoms and its realistic appearance provides a practical means of evaluating the variability in measurements results due to the changes in subject-detector positioning. Use of the new anthropometric calibration phantom results in a energy spectrum that closely resembles the spectrum observed when measuring a human subject. The energy spectrum produced by the plaster-of-paris phantom lacks the substantial Compton Scattering component produced by the leg muscle mass which leads to unrealistic estimates of in vivo measurement sensitivity. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for in vivo measurement of stable lead in bone, using an efficiency derived from the new anthropometric phantom, ranges from 18,6 parts per million (ppm) to 26,3 ppm using the K β1,3 /Elastic ratio or the K 1 /Elastic ratio, respectively. These values are significantly greater than the MDL cited in the literature obtained using a efficiency derived the conventional cylindrical plaster-of-paris phantom. Likewise, the realistic shape of the new

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of an anthropometric phantom used for calibrating in vivo K-XRF spectroscopy measurements of stable lead in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Camille J; Spitz, Henry B

    2008-12-01

    An anthropometric surrogate (phantom) of the human leg was defined in the constructs of the Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code to predict the response when used in calibrating K x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) spectrometry measurements of stable lead in bone. The predicted response compared favorably with measurements using the anthropometric phantom containing a tibia with increasing stable lead content. These benchmark measurements confirmed the validity of a modified MCNP code to accurately simulate K-XRF spectrometry measurements of stable lead in bone. A second, cylindrical leg phantom was simulated to determine whether the shape of the calibration phantom is a significant factor in evaluating K-XRF performance. Simulations of the cylindrical and anthropometric calibration phantoms suggest that a cylindrical calibration standard overestimates lead content of a human leg up to 4%. A two-way analysis of variance determined that phantom shape is a statistically significant factor in predicting the K-XRF response. These results suggest that an anthropometric phantom provides a more accurate calibration standard compared to the conventional cylindrical shape, and that a cylindrical shape introduces a 4% positive bias in measured lead values.

  4. A Norwegian nationwide quality assurance project in nuclear medicine: total performance in bone scintigraphy measured with a new transmission phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretting, A; Strandmyr, E; Lindegaard, M W

    1990-01-01

    A prototype version of a recently developed transmission phantom for simulation of radionuclide bone studies was used in a Norwegian nationwide quality assurance project. The design of the phantom made it possible to perform a receiver operation characteristic (ROC) examination with respect to the detection of radionuclide accumulation in the ribs. The participants were also asked to report accumulation in the spinal column. Images obtained by means of a uniform source and a four-quadrant bar pattern were used to judge resolution and homogeneity with the collimator used in the bone studies. The overall performance of the laboratories was satisfactory, but considerable variations were found. There was a marked correlation between the physician's performance and the resolution and homogeneity of the camera. Reports from stationary imaging were generally better than those that were based on whole-body scans.

  5. A Norwegian nationwide quality assurance project in nuclear medicine: Total performance in bone scintigraphy measured with a new transmission phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skretting, A.; Strandmyr, E.; Lindegaard, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype version of a recently developed transmission phantom for simulation of radionuclide bone studies was used in a Norwegian nationwide quality assurance project. The design of the phantom made it possible to perform a receiver operation characteristic (ROC) examination with respect to the detection of radionuclide accumulation in the ribs. The participants were also asked to report accumulation in the spinal column. Images obtained by means of a uniform source and a four-quadrant bar pattern were used to judge resolution and homogeneity with the collimator used in the bone studies. The overall performance of the laboratories was satisfactory, but considerable variations were found. There was a marked correlation between the physician's performance and the resolution and homogeneity of the camera. Reports from stationary imaging were generally better than those that were based on whole-body scans. (orig.)

  6. Flexoelectricity in Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Sancho, Fabian; Abdollahi, Amir; Damjanovic, Dragan; Catalan, Gustau

    2018-03-01

    Bones generate electricity under pressure, and this electromechanical behavior is thought to be essential for bone's self-repair and remodeling properties. The origin of this response is attributed to the piezoelectricity of collagen, which is the main structural protein of bones. In theory, however, any material can also generate voltages in response to strain gradients, thanks to the property known as flexoelectricity. In this work, the flexoelectricity of bone and pure bone mineral (hydroxyapatite) are measured and found to be of the same order of magnitude; the quantitative similarity suggests that hydroxyapatite flexoelectricity is the main source of bending-induced polarization in cortical bone. In addition, the measured flexoelectric coefficients are used to calculate the (flexo)electric fields generated by cracks in bone mineral. The results indicate that crack-generated flexoelectricity is theoretically large enough to induce osteocyte apoptosis and thus initiate the crack-healing process, suggesting a central role of flexoelectricity in bone repair and remodeling. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Bone changes in endometrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.S.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Hutchinson-Williams, K.; Lewis, A.B.; Lovett, L.; Polan, M.L.; DeCherney, A.H.; Comite, F.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, quantitative CT is used to measure bone in the distal radius in normal women, women with endometriosis who had not been treated, and women with endometriosis who had been treated with danazol--an anabolic (androgen) steroid. Measurements of cortex and trabeculae indicate that untreated women have decreased bone mass (1125 HU and 160 HU, respectively), compared with bone mass in normal women (1269 HU and 257 HU; P < .05) and treated women (1238 HU and 255 HU). This finding is important because the most effective way to reduce the complications of osteoporosis is identification of risk factors, prevention, and early treatment

  8. Evaluation of (241)Am deposited in different parts of the leg bones and skeleton to justify in vivo measurements of the knee for estimating total skeletal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Majid; Brey, Richard R; Derryberry, DeWayne

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of Am deposited in different parts of leg bones relative to the total leg activity was calculated from radiochemical analysis results from six whole body donors participating in the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In five of these six USTUR cases, the percentage of Am deposited in the knee region as well as in the entire leg was separately calculated relative to total skeletal activity. The purpose of this study is to find a region in the leg that is both suitable for in vivo measurement of Am deposited in the bones and has a good correlation with the total skeletal Am burden. In all analyzed cases, the femur was the bone with the highest percentage of Am deposited in the leg (48.8%). In the five cases that have complete whole skeletal analysis, the percentage of Am activity in the knee relative to entire skeletal activity was 4.8%, and the average value of its coefficient of variation was 10.6%. The percentage of Am in the leg relative to total skeletal activity was 20% with an average coefficient of variation of 13.63%. The Am activity in the knee as well as in the leg was strongly correlated (R = 99.5% and R = 99.1%, respectively) with the amount of Am activity in the entire skeleton using a simple linear relationship. The highest correlation was found between the amount of Am deposited in the knee and the amount of Am deposited in the entire skeleton. This correlation is important because it might enable an accurate assessment of the total skeletal Am burden to be performed from in vivo monitoring of the knee region. In all analyzed cases, an excellent correlation (R = 99.9%) was found between the amount of Am activity in the knee and the amount of Am activity in the entire leg. The results of this study suggest three simple models: two models to predict the total skeletal activity based on either leg or knee activity, and the third model to predict the total leg activity based on knee activity. The results also suggest that the

  9. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Rikushi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  10. Absorption spectra measurements of the x-ray radiation heated SiO2 aerogel plasma in 'dog-bone' targets irradiated by high power laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Dong, Q.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Li, Y.-T.; Zhang, J.; Wei, H.-G.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Wen, T.-S.; Zhang, W.-H.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.-Y.; Ding, Y.-K.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Y.-J.; Zhang, B.-H.; Zheng, Z.-J.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Takabe, H.

    2008-05-01

    We studied the opacity effect of the SiO2 aerogel plasma heated by x-ray radiation produced by high power laser pulses irradiating the inner surface of golden 'dog-bone' targets. The PET crystal spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectra of the plasmas in the range from 6.4 Å to 7.4 Å, among which the line emissions involving the K shell of Si ions from He-like to neutral atom were located. The experimental results were analyzed with Detailed-Level-Accounting method. As the plasma temperature increased, the characteristic lines of highly ionized ions gradually dominated the absorption spectrum.

  11. Cross calibration of Hologic QDR2000 and GE lunar prodigy for whole body bone mineral density and body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Derek; Horton, Barbara; Green, Desmond J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to undertake an in vivo cross calibration of body composition, whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) between a Hologic QDR2000 and a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Twenty-one subjects attending for routine bone densitometry were recruited to the study (19 female and 2 male, aged 30-79 yr). Phantom cross calibrations were carried out using the Bio-Imaging Variable Composition Phantom (VCP) for percentage fat (%fat) and the Bona Fide Phantom (BFP) for BMD. There was no significant difference in whole body lean body mass between the QDR2000 and the Prodigy. Fat mass (FM) and %fat were significantly higher on the QDR2000. BMC and whole body BMD were significantly higher on Prodigy. As the BMC increased, so did the difference between the 2 instruments. The VCP did not provide an adequate cross calibration of %fat compared with in vivo. The BFP provided a good cross calibration of whole body BMD compared with in vivo. The results suggest that the partitioning of the soft tissue component between lean and fat in the 2 instruments is systematically different. The variation between instruments from the same and different manufacturers reported in the literature varies widely, as does the comparison with criterion methods. This makes it difficult to generalize the results of this study to other centers and it is recommended that each center would have to cross calibrate when changing equipment. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Amalgamated Reference Data for Size-Adjusted Bone Densitometry Measurements in 3598 Children and Young Adults-the ALPHABET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Nicola J; Shaw, Nicholas J; Bishop, Nicholas J; Adams, Judith E; Mughal, M Zulf; Arundel, Paul; Fewtrell, Mary S; Ahmed, S Faisal; Treadgold, Laura A; Högler, Wolfgang; Bebbington, Natalie A; Ward, Kate A

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in children has led to the need for robust reference data for interpretation of scans in daily clinical practice. Such data need to be representative of the population being studied and be "future-proofed" to software and hardware upgrades. The aim was to combine all available pediatric DXA reference data from seven UK centers to create reference curves adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body size to enable clinical application, using in vivo cross-calibration and making data back and forward compatible. Seven UK sites collected data on GE Lunar or Hologic Scanners between 1996 and 2012. Males and females aged 4 to 20 years were recruited (n = 3598). The split by ethnic group was white 2887; South Asian 385; black Afro-Caribbean 286; and mixed heritage 40. Scans of the total body and lumbar spine (L 1 to L 4 ) were obtained. The European Spine Phantom was used to cross-calibrate the 7 centers and 11 scanners. Reference curves were produced for L 1 to L 4 bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and total body less head (TBLH) and L 1 to L 4 areal bone mineral density (aBMD) for GE Lunar Prodigy and iDXA (sex- and ethnic-specific) and for Hologic (sex-specific). Regression equations for TBLH BMC were produced using stepwise linear regression. Scans of 100 children were randomly selected to test backward and forward compatibility of software versions, up to version 15.0 for GE Lunar and Apex 4.1 for Hologic. For the first time, sex- and ethnic-specific reference curves for lumbar spine BMAD, aBMD, and TBLH aBMD are provided for both GE Lunar and Hologic scanners. These curves will facilitate interpretation of DXA data in children using methods recommended in ISCD guidelines. The databases have been created to allow future updates and analysis when more definitive evidence for the best method of fracture prediction in children is agreed. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016

  13. Cross-calibration of domestic devices and GE lunar prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray densitometer devices for bone mineral measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Chungbuk Health and Science University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung A [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Reliable follow-up of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is essential in clinical practice. When there is a difference in the BMD values from DXA systems in the same patient, cross calibration equation is required for the reliable follow-up. Unfortunately, no equation is existed in BMD measure between GE Lunar Prodigy Advance (US, GE Healthcare; LPA) and Osteosys Dexxum T (Korea, Osteosys; ODT) DXA systems. In this study, we evaluate the agreement of BMD values between LPA and ODT and suggest the cross calibration equation using European spine phantom (ESP) with two systems. We performed BMD measurements using ten scans with ESP in each DXA systems. We compared BMD values and calculated cross calibration equation by linear regression analysis. The comparison between the LPA and ODT bone densitometers used the ESP. Compared to the ESP BMD values, ODT underestimated 14.36% and LPA overestimated 12.96%. The average of total BMD measurement values acquired with ODT were 21.44% lower than those from LPA. Cross-calibration equation for LPA and ODT was derived from ESP. We calculated simple cross calibration equation for LPA and ODT DXA systems. Cross-calibration equation is necessary for the reliable follow-up of BMD values in two different systems.

  14. Cross-calibration of domestic devices and GE lunar prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray densitometer devices for bone mineral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Rho, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Kyoung A; Lee, In Ja

    2017-01-01

    Reliable follow-up of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is essential in clinical practice. When there is a difference in the BMD values from DXA systems in the same patient, cross calibration equation is required for the reliable follow-up. Unfortunately, no equation is existed in BMD measure between GE Lunar Prodigy Advance (US, GE Healthcare; LPA) and Osteosys Dexxum T (Korea, Osteosys; ODT) DXA systems. In this study, we evaluate the agreement of BMD values between LPA and ODT and suggest the cross calibration equation using European spine phantom (ESP) with two systems. We performed BMD measurements using ten scans with ESP in each DXA systems. We compared BMD values and calculated cross calibration equation by linear regression analysis. The comparison between the LPA and ODT bone densitometers used the ESP. Compared to the ESP BMD values, ODT underestimated 14.36% and LPA overestimated 12.96%. The average of total BMD measurement values acquired with ODT were 21.44% lower than those from LPA. Cross-calibration equation for LPA and ODT was derived from ESP. We calculated simple cross calibration equation for LPA and ODT DXA systems. Cross-calibration equation is necessary for the reliable follow-up of BMD values in two different systems

  15. Caisson disease of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N

    1986-09-01

    Caisson disease of bone, which may affect compressed air workers and divers, is characterized by regions of bone and marrow necrosis that may lead to secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip and shoulder joints. A review of the pathologic, radiologic, and clinical aspects demonstrated uncertainties in the exact etiology. Early diagnosis is often not possible because of the delayed appearance of radiologic abnormalities. Research into these two aspects of this condition was carried out by the Medical Research Council Decompression Sickness Research Team in Newcastle upon Tyne over a ten-year period (1972 to 1982). Because no suitable animal model exists for the study of this condition, bone and marrow necrosis was produced by embolism of bone blood vessels with glass microspheres. With this model, it was shown that the presence of bone and marrow necrosis could be detected by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP and by measuring changes in serum ferritin concentration at a much earlier stage than was possible by radiography. However, only the former method has proved useful in clinical practice. Investigations into the etiology of caisson disease of bone have shown evidence for an increase in marrow fat cell size resulting from hyperoxia. This phenomenon may play a role in the production and localization of gas bubble emboli, which are thought to be the cause of the bone and marrow necrosis.

