WorldWideScience

Sample records for bone seeking radionuclides

  1. Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides for painful bone metastases in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Karthigaseu, Nita Nishanthiny; Fuglsang, Randi;

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides may provide palliation from pain originating from bone metastases. However, most studies have been conducted in patients with prostate cancer and patients with breast cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of radionuclide treatment in...... lung cancer in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. In the eligible trials, pain relief was reported in 75% of the patients included in the studies. The onset of pain relief was seen within 1-5 weeks after treatment, lasting up to 6 months. However, the methodology in the included trials was poor...... prior/concomitant analgaesics. Large randomised controlled trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of radionuclide treatment in lung cancer....

  2. A new anthropometric calibration phantom for in vivo measurement of bone seeking radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new anthropometric phantom having the shape of the adult human knee and containing a removable femur, patella, tibia, and fibula, has been developed for use in calibrating in vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. The shell of the phantom is assembled in three interlocking sections so that the skeletal components can easily be exchanged. All the materials used in the phantom have the same density, attenuation coefficient, and effective Z as that of human muscle and trabecular bone. A precisely known quantity of one or more radioactive materials is added to the trabecular bone substitute when molding the skeletal components for the phantom. An array of germanium or Phoswich detectors can easily be positioned on the top or sides of the knee phantom for calibration measurements. Estimates of the total skeletal content can be determined by measuring activity in the knee and adjusting the result for the fraction of skeleton monitored. The bones contained in the knee phantom represent approximately 10.7% of the total skeletal mass or approximately 12.4% of the total skeletal surface area. The counting efficiency for 241Am in the knee (per unit detector surface area) is approximately 6 x 10-5 cpm/Bp/mm2 using an array of germanium or Phoswich detectors. A single knee phantom exhibits approximately the same counting efficiency as the conventional skull phantom, suggesting that the knee is a desirable alternative to the head, especially if contamination is present on the hair or face or if the person is uncomfortable with detectors surrounding their head. Intercomparison measurements using skull and knee phantoms demonstrate that measurement efficiencies are equivocal. Measurement sensitivity can be substantially improved by placing detectors over both knees rather than around the head since a larger fraction of the total body activity would be monitored. (author)

  3. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a new calibration phantom for in vivo measurement of bone-seeking radionuclides (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, H.B.; Lodwick, J

    2000-07-01

    A new anthropometric phantom has been developed for use in calibrating in vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. The phantom has the external shape and appearance of the human adult knee and contains a realistic femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. Unique formulations of polyurethanes, CaCo{sub 3}, and other trace materials are used in construction of the phantom to produce substitutes for human tissue having the same density, attenuation coefficient, and effective Z as that of human muscle and trabecular bone. The formulation for trabecular bone includes provision for a precisely known quantity of radioactive material that is either uniformly distributed throughout the bone matrix or deposited on the exterior surface. The knee phantom is assembled in three interlocking sections that simplify inserting the skeletal structures and prevent streaming. One or more detectors can easily be positioned on the top or sides of the phantom. Intercomparison measurements of {sup 241}Am in bone using separate arrays of phoswich and germanium detectors demonstrate that a single knee phantom exhibits the same detection efficiency as that using the skull. In vivo measurement of the knee is a desirable alternative to the head if facial contamination is present or when evaluating recent exposure to bone seeking radionuclides, since bones of the knee exhibit more rapid uptake than the skull. In practice, greater measurement efficiency can be obtained by placing detectors over both knees since a larger fraction of the total body activity is observed. Calibration measurements using the new anthropometric knee phantom demonstrate that it is durable, easy to use, and provides consistent results over repeated measurements. (author)

  4. Radionuclide therapy with bone-seeking compounds: Monte Carlo calculations of dose-volume histograms for bone marrow in trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, Y.; Skretting, A.; Bruland, Oe.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0310 Oslo (Norway)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate how haematopoietic stem cell survival is affected by the differences in the dose distribution that arise from different radionuclides contained in bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. This was carried out in three steps: (a) calculations of representative dose distributions in individual bone marrow cavities that are irradiated by sources of {sup 89}Sr, {sup 186}Re, {sup 117}mSn or {sup 153}Sm, uniformly distributed on the bone surfaces; (b) assessment of the corresponding haematopoietic stem cell survival and (c) a comparison of these results with results obtained using the assumption of a uniform dose distribution. Two different idealized models of the geometry of trabecular bone were formulated, each consisting of an infinite array of identical elements. Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate dose-volume histograms that were used to assess haematopoietic stem cell survival with two different assumptions about spatial cell distributions. Compared with a homogeneous dose distribution, the estimated cell survival was markedly higher for {sup 117}mSn and {sup 153}Sm, and only slightly different for {sup 89}Sr and {sup 186}Re. The quantitative results differed between the two geometric models and the assumptions about spatial cell distribution, but the trends were the same. The results imply that it is necessary to include dose distributions for individual bone marrow cavities in considerations concerning bone marrow toxicity. (author)

  5. Estimation of the skeletal burden of bone-seeking radionuclides from in vivo scintillation measurements of their content in the skull: contribution from radionuclides in the thoracic skeleton to in vivo measurement of activity in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the initiation of NaI(Tl), spectrometric methods for detecting photon-emitting radionuclides in man, it became evident that the high background rates in the low energy regions precluded in vivo measurement of many bone-seeking nuclides. To meet these needs a dual crystal, low energy sensitive NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detector system was developed. To date this system, in combination with more routine bioassays, remains the optimum methodology for the determination of internal exposure to low energy, photon-emitting radionuclides. Since most occupational exposures occur by inhalation, internal deposits must be quantitated with these detectors placed over the lung area. Since many of the alpha-emitting nuclides are bone-seekers, the contribution of material which has been transported from the lung and deposited in the skeleton must be accounted for

  6. Estimation of lung and skeletal burdens of bone-seeking radionuclides in man from in vivo scintillation measurements of the thorax and the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although measurements of the concentration of actinides in excreta of personnel may indicate whether an exposure has occurred and, if the time of exposure is known, may permit an estimate of the approximate magnitude of the intake, bioassay measurements usually cannot be used to reliably establish absolute values of a systemic burden, specific deposition sites, or the presence of nontransportable material in the lung. For these reasons, in vivo measurement techniques in conjunction with excreta bioassay have been used more extensively and with increasing sophistication. Utilization of in vivo head counting techniques holds considerable promise for estimating the total skeletal burden of various bone-seeking nuclides more easily and with greater precision than has been possible in the past. Once the skeletal content of activity has been determined, it will be possible to estimate the amount of rib, sternum, and vertebrae activity that contributes to in vivo thorax measurements. This, in turn, will provide extremely useful data for estimating the partition of activity between the lung and these bone structures. It should be assumed that any estimate of bone-seeking radionuclide activity in the lung that has been made from in vivo scintillation counting will be derived from measurements made over the head as well as over the thorax

  7. Relationships between ESR-evaluated doses estimated from enamel and activity of radionuclides in bone and teeth of reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses of radiation estimated from ESR analysis of tooth enamel were compared with activities of alpha- and beta-emitters in enamel and in bone tissue of mandibles of 77 reindeer from populations with different levels of radiation contamination. Contribution of the radionuclides incorporated into bone (or bone-seeking radionuclides in food) to ESR-evaluated doses was substantial and the contribution of the radionuclides incorporated into enamel itself proved to be relatively small

  8. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references

  9. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  10. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  11. Radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone palliation; Nuklearmedizinische Therapie von Skelettmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtaran, A.; Preitfellner, J. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Havlik, E. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Biomedizinische Technik und Physik

    2000-07-01

    In patients with advanced osteoblastic bone metastases from malignant tumours, {beta}-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are used. These radiopharmaceuticals are in elemental form such as {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr or bound on a bone-seeking carrier like HEDP, HMDTP. The radionuclide therapy of bone metastases causes no serious side effects and is well tolerated by the patients. According to recommended criteria this therapy is palliative and serves mainly for pain relief. The effect of the therapy lasts for several months and may be repeated if required. (orig.) [German] Bei Patienten mit fortgeschrittenen osteoblastischen ossaeren Metastasen werden {beta}-Strahlung-emittierende osteotrope Radiopharmaka verwendet. Diese sind entweder Radionuklide in elementarer Form ({sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr...) oder an einer knochenaffinen Traegersubstanz gebundene Radionuklide ({sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}Re...). Die Radionuklidterapie ist im Allgemeinen nebenwirkungsarm und belastet die Patienten wenig. Nach derzeit ueblichen Kriterien stellt diese Therapie eine palliative Massnahme dar und dient hauptsaechlich zur Schmerzlinderung. Die Wirkung haelt ueber mehrere Monate an und bei Bedarf kann die Therapie wiederholt werden. (orig.)

  12. Well-Designed Bone-Seeking Radiolabeled Compounds for Diagnosis and Therapy of Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are frequently used as diagnostic agents in nuclear medicine, because they can detect bone disorders before anatomical changes occur. Furthermore, their effectiveness in the palliation of metastatic bone cancer pain has been demonstrated in the clinical setting. With the aim of developing superior bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, many compounds have been designed, prepared, and evaluated. Here, several well-designed bone-seeking compounds used for diagnostic and therapeutic use, having the concept of radiometal complexes conjugated to carrier molecules to bone, are reviewed. PMID:26075256

  13. Radionuclide therapy of patients with metastastic bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone metastases are often the first sign of distant spread in breast, prostate, and lung cancers. The pathophysiology of bone metastasis is poorly understood and related complications is complex. Bone pain consequent to metastatic cancer continues to be a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians and its alleviation is crucial to improving the patient's quality of life. Targeted radionuclide therapy is an effective and cost efficient treatment for multi-site metastatic bone pain, its advantages may also include therapy for subclinical micro-or oligometastatic disease before clinical manifestation. But radionuclides remain underutilized in such treatments. (authors)

  14. Comparison of bone tumors induced by beta-emitting or alpha-emitting radionuclides: Schemes of pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-span studies in Beagle dogs have documented the occurrence of bone tumors following exposure to bone-seeking alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides administered by different routes of exposure. Bone tumors from dogs in four different life-span studies were analyzed according to tumor phenotype, tumor location, radiographic appearance, incidence of metastasis, and association with radiation osteodystrophy. Marked differences in these parameters were observed that did not correlate with differences in radionuclide type, route of exposure, or duration of radionuclide uptake. Radiation osteodystrophy, which is postulated to be a preneoplastic lesion, was not a significant component in one of the studies. Analysis of the data from these four studies suggests that at least two different mechanisms of bone tumor pathogenesis occur for radiation-induced bone tumors. (author)

  15. New aspects of radionuclide therapy of bone and joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas in developing countries P-32 is widely used for radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases, in Europe three radionuclides or radiopharmaceutical agents are available for pain palliation: Sr-89, Sm-153-EDTMP, and Re-186-HEDP. Radionuclide therapy for pain palliation is indicated for bone pain due to metastatic malignancy that has involved multiple skeletal sites and has evoked an osteoblastic response on bone scintigraphy. Response rates of about 70-80% in patients with breast or prostate cancer is reported in the literature, less in metastatic lesions of other primary malignancies. Sm-153-EDTMP may also be used for curative treatment of primary bone tumours or their metastases. Radiosynovectomy as therapeutic procedure or rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory joint diseases, persistent synovial perfusion, and other joint diseases is widely used. Using Y-90 for the knee joint, Re-186 for middle sized joints, and Er-169 for small joints an improvement of symptoms may be observed in about 70-80%. (author)