  16. Measurements of hip-bone distortions caused by the stress of inserted prosthesis by means of the speckle photography method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Jerzy K.; Niesterowicz, Andrzej; Mazurkiewicz, Henryk

    1995-03-01

    A high number of osseous diseases, particularly of the backbone and hip-joint regions, result in a need for their overall treatment and prevention. Two basic treatment methods are used: physical exercises at an early stage of the illness, and surgical treatment in an advanced stage. Recently, in operational treatment of coxarthrosis the elements of the joint (acetabulum and capitellum) were replaced by their artificial counterparts, despite some drawbacks and unknowns related to this kind of treatment. In order to check the effectiveness of this treatment and to eliminate its drawbacks we have tested the joint by means of speckle photography method. The objective of this paper is an attempt to evaluate stress and displacement distributions in a system consisting of artificial acetabulum and capitellum and a natural bone in order to determine an optimum fitting of artificial acetabulum and capitellum and a natural bone in order to determine an optimum fitting of artificial elements that guarantees uniform distribution of stresses corresponding to anatomical and physiological parameters of the hip-joint. Speckle photographs have been analyzed point by point with the help of the algorithm for striped images processing.

  17. A microbeam grazing-incidence approach to L-shell x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead concentration in bone and soft tissue phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherase, Mihai Raul; Al-Hamdani, Summer

    2018-02-06

    L-shell x-ray fluorescence (LXRF) is a non-invasive approach to lead (Pb) concentration measurements in the human bone. The first studies were published in the early 1980s. In the same period the K-shell x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) method using a Cd-109 radionuclide source was developed and later improved and refined. Lower sensitivity and calibration difficulties associated with the LXRF method led the KXRF to be the most adopted method for in vivo human bone Pb studies. In the present study a microbeam-based grazing-incidence approach to Pb LXRF measurements was investigated. The microbeam produced by an integrated x-ray tube and polycapillary x-ray lens (PXL) unit was used to excite cylindrical plaster-of-Paris (poP) bone phantoms doped with Pb in seven concentrations: 0, 8, 16, 26, 34, 59, and 74 µg/g. Two 1 mm- and 3 mm-thick cylindrical shell soft tissue phantoms were made out of polyoxymethylene (POM) plastic. Three bone-soft tissue phantom sets corresponding to the 0, 1, and 3 mm POM thickness values resulted. Each phantom was placed between the microbeam and the detector; its position was controlled using a positioning stage. Small steps (0.1-0.5 mm) and short 30 s x-ray spectra acquisitions were used to find the optimal phantom position according to the maximum observed Sr Kα peak height. At the optimal geometry, five 180 s x-ray spectra were acquired for each phantom set. Calibration lines were obtained using the fitted peak heights of the two observed Pb Lα and Pb Lβ peaks. The lowest detection limit (DL) values were (2.9±0.2), (4.9±0.3), and (23±3) µg/g, respectively. The order of magnitude of the absorbed radiation dose in the POM plastic for the 180 s irradiation was estimated to be <1 mGy. The results are superior to a relatively recently-published LXRF phantom study and show promise for future designs of in vivo LXRF measurements. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  18. Estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull: contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurement of activity in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    After the initiation of NaI(Tl), spectrometric methods for detecting photon-emitting radionuclides in man, it became evident that the high background rates in the low energy regions precluded in vivo measurement of many bone-seeking nuclides. To meet these needs a dual crystal, low energy sensitive NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detector system was developed. To date this system, in combination with more routine bioassays, remains the optimum methodology for the determination of internal exposure to low energy, photon-emitting radionuclides. Since most occupational exposures occur by inhalation, internal deposits must be quantitated with these detectors placed over the lung area. Since many of the alpha-emitting nuclides are bone-seekers, the contribution of material which has been transported from the lung and deposited in the skeleton must be accounted for

  19. The Effect of the Lumbar Vertebral Malpositioning on Bone Mineral Density Measurements of the Lumbar Spine by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadyar, Sina; Golbarg, Shima; Takavar, Abbas; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman

    2016-01-01

    A significant discrepancy between the results of previous human and phantoms studies is identified regarding the effects of vertebral positioning on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lumbar vertebral positioning on BMD measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a human cadaveric spine phantom. A spine phantom was designed using L1-L4 vertebrae harvested from a 48-year-old male cadaver without coronal or sagittal deformity. The spine phantom was scanned by DEXXUM T bone densitometer in a constant scanning speed of 30 mm/s and resolution of 1.0 × 1.0 mm. BMD values were measured in a positive and negative lumbar lordosis and kyphosis tilt angles in the sagittal plane, from 0° to 35°, with 7° increments. Also BMD values were measured in axial and lateral rotations with 5° increments. Projectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are significantly affected by positioning of the lumbar spine, more severely affected by kyphotic curvature, but also by axial and lateral rotational scoliosis as well as lordotic curvature. Increasing the severity of lordosis and kyphosis curvatures leads to false reduction of BMD value up to 17.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Increasing the degree of lateral and axial rotational scolioses results in a false decrease in BMD measurements by up to 10.8% and 9.6%, respectively. To achieve the most accurate scanning results, error sources and abnormal positioning should be identified and minimized as much as possible. If not correctable, they should be taken into consideration while interpreting the results. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time synchronous measurement of curing characteristics and polymerization stress in bone cements with a cantilever-beam based instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagummi, Sri Vikram; Landis, Forrest A.; Chiang, Martin Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    An instrumentation capable of simultaneously determining degree of conversion (DC), polymerization stress (PS), and polymerization exotherm (PE) in real time was introduced to self-curing bone cements. This comprises the combination of an in situ high-speed near-infrared spectrometer, a cantilever-beam instrument with compliance-variable feature, and a microprobe thermocouple. Two polymethylmethacrylate-based commercial bone cements, containing essentially the same raw materials but differ in their viscosity for orthopedic applications, were used to demonstrate the applicability of the instrumentation. The results show that for both the cements studied the final DC was marginally different, the final PS was different at the low compliance, the peak of the PE was similar, and their polymerization rates were significantly different. Systematic variation of instrumental compliance for testing reveals differences in the characteristics of PS profiles of both the cements. This emphasizes the importance of instrumental compliance in obtaining an accurate understanding of PS evaluation. Finally, the key advantage for the simultaneous measurements is that these polymerization properties can be correlated directly, thus providing higher measurement confidence and enables a more in-depth understanding of the network formation process.

  1. Associations of 24-hour sleep duration and CT-derived measurements of muscle and bone: The AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lang, Thomas; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Launer, Lenore; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B

    2017-07-01

    Although the importance of sleep on preservation of several physiological functions is well known, the relationship with the two interconnected tissues - muscle and bone is less understood. This study aimed to examine the association of 24-hour sleep duration with mid-thigh muscle composition and proximal femur volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). 2438 men and 3326 women aged 66 to 96years, residents in the Reykjavik area, were included in this cross-sectional study. Proximal femur integral vBMD, mid-thigh muscle area and muscle attenuation were assessed with computed tomography. Sleep and nap habits were assessed using a questionnaire. We found that after adjustment for age and BMI long sleep duration (>8h/d) was negatively associated with thigh lean area in both men (B=-2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): -4.01, -0.40) and women (B=-2.39, 95% CI: -3.75, -1.03) and with muscle attenuation (B=-0.95, 95% CI: -1.47, -0.43) only in women. After adjustments for age, health and lifestyle factors the association between long sleep duration and muscle lean area was attenuated and became nonsignificant while associations with muscle attenuation remained marginally significant (B=-0.51, 95% CI: -1.03, -0.002). Sleep duration was not associated with proximal femur integral vBMD in the multivariate models. Long sleep duration, particularly in old women, can affect thigh muscle attenuation (increase in intramuscular fat). Whether optimization of sleep can ameliorate age-associated intramuscular or intermuscular adipose tissue warrants further studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saarelainen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21–72 years underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2–L4 (n=72, proximal femur (n=72, and total body (n=62 measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r=0.962–0.995; p<0.0001. The average iDXA BMD values were 1.5%, 0.5%, and 0.9% higher than those of Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2–L4 (p<0.0001, femoral neck (p=0.048, and total hip (p<0.0001, respectively. Total body BMD values measured with the iDXA were −1.3% lower (p<0.0001 than those measured with the Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine.

  3. Measurements of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using lunar prodigy and the new pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongil; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Han, Chung Soo; Kim, Seonwoo; Bok, Hae Sook; Huh, Wooseong; Ko, Jae-Wook; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the correlation of the absolute bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine and standard sites of the proximal femur obtained from a Lunar Prodigy and the newly developed pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexxum). Between June 2008 and December 2008, 79 Korean volunteers were enrolled. Measurements were obtained on the same day using both densitometers. The absolute BMD values (g/cm(2)) from the two densitometers were evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis with Bonferroni's correction for the three clinically important sites. In order to evaluate precision, we performed duplicate Dexxum measurements, and calculated the within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of BMD values for the total proximal femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by the two densitometers were 0.926, 0.948, and 0.955 respectively, and the null hypotheses of r = 0.8 were all rejected (p Prodigy.

  4. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... patients, suggesting that BMD alone, and not the bone microarchitecture, is affected in MS. However, larger studies are needed to verify these findings and to establish the role of TBS in MS. As in the background population, physical activity and non-smoking habits are associated with better bone health...

  5. In vivo bone remodeling rates determination and compressive stiffness variations before, during 60 days bed rest and two years follow up: A micro-FE-analysis from HR-pQCT measurements of the berlin Bed Rest Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Zully; Belavy, Daniel; Baumann, Wolfgang W.; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    Bed rest studies are used for simulation and study of physiological changes as observed in unloading/non-gravity environments. Amongst others, bone mass reduction, similar as occurring due to aging osteoporosis, combined with bio-fluids redistribution and muscle atrophy have been observed and analyzed. Advanced radiological methods of high resolution such as HR-pQCT (XtremeCT) allow 3D-visualizing in vivo bone remodeling processes occurring during absence/reduction of mechanical stimuli (0 to Induced bone micro-structure (e.g. trabecular number, cortical thickness, porosity) and density variations can be quantified. However, these parameters are average values of each sample and important information regarding bone mass distribution and within bone mechanical behaviour is lost. Finite element models with hexa-elements of identical size as the HR-pQCT measurements (0.082 mm×0.082 mm×0.082 mm, ca. 7E6 elements/sample) can be used for subject-specific in vivo stiffness calculation. This technique also allows quantifying if bone microstructural changes represent a risk of mechanical bone collapse (fracture).

  6. Bone tunnel diameter measured with CT after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-bundle auto-hamstring tendors: Clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Young Cheol; Bae, So Young; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between bone tunnel diameter after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction measured by computed tomography (CT) using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and stability or clinical scores. Forty-seven patients (41 men and 6 women, mean age: 34 years) who had undergone ACL reconstruction with the double bundle technique using auto-hamstring graft and had subsequently received CT scans immediately after the surgery (T1: range, 1-4 days, mean, 2.5 days) and at a later time (T2: range, 297-644 days, mean, 410.4 days) were enrolled in this study. The diameter of each tunnel (two femoral and two tibial) at both T1 and T2 were independently measured using MPR technique by two radiologists. Stability and clinical scores were evaluated with a KT-2000 arthrometer, International Knee Documentation Committee objective scores, and the Lysholm score. Statistical analysis of the correlation between the diameter at T2 or the interval diameter change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and clinical scores or stability was investigated. The tibial bone tunnels for the anteromedial bundles were significantly widened at T2 compared with T1 (observer 1, 0.578 mm to 0.698 mm, p value of < 0.001; observer 2, 0.581 mm to 0.707 mm, p value of < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the diameter at T2 and stability or clinical scores and between the interval change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and stability or clinical scores (corrected p values for all were 1.0). Intraobserver agreement for measurements was excellent (> 0.8) for both observers. Interobserver agreement for measurement was excellent (> 0.8) except for the most distal portion of the femoral bone tunnel for anterior medial bundle in immediate postoperative CT, which showed moderate agreement (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.6311).Neither the diameter nor its change ratio during interval follow-up is correlated with stability or clinical scores

  7. Bone quality: the determinants of bone strength and fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Hélder; Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Coriolano, Hans-Joachim Appell; Duarte, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility is a major health concern, as the increased risk of bone fractures has devastating outcomes in terms of mortality, decreased autonomy, and healthcare costs. Efforts made to address this problem have considerably increased our knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate bone formation and resorption. In particular, we now have a much better understanding of the cellular events that are triggered when bones are mechanically stimulated and how these events can lead to improvements in bone mass. Despite these findings at the molecular level, most exercise intervention studies reveal either no effects or only minor benefits of exercise programs in improving bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic patients. Nevertheless, and despite that BMD is the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis, this measure is only able to provide insights regarding the quantity of bone tissue. In this article, we review the complex structure of bone tissue and highlight the concept that its mechanical strength stems from the interaction of several different features. We revisited the available data showing that bone mineralization degree, hydroxyapatite crystal size and heterogeneity, collagen properties, osteocyte density, trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, as well as whole bone geometry, are determinants of bone strength and that each one of these properties may independently contribute to the increased or decreased risk of fracture, even without meaningful changes in aBMD. Based on these findings, we emphasize that while osteoporosis (almost) always causes bone fragility, bone fragility is not always caused just by osteoporosis, as other important variables also play a major role in this etiology. Furthermore, the results of several studies showing compelling data that physical exercise has the potential to improve bone quality and to decrease fracture risk by influencing each one of these determinants are also reviewed. These findings have meaningful clinical

  8. Higher Dairy Food Intake Is Associated With Higher Spine Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Bone Measures in the Framingham Study for Men But Not Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van Laura H.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Hannan, Marian T.; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies found that dairy foods were associated with higher areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, data on bone geometry or compartment-specific bone density is lacking. In this cross-sectional study, the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, milk+yogurt, and milk+yogurt+cheese

  9. Sex-, Ethnic-, and Age-Specific Centile Curves for pQCT- and HR-pQCT-Derived Measures of Bone Structure and Strength in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay A; McKay, Heather A

    2018-02-02

    There are presently no adolescent centile curves for bone parameters at the tibial midshaft using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or at the distal radius and tibia using high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT). Thus, we aimed to develop sex-, ethnic-, site-, and age-specific centile curves for pQCT and HR-pQCT-derived bone outcomes for youth and young adults aged 10 to 21 years. We acquired pQCT scans (XCT3000 or XCT2000) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) and HR-pQCT scans (XtremeCT) at the distal radius (7% site) and tibia (8% site) in a convenience sample of participants in the mixed-longitudinal University of British Columbia Healthy Bones III Study. We scanned 778 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 11 years using pQCT (413 girls, 56% Asian; 365 boys, 54% Asian; n = 3160 observations) and 349 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 4 years using HR-pQCT (189 girls, 51% Asian; 165 boys, 50% Asian; n = 1090 observations). For pQCT, we report cortical bone mineral density (BMD), total bone cross-sectional area, and polar strength-strain index. For HR-pQCT, we report standard measures (total BMD, trabecular number, thickness, and bone volume fraction) and automated segmentation measures (total bone cross-sectional area, cortical BMD, porosity, and thickness). We applied finite element analysis to estimate failure load. We applied the lamda, mu, sigma (LMS) method using LMS ChartMaker Light (version 2.5, The Institute of Child Health, London, UK) to construct LMS tables and centile plots. We report sex- and age-specific centiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 97th) for whites and Asians for pQCT bone parameters at the tibial midshaft and HR-pQCT bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. These centile curves might be used by clinicians and scientists to interpret values or better understand trajectories of bone parameters in clinical populations, those from different geographic regions or of different ethnic origins. © 2018

  10. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  11. Amalgamated Reference Data for Size-Adjusted Bone Densitometry Measurements in 3598 Children and Young Adults – the Alphabet Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Nicola J; Shaw, Nicholas J; Bishop, Nicholas J; Adams, Judith E; Mughal, M Zulf; Arundel, Paul; Fewtrell, Mary S; Ahmed, S Faisal; Treadgold, Laura A; Högler, Wolfgang; Bebbington, Natalie A; Ward, Kate A

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in children has led to the need for robust reference data for interpretation of scans in daily clinical practice. Such data need to be representative of the population being studied and be ‘future-proofed’ to software and hardware upgrades. The aim was to combine all available paediatric DXA reference data from seven UK centres to create reference curves adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and body size to enable clinical application, using in-vivo cross calibration and making data back- and forward- compatible. Seven UK sites collected data on GE-Lunar or Hologic Scanners between 1996 and 2012. Males and females aged 4 to 20 years were recruited (n=3598). The split by ethnic group was: White Caucasian 2887; South Asian 385; Black Afro-Caribbean 286; mixed heritage 40. Scans of the total body and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were obtained. The European Spine Phantom was used to cross-calibrate the 7 centres and 11 scanners. Reference curves were produced for L1-L4 bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and total body less head (TBLH) and L1-L4 areal bone mineral density (aBMD) for GE Lunar Prodigy and iDXA (sex-and ethnic-specific) and for Hologic (sex-specific). Regression equations for TBLH BMC were produced using stepwise linear regression. Scans of 100 children were randomly selected to test backwards and forwards compatibility of software versions, up to version 15.0 for GE Lunar, and Apex 4.1 for Hologic. For the first time, sex and ethnic- specific reference curves for lumbar spine BMAD, aBMD and TBLH aBMD are provided for both GE-Lunar and Hologic scanners. These curves will facilitate interpretation of DXA data in children using methods recommended in ISCD guidelines. The databases have been created to allow future updates and analysis when more definitive evidence for the best method of fracture prediction in children is agreed. PMID:27490028

  12. Evaluation of an accelerated aging medium for acrylic bone cement based on analysis of nanoindentation measurements on laboratory-prepared and retrieved specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gladius; Xu, Jie; Dunne, Nicholas; Daly, Catherine; Orr, John

    2007-05-01

    The thrust of the study was a critical evaluation of the efficacy of a medium (30% v/v H(2)O(2), at 60 degrees C) that has been suggested in a literature report as being suitable for simulating the oxidative aging process, seen in vivo, in the acrylic bone cement mantles of total hip and knee joint replacements. For this purpose, quasi-static and dynamic nanoindentation measurements were used to obtain material properties--elastic modulus, E; hardness, H; and the variation of the storage and loss moduli with the frequency of the applied indenting force--of PalacosR acrylic bone cement specimens after various periods of immersion (7, 14, 21, and 28 days) in the aging solution, and of specimens prepared from cement mantles retrieved from cemented total hip joint replacements after various times in vivo (0.92-21 years). Also, best-fit relationships were obtained between E and time in the H(2)O(2) solution (t), H and t, E and in vivo time (T), and H and T. This body of results points to the possibility that the aging solution is effective, although the evidence is not conclusive.

  13. Application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the changes of bone mineral density in 131 healthy women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Shibiao; Wang Dongliang; Wu Yiwei

    2002-01-01

    131 healthy women aged 31-72 years participated in the study, include 64 sexual maturity women aged 31-52 were enrolled in four groups based on age, and 67 postmenopausal women, the years of menopause from 1 month to 23 years, were also enrolled in four groups based on duration of menopause. The bone mineral density of the lumbar-spine and femur were measured using dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry. At the same time, the serum E 2 , FSH, BGP were detected by radioimmunoassay; the serum AKP, calcium, phosphate were detected using automatic biochemistry instrument. The results were: the BMD of lumbar-spine and right femur were decreased, and associated with increasing age and the duration of menopause, especially after menopause. Significant positive correlation was noted between BMD and E 2 . Serum AKP and BGP levels were higher in postmenopausal women than those of sexual maturity women. The serum calcium level was increased significantly soon after menopause, then decreased to normal level, and maintained in this level. The serum phosphate level had no difference in these groups. Therefore BMD, serum E 2 , BGP and AKP determination have some value for the early diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and prediction of bone fracture also

  14. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvad Gert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p 2 = 0.39; p Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

  15. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  16. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraleda, M.; Lopez, M. A.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Navarro, T.; Navarro, J. F.

    2002-07-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best countring geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs.

  17. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraleda, M.; Lopez, M. A.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Navarro, T.; Navarro, J. F.

    2002-01-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best counting geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs

  18. Preliminary application of 241-Americium calcaneus bone mineral density measurement in osteoporosis. Comparison with double X-ray densitometry of the lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Li Peiyong; Wang Hui; Pu Mingfang; Qiu Jigao

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of calcaneus in 54 normals, 45 Osteoporosis, 25 suspected osteoporosis and 16 other non-osteoporosis patients, a total of 140 cases were measured by HUAKE (HK-1) 241-Americium BMD absorpmetry, among them 43 were compared with that of lumber spine (L2 - L4) measured by Lunar Corporation's Expert-XL absorpmeter. BMD of normal group of calcaneus was (409.8 +- 79.4) mg/cm 2 . The BMD were decreased slowly with the increasing age. The BMD of osteoporosis, suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group were 230.3 +- 62.3, 395.7 +- 57.4 and 363.3 +- 51.9 mg/cm 2 respectively. The BMD of osteoporosis group was much lower than that of normal group, and also lower than that of the other two groups, among 26 patients (57.78%) had bone fracture, all was in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The BMD of suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis had no significant difference with normal group. The coefficient variation (CV) of BMD in repeated measurement in calcaneus of 4 participants was less than 1.2%. The correlative coefficient (r) between BMD of calcaneus and lumber spine (L2 - L4) group was 0.6824. The correlative coefficient of normal young adult-matched percentage and T value in 2 groups were 0.6863 and 0.6755 respectively, whereas aged-matched percentage, Z value were 0.4614 and 0.5009 respectively. In conclusion 241-Americium calcaneus BMD absorpmetry has the advantage of low price, easy to operate, reliable and valuable in diagnosis osteoporosis. The correlations of calcaneus and lumber spine BMD, normal young adult-matched percentage and T value were rather good

  19. Bilateral Bone-anchored Hearing Aid: impact on quality of life measured with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Eu Chin; Monksfield, Peter; Egan, Elizabeth; Reid, Andrew; Proops, David

    2009-10-01

    To investigate whether the fitting of bilateral Bone-anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) would result in any additional improvement in patients' quality of life (QOL) over and above what we would experience from the fitting of a single-sided BAHA. Retrospective, anonymized, cross-sectional postal survey using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI). Tertiary referral center. All 93 adult patients who had been using bilateral BAHA for more than 6 months. Hearing rehabilitation using bilateral BAHA. These include the GBI benefit scores across the following domains: "overall benefit," "general health benefit," "physical health benefit," and "social benefit." Comparison of GBI scores against other otological interventions including single-sided BAHA. Response rate was 76%. Ninety-two percent of patients reported improvement in QOL. Positive QOL improvement scores were reported across all domains. Overall GBI benefit score was +ve 38. This is higher than the benefit scores reported by patients with single-sided BAHA, although this may not be statistically significant. After fitting the second BAHA, patients may report additional improvement in their QOL (of a smaller magnitude) over and above the initial improvement in their QOL after fitting of their first BAHA. In fact, the overall benefit score for bilateral BAHA seem to be close to that for cochlear implantation.

  20. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-Calibration of GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-Ray Densitometers for Bone Mineral Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarelainen, J; Hakulinen, M; Rikkonen, T; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Honkanen, R; Hujo, M; Jurvelin, J S

    2016-01-01

    In long-term prospective studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices need to be inevitably changed. It is essential to assess whether systematic differences will exist between measurements with the new and old device. A group of female volunteers (21-72 years) underwent anteroposterior lumbar spine L2-L4 (n = 72), proximal femur (n = 72), and total body (n = 62) measurements with the Prodigy and the iDXA scanners at the same visit. The bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with these two scanners showed a high linear association at all tested sites (r = 0.962-0.995; p Prodigy for lumbar spine (L2-L4) (p Prodigy. For total body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, the BMD differences as measured with these two devices were independent of subject height and weight. Linear correction equations were developed to ensure comparability of BMD measurements obtained with both DXA scanners. Importantly, use of equations from previous studies would have increased the discrepancy between these particular DXA scanners, especially at hip and at spine.

  2. Broken bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Broken bone URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... following steps to reduce your risk of a broken bone: Wear protective ... pads. Create a safe home for young children. Place a gate at stairways ...

  3. Standards and measurements for assessing bone health-workshop report co-sponsored by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Herbert S; Dienstfrey, Andrew; Hudson, Lawrence T; Oreskovic, Tammy; Fuerst, Thomas; Shepherd, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reports and discusses the results of the recent ISCD-NIST Workshop on Standards and Measurements for Assessing Bone Health. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the status of efforts to standardize and compare results from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, and then to identify and prioritize ongoing measurement and standards needs.

  4. Measurements of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using lunar prodigy and the new pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dongil; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Han, Chung Soo; Kim, Seonwoo; Bok, Hae Sook; Huh, Wooseong; Ko, Jae-Wook; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the correlation of the absolute bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine and standard sites of the proximal femur obtained from a Lunar Prodigy and the newly developed pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexxum). Between June 2008 and December 2008, 79 Korean volunteers were enrolled. Measurements were obtained on the same day using both densitometers. The absolute BMD values (g/cm 2 ) from the two densitometers were evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis with Bonferroni's correction for the three clinically important sites. In order to evaluate precision, we performed duplicate Dexxum measurements, and calculated the within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of BMD values for the total proximal femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by the two densitometers were 0.926, 0.948, and 0.955 respectively, and the null hypotheses of r = 0.8 were all rejected (p < 0.001 by one-sided Z-test with Fisher's z-transformation for each site). The T-scores (r ≥ 0.842) and Z-scores (r ≥ 0.709) also showed strong positive correlations. The duplicate BMD values of Dexxum showed a high level of precision (WSCV ≤ 4.27%). Dexxum measurements of BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores showed a strong linear correlation with those measured on Lunar Prodigy. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using lunar prodigy and the new pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dongil [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Deog-Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chung Soo [Kyung Hee University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seonwoo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Biostatistics Unit, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bok, Hae Sook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We evaluated the correlation of the absolute bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine and standard sites of the proximal femur obtained from a Lunar Prodigy and the newly developed pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexxum). Between June 2008 and December 2008, 79 Korean volunteers were enrolled. Measurements were obtained on the same day using both densitometers. The absolute BMD values (g/cm{sup 2}) from the two densitometers were evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis with Bonferroni's correction for the three clinically important sites. In order to evaluate precision, we performed duplicate Dexxum measurements, and calculated the within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of BMD values for the total proximal femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by the two densitometers were 0.926, 0.948, and 0.955 respectively, and the null hypotheses of r = 0.8 were all rejected (p < 0.001 by one-sided Z-test with Fisher's z-transformation for each site). The T-scores (r {>=} 0.842) and Z-scores (r {>=} 0.709) also showed strong positive correlations. The duplicate BMD values of Dexxum showed a high level of precision (WSCV {<=} 4.27%). Dexxum measurements of BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores showed a strong linear correlation with those measured on Lunar Prodigy. (orig.)