  16. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in skeletal malignancy: evolution, not revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many advanced malignancies are complicated by skeletal metastases, with attendant pain and disability. External beam radiotherapy is still the most effective treatment for isolated lesions. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals were perceived as a means of delivering radiation to multiple lesions simultaneously. A wide variety of radioisotopes have been used in this endeavor, with myelosuppression being the most significant potential adverse effect. Benefits of treatment are modest, including a transient improvement in pain control and perhaps prolongation of the treatment-free period. This is best demonstrated in prostate cancer with lower responses by skeletal metastases from breast and lung cancers. However, the treatment is yet to produce any improvement in patient survival. Experimental approaches to improve treatment efficacy include combination with cytotoxic therapy, and administration earlier in the course of the disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been used in treatment of advanced osteosarcoma in humans and canines and achieved effective palliation. The myelosuppressive effects of these agents have been exploited in patients with multiple myeloma to assist in attaining myeloablation prior to stem cell transplantation. Development of more potent non-radiolabelled bisphosphonates and recognition of their antitumour effect against several tumours has sparked a recrudescence of interest in their use for bone metastases. Set against these developments, the role of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in skeletal metastases may need to be redefined

  17. Radionuclide therapy of bone metastases; Radionuklidtherapie von Skelettmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, H.; Bucerius, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Many tumors (like prostate- and breast cancer) induce osseous metastases that need to be treated. Bone targeted radionuclide therapy should be performed at an early stage in patients with painful bone metastases and scintigraphically positive lesions. The combination of external beam irradiation and systemic administration of radionuclides is often advantageous and can be performed without clinical problems. In patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases, radionuclide therapy is increasingly performed as antitumor treatment for asymptomatic patients in clinical trials. By randomised, controlled clinical phase-II studies, it has been shown that new therapy regimens can prolong the progression-free interval and overall survival. New protocols that have been proposed represent the simultaneous application of chemotherapy and radionuclides. Side effects of such protocols are kept within a low toxicity level by reducing the dose of the chemotherapeutic agent (low-dose-chemotherapy). This combined therapy approach, however, is able to generate a radiosensitive state in the tumor cells resulting in an increased tumoricide efficiency of radionuclides. A different, innovative approach is the administration of multiple radionuclide injections at defined time intervals aiming at killing tumor cells with higher radiation doses. Side effects of these new treatment regimens can be scored as moderate. Consequently, in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients, such new protocols should be considered as an alternative treatment option after standardised therapy regimens have been accomplished. In this situation, extensive experience for treating and selecting appropriate patients is crucial. A randomised pase-III study for the prove of an increased progression-free interval and overall-survival by radionuclide therapy is still missing. (orig.)

  18. The complications of radionuclide treatment of metastatic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone metastases comprise 50-75% cancer complications, in particular ones of breast and prostate. Radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases has progressed in last decade, but still it is not commonly applied, also due to the clinicians' fears of side effects. This paper overviews the complications of this treatment modality, with particular emphasis to myelotoxicity. It may be concluded that the potential complications should be born in mind by the referring clinician, but it should be stated that radioisotope therapy of bone metastases is a relatively safe modality, safer than external sealed source therapy. (author)

  19. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  20. Labelling of CTMP with technetium-99m as radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer seeking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer seeking was developed in variable compound labelled with technetium-99m, formally pyrophosphate compound and diphosphonate compound such as methylenediphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), hydroxyethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HEDP) and hydroxy methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HMDP). Either pyrophosphate or diphosphonate still unsatisfied to use as radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer seeking because the high accumulation in lever, muscle and blood. The compound of tetraaminotetraphosphonate groups have the higher affinity in bone because of four phosphonate and four amine groups. This experiment was done to label the compound group especially 1,4,8, 1-tetraazacyclotetradecyl-1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (CTMP) with technetium-99m radionuclide. To obtain the maximal labelling result, some parameters such as pH, amount of SnCl2 reductor and ligan, time and temperature of reaction are optimized. The optimal condition obtained were pH of 4-6, 100 µg of SnCl2 reductor, 500 µg of CTMP ligand and labelling time of 10 minutes in boiling water or 30 minutes in room temperature, with labelling efficiency was >95 %. (author)

  1. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging in sports medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-phase radionuclide bone (TPB) imaging was performed on 238 patients with sports-related injuries. A wide variety of lesions was encountered, but the most frequent lesions seen were stress fractures of the lower part of the leg at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the posterior tibial cortex (42 of 79 lesions). There were no differences in the type, location, or distribution of lesions between males and females or between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. In 110 cases, bone stress lesions were often diagnosed when radiographs were normal, whereas subacute or chronic soft-tissue abnormalities had few specific scintigraphic features. TPB imaging provides significant early diagnostic information about bone stress lesions. Normal examination results (53 cases) exclude underlying osseous pathologic conditions

  2. Quantification of radionuclide uptake levels for primary bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Francis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to quantify the level of uptake of administered radionuclide in primary bone tumors for patients undergoing bone scintigraphy. Retrospective study on 48 patient's scintigrams to quantify the uptake levels of administered radiopharmaceuticals was performed in a nuclear medicine unit in Ghana. Patients were administered with activity ranging between 0.555 and 1.110 MBq (15–30 mCi, and scanned on Siemens e.cam SPECT system. Analyses on scintigrams were performed with Image J software by drawing regions of interest (ROIs over identified hot spots (pathologic sites. Nine skeletal parts namely cranium, neck, shoulder, sacrum, sternum, vertebra, femur, ribcage, and knee were considered in the study, which involved 96 identified primary tumors. Radionuclide uptakes were quantified in terms of the estimated counts of activity per patient for identified tumor sites. Average normalized counts of activity (nGMC per patient ranged from 5.2759 ± 0.6590 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of cranium tumors to 72.7569 ± 17.8786 cts/mm2/MBq in the case of ribcage tumors. The differences in uptake levels could be attributed to different mechanisms of Tc-99m MDP uptake in different types of bones, which is directly related to blood flow and degree of osteoblastic activity. The overall normalized count of activity for the 96 identified tumors was estimated to be 23.0350 ± 19.5424 cts/mm2/MBq. The study revealed highest uptake of activity in ribcage and least uptake in cranium. Quantification of radionuclide uptakes in tumors is important and recommended in assessing patient's response to therapy, doses to critical organs and in diagnosing tumors.

  3. Experimental fracture healing: evaluation using radionuclide bone imaging: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed in a rabbit model to observe the course of fracture healing and to establish criteria for distinguishing nonunion and delayed healing from normal healing. Sequential gamma-camera images (with pinhole collimator) were collected and subjected to computer analysis. Five groups were established: (a) control--immobilization; (b) control--immobilization plus periosteal stripping; (c) simple fracture--osteotomy; (d) delayed union--osteotomy plus periosteal stripping; and (e) nonunion--osteotomy, periosteal stripping and polymethyl methacrylate interposed between fracture fragments. Histographic representation of absolute count rates along rabbit tibias followed a predictable pattern in the simple-fracture and delayed-union groups. They differed only in the time of appearance of phases. The non-union group demonstrated no recognizable sequential pattern. In this experimental model, serial bone scanning the quantitative data analysis has shown potential for indicating the course of healing in fractures and for serving as a guide to treatment

  4. Radionuclide bone/joint imaging in children with rheumatic complaints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the medical records and technetium bone/joint scans of 160 children presenting to the inpatient pediatric rheumatology service over a 3-year period. When the scan result (normal versus abnormal) was considered for each patient as a whole, scan sensitivity 75%. However, when each joint was considered individually, sensitivity decreased to 37%, while specificity rose to more than 95% when compared to clinical examination. Reasons for these variations and their clinical correlation are discussed. Overall, radionuclide bone/joint scanning was found to be very useful in the evaluation of monoarticular and nonrheumatic disorders, but it did not alter therapy in children with known connective tissue disorders or other polyarticular diseases. (orig.)

  5. Studies on {sup 177}Lu-labeled methylene diphosphonate as potential bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Ahmed, E-mail: imtiaz_abbasi@yahoo.co

    2011-04-15

    Objective: {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (technetium-99{sup m}-labeled methylene diphosphonate) has been widely used as a radiopharmaceutical for bone scintigraphy in cases of metastatic bone disease. {sup 177}Lu is presently considered as an excellent radionuclide for developing bone pain palliation agents. No study on preparing a complex of {sup 177}Lu with MDP has been reported yet. Based on these facts, it was hypothesized that a bone-seeking {sup 177}Lu-MDP (lutetium-177-labeled MDP) radiopharmaceutical could be developed as an agent for palliative radiotherapy of bone pain due to skeletal metastases. Biodistribution studies after intravenous injection of {sup 177}Lu-MDP complex in rats may yield important information to assess its potential for clinical use as a bone pain palliation agent for the treatment of bone metastases. Methods: {sup 177}Lu was produced by irradiating natural Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (10 mg) target at a thermal flux {approx}8.0x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} per second for 12 h in the swimming pool-type reactor.{sup 177}Lu was labeled with MDP by adding nearly 37 MBq (1.0 mCi) of {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3} to a vial containing 10 mg MDP. The radiochemical purity and labeling efficiencies were determined by thin layer chromatography. Labeling of {sup 177}Lu with MDP was optimized, and one sample was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi). {sup 177}Lu-MDP in a volume of 0.1 ml was injected intravenously and then sacrificed at 2 min, 1 h, 2 h and 22 h (three rats at each time point) after injection. Samples of various organs were separated, weighed and measured for radioactivity and expressed as percent uptake of injected dose per gram. Bioevaluation studies with rats under gamma-camera were also performed to verify the results. Results: The quality control using thin layer chromatography has shown >99% radiochemical purity of {sup 177}Lu-MDP complex. Chromatography with Whatman 3

  6. A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayouth, John Ellis

    In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with

  7. Report on intercomparison A-12 of the determination of radionuclides in animal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that radionuclides contained in food are responsible for the major part of the radiation dose which the human population has received through the development of atomic energy for military purposes. Some of them, such as strontium-89 and -90 or naturally occurring radium-226 and -228, follow calcium into bone and are retained there for long periods. Their expanded radiation may affect the bone and bone-marrow cells. Leukaemia and bone cancer are sometimes considered as a consequence of ingestion of fission products. Many medical and biological laboratories are obliged to determine radionuclides in bone and have to check the accuracy of their results. To meet their needs, the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service organized intercomparisons of the determination of fission products and natural radionuclides in calcinated animal bone

  8. Improving radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, M.G.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals are indicated in cancer patients with multiple painful skeletal metastases. The majority of these patients are hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in an advanced stage of their disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals relieve pain and improve the patients

  9. Radionuclide therapy of bone metastases; Radionuklidtherapie von Knochenmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In breast cancer patients, the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends systemic treatment with radionuclides if multiple symptomatic bone metastases are present or if pain reoccurs in a previously irradiated region. There is evidence that targeted therapy with strontium-89 chloride, samarium-153 EDTMP and rhenium-186 HEDP provides effective pain therapy in 60-80% of patients. As an adjuvant to local radiotherapy, strontium-89 can delay the appearance of new metastases and prolong the intervention-free interval. Cost-effectiveness has been proved for this treatment. Side effects of therapy are moderate. Using the standard dosage discussed, thrombo- and leukopenia will not reach a toxicity higher than grade II (WHO) if pretherapeutic blood counts and bone marrow reserve are normal. Recent data show that a combination of chemotherapy and treatment with strontium-89 can prolong survival time in prostate cancer patients with osseous metastases. (orig.) [German] Es kann als durch Studien hinreichend belegt angesehen werden, dass die systemische Therapie mit Strontium-89 Chlorid, Samarium-153 EDTMP und Rhenium-186 HEDP bei 60-80% der o. g. Patienten eine effektive Schmerztherapie bewirkt. Strontium-89 Chlorid kann darueber hinaus, wenn es adjuvant zur perkutanen Bestrahlung eingesetzt wird, das Auftreten von neuen Metastasen verzoegern und das interventionsfreie Intervall verlaengern. In der transkanadischen Multizenterstudie konnte ein Kosten sparender Effekt nachgewiesen werden. Die Nebenwirkungen der Behandlung muessen als gering eingestuft werden und beschraenken sich unter Verwendung von den beschriebenen Standarddosen auf eine Thrombo- und/oder Leukopenie maximal der Toxizitaet Grad II n. WHO, ein normales Blutbild und eine normale Knochenmarksreserve vorausgesetzt. Neueste Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass eine Kombinationsbehandlung aus Chemotherapie und Strontium-89 Chlorid die Ueberlebenszeit bei Prostatakarzinompatienten mit ossaeren Metastasen

  10. Analysis of factors which influence the local accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical consideration of the factors which influence the accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in bone is presented. The avidity with which /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate and 18F fluoride are adsorbed by bone crystals has been measured in vitro and the efficiency with which these radiopharmaceuticals are extracted by normal bone has been measured in vivo. It is postulated that alterations in the capillary permeability in the region of a bone lesion greatly influence the target to background ratio that can be obtained with bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Quantitated gamma camera studies in man are presented in support of this hypothesis

  11. The Value of Radionuclide Bone Imaging in Defining Fresh Fractures Among Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan-Ming; Gu, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Zhong-Tang; Cheng, Li

    2016-05-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. To perform percutaneous vertebral body cement augmentation, it is essential to accurately identify the affected vertebrae. The study evaluated the role of radionuclide bone imaging in identifying fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. A prospective study of 39 patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was carried out. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide bone imaging to determine if the fractures were fresh, followed by percutaneous kyphoplasty for the fresh fractures. The positive rate on radionuclide bone imaging was 92.1% (82/89), and the positive rate on MRI was 93.3% (83/89), with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Eighty-one vertebrae had the same positive identification by both radionuclide bone imaging and MRI, and 5 of the same vertebrae were diagnosed negative by both techniques. One patient with positive radionuclide bone imaging was negative according to MRI, and 2 patients were entirely positive by MRI but negative by radionuclide bone imaging. A kappa test showed good consistency between the 2 methods for detecting the affected vertebrae (Kappa = 0.751, P vertebral compression fracture, making it an effective method for detecting affected vertebrae for percutaneous vertebroplasty. PMID:27159858

  12. Radiographic skeletal survey and radionuclide bone scan in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The lack of a consensus in the literature on the imaging strategy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) bone lesions in childhood. Objective. To evaluate the relative value of radionuclide bone scan (RBS) and radiographic skeletal survey (RSS) in the detection of LCH bone lesions, both in the initial work-up of the disease and during the follow-up period. Materials and methods. Ten children with bone lesions evaluated by means of RSS and RBS in a retrospective study (1984-1993). Results. Fifty radiologically and/or scintigraphically abnormal foci were detected: 27 anomalies in the initial work-up (12 by both RSS and RBS, 8 by RSS only and 7 by RBS only) and 23 additional anomalies during follow-up (10 by both RSS and RBS, 10 by RSS only and 3 by RBS only). RSS+/RBS- lesions (n = 18) are more frequently encountered in the skull (P = 0.038), and more frequently lack radiologic signs of osteoblastic activity (P = 0.020), than RSS+/RBS+ lesions (n = 22). RSS-/RBS+ abnormalities (n = 10) were most frequently insignificant. Conclusion. In the initial work-up both RSS and RBS should be carried out, while in the follow-up only RSS should be performed. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Radiographic skeletal survey and radionuclide bone scan in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhuyse, J.P. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Clapuyt, P. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Malghem, J. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Everarts, P. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Melin, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Brichard, B. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Ninane, J. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Vermylen, C. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium); Cornu, G. [Department of Pediatric Hematology, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-10-01

    Background. The lack of a consensus in the literature on the imaging strategy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) bone lesions in childhood. Objective. To evaluate the relative value of radionuclide bone scan (RBS) and radiographic skeletal survey (RSS) in the detection of LCH bone lesions, both in the initial work-up of the disease and during the follow-up period. Materials and methods. Ten children with bone lesions evaluated by means of RSS and RBS in a retrospective study (1984-1993). Results. Fifty radiologically and/or scintigraphically abnormal foci were detected: 27 anomalies in the initial work-up (12 by both RSS and RBS, 8 by RSS only and 7 by RBS only) and 23 additional anomalies during follow-up (10 by both RSS and RBS, 10 by RSS only and 3 by RBS only). RSS+/RBS- lesions (n = 18) are more frequently encountered in the skull (P = 0.038), and more frequently lack radiologic signs of osteoblastic activity (P = 0.020), than RSS+/RBS+ lesions (n = 22). RSS-/RBS+ abnormalities (n = 10) were most frequently insignificant. Conclusion. In the initial work-up both RSS and RBS should be carried out, while in the follow-up only RSS should be performed. (orig.). With 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. EPR dose reconstruction for bone-seeking 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the EPR dose reconstruction in calcified tissues of dog injected with 90Sr are presented. It has been established that there is no essential difference in the values of doses absorbed in tooth tissues of teeth in symmetric positions in the mouth, whereas a significant difference occurs in the values of absorbed doses in teeth in non-symmetric positions. In the case of 90Sr internal exposure the dose reconstruction in crown dentine plays an important role. It has been found that its quantity is close to the dose in diaphyseal cortical bone of the femur, dose at the endosteal bone surface and in femural fatty marrow. The fact that these values exceed doses absorbed in tooth enamel points out the predominant contribution of internal exposure. The highest absorbed doses have been observed in metaphyseal trabecular femur bones, tooth alveolar bone walls, and cortical and trabecular vertebra that can be considered as suitable candidates for biomarkers of internal 90Sr exposure for post-mortal autopsy. The satisfactory correlation has been found between the doses reconstructed in calcified dog tissues and the doses measured by EPR in alanine dosimeters fixed in (or nearby) the sites of autopsy of bones/teeth. The experiments provide support for the view that EPR retrospective dosimetry with calcified tissues for internal exposure is unique in providing useful information on the doses obtained

  15. The clinical significance of radionuclide bone and gallium scanning in osteomyelitis of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C.; Greyson, N.D.; Wortzman, G.; Jazrawy, H.; Freeman, J.L.; Blair, R.L.; Chapnik, J.S.

    1984-05-01

    Osteomyelitis of the head and neck remains a difficult clinical problem both in diagnosis and treatment evaluation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review our clinical experience with 25 cases of osteomyelitis distributed evenly among the temporal bone and skull base, the paranasal sinuses, and the mandible. Radionuclide bone and gallium scan images accurately depicted the biologic activity of the disease process and permitted accurate treatment evaluation and patient monitoring. This work demonstrates the potentials and limitations of radionuclide imaging with bone and gallium scan agents and attempts to define a role for their contemporary use in the management of osteomyelitis of the head and neck.

  16. The clinical significance of radionuclide bone and gallium scanning in osteomyelitis of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteomyelitis of the head and neck remains a difficult clinical problem both in diagnosis and treatment evaluation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review our clinical experience with 25 cases of osteomyelitis distributed evenly among the temporal bone and skull base, the paranasal sinuses, and the mandible. Radionuclide bone and gallium scan images accurately depicted the biologic activity of the disease process and permitted accurate treatment evaluation and patient monitoring. This work demonstrates the potentials and limitations of radionuclide imaging with bone and gallium scan agents and attempts to define a role for their contemporary use in the management of osteomyelitis of the head and neck

  17. Diffuse pulmonary uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer in bone scintigraphy of a rare case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare diffuse pulmonary disease representing microliths formed by deposition of calcium phosphonate in the alveolar airspaces. PAM is often diagnosed incidentally during chest X-ray imaging. Most of them are asymptomatic. We present a 39-year-old man referring for a bone scan due to a complaint of right leg pain. Bone scan showed diffuse uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer on both lung fields predominantly in basal regions. The bronchoalveolar lavage test confirmed the diagnosis of PAM

  18. New bone-seeking agent. Animal study of Tc-99m-incadronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disodium cycloheptylaminomethylenediphosphonate monohydrate (incadronate disodium) is a third-generation bisphosphonate compound which potently inhibits bone resorption, and a highly effective drug in the treatment of metastatic bone disease. We first labeled incadronate disodium with 99mTc, and examined its biodistribution and bone uptake after intravenous injection in rats to assess its potential for clinical use as a bone-seeking agent for judgment of the therapeutic effect of incadronate on bone metastases. Bone scan with 99mTc-labeled incadronate (99mTc-incadronate) may yield important information prior to the use of incadronate for treatment of bone metastases. Synthesis of 99mTc-incadronate was carried out by reduction of 99mTc-pertechnetate in the presence of SnCl2 and N2 gas. Normal rats were injected with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) 99mTc-incadronate in a volume of 0.1 ml intravenously and then sacrificed at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h or 2 h (six rats at each time point) after injection. Samples of muscle, stomach, small intestine, kidney, liver and bone (femur) were taken and weighed. In addition, a 1-ml sample of blood was drawn from the heart, and urine was taken from the urinary bladder immediately after sacrifice. Samples were measured for radioactivity and expressed as percent uptake of injected dose per gram or per milliliter (% ID/g or ml). Bone-to-blood and bone-to-muscle uptake ratios were determined from the % ID/g or ml values for these organs. The greatest accumulation of 99mTc-incadronate was found in bone. Radioactivity in bone was as high as 3.22±0.68% ID/g at 2 hours after injection. Scintigraphic images of 99mTc-incadronate in normal rats revealed highly selective skeletal uptake. 99mTc-incadronate exhibited high uptake in bone, and relatively low uptake in soft tissue, suggesting that it may be useful as a bone-seeking agent for judgment of the therapeutic effect of incadronate on bone metastases, by determining the degree of its accumulation in

  19. Theory of the induction of bone sarcoma by bone-seeking alpha emitters and its application to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the theory of bone sarcoma induction by bone seeking alpha emitters, which is based strictly on biological considerations relative to the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, identification of cells at risk and their location in bone, bone tissue renewal processes and bone cell kinetics with or without radiation exposure. The model is consistent with the data on bone sarcoma incidence human with incorporated long-lived isotopes Ra-226 + Ra-228. Extrapolation of these data to a low intake region of the basis of the developed theoretical approach suggests that the linear ICRP-UNSCEAR model overestimates carciogenic risk at low doses, possibly by a factor of 2-4. The model suggests a linear response of target cells to the initiation effects of alpha irradiation. The non-linear (linear-quadratic) initial part of dose-response curve for osteosarcoma induction is explained quantitatively by a model based on a promoter effect of regenerative hyperplasia resulting from invitation effects of alpha radiation. The maximum overestimation inherent to the model of the low-level risk due to the the dose-dependent promotion factor is estimated using bo+1/bo, where bo is a model parameter which is proportional to the normal division rate of osteogenic cells in vivo and which can be estimated within the framework of the model. The model provides confirming evidence that, for radiation protection purposes, endosteal cells may be considered the only group of cells at risk of sarcoma induction by low doses of bone-seeking alpha emitters, whereas the role of marrow stromal (osteogenic) cells as target cells is much more significant with increasing intakes, and can become dominating if intake is high enough

  20. Theory of the induction of bone sarcoma by bone-seeking alpha emitters and its application to risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petojan, I.M.