  6. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Assessment of bone quality using Raman and infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Hiromi Kimura

    2015-10-01

    Bone quality, which was defined as "the sum total of characteristics of the bone that influence the bone's resistance to fracture" at the National Institute of Health (NIH) conference in 2001, contributes to bone strength in combination with bone mass. Bone mass is often measured as bone mineral density (BMD) and, consequently, can be quantified easily. On the other hand, bone quality is composed of several factors such as bone structure, bone matrix, calcification degree, microdamage, and bone turnover, and it is not easy to obtain data for the various factors. Therefore, it is difficult to quantify bone quality. We are eager to develop new measurement methods for bone quality that make it possible to determine several factors associated with bone quality at the same time. Analytic methods based on Raman and FTIR spectroscopy have attracted a good deal of attention as they can provide a good deal of chemical information about hydroxyapatite and collagen, which are the main components of bone. A lot of studies on bone quality using Raman and FTIR imaging have been reported following the development of the two imaging systems. Thus, both Raman and FTIR imaging appear to be promising new bone morphometric techniques.

  7. Heterogeneity of spine bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskey, M.A.; Crisp, A.J.; Compston, J.E.; Khaw, K.-T. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author).

  8. Non-unions treated with bone morphogenic protein 7: introducing the quantitative measurement of human serum cytokine levels as promising tool in evaluation of adjunct non-union therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Arash; Breier, Lisa; Haubruck, Patrick; Bender, Daniel; Biglari, Bahram; Wentzensen, Andreas; Zimmermann, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine if application of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) promotes physiological bone healing of non-unions and to investigate if serum cytokine analysis may serve as a promising tool in the analysis of adjunct non-union therapy. Therefore we analyzed the influence of BMP-7 application on the serum cytokine expression patterns on patients with impaired bone healing compared to patients that showed proper bone healing. Our study involved analyzing blood samples from 208 patients with long bone fractures together with patients that subsequently developed non-unions. From this large pool, 15 patients with atrophic non-union were matched to 15 patients with atrophic non-union treated with local application of BMP-7 as well as normal bone healing. Changes in the cytokine expression patterns were monitored during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 52nd week. The patients were followed both clinically and radiologically for the entire duration of the study. Serum cytokine expression levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were analyzed and compared. Serum expression of TGF-β were nearly parallel in all three groups, however serum concentrations were significantly higher in patients with proper bone healing and those treated with BMP-7 than in patients with non-unions (p unions (p unions led to similar cytokine expression patterns after treatment as those found in patients with proper bone healing. Our results suggest that treatment with BMP-7 promote healing of non-unions. Furthermore, quantitative measurement of serum cytokine expression is a promising tool for evaluating the effectiveness of additional non-union therapies such as adjunct application of growth factors.

  9. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Bone Biopsy Sponsored by Please note ...

  11. Bone sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are malignancies with peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The most frequent are osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET, in an older adults are seen chondrosarcomas, other ones are rare. In general, biology of sarcomas is closely related to pediatric malignancies with fast growth, local aggressiveness, tendency to early hematogenic dissemination and chemo sensitivity. Diagnostics and treatment of bone sarcomas should be done in well experienced centres due to low incidence and broad issue of this topic. An interdisciplinary approach and staff education is essential in due care of patients with bone sarcoma. If these criteria are achieved, the cure rate is contemporary at 65 - 70 %, while some subpopulation of patients has chance for cure up to 90 %. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/PNET are discussed below as types of most frequent bone sarcoma. (author)

  12. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  13. Trace elements and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofková, Ivana; Nemcikova, Petra; Matucha, Petr

    2013-08-01

    The importance of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well known. Moreover, bone health is positively influenced by certain elements (e.g., zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, magnesium, iron and boron). Deficiency of these elements slows down the increase of bone mass in childhood and/or in adolescence and accelerates bone loss after menopause or in old age. Deterioration of bone quality increases the risk of fractures. Monitoring of homeostasis of the trace elements together with the measurement of bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism should be used to identify and treat patients at risk of non-traumatic fractures. Factors determining the effectivity of supplementation include dose, duration of treatment, serum concentrations, as well as interactions among individual elements. Here, we review the effect of the most important trace elements on the skeleton and evaluate their clinical importance.

  14. Ultrasonic guided waves in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Petro

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has shown increasing interest toward measuring long bones by ultrasonic guided waves. This technology is widely used in the field of nondestructive testing and evaluation of different waveguide structures. Cortical bone provides such an elastic waveguide and its ability to sustain loading and resist fractures is known to be related to its mechanical properties at different length scales. Because guided waves could yield diverse characterizations of the bone's mechanical properties at the macroscopic level, the method of guided waves has a strong potential over the standardized bone densitometry as a tool for bone assessment. Despite this, development of guided wave methods is challenging, e.g., due to interferences and multiparametric inversion problems. This paper discusses the promises and challenges related to bone characterization by ultrasonic guided waves.

  15. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyokazu; Koie, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Arisa; Ino, Arisa; Watabe, Kazuya; Kim, Mujo; Kanayama, Kiichi; Otsuji, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as "bone peptide" or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy.

  16. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other

  17. Inter-observer and inter-examination variability of manual vertebral bone attenuation measurements on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, Esther; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Jong, Pim A. de; Jong, Werner U. de; Takx, Richard A.P.; Eikendal, Anouk L.M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Budde, Ricardo P.J.

    2016-01-01

    To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability of manual attenuation measurements of the vertebrae in low-dose unenhanced chest computed tomography (CT). Three hundred and sixty-seven lung cancer screening trial participants who underwent baseline and repeat unenhanced low-dose CT after 3 months because of an indeterminate lung nodule were included. The CT attenuation value of the first lumbar vertebrae (L1) was measured in all CTs by one observer to obtain inter-examination reliability. Six observers performed measurements in 100 randomly selected CTs to determine agreement with limits of agreement and Bland-Altman plots and reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reclassification analyses were performed using a threshold of 110 HU to define osteoporosis. Inter-examination reliability was excellent with an ICC of 0.92 (p < 0.001). Inter-examination limits of agreement ranged from -26 to 28 HU with a mean difference of 1 ± 14 HU. Inter-observer reliability ICCs ranged from 0.70 to 0.91. Inter-examination variability led to 11.2 % reclassification of participants and inter-observer variability led to 22.1 % reclassification. Vertebral attenuation values can be manually quantified with good to excellent inter-examination and inter-observer reliability on unenhanced low-dose chest CT. This information is valuable for early detection of osteoporosis on low-dose chest CT. (orig.)

  18. Remnant Woven Bone and Calcified Cartilage in Mouse Bone: Differences between Ages/Sex and Effects on Bone Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ip

    Full Text Available Mouse models are used frequently to study effects of bone diseases and genetic determinates of bone strength. Murine bones have an intracortical band of woven bone that is not present in human bones. This band is not obvious under brightfield imaging and not typically analyzed. Due to the band's morphology and location it has been theorized to be remnant bone from early in life. Furthermore, lamellar and woven bone are well known to have differing mechanical strengths. The purpose of this study was to determine (i if the band is from early life and (ii if the woven bone or calcified cartilage contained within the band affect whole bone strength.In twelve to fourteen week old mice, doxycycline was used to label bone formed prior to 3 weeks old. Doxycycline labeling and woven bone patterns on contralateral femora matched well and encompassed an almost identical cross-sectional area. Also, we highlight for the first time in mice the presence of calcified cartilage exclusively within the band. However, calcified cartilage could not be identified on high resolution cone-beam microCT scans when examined visually or by thresholding methods.Subsequently, three-point bending was used to analyze the effects of woven bone and calcified cartilage on whole bone mechanics in a cohort of male and female six and 13 week old Balb/C mice. Three-point bending outcomes were correlated with structural and compositional measures using multivariate linear regression. Woven bone composed a higher percent of young bones than older bones. However, calcified cartilage in older bones was twice that of younger bones, which was similar when normalized by area. Area and/or tissue mineral density accounted for >75% of variation for most strength outcomes. Percent calcified cartilage added significant predictive power to maximal force and bending stress. Calcified cartilage and woven bone could have more influence in genetic models where calcified cartilage percent is double

  19. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Medici a ne n s d Bone Loss Some types of medicines can cause bone loss, making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time ... old bone and replaces it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when old bone breaks down faster than ...

  20. Longitudinal in vivo evaluation of bone regeneration by combined measurement of multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Philipp S.; Metzger, Stéphanie; Kiveliö, Anna-Sofia; Blanc, Alain; Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Astolfo, Alberto; Pinzer, Bernd R.; Cinelli, Paolo; Weber, Franz E.; Schibli, Roger; Béhé, Martin; Ehrbar, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decades, great strides were made in the development of novel implants for the treatment of bone defects. The increasing versatility and complexity of these implant designs request for concurrent advances in means to assess in vivo the course of induced bone formation in preclinical models. Since its discovery, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has excelled as powerful high-resolution technique for non-invasive assessment of newly formed bone tissue. However, micro-CT fails to provide spatiotemporal information on biological processes ongoing during bone regeneration. Conversely, due to the versatile applicability and cost-effectiveness, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) would be an ideal technique for assessing such biological processes with high sensitivity and for nuclear imaging comparably high resolution (bone morphogenetic protein to guide the healing of critical sized calvarial bone defects. By combined in vivo longitudinal multi-pinhole SPECT and micro-CT evaluations we determine the spatiotemporal course of bone formation and remodeling within this synthetic hydrogel implant. End point evaluations by high resolution micro-CT and histological evaluation confirm the value of this approach to follow and optimize bone-inducing biomaterials.

  1. Osteoporosis in clinical practice – bone densitometry and fracture risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteoporosis is a condition of decreased bone mass and bone density associated with an increase in fracture risk. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur can be reliably measured by double-beam X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which provides a measure of bone strength. Reduction in BMD is a ...

  2. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yumiko; Koike, George; Numata, Makoto; Taneda, Kiyoshi; Jingu, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  3. Changes in hip bone mineral density and objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women: a 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Neil R; Tucker, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if physical activity volume (PAv) and intensity (PAi) at baseline influence the likelihood of gaining hip bone mineral density (BMD) over 6 years. In a prospective study, the sample was limited to 244 female nonsmokers, ages 35 to 45 years, and was approximately 90% white. SETTING AND MEASURES: PAv and PAi were measured in daily living conditions using accelerometers at baseline. BMD, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and several confounding factors were measured in the lab. On the basis of BMD change scores, participants were divided into three categories: BMD loss, minimal change, and BMD gain. Risk ratios were used to show the likelihood of BMD gains over time across different levels of PAv and PAi at baseline. Women with higher PAv were more likely to show improvements in hip BMD from baseline to follow-up than their counterparts, as indicated by the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square (χ(2)(mh)  =  6.1, p  =  .01). Women with high PAv were 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.19-5.24) more likely to experience hip BMD gains than women with low PAv, and women with moderate PAv were 2.20 times (95% CI, 1.08-4.45) more likely. PAi was not predictive of gains in hip BMD. Adjusting for potential confounders had little influence on the results. Middle-aged women with moderate or high levels of PAv are more likely to experience BMD gains at the hip over time compared with those who have low levels of PAv. However, PAi does not appear to influence the likelihood of gaining BMD at the hip over 6 years.

  4. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, J.S.; Dobritz, M.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Baum, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wolf, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD{sub MDCT} values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. (orig.)

  5. Bone quantitative ultrasound measurements in relation to the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort of elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulló, M; Garcia-Aloy, M; Basora, J; Covas, M I; Salas-Salvado, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether metabolic syndrome, its individual components, or the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with a better bone status estimated by quantitative ultrasound at the calcaneus. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinics. 251 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED study were included. MetS was defined according to the ATPIII diagnosis criteria. Calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment was performed using the Sahara system. Subjects with MetS showed significantly lower 24-hour urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (u-DPD/creatinine) levels and higher broadband ultrasound attenuation, and a tendency to higher bone mineral density (BMD) and quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) than their counterparts. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) showed a significantly higher bone broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and QUI than their non-diabetic counterparts, despite they shown a higher prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that quantitative ultrasound parameters were positively associated with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. Of the bone biochemical markers, only u-DPD/creatinine was related to MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia component of the MetS, and the number of features that define the MetS. This is the first study showing a positive association between MetS or T2DM with better bone status and lower bone resorption markers measured by quantitative ultrasound. Our results suggest that metabolic abnormalities have a positive effect on healthy bone in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Bone Grafting: Sourcing, Timing, Strategies, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egol, Kenneth A; Nauth, Aaron; Lee, Mark; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Watson, J Tracy; Borrelli, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Acute fractures, nonunions, and nonunions with bone defects or osteomyelitis often need bone graft to facilitate union. There are several factors to consider when it is determined that a bone graft is needed. These factors include the source of the bone graft (autograft vs. allograft), proper timing for placement of the bone graft, strategies to avoid further complications (particularly in the setting of osteomyelitis), and with the development of a variety of bone graft substitutes, whether alternatives to autograft are available and appropriate for the task at hand. Autograft bone has commonly been referred to as the "gold standard" of bone grafts, against which the efficacy of other grafts has been measured. The best timing for when to place a bone graft or substitute is also somewhat controversial, particularly after an open fracture or a potentially contaminated bed. The treatment of infected nonunions, particularly those that require a graft to facilitate healing, can be quite challenging. Typically, the infection is completely eradicated before placement of a bone graft, but achieving a sterile bed and the timing of a bone graft require strategic thinking and planning. This review outlines the benefits of autografts, the most suitable sites for harvesting bone grafts, the timing of bone graft procedures, the potential risks and benefits of grafting in the face of infection, and the currently available bone graft extenders.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  8. Effect of intraoperative bone quality testing on bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Palarie, Victor; Nacu, Viorel; Krafft, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A novel diagnostic device (BoneProbe) for evaluating alveolar bone quality during dental implant surgery has recently been developed. The underlying measurement principle is based on a compressive test of bone, which may subsequently affect bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants. Six implant sites each were created in the rear left tibia of four sheep and used for bone quality testing with the BoneProbe, while empty osteotomies and implants placed without testing served as controls. Maximum insertion torque and primary implant stability (Osstell) were determined additionally. After 5 and 20 weeks, the animals were sacrificed followed by histomorphometric and microradiographic analysis quantifying bone implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) as parameters. Statistical analysis was conducted applying one-sample t tests, two-sample t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients (α = .05). Implants placed following application of the BoneProbe differed from the control treatments only in one case, where BIC was greater (P = .02) at the control implant after 20 weeks of healing. With the exception of the combinations of Osstell/BoneProbe measurement in trabecular bone (0.29) and Osstell/insertion torque (0.34), good correlations of all clinically conducted measurements were found. Based on the results obtained, it appears that intraoperative testing of bone quality applying the BoneProbe does not jeopardize bone healing and osseointegration of dental implants.

  9. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''2 sup 4 sup 1 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    CERN Document Server

    Moraleda, M; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T

    2002-01-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in det...

  10. [Preventive bone mineral density measurement in postmenopausal women. Differentiation of treatment of recommendations Guidelines of the Umbrella Organization for Osteology ("Dachverband Osteologie")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, S; Wex, T; Adolf, D; Klose, S; Westphal, S; Amthauer, H; Halangk, W; Jahn, O; Riebau, C; Winckler, S

    2013-07-01

    Osteopenia (OP) or osteoporosis (OST) was diagnosed by bone densitometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women free of known skeletal disorders and without acute fracture. DVO guidelines were applied to define therapeutic indication. The study included 94 women aged 59-81 years. Fracture or operation ≤12 months, malignant tumor, ovariectomy, and drugs such as cortisone, strontium, fluorides, bisphosphonates, SERMs, estrogens, and steroids were exclusion criteria. The lowest T-score at the spine, femoral neck, or total hip was decisive. The indication for therapy was determined by evaluating age, BMD, and other risk factors. Using the WHO criteria 22.3% (n=21) had normal BMD, 52.1% (n=49) had OP, and 25.6% (n=24) had OST. According to "Dachverband Osteologie" (DVO) guidelines, 28 women (29.8%) of the whole group needed therapy. Of the 28 women receiving therapy, 9 had OP and 19 had OST. Therapy was indicated in 18.4% for OP and 79.2% for OST. A preventive measurement of BMD with DXA provides a benefit for postmenopausal women. Combinatory assessment and consideration of other risk factors allows identification of women who might benefit from early treatment.

  11. From bone biology to bone analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenau, E.; Saggese, G.; Peter, F.; Baroncelli, G.I.; Shaw, N.J.; Crabtree, N.J.; Zadik, Z.; Neu, C.M.; Noordam, C.; Radetti, G.; Hochberg, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has

  12. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  13. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Broken Bones KidsHealth / For Kids / Broken Bones What's in this ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  14. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  15. Breath-hold MR measurements of fat fraction, T1 , and T2 * of water and fat in vertebral bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ster, Caroline; Gambarota, Giulio; Lasbleiz, Jérémy; Guillin, Raphaël; Decaux, Olivier; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé

    2016-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of measuring the fat fraction, T1 and T2 * relaxation times of water and fat signals in vertebral bone marrow using breath-hold magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient echo images of the spine. MRI experiments were performed at 1.5T on eight healthy volunteers (35.1 ± 15.7 years, five men and three women) using two sagittal four-echo 3D gradient echo volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE Dixon) sequences acquired at two different flip angles (5° and 15°). The water/fat decomposition was performed in the vertebral bodies of L1 to L5 by fitting the signal to a function that depends on the echo time and the flip angle to calculate the fat fraction (FF) and T1 and T2 * relaxation times of water and fat signals. Repeatability was assessed by scanning one volunteer six times. The mean fat fraction over L1 to L5 was 33 ± 8%. The mean T1 and T2 * of water and fat signals were respectively T1w = 701 ± 151 msec, T2 *w = 13.7 ± 2.9 msec, T1f = 334 ± 113 msec, and T2 *f = 11.4 ± 2.7 msec. When considering each vertebra separately, the fat fraction increased from L1 to L5 and the T1w decreased from L1 to L5. The mean coefficients of variation obtained from the repeatability study were 8% (FF), 11% (T1w ), 17% (T1f ), 8% (T2 *w ), and 27% (T2 *f ). The method introduced in the current study allows for the measurement of the fat fraction and water and fat relaxation times, with a total acquisition time of less than 40 seconds. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:549-555. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  17. Bone marker gene expression in calvarial bones: different bone microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Osama

    2017-12-01

    In calvarial mice, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and then differentiate into osteoblasts that differentiate into osteocytes, which become embedded within the bone matrix. In this case, the cells participating in bone formation include MSCs, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts and osteocytes. The calvariae of C57BL/KaLwRijHsD mice consist of the following five bones: two frontal bones, two parietal bones and one interparietal bone. This study aimed to analyse some bone marker genes and bone related genes to determine whether these calvarial bones have different bone microenvironments. C57BL/KaLwRijHsD calvariae were carefully excised from five male mice that were 4-6 weeks of age. Frontal, parietal, and interparietal bones were dissected to determine the bone microenvironment in calvariae. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to determine the morphology of different calvarial bones under microscopy. TaqMan was used to analyse the relative expression of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANK, RANKL, OPG, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in different parts of the calvariae. Histological analysis demonstrated different bone marrow (BM) areas between the different parts of the calvariae. The data show that parietal bones have the smallest BM area compared to frontal and interparietal bones. TaqMan data show a significant increase in the expression level of Runx2, OC, OSX, RANKL, OPG, FGF2 and FGFR1 genes in the parietal bones compared with the frontal and interparietal bones of calvariae. This study provides evidence that different calvarial bones, frontal, parietal and interparietal, contain different bone microenvironments.

  18. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.

    1988-02-01

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  19. Sequential analysis of biochemical markers of bone resorption and bone densitometry in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Niels; Brixen, Kim; Eriksen, Erik Fink

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bone lesions often occur in multiple myeloma (MM), but no tests have proven useful in identifying patients with increased risk. Bone marker assays and bone densitometry are non-invasive methods that can be used repeatedly at low cost. This study was performed to evaluate...... 6 weeks, DEXA-scans performed every 3 months, and skeletal radiographs were done every 6 months as well as when indicated. RESULTS: Serum ICTP and urinary NTx were predictive of progressive bone events. Markers of bone formation, bone mineral density assessments, and M component measurements were...

  20. [Frontier in bone biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines

  1. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells can rescue osteogenic capacity of devitalized autologous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Morishita, Toru; Dohi, Yoshiko; Tadokoro, Mika; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takakura, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    In clinical cases, many orthopaedists have been troubled with bone fragility, such as fractures after devitalization therapy for bone tumour, pathological fractures and metastatic tumours. The aim of this study was to determine whether loss of osteogenic capacity of devitalized autologous bones can be rescued using cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. A devitalized bone model was produced from rat femur by irradiation and three groups were prepared: intact bone, irradiated bone and irradiated bone combined with cultured mesenchymal cells. Each bone was transplanted subcutaneously into a syngeneic rat. At 2 or 4 weeks after transplantation, biochemical analyses [alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression] and histological measurement were performed. Moreover, we verified the origin of newly formed bone, using the sex-determining region Y (sry) gene as a marker to distinguish between donor and recipient. In both intact bone and irradiated bone with mesenchymal cells, ALP activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression were detected and living osteoblasts together with newly formed bone were clearly seen histologically. Furthermore, analysis of the origin of de novo formed bone indicated that newly formed bone in irradiated bone with mesenchymal cells was derived from cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. These results proved that the osteogenic capacity of devitalized autologous bone can be rescued using tissue-engineering techniques. This procedure should contribute to various clinical treatments, such as local metastatic tumours, pathological fracture after devitalization therapy and reconstruction after wide-margin tumour resection. The benefits would be applicable to all types of devitalized bone. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Temporal response of bone to unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1986-02-01

    A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

  3. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  4. Estimation of in vivo cortical bone thickness using ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Hagino, Hiroshi; Miki, Takami; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    To verify the measurement of cortical bone thickness at the distal radius in vivo using an ultrasonic method. The method for estimating cortical bone thickness was derived from experiments with in vitro bovine specimens. Propagation time of echo waves and propagation time of slow waves were used for the estimation. The outside diameter of cortical bone and the cortical bone thickness at the distal 5.5 % site of radius were measured with the new ultrasonic bone measurement system, and the results were compared with X-ray pQCT clinical measurements. There was a high positive correlation (r: 0.76) between the cortical bone thickness measured by the new ultrasonic system and the X-ray pQCT results. We will be able to measure not only cancellous bone density but also cortical bone thickness in vivo using ultrasonic waves (without X-ray) safely and repeatedly.

  5. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  6. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Murine Bone In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Esmonde-White, Francis; Dooley, Kathryn A.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide valuable information about bone tissue composition in studies of bone development, biomechanics, and health. In order to study the Raman spectra of bone in vivo, instrumentation that enhances the recovery of subsurface spectra must be developed and validated. Five fiber-optic probe configurations were considered for transcutaneous bone Raman spectroscopy of small animals. Measurements were obtained from the tibia of sacrificed mice, and the bone Raman signal was...

  7. Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); F.H. de Jong (Frank); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the present cross-sectional study of 403 independently living elderly men, we tested the hypothesis that the decreases in bone mass, body composition, and muscle strength with age are related to the fall in circulating endogenous testosterone (T) and

  8. The Bt-DUX: Development of a subjective measure of health-related quality of life in patients who underwent surgery for lower extremity malignant bone tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Bekkering (Peter); T.P.M. Vliet Vlieland (Theodora); H.M. Koopman (Hendrik); G.R. Schaap (Gerard); H.W.B. Schreuder; A. Beishuizen (Auke); W.J.E. Tissing (Wim); P.M. Hoogerbrugge (Peter); J.K. Anninga (Jacob); A.H.M. Taminiau (Antonie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. To examine the practical applicability, internal consistency, and validity of the Bt-DUX, a disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) instrument. The Bt-Dux was developed to examine patients' individual values of their life after a malignant bone tumor of the

  9. A polymorphism in a gene encoding Perilipin 4 is associated with height but not with bone measures in individuals from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing interest in identifying new pathways and candidate genes that confer susceptibility to osteoporosis. There is evidence that adipogenesis and osteogenesis may be related, including a common bone marrow progenitor cell for both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1) and Pe...

  10. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  11. Guided bone regeneration using demineralized allogenic bone matrix with calcium sulfate: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Su-Gwan; Lim, Seung-Chul

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the effect of guided bone regeneration using demineralized allogenic bone matrix with calcium sulfate. Guided bone regeneration using Demineralized Allogenic Bone Matrix with Calcium Sulfate (AlloMatrix™, Wright. USA) was performed at the time of implant placement from February 2010 to April 2010. At the time of the second surgery, clinical evaluation of bone healing and histologic evaluation were performed. The study included 10 patients, and 23 implants were placed. The extent of bony defects around implants was determined by measuring the horizontal and vertical bone defects using a periodontal probe from the mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual sides and calculating the mean and standard deviation of these measurements. Wedge-shaped tissue samples were obtained from 3 patients and histologic examination was performed. In clinical evaluation, it was observed that horizontal bone defects were completely healed with new bones, and in the vertical bone defect area, 15.1% of the original defect area remained. In 3 patients, histological tests were performed, and 16.7-41.7% new bone formation was confirmed. Bone graft materials slowly underwent resorption over time. AlloMatrix™ is an allograft material that can be readily manipulated. It does not require the use of barrier membranes, and good bone regeneration can be achieved with time.