    1992-06-01

    This work discusses the theory of bone sarcoma induction by bone seeking alpha emitters, which is based strictly on biological considerations relative to the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, identification of cells at risk and their location in bone, bone tissue renewal processes and bone cell kinetics with or without radiation exposure. The model is consistent with the data on bone sarcoma incidence human with incorporated long-lived isotopes Ra-226 + Ra-228. Extrapolation of these data to a low intake region of the basis of the developed theoretical approach suggests that the linear ICRP-UNSCEAR model overestimates carciogenic risk at low doses, possibly by a factor of 2-4. The model suggests a linear response of target cells to the initiation effects of alpha irradiation. The non-linear (linear-quadratic) initial part of dose-response curve for osteosarcoma induction is explained quantitatively by a model based on a promoter effect of regenerative hyperplasia resulting from invitation effects of alpha radiation. The maximum overestimation inherent to the model of the low-level risk due to the the dose-dependent promotion factor is estimated using bo{sup +1}/bo, where bo is a model parameter which is proportional to the normal division rate of osteogenic cells in vivo and which can be estimated within the framework of the model. The model provides confirming evidence that, for radiation protection purposes, endosteal cells may be considered the only group of cells at risk of sarcoma induction by low doses of bone-seeking alpha emitters, whereas the role of marrow stromal (osteogenic) cells as target cells is much more significant with increasing intakes, and can become dominating if intake is high enough.

  1. Role of computed tomography and radionuclide scintigraphy in the localization of osteomyelitis in flat bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of radionuclide scintigraphy and computed tomography is recommended for evaluating children with laboratory and clinical data suggestive of flat bone osteomyelitis despite normal conventional radiographs. In addition, computed tomography may be helpful in the presence of abnormal radiographs in determining the exact location of the focus of osteomyelitis and the most suitable route for appropriate drainage or to obtain culture material

  2. Changes observed in radionuclide bone scans during and after teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Amelia E.B.; Blake, Glen M.; Fogelman, Ignac [King' s College London, School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kathleen A.; Ruff, Valerie A.; Rana, Asad E.; Wan, Xiaohai [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Visual changes on radionuclide bone scans have been reported with teriparatide treatment. To assess this, serial studies were evaluated and quantified in ten postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide (20 {mu}g/day subcutaneous) who had {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans (baseline, 3 and 18 months, then after 6 months off therapy). Women were injected with 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MDP, and diagnostic bone scan images were assessed at 3.5 h. Additional whole-body scans (10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h) were analysed for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal plasma clearance (K{sub bone}). Regional K{sub bone} differences were obtained for the whole skeleton and six regions (calvarium, mandible, spine, pelvis, upper and lower extremities). Bone turnover markers (BTM) were also measured. Most subjects showed visual changes on 3- and 18-month bone scan images that disappeared after 6 months off therapy. Enhanced uptake was seen predominantly in the calvarium and lower extremities. Whole skeleton K{sub bone} displayed a median increase of 22% (3 months, p = 0.004) and 34% (18 months, p = 0.002) decreasing to 0.7% (6 months off therapy). Calvarium K{sub bone} changes were three times larger than other sites. After 6 months off therapy, all K{sub bone} and BTM values returned towards baseline. The increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake with teriparatide indicated increased bone formation which was supported by BTM increases. After 6 months off therapy, metabolic activity diminished towards baseline. The modulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP skeletal uptake during treatment was the result of teriparatide's metabolic activity. These findings may aid the radiological evaluation of similar teriparatide patients having radionuclide bone scans. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclide bone scan, radiographic bone survey, and alkaline phosphatase: studies of limited value in asymptomatic patients with ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scans or skeletal surveys were obtained in 104 patients with ovarian carcinoma. No metastases were identified at staging in the 43 patients with Stage I or II disease. Four patients in the entire series had osseous metastases. Three of the 40 patients with Stage III epithelian ovarian carcinoma has osseous metastases at the time of staging. All of these were Grade III lesions. One Stage I, Grade III patient demonstrated osseous metastases two years after initial diagnosis. None of the four patients with osseous metastases had an elevated alkaline phosphatase; three of the four had bone pain. Based on these results, it is suggested that radiographic bone survey and radionuclide bone scans are not indicated as screening procedures in asymptomatic patients with ovarian carcinoma

  4. Comparison of skeletal and bone marrow radionuclide scintimetry of femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients with late complications following femoral neck fracture were examined with both skeletal and bone marrow radionuclide scintimetry. There was no correlation between the methods with respect to the quantitative assessment of femoral head vascularity based on different uptake ratios comparing the fractured and the intact side. Skeletal scintimetry always had good image quality and permitted reliable differentation between nonunion of the fracture and late segmental collapse, in contrast to bone marrow scintimetry which gave poor image quality. Skeletal scintimetry thus seems superior to bone marrow scintimetry for assessment and differential diagnosis of late complications following femoral neck fracture. It is emphasized that the physiological mechanisms for radionuclide uptake must be taken into account when comparing scintimetric studies using different tracers. (author)

  5. Improving radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer patients with metastatic bone pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, M. G. E. H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals are indicated in cancer patients with multiple painful skeletal metastases. The majority of these patients are hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients in an advanced stage of their disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals relieve pain and improve the patients quality of life. The mostly used radiopharmaceuticals are 89SrCl2 (Metastron), 153Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet) and 186Re-HEDP. Differences between 89SrCl2, 153Sm-EDTMP and 186Re-HEDP were investigated. It ...

  6. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in patients with histiocytosis X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term histiocytosis X (HX) refers to a spectrum of disorders varying from unifocal eosinophilic granuloma (UEG), multifocal eosinophilic granuloma (MEG), to the Abt-Letterer-Siwe syndrome. In a series of 16 patients with different types of HX and skeletal lesions, whole body bone scintigraphy was performed at the time of diagnosis and during follow up. Results were compared with radiographic findings. In patients with MEG with or without extra-skeletal dissemination bone scintigraphy revealed cold spots or hot spots, but half of the lesions were not visualised scintigraphically, resulting in false negative scans. In UEG the lesions were visualised as areas of increased uptake or as a cold spot with increased uptake at its borders. No false negative scans were encountered. The reliability of skeletal scintigraphy in patients with HX seems to depend on the type of the disorder: in UEG bone scintigraphy is a safe procedure. In MEG false negative bone scans have to be expected, and radiography is superior. (orig.)

  7. The role of laboratory animals in studying bone cancer resulting from skeletally deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continuing need to determine and understand the long-term health risks of internally deposited radionuclides in persons exposed medically or occupationally, or from radionuclides in the environment. A full understanding of these health risks, particularly for exposures involving low doses and dose rates, requires in-depth knowledge of both the dosimetry of a given exposure and the resulting long-term biological effects. Human data on 224Ra and 226,228Ra and their decay products are our primary sources of knowledge on the health risks of chronic alpha irradiation of the skeleton and serve as essential segments of our radiation protection practices for internally deposited radionuclides. However, we cannot obtain all of the needed information from these studies. This paper examines the role of laboratory animal studies in complementing and extending the knowledge of radiation-induced bone cancer obtained from studies of humans exposed to 224Ra or 226,228Ra

  8. X-ray and radionuclide investigations of the bones and joints in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiography of the bones and joints was performed in 133 psoriatic patients; osteoscintigraphy with 99mTc-phosphate compounds was also performed in 42 of them. On the basis of x-ray findings 3 types of osteoarticular psoriasis were singled out: psoriatic polyarthritis, psoriatic polyarthrosis and psoriatic arthropathy. The most ample information on the type, activity and spreading of a pathological process in the bones and joints in psoriasis can be obtained from the combination of the x-ray and radionuclide methods

  9. Activity in the gastrointestinal tract after administration of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental studies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the possibility that (radio)activity of non-pertechnetate nature is excreted into the gastrointestinal tract at bone scintigraphy. Material and Methods: The distribution of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical (99mTc-HDP) was studied in an experimental mouse system by dissecting different organs and assessing their activity with a gamma-counter. Results: A comparison of the activity of the submandibular glands, which are assumed to accumulate only pertechnetate, and the gastrointestinal tract showed that a significant fraction of the activity excreted into the gastrointestinal tract did not consist of pertechnetate. Part of the excretion took place in the stomach. It was not connected to a specific bone-seeking agent or 99Mo/99mTc generator. Nor did it increase with time between make-up and injection. The excretion of the non-pertechnetate activity was reduced by cimetidine and omeprazole. These gastric-secretion blocking drugs did not reduce excretion of pertechnetate or significantly affect the general distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusion: There is a significant excretion of non-pertechnetate activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Part of this may be caused by excretion of the undegraded radiopharmaceutical by the stomach mucosa. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary studies on /sup 177/Lu-labeled pyrophosphate (/sup 177/Lu-pyp) as a potential bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-PYP (Technetium-99m labeled tin pyrophosphate) has been widely used as a radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning as well as in nuclear cardiology. It is also found in the body in trace amounts. /sup 177/Lu is presently considered as an excellent radionuclide for developing bone pain palliation agents. PYP is an analogue of MDP and MDP has been labeled with /sup 177/Lu. No study on preparing a complex of /sup 177/Lu with PYP has been reported yet. Based on these facts, it was hypothesized that a bone-seeking /sup 177/Lu -PYP (Lutetium-177 labeled Pyrophosphate) radiopharmaceutical could be developed as an agent for palliative radiotherapy of bone pain due to skeletal metastases. Bio evaluation studies with rabbit under gamma-camera after intravenous injection of /sup 177/Lu- PYP complex in rabbit may yield important information to assess its potential for clinical use as a bone- pain palliation agent for the treatment of bone metastases. /sup 177/Lu was produced by irradiating lutetium foil (11 mg) natural target at a flux approx. equal to 1. 1014 n/cm/sup 2//s for 12 h in the swimming pool type reactor. /sup 177/Lu was labeled with PYP by adding nearly 37 MBq (1.0 mCi) of /sup 177/LuCl/sub 3/ to a vial containing 28 mg Na-PYP (Sodium pyrophosphate). The radiochemical purity and labeling efficiencies were determined by paper chromatography with Whatman 3MM paper using Ammonium Hydroxide:Methanol:Water (1:20:20) as mobile phase. Labeling of /sup 177/Lu with PYP was optimized and a labeled sample was subjected to HPLC analysis. To determine the charge on the /sup 177/Lu-PYP complex, radio-electrophoresis was conducted for 1 hour under a voltage of 300 V and 45 mA current using 0.025 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). Bio evaluation studies with rabbit under ?-camera were also performed to verify the skeletal uptake. The quality control using paper radio-chromatography has shown>99% radiochemical purity of /sup 177/Lu-PYP complex. Radio-chromatography also

  11. Femoral head viability following hip fracture. Prognostic role of radionuclide bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was made of all radionuclide (RN) bone images performed at our institution over a two-year period to evaluate femoral head viability after nonpathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Twelve patients had avascular femoral heads during the perioperative period, of which nine had adequate follow-up. Seven of these nine patients had follow-up bone images. Revascularization occurred in four patients, while three had persistent absence of femoral head uptake. With clinical follow-up ranging from four to 29 months (median: 14 months), only two of these nine patients developed clinical or radiographic evidence of osteonecrosis. RN bone imaging performed in the perioperative period does not reliably predict the development of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head and, at present, should not be used to determine prospectively method of treatment of femoral neck fracture

  12. Bone marrow dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [ 177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Forrer (Flavio); E.P. Krenning (Eric); P.P.M. Kooij (Peter); B.F. Bernard (Bert); M. Konijnenberg (Mark); W.H. Bakker (Willem); J.J.M. Teunissen (Jaap); M. de Jong (Marion); K. van Lom (Kirsten); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); D. Kwekkeboom (Dik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the acc

  13. Preparation and animal imaging of 153Sm-EDTMP as a bone seeking radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylenediamine- tetra methylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) has widely used chelator for the labeling of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals complexed with radio metals. 153Sm can be produced by the HANARO reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Korea. 153Sm has favourable radiation characteristics T1/2=46.7 h, β max=0.81 MeV (20%), 0.71 MeV (49%), 0.64 MeV (30%) and γ=103 keV (30%) emission which is suitable for imaging purposes during therapy. We investigated the labeling condition of 153Sm-Emptied and imaging of 153Sm-EDTMP in normal rats. EDTMP 20 mg was solved in 0.1 mL 2 M NaOH. 153SmCl3 was added to EDTMP solution and pH of the reaction mixtures was adjusted to 8 and 12, respectively. Radiochemical purity was determined with paper chromatography. After 30 min. reaction, reaction mixtures were neutralized to pH 7.4 and the stability was estimated upto 120 hrs. Imaging studies of each reaction were performed in normal rats (37 MBq/0.1 mL). The labeling yield of 153Sm-EDTMP was 99%. The stability of pH 8 reaction at 60, 96 and 120 hr was 99%,95%,89% and that of pH 12 at 36, 60, 96, and 120 hr was 99%, 95%, 88%, 66%, respectively. The 153Sm-EDTMP showed constantly higher bone uptake from 2 to 48 hr after injection. 153Sm-EDTMP, labeled at pH 8 reaction condition, has been stably maintained. Image of 153Sm-EDTMP at 2, 24, 48 hr after injection, demonstrate that 153Sm-EDTMP is a good bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals

  14. Estimation of kidney and bladder radionuclide activity for patients undergoing bone scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc T. Bambara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide activities in the kidney and bladder have been estimated experimentally from practical data 3 h after injection of Tc-99m MDP, using conjugate view methodology. The study involved sixty-five patient images from the database of a nuclear medicine department in Ghana. Time–activity curve was stimulated with MatLab computer program using biokinetic model published in MIRD Report 13. The model was used to determine theoretical activities in kidney and bladder, which were compared with the experimental data. Estimated radionuclide activities for the kidney and bladder were both minimal in the experimental case comparative to the theoretical. The fraction of injected activity in kidney and bladder were less than 1% of injected activity, and hence kidney and bladder could be seen to receive very low doses during bone scans.

  15. Palliative effects of radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases; Die palliative Radionuklidtherapie von schmerzhaften Skelettmetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirrmeister, H.; Guhlmann, C.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Elsner, K. [Ulm Univ. (DE). Abt. Radiologie 1 (Roentgendiagnostik)

    1999-07-01

    The brief survey with a comprehensive bibliography presents existing information and results relating to the following aspects: The pathophysiology of bone metastases; radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals applied in radionuclide therapy, their efficacy and side effects; costs involved, recent advances and results, and an outlook on future developments. (orig./CB) [German] Es wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Pathophysiologie von Skelettmetastasen, die bei der Radionuklidtherapie verwendeten Radiosiotope und Radiopharmaka, ihre Wirksamkeit und die Nebenwirkungen gegeben. Abschliessend werden die derzeitigen Kosten dieser Therapie und moegliche zukuenftige Entwicklungen aufgezeigt. (orig./MG)

  16. {sup 186}Re-Etidronate. Efficacy of palliative radionuclide therapy for painful bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S. H.; De Klerk, J. M. H.; Tan, S.; Van Rijk, P. P. [University Medical Center, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, B. A. [University Medical Center, Oncology Section, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Pain palliation with bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is an effective treatment modality in patients with advanced metastatic bone cancer. Several studies have shown encouraging clinical results of palliative therapy using {sup 186}Re-HEDP, with an overall reported response rate of {+-} 71% for painful osseous metastasize prostate and breast cancer patients. {sup 186}Re-HEDP is a very potential isotope with numerous advantageous characteristics for this purpose. Myelosuppressive toxicity is limited and reversible, which makes repetitive treatment safe. However, individual studies are difficult to compare, and are hampered by the numerous and different methods used to assess clinical responses. Standardized clinical response assessment using the objective multi-dimensional pain evaluation model should therefore be implemented.

  17. In vivo measurements of bone-seeking radionuclides. Annual report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes results obtained in seven areas. Five subjects with well defined Am-241 body burdens have been measured using NaI-CsI(T1) detectors surrounding the head or positioned over the anterior knee surfaces. The observed ratio of net count-rate at the skull to net count-rate at the anterior knee surfaces was found to vary with values ranging from 1.16 to 2.45. Previously developed calibration values for men have been determined to be inadequate for application to female workers due to the variability in chest wall thickness and different photon attenuation characteristics of breast tissue in women. The relative count-rates for each individual among the counting geometries reflected the attenuation of the Nb-92m x-rays in the overlying tissue. The measurement performed with a single phoswich detector positioned centrally over the sternum surprisingly gave the highest count-rate for two out of the four subjects. It is expected that the net counts/x-ray emitted for each individual, when plotted as a function of overlying absorber thickness, will produce a series of single exponential curves which can be used to predict the absolute calibration value for Nb-92m in the lungs. Additional studies describing the time-related fate and distribution in the body of radon and radon daughters present as a result of drinking this well water are currently in progress. There appears to be a possibility of obtaining a significantly increased and variable whole body count-rate as related to a function of the quantity of water consumed and the time of in vivo measurement. Subjects who were treated therapeutically with radon seeds 25 to 34 years ago were observed in our whole body counting facility using NaI-CsI(T1) detectors. The radiation dose due to the characteristic Pu x-ray, the bremsstrahlung continuum and any beta radiation penetrating the gold sheath, is being determined

  18. A model of bone metastases and marrow response to radionuclide therapy using different half life isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolan, M.G.; Fernandes, V.; Metcalfe, P. [Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Bone metastases are one of the most common causes of cancer pain. External beam radiotherapy is quite effective and commonly used for the palliation of bone pain, especially where pain is well localised and not multifocal. Where multiple metastatic sites exist a systemic targeted radionuclide approach may be preferable. The nuclide currently used for this purpose is {sup 90}Sr. Other shorter half life isotopes used or proposed include {sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}Re and {sup 117}Sn. Tumour cell kill is not thought to be the primary means of bone pain control since the doses required are much higher than those required for pain relief. Clinical data show that the onset of pain relief is most prompt for the shorter half life isotopes (e-g. {sup 153}Sm, T{sub 1/2} = 1.9d) compared to {sup 90}Sr (T{sub 1/2} = 50.5d). However the duration of pain relief is more prolonged for {sup 90}Sr than for the shorter half life isotopes. The normal tissue limiting tolerance is the bone marrow. In this study the linear quadratic model with repair and repopulation is applied to the bone metastases and bone marrow using different half life isotopes to compare the effects on tumour cell population and myelotoxicity. The effect of combined long and short half life isotopes on marrow is modelled. Long and short half life combinations have been proposed to try to achieve prompt and prolonged pain control. The effect of fractionating doses of short half life isotopes is examined for tumour cell kill and myelotoxicity. Although pain palliation is not dependent only on cell kill, survival may be modestly improved due to a tumouricidal effect on those bone metastases which are too small to cause pain at the time of treatment. Results were obtained using a simple model with exponential dose rate and repopulation. Using two 10 Gy fractions at 0 and 10 days gives a ratio of tumour survival / marrow survival of - 5 compared to about 15 000 for a single 20 Gy fraction

  19. Efficacy of Sm-153 radionuclide therapy for bone pain palliation in metastatic prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness and efficacy of radionuclide therapy with Sm-153 in patients with prostate cancer presenting painful osteoblastic osseous metastases. Materials and methods: in our study, 10 patients aged between 59-80 years (mean age=69±6.26 years) with osteoblastic osseous metastases of prostate cancer, treated in our unit between November 2011 and December 2012, were included. All patients had undergone Tc99m hydroxy methylenediphosphonate (HDP) bone scintigraphy documenting increased multiple osteoblastic activity in the painful sites. Images were obtained from anterior-posterior projection with double headed gamma camera (Infinia, GE, Tirat Hacermel, Israel) equipped with LEHR collimators. Patients were excluded from the study, when their hemoglobin<10 g/dl, WBC<4.5x109 /l, platelet count <100x109 /l, treated with systemic chemotherapy or RT in six weeks, spinal cord compression, pathologic fractures, life expectancy less than 3 months. All patients were treated with Sm153-EDTMP at a standard intravenous dose of 37 MBq/kg and were observed for toxicity and decrease in pain score using visual analog scale (VAS) once in a week up to 6 weeks. A bone scan with Sm153-EDTMP was performed 4 hours post treatment. Results: there was a significant decrease in VAS score from the time of administration up to 6 weeks. Mean pain score was decreased from 79% to 15%. Median duration of response to therapy was found to be 8-12 weeks. No serious acute adverse events were observed post-treatment period. When we evaluated hemato-toxicity of Sm153-EDTMP; 2 patients showed a reduced toxicity (grade 1 anemia and grade 0-1 WBC) and other 8 patients did not show hematological toxicity. There was no relationship between the number and/or severity of bone lesions at the beginning of therapy and at the 6. week. Finally, 6 of 10 patients died from terminal cancer within the mean 31 weeks (8-56 weeks) observation

  20. Investigation on natural radionuclides levels in multiple media in bone-coal mine areas of five provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports methods and results of the investigation of natural radionuclides levels in multiple media in the bone-coal mine areas in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Anhui Provinces. In the studied bone-coal mine areas, the specific activities of 238U and 226Ra in the soil samples were 0.37 and 0.24 Bq/g, respectively; the specific activities of 226Ra in the samples of bone-coal, bone-coal cinder and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) were 1.3, 1.4 and 0.9 Bq/g, respectively. In the water samples collected from the bone-coal mine areas, the average concentrations of natural uranium and 226Ra were 33 μg/L and 58 mBq/L, respectively, while in the water samples collected from outside the bone-coal mine areas, they were 3.41 μg/L and 45 mBq/L, respectively. In addition, the specific activities of 238U and 226Ra in air aerosol samples from the bone-coal mine areas were 0.6 and 0.5 mBq/m3, respectively. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide therapy for painful bone metastases. An italian multicentre observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been affirmed that observational studies give analogous results to randomised controlled ones. A multicentre observational trial was conducted between 1996-1998 in order to evaluate the efficacy of palliative radionuclide therapy for bone metastases in a large number of patients. An evaluation was made on 510 patients with prostate cancer and painful bone metastases, treated with a single i.v. dose of 89Sr-chloride (527 treatments) or 186Re-HEDP (83 treatments), in 29 Italian Nuclear Medicine Departments. Eighty-one patients received up to five injections, totalling 100 retreatments. Patients were followed up for a period of 3 months-2 years. Results were expressed at four levels of response: excellent, good, mild, and nil. Responses were excellent in 26.4%, good in 33.3%, mild in 21.3% and nil in 19% of all treatments, while good and excellent responses were obtained in 48% of retreatments. No statistically significant correlations were found between response and age of patients, skeletal extension of tumor, pretherapeutic PSA levels, evidence of non-bony metastases, previous chemotherapy and/or external-beam radiotherapy; osteolytic lesions responded worse than osteoblastic or mixed ones. Hematological toxicity (mild to moderate), mainly affecting platelets, was observed in 25.5% of all treatments and in 38.9% if retreatments. No clear differences were found between the two radiopharmaceuticals employed. In conclusion, bearing in mind that observational studies can provide just as accurate results as randomised controlled trials, this study confirms the main findings of various limited monocentre trials