  12. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  13. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  14. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  15. A quantification strategy for missing bone mass in case of osteolytic bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Giske, Kristina; Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean

  16. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  17. Efeitos da radiação acústica na obtenção dos limiares ósseos Acoustic radiation effects on bone conduction threshold measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata das Merces Bastos de Matos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiação acústica é uma fuga da energia sonora do vibrador ósseo que pode ser detectada pela via aérea. A presença da radiação acústica poderia resultar em um limiar ósseo falso, um gap aéreo-ósseo irreal, nas frequências altas. Esse achado poderia ocorrer em pacientes sem comprometimento de orelha média e com história de doença de orelha interna, onde esse gap não é esperado. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos da radiação acústica no tamanho do gap aéreo-ósseo nas frequências de 2.000, 3.000 e 4.000 Hz. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo clínico e experimental em 101 indivíduos, com presença de gap aéreo-ósseo maior que 10 dB nas frequências de 2.000, 3.000 e/ou 4.000 Hz. Em todos participantes o limiar ósseo foi obtido nas condições: MAE aberto e fechado. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que o gap aéreo/ósseo que mais sofreu mudança foi da frequência 4.000 Hz. Houve diferença significativa na frequência de mudança de status (misto x neurossensorial; na presença e ausência de diferenças entre via óssea fechada e aberta. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo comprovou que quando o MAE é ocluído, o fenômeno da radiação acústica é controlado ou evitado, permitindo que as medidas ósseas para as frequências de 3.000 e 4.000 Hz sejam mais precisas.Acoustic radiation is the sound energy escape from a bone vibrator that may be detected by air conduction mechanisms. The presence of acoustic radiation may result in an unreal bone conduction threshold, promoting an unreal air/bone gap in the high frequencies. AIM: aim to analyze the acoustic radiation effect on the extension of air/bone gap at 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 Hz. MATERIALS AND METHOD: our clinical and experimental study had a sample of 101 individuals, who matched inclusion criteria: to have an air/bone gap higher than 10 dB in the frequencies of 2,000; 3,000 and 4,000 Hz. All of them had their bone conduction threshold measured in two conditions: open ear canal and

  18. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician

  19. Suppressed bone remodeling in black bears conserves energy and bone mass during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Buckendahl, Patricia; Carpenter, Caren; Henriksen, Kim; Vaughan, Michael; Donahue, Seth

    2015-07-01

    Decreased physical activity in mammals increases bone turnover and uncouples bone formation from bone resorption, leading to hypercalcemia, hypercalcuria, bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears, however, are physically inactive for up to 6 months annually during hibernation without losing cortical or trabecular bone mass. Bears have been shown to preserve trabecular bone volume and architectural parameters and cortical bone strength, porosity and geometrical properties during hibernation. The mechanisms that prevent disuse osteoporosis in bears are unclear as previous studies using histological and serum markers of bone remodeling show conflicting results. However, previous studies used serum markers of bone remodeling that are known to accumulate with decreased renal function, which bears have during hibernation. Therefore, we measured serum bone remodeling markers (BSALP and TRACP) that do not accumulate with decreased renal function, in addition to the concentrations of serum calcium and hormones involved in regulating bone remodeling in hibernating and active bears. Bone resorption and formation markers were decreased during hibernation compared with when bears were physically active, and these findings were supported by histomorphometric analyses of bone biopsies. The serum concentration of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), a hormone known to reduce bone resorption, was 15-fold higher during hibernation. Serum calcium concentration was unchanged between hibernation and non-hibernation seasons. Suppressed and balanced bone resorption and formation in hibernating bears contributes to energy conservation, eucalcemia and the preservation of bone mass and strength, allowing bears to survive prolonged periods of extreme environmental conditions, nutritional deprivation and anuria. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Repair of microdamage in osteonal cortical bone adjacent to bone screw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Up to date, little is known about the repair mode of microdamage in osteonal cortical bone resulting from bone screw implantation. In this study, self-tapping titanium cortical bone screws were inserted into the tibial diaphyses of 24 adult male rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at 1 day, 2 weeks, 1 month and 2 months after surgery. Histomorphometric measurement and confocal microscopy were performed on basic fuchsin stained bone sections to examine the morphological characteristics of microdamage, bone resorption activity and spatial relationship between microdamage and bone resorption. Diffuse and linear cracks were coexisted in peri-screw bone. Intracortical bone resorption was significantly increased 2 weeks after screw installation and reach to the maximum at 1 month. There was no significant difference in bone resorption between 1-month and 2-months groups. Microdamage was significantly decreased within 1 month after surgery. Bone resorption was predisposed to occur in the region of <100 µm from the bone-screw interface, where had extensive diffuse damage mixed with linear cracks. Different patterns of resorption cavities appeared in peri-screw bone. These data suggest that 1 the complex microdamage composed of diffuse damage and linear cracks is a strong stimulator for initiating targeted bone remodeling; 2 bone resorption activities taking place on the surfaces of differently oriented Haversian and Volkmann canals work in a team for the repair of extensive microdamage; 3 targeted bone remodeling is a short-term reaction to microdamage and thereby it may not be able to remove all microdamage resulting from bone screw insertion.

  1. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  2. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  3. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  4. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  5. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  6. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay G?ne?, Asl?; Alika?ifo?lu, M?jgan; ?en Demird??en, Ezgi; Ergin?z, Ethem; Demir, T?rkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured...

  7. Measurement of bone mineral density in the tunnel regions for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan, and the immersion technique based on Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xin; Chen, Liaobin

    2012-10-01

    To determine, for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, whether the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral tunnel was higher than that of the tibial tunnel, to provide objective evidence for choosing the appropriate diameter of interference screws. Two groups were enrolled. One group comprised 30 normal volunteers, and the other comprised 9 patients with ACL rupture. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions of the volunteers' right knees by choosing a circular area covering the screw fixation region. The knees were also scanned by spiral computed tomography (CT), and the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique was used to determine the circular sections passing through the longitudinal axis of the femoral and tibial tunnels. Grayscale CT values of the cross-sectional area were measured. Cylindrical cancellous bone blocks were removed from the femoral and tibial tunnels during the ACL reconstruction for the patients. The volumetric BMD of the bone blocks was measured using a standardized immersion technique according to Archimedes' principle. As measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the BMD of the femoral and tibial tunnel regions was 1.162 ± 0.034 g/cm(2) and 0.814 ± 0.038 g/cm(2), respectively (P < .01). The CT value of the femoral tunnel region was 211.7 ± 11.5 Hounsfield units, and the value of the tibial tunnel region was 104.9 ± 7.4 Hounsfield units (P < .01). The volumetric BMD of the bone block from the femoral tunnel (2.80 ± 0.88 g/cm(3)) was higher than the value from the tibial tunnel (1.88 ± 0.59 g/cm(3)) (P < .01). Comparing the data between male and female patients, we found no significant difference in both femoral and tibial tunnel regions. For ACL reconstruction, the BMD of the femoral tunnel is higher than that of the tibial tunnel. This implies that a proportionally larger-diameter interference screw should be used for fixation in the proximal tibia than that

  8. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Belinda A., E-mail: Belinda.Campbell@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Simoens, Nathalie [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Everitt, Sarah [Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Burbury, Kate [Department of Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  9. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  10. Three-Dimensional Virtual Bone Bank System Workflow for Structural Bone Allograft Selection: A Technical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Eduardo Ritacco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural bone allograft has been used in bone defect reconstruction during the last fifty years with acceptable results. However, allograft selection methods were based on 2-dimensional templates using X-rays. Thanks to preoperative planning platforms, three-dimensional (3D CT-derived bone models were used to define size and shape comparison between host and donor. The purpose of this study was to describe the workflow of this virtual technique in order to explain how to choose the best allograft using a virtual bone bank system. We measured all bones in a 3D virtual environment determining the best match. The use of a virtual bone bank system has allowed optimizing the allograft selection in a bone bank, providing more information to the surgeons before surgery. In conclusion, 3D preoperative planning in a virtual environment for allograft selection is an important and helpful tool in order to achieve a good match between host and donor.

  11. Effects of food enriched with egg yolk hydrolysate (bone peptide) on bone metabolism in orchidectomized dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; WATANABE, Arisa; INO, Arisa; WATABE, Kazuya; KIM, Mujo; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of chicken egg hydrolysate (also known as “bone peptide” or BP) on bone metabolism in 5- to 8-month-old orchidectomized dogs. The bone formation marker serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the bone resorption marker urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were used as indicators to measure changes in bone metabolism. The following results were observed that Serum BAP was higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food throughout the clinical investigation. Serum BAP was statistically significantly higher in dogs fed BP-enriched food than in dogs fed non-BP-enriched food at 2 months after orchidectomy. This suggests that BP promoted bone formation immediately after orchidectomy. PMID:25649521

  12. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  13. Tissue distribution and measurement of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in patients with magnetic resonance imaging-detected bone bruises after acute anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, C; Johnson, D; Leslie, M P; Carlson, C S; Robbins, M; Di Cesare, P E

    2001-07-01

    Histologic and immunostaining analyses were performed on articular cartilage/subchondral bone biopsy specimens overlying MRI-detected bone bruises in 12 patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Staining with toluidine blue for proteoglycan revealed loss of staining from the superficial portion of the articular cartilage. Immunostaining for cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) showed an increased staining in the superficial matrix of the articular cartilage. Using polyclonal antisera against COMP, the authors performed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synovial fluid from the injured and uninjured knees. There was an approximately 10-fold higher synovial fluid COMP levels in injured knees. The COMP levels were greater in those patients who had synovial fluid samples harvested closer to the date of initial injury. Western blot analysis of the synovial fluid showed an increased presence of COMP degradation fragments from injured knees. These results are indicative of a significant injury to the articular cartilage, and may represent preclinical posttraumatic osteoarthritic lesions.

  14. A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairunyar Nakavachara

    Full Text Available Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1 to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone area (BA and lean body mass (LBM for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy and 2 to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB, BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine, BMC (L2-4 and total body, BA (L2-4 and total body and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls. All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.

  15. [Clinical usefulness of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shozo

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a state of elevated risk for bone fracture due to depressed bone strength, which is considered to be the sum of bone mineral density and bone quality. Since a measure of bone quality has not been established, bone mineral density and bone turnover markers are the only way to evaluate bone strength. Bone turnover markers are classified into bone formation marker and resorption marker, which are correlated with the bone formation rate and resorption rate, respectively, and bone matrix-related marker. Bone is always metabolized; old tissue is resorbed by acids and proteases derived from osteoclasts, whereas new bone is produced by osteoblasts. Bone formation and resorption rates should be balanced (also called coupled). When the bone resorption rate exceeds the formation rate(uncoupled state), bone volume will be reduced. Thus, we can comprehend bone metabolism by measuring both formation and resorption markers at the same time. Increased fracture risk is recognized by elevated bone resorption markers and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, which reflects vitamin K insufficiency and bone turnover. These values and the time course give us helpful information to choose medicine suitable for the patients and to judge the responsiveness. If the value is extraordinarily high without renal failure, metabolic bone disorder or bone metastatic tumor should be considered. Bone quality may be assessed by measuring bone matrix-related markers such as homocystein and pentosidine. Since recent studies indicate that the bone is a hormone-producing organ, it is possible that glucose metabolism or an unknown mechanism could be assessed in the future.

  16. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells. In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, wingless-type (Wnt genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX.

  17. Bone disease in hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L

    2014-07-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is responsible for the majority of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Bone disease occurs in hypoparathyroidism due to markedly reduced bone remodeling due to the absence or low levels of parathyroid hormone. Chronically reduced bone turnover in patients with hypoparathyroidism typically leads to higher bone mass than in age- and sex-matched controls. Whether this increased bone density reduces fracture risk is less certain, because while increased bone mineralization may be associated with increased brittleness of bone, this does not appear to be the case in hypoparathyroidism. Treatment of hypoparathyroidism with recombinant parathyroid hormone may reduce bone mineral density but simultaneously strengthen the mechanical properties of bone.

  18. Lack of influence of simple premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lind, C; Nilas, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed on 69 women who had premenopausal hysterectomy and 427 women with natural menopause 50 to 59 years old. Bone mineral density was measured...... in the distal forearm by single-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition and bone mineral density in the anteroposterior spine, proximal femur, and total body was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover was determined by plasma osteocalcin, serum alkaline phosphatase, and fasting...... urinary calcium corrected for creatinine excretion. RESULTS: Women who had undergone premenopausal hysterectomy had similar bone mineral densities compared with women with an intact uterus in all compartments, apart from a 6% to 11% higher bone mineral density (p

  19. Bone-Immune Cell Crosstalk: Bone Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases are associated with great morbidity; thus, the understanding of the mechanisms leading to their development represents a great challenge to improve bone health. Recent reports suggest that a large number of molecules produced by immune cells affect bone cell activity. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. This review aims to shed new lights into the mechanisms of bone diseases involving immune cells. In particular, we focused our attention on the major pathogenic mechanism underlying periodontal disease, psoriatic arthritis, postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, metastatic solid tumors, and multiple myeloma.

  20. Bone Research at NASA: Career Pathway to the Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document is comprised of two presentations about Bone Research at NASA. The first document has slides that show the percent of bone loss from specific bones as demonstrated from research of the Mir cosmonauts, and the required preflight and postflight BMD measurements for long duration flights. The second presentation entitled "Recovery of Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Bone Mineral Density after Long-duration Missions as Fitted with an Exponential Function" reviews the recovery of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) after long duration missions. Between 1990 and 2004, 56 missions were flown with 45 crewmembers for an average of 181 days +/- 47 days. For each of these flights the change in BMD was calculated after the flight. The BMD changes were plotted against the number of days for bone recovery after the landing. The plots for the bones that were measured are shown.

  1. Effects of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis on Cefuroxime Bone Pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bue, Mats; Koch, Janne

    2016-01-01

    penetration into bone.  Methods: Implant-associated osteomyelitis using a Staphylococcus aureus strain was induced in the right tibia in ten pigs. After five days and following administration of 1500 mg of cefuroxime, measurements of cefuroxime were obtained using microdialysis for eight hours in the implant......-related bone cavity, in the adjacent infected cancellous bone and infected subcutaneous tissue, and in healthy cancellous bone and subcutaneous tissue in the contralateral leg. Measurements of the corresponding free plasma concentrations were also obtained. The extent of the infection was assessed...... by postmortem computed tomography (CT) scans and cultures of blood, swabs, and bone specimens.  Results: Bone destruction was found in the implant cavities. No structural bone changes in the adjacent infected cancellous bone were visible on CT scans. S. aureus was grown on culture of specimens from all implant...