  2. Radionuclide therapy for painful bone metastases. An italian multicentre observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pifanelli, A.; Dafermou, A.; Giganti, M.; Colamussi, P. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Service for Nuclear Medicine; Pizzocaro, C.; Bestagno, M. [Spedali Civili, Brescia (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    It has been affirmed that observational studies give analogous results to randomised controlled ones. A multicentre observational trial was conducted between 1996-1998 in order to evaluate the efficacy of palliative radionuclide therapy for bone metastases in a large number of patients. An evaluation was made on 510 patients with prostate cancer and painful bone metastases, treated with a single i.v. dose of {sup 89}Sr-chloride (527 treatments) or {sup 186}Re-HEDP (83 treatments), in 29 Italian Nuclear Medicine Departments. Eighty-one patients received up to five injections, totalling 100 retreatments. Patients were followed up for a period of 3 months-2 years. Results were expressed at four levels of response: excellent, good, mild, and nil. Responses were excellent in 26.4%, good in 33.3%, mild in 21.3% and nil in 19% of all treatments, while good and excellent responses were obtained in 48% of retreatment. No statistically significant correlations were found between response and age of patients, skeletal extension of tumor, pretherapeutic PSA levels, evidence of non-bony metastases, previous chemotherapy and/or external-beam radiotherapy; osteolytic lesions responded worse than osteoblastic or mixed ones. Hematological toxicity (mild to moderate), mainly affecting platelets, was observed in 25.5% of all treatments and in 38.9% if retreatment. No clear differences were found between the two radiopharmaceuticals employed. In conclusion, bearing in mind that observational studies can provide just as accurate results as randomised controlled trials, this study confirms the main findings of various limited monocentre trials.

  3. Different radionuclide imaging in diagnosis, assessment of response and detection of recurrence in bone and soft tissue tumours of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the present work are: a) to compare different radionuclides in the diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumours; b) to evaluate the role of 99mTc-MIBI uptake and washout kinetics in assessing the tumour response to initial chemotherapy; c) to study the diagnostic efficacy of different radionuclides in detecting recurrent bone and soft tissue tumours (STS) of the extremities in comparison to CT and/or MRI

  4. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairemo, Kalevi; Rasulova, Nigora; Suslaviciute, Justina; Alanko, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) stage T4N2M1b, with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume). In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed. PMID:27408870

  5. Radionuclide Treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP is Effective for the Palliation of Bone Pain in the Context of Extensive Bone Marrow Metastases: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide therapy is widely used as an effective modality in the management of bone pain. The main indication for this treatment is symptomatic bone metastases, confirmed by bone scintigraphy. We present a case of small cell lung cancer (SCLC stage T4N2M1b, with a good metabolic response to systemic therapy and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and locoregional disease, which became metabolically less active and remarkably smaller in size (reduction to 1/6 of the original volume. In spite of the good overall response, the patient developed a syndrome with severe bone pain and had progression in the bone marrow metastases, confirmed by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The patient received 153Sm-EDTMP treatment with a good clinical response. However, in the whole body bone scan with the therapeutic dose, there was no visual evidence of bone metastasis. Retrospectively, by drawing the region of interest, it was possible to identify one metastatic site. The possible mechanisms of the efficacy of this treatment modality, in this specific setting, are also discussed.

  6. A multicentre observational study of radionuclide therapy in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermou, A.; Colamussi, P.; Giganti, M.; Cittanti, C.; Piffanelli, A. o [Medicina Nucleare, Univ. di Ferrara (Italy); Bestagno, M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A multicentre observational study was conducted by the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine between 1996 and 1998. Twenty-nine Nuclear Medicine Departments participated. The aims of the study were to systematically evaluate the efficacy, toxicity and repeatability of radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases (RTBM) in a large number of patients and to assess its incidence in patients with prostate cancer. Out of 818 treatments performed with a single i.v. dose of 148 MBq of strontium-89 chloride or 1,295 MBq of rhenium-186 hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP), 610 could be evaluated (527 with {sup 89}Sr and 83 with {sup 186}Re-HEDP). Eighty-one patients received multiple (up to five) RTBM. The total number of retreatments was 100. Patients were followed up for a period of 3-24 months. Results, assessed according to pain relief and consumption of analgesic drugs, were expressed at four levels: 1, no response; 2, mild response; 3, good response; 4, excellent response. Responses were: level 1 in 19%, level 2 in 21.3%, level 3 in 33.3% and level 4 in 26.4% of cases. Retreatments showed significantly (P<0.01) worse responses (48% levels 3+4), in comparison to first RTBM. Duration of palliation was 5.0{+-}3.5 months, and was longer in cases of excellent response, in first RTBM, in patients with limited metastases and when {sup 89}Sr was used. Better responses were found in cases of limited skeletal disease, under good clinical conditions, when life expectancy exceeded 3 months, and in radiologically osteoblastic or mixed bone lesions. The only statistically significant predictive factor was life expectancy (P<0.001). Flare phenomenon (14.1% of cases) did not correlate with the response. Haematological toxicity (mild to moderate in most cases) mainly affected platelets, and was observed in 25.5% of cases overall and in 38.9% of retreatments. RTBM did not seem to prolong life, though in some cases scintigraphic regression of bone metastases was observed. The two

  7. Measurements of natural radionuclides in human teeth and animal bones as markers of radiation exposure from soil in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th in extracted human teeth, animal bones, and soil. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy in extracted human teeth and animal bones from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31±7.27 Bq g−1, 0.48±0.21 Bq g−1, 0.56±0.21 Bq g−1, 0.55±0.23 Bq g−1, 1.82±1.28 Bq g−1, and 0.50±0.14 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations in bones were found to be 3.79±0.81 Bq g−1, 0.07±0.02 Bq g−1, 0.08±0.02 Bq g−1, 0.16±0.04 Bq g−1, 0.51±1.08 Bq g−1, and 0.06±0.02 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations in teeth from smokers were higher than those in non-smokers, and the corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. A positive correlation was found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone samples. - Highlights: • Radionuclides in teeth from smokers higher than non-smokers, except 40K. • Radionuclides slightly higher in female teeth than male teeth. • Positive correlation found between radionuclides in both teeth and bone

  8. The role of radionuclide bone scanning in follow-up of asymptomatic patients with early breast cancer (stage TIa-c)and bone marrow micro metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The presence of bone marrow micro metastases (MM-BM) in women with early breast cancer is a significant biological factor for the survival of patients (pts) with this oncological disease. The study was designed to investigate the role of radionuclide bone scanning as a highly sensitive staging procedure for detection of bone metastases in pts with MM-BM and breast cancer, stage TIa-c. Methods: Whole-body scintigraphy was carried out in 100 pts with breast cancer, stage Ia-c (aged 26-76 years, median 56) according to the clinical protocol for the 5-year postoperative follow-up. Occult tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates, taken during the surgery, were detected by cytologic and cytochemical techniques in 28 of the cases. Tumoral size (TIa,b,c), axillary lymph node status, histological type, tumor grade and SR/PR receptor status were scored for all pts. CHI-SQUARE TEST x2 was used to evaluate statistical significance of these factors for developing of bone metastases in studied women. Results: Multiple bone metastases were found on bone scans in 13 of 28 pts with MM-BM (46.4%) and in 3 of 72 pts without MM-BM(4.1%). On statistical analysis of all studied pts with early breast cancer, tumoral size, clinical N-stage, histological type, tumor grade and ER/PR receptor status were not significant (p>0.05), whereas the presence of MM-BM was significant (p<0.001) bone marrow for the development of osseous metastases in early breast cancer. Conclusion: Early identification of MM-BM and bone scintigraphy regularly performed in these pts, may have a role as factors for preventive therapy with biphosphonates in early breast cancer patients. Recent studies have supported their potential clinical application to stratify patients for adjuvant therapy

  9. Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

  10. Radionuclide bone imaging as a means of differentiating loosening and infection in patients with a painful total hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients with 23 painful total hip prostheses were examined by radionuclide imaging (20 cases), arthrography (11 cases), needle aspriation (9 cases), and surgery (19 cases) for the purpose of assessing loosening and/or infection. Bone imaging was most accurate, showing three main distributions of activity: (a) ectopic calcification, (b) focal increased activity at the upper and lower ends of the femoral prosthesis, and (c) diffuse activity. These findings suggest that infection and loosening can be differentiated in many instances. None of the patients with focal activity had infection, compared to 2 of the 3 patients with diffuse uptake

  11. Dosimetry of bone metastases in targeted radionuclide therapy with alpha-emitting 223Ra-dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (activity extrapolated to t = 0) were significantly correlated. The feasibility of in vivo quantitative imaging in 223Ra therapy was confirmed. The lesion uptake of 223Ra-dichloride was significantly correlated with that of 99mTc-MDP. The DRBE to lesions per unit administered activity was much higher than that of other bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, but considering a standard administration of 21 MBq (six injections of 50 kBq/kg to a 70-kg patient), the mean cumulative value of DRBE was about 19 Gy, and was therefore in the range of those of other radiopharmaceuticals. The macrodosimetry of bone metastases in treatments with 223Ra-dichloride is feasible, but more work is needed to demonstrate its helpfulness in predicting clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  12. Intestinal uptake of bone seeking radiotracer: possible mechanisms and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Kim, C. G.; Park, S. A.; Chang, J. A. [WonKwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency of intestinal accumulation of Tc-99m 3, 3-diphosphono-1, 2-propanedicarboxylic acid (DPD) on bone scans, describe the patterns of intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake and discuss the possible mechanisms of this unusual finding. Three thousand, one hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients have been evaluated for intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake on bone scans. A whole-body bone scan and various spot views were obtained to evaluate the location and intensity of intestinal uptake. Delayed scan and SPECT study were performed to define characteristics of intestinal uptake in some of patients. Available reports of co-relative radiologic imaging, endoscopic studies and laboratory tests were also reviewed to explain the intestinal uptake. Eighteen (9 female, 9 male) patients out of 3194 with a mean age of 57 years showed intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake. The locations of intestinal uptake were well dispersed throughout the abdomen. The majority of the cases showed lower intensity than iliac spine (12/18, 67%). Eight patients didn't show significant change of uptake characteristics on the delayed images, while intestinal uptake traveled distally in nine patients. Two cases were revealed uptake of peritoneal carcinomatosis with small amount ascites and three cases were revealed tumoral uptake of intestine. Four patients with gastritis showed similar characteristic of intestinal uptake. Six cases of distally traveled intestinal uptake suggested intraluminal Tc-99m DPD activity such as gastrointestinal bleeding. However, stool occult blood tests were negative in three patients, and there is no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in other three patients. Intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake can be observed in 0.5% of bone scans. The mechanism of intestinal uptake is still unclear in some of the patients. Delayed imaging additional spot views and SPECT studies help in the differentiation of this finding from possible

  13. Experimental radionuclide studies on the replacement of extended damages of the long bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dogs extended defects of the long bones were produced and then replaced by distraction osteosynthesis. The metabolic processes in the newly formed bone were studied possess a high significance as to the study of the course of bone formation. The osteosynthesis was characterized by an accelerated blood flow in the extremity and by an increased concentration of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate pointing to an intensification of the metabolic processes. After the regeneration of the bone metabolic processes and blood flow were normalized. (author)

  14. Evaluation of a freeze-dried kit for EDTMP-based bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A freeze-dried kit developed for formulation of ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) chelates with 'pain-palliation' radiolanthanides (e.g., 153Sm and 177Lu) or 'diagnostic' 99mTc has been evaluated, meeting quality and safety criteria required for medicinal use. The EDTMP kit enables an instant one-step preparation of a radiopharmaceutical of high radiochemical purity (>99%) and has a sufficiently long shelf life. Comparative biodistribution studies of 177Lu-EDTMP and 99mTc-EDTMP prepared from the kit revealed similar tissue uptake and clearance to those obtained for pre-formulated 153Sm-EDTMP. The most significant difference was observed for 99mTc-EDTMP, which shows a high retention in kidney, reaching ca. 2% ID after 90 min p.i.v. Although preliminary clinical evaluations suggest that 99mTc-EDTMP possesses limited value for bone scintigraphy, application of the radiopharmaceutical for specific diagnostic purposes may still be considered, e.g., investigation of bone metastases or ossification processes in inflammatory spondyloarthropathy

  15. Which patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer need a radionuclide bone scan? An analysis based on 631 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although radionuclide bone scans are frequently recommended as part of the staging evaluation for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, most scans are negative for metastases. We hypothesized that Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and clinical stage could predict for a positive bone scan (BS), and that a low-risk group of patients could be identified in whom BS might be omitted. Methods: All patients who had both pathologic review of their prostate cancer biopsies and radionuclide BS at our institution between 1/90 and 5/96 were studied. Gleason score, PSA, and clinical stage (AJCC, 4th edition) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses for their ability to predict a positive BS. Groups analyzed were Gleason of 2-6 vs. 7 vs. 8-10; PSA of 0-15 vs. greater than 15-50 vs. greater than 50; and clinical stage of T1a-T2b vs. T2c-T4. Univariate analysis using χ2 and multivariate analysis using logistic regression were performed. Results: Of the 631 consecutive patients, 88 (14%) had positive BS. Multivariate analysis (64 excluded due to missing PSA and/or clinical stage) showed Gleason score, PSA, and clinical stage to be significant independent predictors for positive BS (p 50 vs. 0-15; 2.25 (CI, 1.43-3.54) for Gleason of 8-10 vs. 2-6; 2.15 (CI, 1.54-2.99) for clinical stage T2c-T4 vs. T2b or less. Three of 308 (1%) had a positive BS in patients with Gleason 2-7, PSA of 50 or less, and clinical stage of T2b or less. In the subset of the same risk group with PSA of 15 or less, all 237 had negative bone scans. In patients with PSA greater than 50, 49/99(49.5%) had positive BS. Conclusion: Gleason score, PSA, and clinical stage were independent predictors for a positive radionuclide BS in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. PSA is the major predictor for positive BS. About one-half of the patients analyzed were in the low-risk group (Gleason 2-7, PSA ≤ 50, clinical stage ≤ T2b) and elimination of BS in these patients would result in

  16. Radionuclide imaging in early detection of childhood osteomyelitis and its differentiation from cellulitis and bone infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In children, radionuclide skeletal imaging with sup(99m)Tc-phosphate compounds is significantly more sensitive than roentgenographic studies in the early detection of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. The scintigraphic patterns are usually characteristic. Cellulitis and some cases of early infarction are easily differentiated from osteomyelitis. However, some cases of infarction are indistinguishable from osteomyelitis on sup(99m)Tc-phosphate scan. In these cases 67Ga-citrate may prove helpful

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel {sup 68}Ga-chelate-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone-seeking agent for PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kentaro, E-mail: skentarou@ffri.co.jp; Satake, Miho; Suwada, Jun; Oshikiri, Shinobu; Ashino, Hiroki; Dozono, Hiroyuki; Hino, Akihiro; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Minamizawa, Takao

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a positron-emitting nuclide that has significant imaging potential given that, unlike cyclotron-produced {sup 18}F, the isotope can be produced on-site utilizing a {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generator. We recently synthesized a novel bone-seeking agent by coupling a bisphosphonate with the {sup 68}Ga chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). This study presents a first report on the potential of this {sup 68}Ga bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical in the detection of bone metastases. Methods: 4-Amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate was conjugated with 2-[4,7-di(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl]pentanedioic acid, yielding 2-[4,7-di(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl] -5-[(4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutyl)amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid (NOTA-BP). {sup 68}Ga-labeled NOTA-BP ([{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP) was prepared by complexation of NOTA-BP with [{sup 68}Ga] gallium chloride and evaluated in in vitro experiments, biodistribution experiments and micro-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging experiments. Results: The labeling of NOTA-BP with {sup 68}Ga was completed by heating for 10 min. [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP was determined to have a radiochemical purity of over 95%, a high affinity for hydroxyapatite and a high stability in plasma. In in vivo biodistribution experiments, [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP demonstrated high bone uptake potential. Compared with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled methylene diphosphonate ([{sup 99m}Tc]MDP) and [{sup 18}F]fluoride, [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP exhibited faster blood clearance and a higher bone-to-blood ratio. In addition, mouse model bone metastasis was detected by micro-PET imaging at 1 h postinjection of [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP. Conclusion: We have developed a novel {sup 68}Ga-radiolabeled bone-seeking agent. This [{sup 68}Ga]NOTA-BP complex was found to have a high bone affinity and rapid blood clearance, and may thus prove to be useful as a bone-seeking agent for clinical PET.

  18. Bone-seeking TRAP conjugates: surprising observations and their implications on the development of gallium-68-labeled bisphosphonates

    OpenAIRE

    Notni, Johannes; Plutnar, Jan; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates possess strong affinity to bone. 99mTc bisphosphonate complexes are widely used for bone scintigraphy. For positron emission tomography (PET) bone imaging, Ga-68-based PET tracers based on bisphosphonates are highly desirable. Findings Two trimeric bisphosphonate conjugates of the triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelator were synthesized, labeled with Ga-68, and used for microPET imaging of bone in male Lewis rats. Both Ga-68 tracers show bone uptake and, thus,...

  19. The clinical application of radionuclide bone scan in patients with femoral neck fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of bone scan for evaluation of patients with femoral neck fracture. Methods: The data of bone scan, surgical operation, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head after operation of 420 patients were statistically analyzed. The region of interest (ROI) ratios of the fractured head of femur to contralateral counterpart, head to shaft of femur and head to anterior superior iliac spine were calculated and compared with those of controls. Results: The rate of internal fixation operation performed on the patients without femoral head ischemia was higher than those with femoral head ischemia, and the rate of hip arthroplasty was lower. In patients with femoral head ischemia prior to operation, more patients suffered osteonecrosis of the femoral head after operation compared with the patients without femoral head ischemia. The ROI ratio of patients with femoral head ischemia was significantly lower than that of controls. Conclusion: For fractured femoral neck, bone scan prior to the operation has certain significance for selecting surgical program in clinical practice, and also has important value in predicting prognosis. (authors)

  20. The bone volume effect on the dosimetry of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the skeleton of man and baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken using bone removed from young adult baboons, which had been contaminated with plutonium-239 at various times prior to sacrifice, and human bone from adult male (USTR Case 246), who had received an internal deposition of americium-241 as a result of a glove-box explosion 11 years prior to his death. The baboon bone was supplied by the CEA, France, and the human bone by the United States Transuranium registry. The bone samples, examined by qualitative and quantitative autoradiography with CR 39 detectors, demonstrated the rapid redistribution of bone surface-seeking radionuclides in younger primates due to growth and the slower, bone turnover driven redistribution in the adult human bone. In both species, primary and secondary surface deposits of radionuclide remained conspicious despite bone activity; true volumization of radionuclide was seldom seen. The dosimetric implications of these findings are discussed. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Radium-223 treatment of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    The alpha emitter Radium-223 ((22)3Ra-Cl2) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone refractory prostate cancer. More than 1,000 patients have been included in clinical phase I-III tests showing significant reduction in alkaline...

  2. Bone marrow dosimetry in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrer, Flavio; Krenning, Eric P.; Kooij, Peter P.; Bernard, Bert F.; Bakker, Willem H.; Teunissen, Jaap J.M.; Jong, Marion de; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Konijnenberg, Mark [Mallinckrodt Medical BV, Research and Development, Petten (Netherlands); Lom, Kirsten van [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Haematology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the accumulated activity in the bone marrow is calculated from the accumulated radioactivity of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood. This may underestimate the absorbed dose since stem cells express somatostatin receptors. We verified the blood-based method by comparing the activity in the blood with the radioactivity in bone marrow aspirates. Also, we evaluated the absorbed cross-dose from the source organs (liver, spleen, kidneys and blood), tumours and the so-called ''remainder of the body'' to the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn in 15 patients after treatment with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Radioactivity in the bone marrow was compared with radioactivity in the blood drawn simultaneously. The nucleated cell fraction was isolated from the bone marrow aspirate and radioactivity was measured. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow was calculated. The results were correlated to the change in platelet counts 6 weeks after treatment. A strong linear correlation and high agreement between the measured radioactivities in the bone marrow aspirates and in the blood was found (r=0.914, p<0.001). No correlation between the calculated absorbed dose in the bone marrow and the change in platelets was found. There was a considerable contribution from other organs and the remainder of the body to the bone marrow absorbed dose. (1) After PRRT with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate, the radioactivity concentration in the bone marrow is identical to that in the blood; (2) There is no significant binding of the radiopharmaceutical to bone marrow precursor stem cells; (3) The contribution of the cross dose from source organs and tumours to the bone

  3. Simultaneous determination of alpha-emitting radionuclides of thorium and plutonium in human tissues including bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of environmental, i.e., non-occupational, levels of α-emitting isotopes of thorium and plutonium in human lung, lymph nodes, liver, kidney, thyroid, spleen, gonads, and bone. Known amounts of soft tissues (5-850 g) spiked with 1-2 dpm tracers of 229Th and 242Pu are wet ashed with nitric acid, and H2SO4 with occasional addition of HNO3 and H2O2. Th and Pu are coprecipitated with 10 mg of Fe carrier by gradual addition of ammonium hydroxide. The precipitate is dissolved in HNO3 and adjusted to 4 M. Th and Pu are co-extracted into 25% (v/v) trilaurylamine in xylene. Th is backwashed with 10 M HCl and the Pu is back-extracted with 2 M H2SO4. Th and Pu are electrodeposited separately on platinum planchets and determined by α spectrometry. Bone samples are wet ashed with nitric acid and H2O2, after spiking with 229Th and 242Pu tracers. Th and Pu are coprecipitated with calcium oxalate by adding oxalic acid. The precipitate is heated at 5500C, dissolved in nitric acid, and adjusted to 4 M. Then extractions, back-extractions, electrodeposition and measurements are performed as described for soft tissues. The recovery for Th ranged from 30 to 93% with a mean of 55% and for Pu from 32 to 94% with a mean of 71%. 4 figures, 2 tables