  2. Densitometry test of bone tissue: valiadation of computer simulation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkowski, M.; Tanck, E.; Barink, M.; Oyen, W.J.; Wrobel, Z.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Bone densitometry measurements are performed to predict the fracture risk in bones. However, the sensitivity of these predictions are not satisfactory. One of the explanations is that densitometry ignores the (architectural) structural aspects of the bone. The effects of varying architectural

  3. Densitometry test of bone tissue: validation of computer simulation studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkowski, M.; Tanck, E.; Barink, M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Wrobel, Z.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Bone densitometry measurements are performed to predict the fracture risk in bones. However, the sensitivity of these predictions are not satisfactory. One of the explanations is that densitometry ignores the (architectural) structural aspects of the bone. The effects of varying architectural

  4. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy of murine bone in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Cole, Jacqueline H; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Esmonde-White, Francis; Dooley, Kathryn A; Goldstein, Steven A; Morris, Michael D

    2009-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide valuable information about bone tissue composition in studies of bone development, biomechanics, and health. In order to study the Raman spectra of bone in vivo, instrumentation that enhances the recovery of subsurface spectra must be developed and validated. Five fiber-optic probe configurations were considered for transcutaneous bone Raman spectroscopy of small animals. Measurements were obtained from the tibia of sacrificed mice, and the bone Raman signal was recovered for each probe configuration. The configuration with the optimal combination of bone signal intensity, signal variance, and power distribution was then evaluated under in vivo conditions. Multiple in vivo transcutaneous measurements were obtained from the left tibia of 32 anesthetized mice. After collecting the transcutaneous Raman signal, exposed bone measurements were collected and used as a validation reference. Multivariate analysis was used to recover bone spectra from transcutaneous measurements. To assess the validity of the transcutaneous bone measurements cross-correlations were calculated between standardized spectra from the recovered bone signal and the exposed bone measurements. Additionally, the carbonate-to-phosphate height ratios of the recovered bone signals were compared to the reference exposed bone measurements. The mean cross-correlation coefficient between the recovered and exposed measurements was 0.96, and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios did not differ significantly between the two sets of spectra (p > 0.05). During these first systematic in vivo Raman measurements, we discovered that probe alignment and animal coat color influenced the results and thus should be considered in future probe and study designs. Nevertheless, our noninvasive Raman spectroscopic probe accurately assessed bone tissue composition through the skin in live mice.

  5. Appliance-induced osteopenia of dentoalveolar bone in the rat: effect of reduced bone strains on serum bone markers and the multifunctional hormone leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Jayaseelan K; Patel, Kaval J; Lih, Wei-Song; Seow, Yian-San; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

    2013-12-01

    To understand, in greater detail, the molecular mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between mechanical strain and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic treatment, passive cross-arch palatal springs were bonded to the maxillary molars of 6-wk-old rats, which were killed after 4 and 8 d. Outcome measures included serum assays for markers of bone formation and resorption and for the multifunctional hormone leptin, and histomorphometry of the inter-radicular bone. The concentration of the bone-formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly reduced at both time points in the appliance group, accompanied by a 50% reduction in inter-radicular bone volume; however, osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) levels remained unaffected. Bone collagen deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks increased 2.3-fold at 4 d only, indicating a transient increase in bone resorption; in contrast, the level of the osteoclast-specific marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), was unchanged. Leptin levels closely paralleled ALP reductions at both time points, suggesting an important role in the mechanostat negative-feedback loop required to normalize bone mass. These data suggest that an orthodontic appliance, in addition to remodeling the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface, may exert unexpected side-effects on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone, and highlights the importance of recognizing that bone strains can have negative, as well as positive, effects on bone mass. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. Abaloparatide, a novel PTH receptor agonist, increased bone mass and strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys by increasing bone formation without increasing bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, N; Varela, A; Haile, S; Guldberg, R; Kostenuik, P J; Ominsky, M S; Smith, S Y; Hattersley, G

    2018-03-01

    Abaloparatide, a novel PTH1 receptor agonist, increased bone formation in osteopenic ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys while increasing cortical and trabecular bone mass. Abaloparatide increased bone strength and maintained or enhanced bone mass-strength relationships, indicating preserved or improved bone quality. Abaloparatide is a selective PTH1R activator that is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of 16 months of abaloparatide administration on bone formation, resorption, density, and strength were assessed in adult ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). Sixty-five 9-18-year-old female cynos underwent OVX surgery, and 15 similar cynos underwent sham surgery. After a 9-month period without treatments, OVX cynos were allocated to four groups that received 16 months of daily s.c. injections with either vehicle (n = 17) or abaloparatide (0.2, 1, or 5 μg/kg/day; n = 16/dose level), while Sham controls received s.c. vehicle (n = 15). Bone densitometry (DXA, pQCT, micro-CT), qualitative bone histology, serum calcium, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometry, and bone strength were among the key measures assessed. At the end of the 9-month post-surgical bone depletion period, just prior to the treatment phase, the OVX groups exhibited increased bone turnover markers and decreased bone mass compared with sham controls. Abaloparatide administration to OVX cynos led to increased bone formation parameters, including serum P1NP and endocortical bone formation rate. Abaloparatide administration did not influence serum calcium levels, bone resorption markers, cortical porosity, or eroded surfaces. Abaloparatide increased bone mass at the whole body, lumbar spine, tibial diaphysis, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. Abaloparatide administration was associated with greater lumbar vertebral strength, and had no adverse effects on bone mass-strength relationships for the vertebrae, femoral neck, femoral

  7. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  8. Effect of Isokinetic Strength Training and Deconditioning on Bone Stiffness, Bone Density and Bone Turnover in Military-Aged Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, William

    2001-01-01

    ...) subgroups, based on whole body bone density measurements. Subjects then are randomly assigned within NBD and LBD subgroups for concentric (n = 30 LBD, a = 30 NBD) and eccentric (n = 30 LBD, n = 30 NBD) exercise training...

  9. Macrophages and bone inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone metabolism is tightly regulated by the immune system. Accelerated bone destruction is observed in many bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, and particle-induced osteolysis. These pathological conditions are associated with inflammatory responses, suggesting the contribution of inflammation to bone destruction. Macrophages are heterogeneous immune cells and are polarized into the proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 phenotypes in different microenvironments. The cytokines produced by macrophages depend on the macrophage activation and polarization. Macrophages and macrophage-derived cytokines are important to bone loss in inflammatory bone disease. Recent studies have shown that macrophages can be detected in bone tissue and interact with bone cells. The interplay between macrophages and bone cells is critical to bone formation and repair. In this article, we focus on the role of macrophages in inflammatory bone diseases, as well as discuss the latest studies about macrophages and bone formation, which will provide new insights into the therapeutic strategy for bone disease.

  10. Comparison and cross-calibration of DXA systems: ODX-240 and Sophos L-XRA versus Hologic QDR-4500, for spinal bone mineral measurement. Translation of a reference database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, A; Sabatier, J P

    1998-01-01

    Replacement of dual-energy X-ray densitometry equipment may be necessary in time as a result of upgrading systems or new equipment. The lack of standardization in bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is known. Standardization efforts have been made for several years by the European Union under its organization COMAC-BME (Comité d'Actions Concertés-BioMedical Engineering) and by the International Committee for Standards in Bone Measurement. Cross-calibration is generally considered to be the result of linear regression between the measurements obtained with two densitometers. A major disadvantage of the regression method is the noncompatibility of the two formulae of calibration (Y versus X and X versus Y). In this study we considered cross-calibration in terms of a structural model that produced circular equations when, for example, three systems were cross-calibrated. Cross-calibration in this study was calculated from the measurement of the lumbar BMD of a population of 204 patients, with Hologic QDR-4500, ODX-240 and Sophos L-XRA systems. In vitro accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the three systems were studied. Using the structural calibration equation we transformed a reference database for L2-4 BMD obtained from a population of 983 French females, aged 11-47 years, on an ODX-240 to a reference database for a Hologic QDR-4500. A new young adult reference was obtained and consequently a new evaluation of the T-score for the Hologic QDR-4500.

  11. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paker N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most DXA (dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry manufacturers are not able to provide specific reference values for their equipment yet. The mean bone mineral density can vary among different populations.The aim of this study was to identify local reference values from a group of Turkish women living in Istanbul, in order to compare with the results obtained from other countries. We measured BMD at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, forearm, and total body in 205 healthy women between ages 20–79. They are all residents in Istanbul. Bone mineral density measurement was performed by DXA equipment. All measurements were made by an experienced technician in our hospital, using the same DXA equipment. Subjects enrolled in the study also filled in a questionnaire before the test.The mean age at menopause was 46.29 (± 14.28 years. Peak bone mineral density values were obtained in the 20–39 year age group when measured at the ultradistal radius, however, peak values were in the 30–39 age group when measurements were made at other sites. The number of women who had bone loss was higher with the forearm measurements compared to measurements made from the spine and femur. Bone mineral density values measured from the spine, hip, and forearm in our study group were lower than the values from American and European women, on the other hand, total body bone mineral density values from our group were higher than the values reported from western countries. Bone mass from different populations varies due to genetic and geographical factors. We, therefore, suggest that each country should use their localized reference values for bone mineral density measurement.

  13. Bone mass in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen-Hansen, E.; Hove, B.; Andresen, J.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1987-01-01

    Bone loss was evaluated in 118 patients with rheumatoid arthritis by measurement of the total width and marrow cavity of the second metacarpal bone. Both in men and women a significant increase in width of the medullary cavity could be demonstrated, probably due to bone loss at the endosteal surface. Although a certain increase in the total width of the second metacarpal bone took place in men but not in women, combined cortical thickness and metacarpal bone mass decreased significantly. There was no significant difference in the values in patients on gold treatment and in patients without systemic treatment, while patients treated with steroids demonstrated a significantly greater loss of endosteal bone compared to the other two groups. Some correlation was found between the severity of joint involvement and the measured loss of cortical bone. In summary, the study shows that bone loss takes place in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, being most pronounced in steroid-treated patients, in postmenopausal women, and in patients with more severe joint involvement. (orig.)

  14. The Changes of Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BsALP)Associated With Callus Formation and Rate of Bone Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Muljačić, Ante; Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Turčić, Josip; Živković, Ognjen; Guberina, Marko; Klaić, Boris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the volume of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BsALP) as a biochemical parameter in the early posttraumatic phase may indicate the speed of fracture healing. The evaluation of the bone healing process has been based on the patient's subjective statement and radiographic findings. The activity of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase has been measured in the sera of 41 patients who have been diagnosed with fractures of long bones. All th...

  15. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  16. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  17. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Although pluridirectional tomography had been the standard method to evaluate the temporal bone, computed tomography has replaced it for nearly all applications. Magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate nonosseous temporal bone structures as well

  18. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  19. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  20. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paula FJA, Black DM, Rosen CJ. Osteoporosis and bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, De Groot ...

  1. Microtomographic imaging in the process of bone modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralph

    1999-09-01

    Micro-computed tomography ((mu) CT) is an emerging technique to nondestructively image and quantify trabecular bone in three dimensions. Where the early implementations of (mu) CT focused more on technical aspects of the systems and required equipment not normally available to the general public, a more recent development emphasized practical aspects of micro- tomographic imaging. That system is based on a compact fan- beam type of tomograph, also referred to as desktop (mu) CT. Desk-top (mu) CT has been used extensively for the investigation of osteoporosis related health problems gaining new insight into the organization of trabecular bone and the influence of osteoporotic bone loss on bone architecture and the competence of bone. Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by excessive bone loss and deterioration in bone architecture. The reduced quality of bone increases the risk of fracture. Current imaging technologies do not allow accurate in vivo measurements of bone structure over several decades or the investigation of the local remodeling stimuli at the tissue level. Therefore, computer simulations and new experimental modeling procedures are necessary for determining the long-term effects of age, menopause, and osteoporosis on bone. Microstructural bone models allow us to study not only the effects of osteoporosis on the skeleton but also to assess and monitor the effectiveness of new treatment regimens. The basis for such approaches are realistic models of bone and a sound understanding of the underlying biological and mechanical processes in bone physiology. In this article, strategies for new approaches to bone modeling and simulation in the study and treatment of osteoporosis and age-related bone loss are presented. The focus is on the bioengineering and imaging aspects of osteoporosis research. With the introduction of desk-top (mu) CT, a new generation of imaging instruments has entered the arena allowing easy and relatively inexpensive access to

  2. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  3. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound-bone mineral density (QUS-BMD value for evaluating bone metabolism and bone turnover in patients with osteoporotic fracture. Methods: A total of 150 patients who were diagnosed with osteoporotic fracture in Nuclear Industry 417 Hospital between January 2010 and March 2017 were selected as the fracture group of the research, and 70 subjects with normal bone mineral density confirmed by physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group of the research. QUSBMD apparatus was used to measure bone mineral density of calcaneus, and the serum was collected to determine the biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone turnover. Results: QUS-BMD value as well as serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of fracture group was significantly lower than those of control group while serum TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those of subjects with normal bone mass while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of subjects with normal bone mass; serum BALP, OC, OPG levels of patients with osteoporosis was significantly lower than those of patients with osteoporosis while TRACP5b, RANKL, PINP, PICP, CTX and NTX levels were significantly higher than those of patients with osteoporosis. Conclusion: Calcaneal QUS-BMD is valuable for evaluating the bone metabolism activity and bone turnover process in patients with osteoporotic fracture.

  4. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengwei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Lidong; Du, Guangyu; Sun, Chuanxiu; Sun, Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo . Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz) were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 α were measured. Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 α were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Low frequency (25-50 Hz) vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  5. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo. Materials and Methods:Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 a were measured. Results:Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 a were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Conclusion:Low frequency (25–50 Hz vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  6. [Artificial bone substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koníček, Petr

    Bone tissue substitutes are divided into basic classification with its pros and cons described. Arteficial bone grafts are especially pointed out in article, publishing our own experience with two specific synthetic preps. Finally there is a blink in the near future of bone tissue augmentation.

  7. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When encountering a radiologically benign lucent bone lesion in a child, a simple bone cyst is a reasonable diagnostic consideration. Simple or unicameral bone cysts are expansile, serous-fluid-containing defects, that are not true neoplasms. Peak age ranges between 3 and 14 years in. 80% of cases. The incidence is ...

  8. Differential response of risedronate on tibial and mandibular bone quality in glucocorticoid-treated growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    Glucocorticoids induce bone loss and retard bone growth in children. In this study we investigated the effect of treatment with risedronate on glucocorticoid -prednisolone-induced decreases in bone density, quality, strength and growth of the tibia and mandible in growing rats. Trabecular and cortical bone structure was measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and three-dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Indicators of bone strength were calculated from cortical bone density and the modulus of sections obtained from pQCT analysis. Tibial and mandibular bone sizes were also measured. Prednisolone decreased the bone growth of both tibia and mandible. It also caused deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone structure and strength in the mandible, and in cortical bone in the tibia, but had no effect on trabecular bone in the tibia. Risedronate inhibited the prednisolone-induced decreases in tibial width and mandibular length and height but did not improve the retardation of longitudinal bone growth. Risedronate prevented prednisolone-induced deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone architecture. In the mandible, this protective effect of risedronate was accompanied by an increase in cortical bone density and in bone strength. These findings show that risedronate inhibits prednisolone-induced loss of bone density, structure, decrease in bone strength, and retardation of bone growth in the mandible in young growing rats. (author)

  9. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    and after 12 months whereas physical activity and dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D were assessed at baseline. Serum (S) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), S-osteocalcin, S-parathyroid hormone, S-calcium, S-inorganic phosphate, urinary (U) pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxpyridinoline (Dpyr) were measured......Introduction: A high peak bone mass may be essential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis later in life and a sufficient vitamin D level during puberty may be necessary for optimal bone accretion and obtaining a high peak bone mass. Dietary intake and synthesis during winter of vitamin D might...... be limited but the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adolescence on bone mass is not well established. Objective: To investigate the effect of supplementation with 5 and 10 mu g/day vitamin D-3 for 12 months in 11- to 12-year-old girls on bone mass and bone turnover as well as the possible influence...

  10. Lack of influence of simple premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lind, C; Nilas, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed on 69 women who had premenopausal hysterectomy and 427 women with natural menopause 50 to 59 years old. Bone mineral density was measured in the ...

  11. A simple method of screening for metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, R.B.K.; Evans, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to find a simple method -to be used as an adjunct to the conventional bone scintigram- that could differentiate between decreased bone metabolism or mass, i.e., osteoporosis -normal bone- and the group of conditions of increased bone metabolism or mass namely, osteomalacia, renal osteodystrophy, hyperparathyroidism and Paget's disease. The Fogelman's method using the bone to soft tissue ratios from region of interest analysis at 4 hours post injection, was adopted. An initial experience in measuring a value for the count rate density in lumbar vertebrae at 1 hr post injection during conventional bone scintigraphy appears to give a clear indication of the overall rate of bone metabolism. The advantage over whole body retention methods is that the scan performed at the end of the metabolic study will reveal localized bone disease that may otherwise not be anticipated

  12. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  13. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Greater association of peak neuromuscular performance with cortical bone geometry, bone mass and bone strength than bone density: A study in 417 older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Blenk, Tilo; Bock, Oliver; Börst, Hendrikje; Kocakaya, Emine; Luhn, Franziska; Rantalainen, Timo; Rawer, Rainer; Tomasius, Frederike; Willnecker, Johannes; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated which aspects of neuromuscular performance are associated with bone mass, density, strength and geometry. 417 women aged 60-94years were examined. Countermovement jump, sit-to-stand test, grip strength, forearm and calf muscle cross-sectional area, areal bone mineral content and density (aBMC and aBMD) at the hip and lumbar spine via dual X-ray absorptiometry, and measures of volumetric vBMC and vBMD, bone geometry and section modulus at 4% and 66% of radius length and 4%, 38% and 66% of tibia length via peripheral quantitative computed tomography were performed. The first principal component of the neuromuscular variables was calculated to generate a summary neuromuscular variable. Percentage of total variance in bone parameters explained by the neuromuscular parameters was calculated. Step-wise regression was also performed. At all pQCT bone sites (radius, ulna, tibia, fibula), a greater percentage of total variance in measures of bone mass, cortical geometry and/or bone strength was explained by peak neuromuscular performance than for vBMD. Sit-to-stand performance did not relate strongly to bone parameters. No obvious differential in the explanatory power of neuromuscular performance was seen for DXA aBMC versus aBMD. In step-wise regression, bone mass, cortical morphology, and/or strength remained significant in relation to the first principal component of the neuromuscular variables. In no case was vBMD positively related to neuromuscular performance in the final step-wise regression models. Peak neuromuscular performance has a stronger relationship with leg and forearm bone mass and cortical geometry as well as proximal forearm section modulus than with vBMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a clinical prediction algorithm for knee osteoarthritis structural progression in a cohort study: value of adding measurement of subchondral bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, Michael P; Lo, Grace H; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Eaton, Charles B; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2017-05-16

    Risk prediction algorithms increase understanding of which patients are at greatest risk of a harmful outcome. Our goal was to create a clinically useful prediction algorithm for structural progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), using medial joint space loss as a proxy; and to quantify the benefit of including periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) in the algorithm. Participants were from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) Progression Cohort, with X-ray readings of medial joint space at 36- and 48-month visits, and a 30- or 36-month medial-to-lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD ratio) value. Loss of medial joint space was the outcome and clinically available factors associated with OA progression were employed in the base prediction algorithm, with M:L BMD ratio added to an enhanced prediction algorithm. The benefit of adding M:L BMD ratio was evaluated by change in area under the ROC curve (AUC), net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Five hundred thirty-three participants were included; 51 (14%) had medial joint space loss; 47% were female; the mean (SD) age was 64.6 (9.2) years and BMI was 29.6 (4.8) kg/m 2 . The base algorithm model included age, BMI, gender, recent injury, knee pain, and hand OA as predictors and had an AUC value of 0.65. The algorithm adding M:L BMD ratio had an AUC value of 0.73, and the AUC, NRI and IDI were all significantly improved (p ≤ 0.002). This clinical prediction algorithm predicts structural progression in individuals with OA using only clinically available predictors supplemented by the M:L BMD ratio, a biomarker that could be made available at clinical sites.

  16. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doube

    Full Text Available Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry.Computed tomographic (CT images (16435 slices in 116 stacks were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus to tiger (Panthera tigris. Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft.Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  17. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid limb bone allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doube, Michael; Wiktorowicz-Conroy, Alexis; Conroy, Alexis Wiktorowicz; Christiansen, Per; Hutchinson, John R; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Studies of bone allometry typically use simple measurements taken in a small number of locations per bone; often the midshaft diameter or joint surface area is compared to body mass or bone length. However, bones must fulfil multiple roles simultaneously with minimum cost to the animal while meeting the structural requirements imposed by behaviour and locomotion, and not exceeding its capacity for adaptation and repair. We use entire bone volumes from the forelimbs and hindlimbs of Felidae (cats) to investigate regional complexities in bone allometry. Computed tomographic (CT) images (16435 slices in 116 stacks) were made of 9 limb bones from each of 13 individuals of 9 feline species ranging in size from domestic cat (Felis catus) to tiger (Panthera tigris). Eleven geometric parameters were calculated for every CT slice and scaling exponents calculated at 5% increments along the entire length of each bone. Three-dimensional moments of inertia were calculated for each bone volume, and spherical radii were measured in the glenoid cavity, humeral head and femoral head. Allometry of the midshaft, moments of inertia and joint radii were determined. Allometry was highly variable and related to local bone function, with joint surfaces and muscle attachment sites generally showing stronger positive allometry than the midshaft. Examining whole bones revealed that bone allometry is strongly affected by regional variations in bone function, presumably through mechanical effects on bone modelling. Bone's phenotypic plasticity may be an advantage during rapid evolutionary divergence by allowing exploitation of the full size range that a morphotype can occupy. Felids show bone allometry rather than postural change across their size range, unlike similar-sized animals.

  18. The biomechanical basis of bone strength development during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontulainen, Saija A; Hughes, Julie M; Macdonald, Heather M; Johnston, James D

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the development of the material composition and structure of bone during growth, both key determinants of bone strength, and identifying factors that regulate the development of these properties are important for developing effective lifestyle interventions to optimize peak bone strength. New imaging technologies provide the ability to measure estimates of both the material composition and structure of bone, and thus, estimates of whole bone strength. During childhood and adolescence, bone structure is altered by growth in length and width, which is associated with increases in mass, and alterations in tissue density. These processes lead to a bone with an optimal size, shape, and architecture to withstand the normal physiological loads imposed on it. Longitudinal bone growth is the result of endochondral ossification, a process that continues throughout childhood and rapidly increases during the adolescent growth spurt. Along the shaft, long bones continually grow in width, thus improving the resistance to bending forces by depositing new bone on the periosteal surface with simultaneous resorption on the endocortical surface. Sexual dimorphism in periosteal bone formation and endosteal bone resorption result in sex-specific differences in adult bone conformation. Changes in linear and periosteal growth are closely tied to changes in bone mass, with approximately one quarter of adult total body bone mineral accrued during the 2 years around the adolescent growth spurt. These structural and material changes are under mechanical regulation and influenced by the hormonal environment. Overall, bones must continually adapt their geometry and mass to withstand loads from increases in bone length, muscle mass and external forces during growth. However, the tempo, timing, and extent of such adaptations are also closely regulated by several systemic hormones.

  19. Low Bone Mineral Mass Is Associated with Decreased Bone Formation and Diet in Females with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Barrish, Judy O.; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize biomarkers of bone turnover and their relation with bone mineral mass in a cross-sectional cohort of females with Rett syndrome (RTT) and to examine the role of dietary, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors on bone mineral mass and bone biomarkers in this disorder. Methods Total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary nutrient intakes were determined from 3-day food records. Biomarkers of bone turnover, bone metabolites, vitamin D metabolites, hormones, and inflammatory markers were measured by standard clinical laboratory methods. Results Serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and C-telopeptide showed significant inverse relations with age in the RTT cohort. Mean osteocalcin concentrations were significantly lower and mean bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly higher for individual age groups in the RTT cohort than mean values for their respective age ranges in the reference population. Significant inverse associations were identified between urinary calcium losses, expressed as calcium:creatinine ratios, and total body BMC and BMD z-scores. Dietary protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes, expressed as a proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes for age and gender, showed significant positive associations with total body BMD z-scores. Conclusion This study suggests decreased bone formation rather than increased bone resorption may explain in part the deficits in bone mineral mass in RTT and that attention to the adequacy of dietary protein, calcium and phosphorus intakes may offer an opportunity to improve bone health in RTT. PMID:25144778

  20. Correlating implant stability to bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Julie; Babu, Stéphanie; Saffarzadeh, Afchine; Gayet-Delacroix, Marie; Hoornaert, Alain; Layrolle, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate a possible correlation between bone microarchitecture and primary implant stability. Twenty-two implants (Ankylos((R)) and Straumann((R))) were inserted into the maxillae and mandibles of human cadavers. Bone structure was determined by computed tomography in three specimens (male, age 53; female, 67; female, 80). A strict clinical protocol was used for implantation. Primary implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (Osstell Mentor). The bone structure was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (CT). Bone histomorphometrical parameters were calculated and correlated to primary implant stability. Implant stability quotients (ISQ) ranged from 50 to 70% depending on the specimens and sites. Histomorphometry indicated differences in the bone microstructures of the specimens. However, ISQ values were not related to trabecular bone histomorphometrical parameters. The sole correlation was found between ISQ values and cortical bone thickness. This study confirms the relevance for primary stability of cortical thickness around implants. The thickness of cortical bone can be assessed using a standard clinical CT.

  1. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  2. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction. PMID:22461825

  3. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  4. Bone allografting in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovoy, M. A.; Kirilova, I. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Matsuk, S. A.; Novoselov, V. P.; Moskalev, A. V.; Bondarenko, A. V.; Afanasev, L. M.; Gubina, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    A total of 522 patients with benign and intermediate bone tumors of various locations, aged 1 to 15 years, were operated in the period from 1996 to 2016. To diagnose skeleton tumors, we used clinical observation, X-ray, and, if indicated, tomography and tumor site biopsy. In the extensive bone resection, we performed bone reconstruction with the replacement of a defect with an allograft (bone strips, deproteinized and spongy grafts), sometimes in the combination with bone autografting. After segmental resection, the defects were filled with bone strips in the form of matchstick grafts; the allografts were received from the Laboratory for Tissue Preparation and Preservation of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics. According to the X-ray data, a complete reorganization of bone grafts occurred within 1.5 to 3 years. The long-term result was assessed as good.

  5. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  6. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  7. 9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exiting the AMR system for bone solids, bone marrow, spinal cord, and DRG as prescribed in paragraph (c)(1... or bone marrow as measured by the presence of calcium and iron in excess of the requirements in this... nearest 10th, is more than 130.0 mg per 100 g. (ii) Bone marrow. The product's added iron content...

  8. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-s