  4. The value of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals and quantification methods in diagnosing the type of a skeletal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 139 patients with skeletal changes and 133 patients without changes, 2-3 hours after injecting sup(99m)Tc-Sn-methylen-diphosphonate or sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate, the enrichment relations between the individual vertebral bodies, the sacrum, the reiosacral joints and peripheric bones and joints were calculated. In the normal case, with increasing age the count rate ratio ISG/os sacrum was decreasing. For patients with bone metastases in the vertebral column, quotients between 0.8 and 4.0 were calculated if related to the vertebral next but one. As for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column, values of 0.8 to 1.59 were obtained. This means that, when determining the relative bone storage, 70% of the metastases could not be distinguished from benign changes in the vertebra column. The highest count rate ratios or contrasts were obtained when norming to the opposite side in peripheric bone tumours and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or arthritis urica of the smaller joints. It was not possible to differentiate arthrotic and inflammatory diseases of big joints. If quotients with values around 0.1 were calculated, floride osteoblastic processes can be excluded. Thus the quotient formation in bone scintiscanning represents a substantial support in the indication of invasive measures. (orig./MG)

  5. Dosimetry of bone metastases in targeted radionuclide therapy with alpha-emitting {sup 223}Ra-dichloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; Ventroni, Guido; Mango, Lucio [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicin; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Di Castro, Elisabetta; Frantellizzi, Viviana; Follacchio, Giulia Anna; Garkavaya, Tatiana [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo Pathological Sciences; Cassano, Bartolomeo; Lorenzon, Leda [Rome Univ. (Italy). Postgraduate School of Medical Physics; Pellegrini, Rosanna; Pani, Roberto [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Molecular Medicine; Ialongo, Pasquale [Azienda Ospealiera San Camillo Forlianini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    percent uptake of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 223}Ra (activity extrapolated to t = 0) were significantly correlated. The feasibility of in vivo quantitative imaging in {sup 223}Ra therapy was confirmed. The lesion uptake of {sup 223}Ra-dichloride was significantly correlated with that of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The D{sub RBE} to lesions per unit administered activity was much higher than that of other bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, but considering a standard administration of 21 MBq (six injections of 50 kBq/kg to a 70-kg patient), the mean cumulative value of D{sub RBE} was about 19 Gy, and was therefore in the range of those of other radiopharmaceuticals. The macrodosimetry of bone metastases in treatments with {sup 223}Ra-dichloride is feasible, but more work is needed to demonstrate its helpfulness in predicting clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  6. Preparation and biological evaluation of 166Ho-BPAMD as a potential therapeutic bone-seeking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work 166Ho-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis (carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-(tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (166Ho-BPAMD) complex was prepared successfully with sufficient radiochemical purity of >94 % and specific activity of 244 GBq/mmol at the optimized conditions. The complex demonstrated significant stability at room temperature and in human serum at least for 24 h. Hydroxyapatite (HA) binding assay demonstrated that even at the small amount of HA, >10 mg, above 98 % of the complex is bound to HA. At the pH 7.4, LogP0/w was -1.73 ± 0.02. Both planar imaging and biodistribution studies showed major accumulation of the labelled compound in the bone tissue. (author)

  7. When to perform positron emission tomography/computed tomography or radionuclide bone scan in patients with recently diagnosed prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldarella C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmelo Caldarella,1 Giorgio Treglia,2 Alessandro Giordano,1 Luca Giovanella2 1Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland Abstract: Skeletal metastases are very common in prostate cancer and represent the main metastatic site in about 80% of prostate cancer patients, with a significant impact in patients' prognosis. Early detection of bone metastases is critical in the management of patients with recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer: radical treatment is recommended in case of localized disease; systemic therapy should be preferred in patients with distant secondary disease. Bone scintigraphy using radiolabeled bisphosphonates is of great importance in the management of these patients; however, its main drawback is its low overall accuracy, due to the nonspecific uptake in sites of increased bone turnover. Positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, choline-derived drugs (fluorine-18-fluorocholine and carbon-11-choline and sodium fluorine-18-fluoride, are increasingly used in clinical practice to detect metastatic spread, and particularly bone involvement, in patients with prostate cancer, to reinforce or substitute information provided by bone scan. Each radiopharmaceutical has a specific mechanism of uptake; therefore, diagnostic performances may differ from one radiopharmaceutical to another on the same lesions, as demonstrated in the literature, with variable sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values in the same patients. Whether bone scintigraphy can be substituted by these new methods is a matter of debate. However, greater radiobiological burden, higher costs, and the necessity of an in-site cyclotron limit the use of these positron emission tomography methods as first-line investigations in patients with prostate cancer

  8. 99mTc-MDP combined blood pool and bone phase radionuclide imaging in papain-injected carpal joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic changes, i.e., increased activity, were induced by 1% papain, dissolved in phosphate-buffered physiologic saline (pH 7.4), injected into one antebrachiocarpal joint in each of eight dogs. Scintigraphic evaluation was by the use of combined blood pool and bone phase scintigraphy of affected and normal carpi over a 28-day period. The qualitative and quantitative scintigraphic appearance in injected carpal joints were very similar in both blood pool and bone phases. The clinical use of combined blood pool and bone phase scintigraphy to diagnose early inflammatory joint changes appears limited

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone lesions. Imaging and therapy in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, E. K. J.; Stokkel, M. P. M. [Leiden University Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy continues to be one of the most commonly performed procedures in nuclear medicine. The radionuclide bone scan remains an excellent modality to detect metastatic disease in patients suffering from primary malignancies. This article reviews a number of aspects of bone scintigraphy such as bone physiology, radiopharmaceuticals and uptake mechanisms. As {sup 99}mTc labelled bis(di)phosphonates are the most frequently used this article is centred around these imaging agents. In addition to diagnostic bone scintigraphy the use of various bone seeking agents has been extended to the palliative treatment of bone metastases. In this context the radiobiological characteristics of various radionuclides as {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}Re and {sup 117}Sn is elucidated. In addition, the clinical efficacy for pain killing of these radionuclides is elucidated on the basis of the radiation properties of these agents. It is concluded that {sup 89}Sr and {sup 186}Re are presently the radionuclides of choice. The latter agent has a slight advantage as its imaging photons enable individual dosimetry, resulting in an optimised application scheme.

  10. When to perform positron emission tomography/computed tomography or radionuclide bone scan in patients with recently diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal metastases are very common in prostate cancer and represent the main metastatic site in about 80% of prostate cancer patients, with a significant impact in patients’ prognosis. Early detection of bone metastases is critical in the management of patients with recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer: radical treatment is recommended in case of localized disease; systemic therapy should be preferred in patients with distant secondary disease. Bone scintigraphy using radiolabeled bisphosphonates is of great importance in the management of these patients; however, its main drawback is its low overall accuracy, due to the nonspecific uptake in sites of increased bone turnover. Positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, choline-derived drugs (fluorine-18-fluorocholine and carbon-11-choline) and sodium fluorine-18-fluoride, are increasingly used in clinical practice to detect metastatic spread, and particularly bone involvement, in patients with prostate cancer, to reinforce or substitute information provided by bone scan. Each radiopharmaceutical has a specific mechanism of uptake; therefore, diagnostic performances may differ from one radiopharmaceutical to another on the same lesions, as demonstrated in the literature, with variable sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values in the same patients. Whether bone scintigraphy can be substituted by these new methods is a matter of debate. However, greater radiobiological burden, higher costs, and the necessity of an in-site cyclotron limit the use of these positron emission tomography methods as first-line investigations in patients with prostate cancer: bone scintigraphy remains the mainstay for the detection of bone metastases in current clinical practice

  11. When to perform positron emission tomography/computed tomography or radionuclide bone scan in patients with recently diagnosed prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarella, Carmelo; Treglia, Giorgio; Giordano, Alessandro; Giovanella, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases are very common in prostate cancer and represent the main metastatic site in about 80% of prostate cancer patients, with a significant impact in patients' prognosis. Early detection of bone metastases is critical in the management of patients with recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer: radical treatment is recommended in case of localized disease; systemic therapy should be preferred in patients with distant secondary disease. Bone scintigraphy using radiolabeled bisphosphonates is of great importance in the management of these patients; however, its main drawback is its low overall accuracy, due to the nonspecific uptake in sites of increased bone turnover. Positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, choline-derived drugs (fluorine-18-fluorocholine and carbon-11-choline) and sodium fluorine-18-fluoride, are increasingly used in clinical practice to detect metastatic spread, and particularly bone involvement, in patients with prostate cancer, to reinforce or substitute information provided by bone scan. Each radiopharmaceutical has a specific mechanism of uptake; therefore, diagnostic performances may differ from one radiopharmaceutical to another on the same lesions, as demonstrated in the literature, with variable sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values in the same patients. Whether bone scintigraphy can be substituted by these new methods is a matter of debate. However, greater radiobiological burden, higher costs, and the necessity of an in-site cyclotron limit the use of these positron emission tomography methods as first-line investigations in patients with prostate cancer: bone scintigraphy remains the mainstay for the detection of bone metastases in current clinical practice. PMID:23861598

  12. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with lutetium-177 DOTATATE in a case of recurrent extradrenal retroperitoneal malignant paraganglioma with nodal and bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koramadai Karuppusamy Kamaleshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-adrenal retroperitoneal paragangliomas (PGLs are rare tumors causing considerable difficulty in both, diagnosis and treatment. They can be unicentric or multicentric, tend to be locally invasive and therefore have a high incidence of local recurrence. PGLs shows somatostatin receptor positivity, which can be imaged with technetium-99m (Tc-99m-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (HYNIC-TOC and can be treated with lutetium-177 (Lu-177 DOTATATE. We present a case of recurrent unresectable retroperitoneal PGL with nodal and bone metastases in a 27-year-old male, 6 months postsurgery detected with Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC and was administered with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Lu-177 DOTATATE.

  13. Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning provides information on the extent of primary bone tumors, on possible metastatic disease, on the presence of osteomyelitis prior to observation of roentgenographic changes so that earlier therapy is possible, on the presence of collagen diseases, on the presence of fractures not disclosed by x-ray films, and on the evaluation of aseptic necrosis. However, the total effect and contribution of bone scanning to the diagnosis, treatment, and ultimate prognosis of pediatric skeletal diseases is, as yet, unknown. (auth)

  14. Use of rare-earth radionuclides and other bone-seekers in the evaluation of bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four patients with multiple myeloma and 4 with solitary plasmacytoma had total-body scans after intravenous injection of 67Ga-citrate alone (17 patients) or combined with other agents (11 patients). The latter included /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc-DP), /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PP), or /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) given alone or combined with 171Er, 157Dy, or 167Tm as citrate. In some patients more than one agent was compared to 67Ga and radiographic bone surveys. In general, localization of the rare-earth ''bone-seekers'' was poor except for 157Dy, which compared well with /sup 99m/Tc-PP and /sup 99m/TC-DP; 157Dy was also helpful in studies of the abdomen and pelvis because of its failure to concentrate in the gastrointestinal tract. No toxic or nonspecific effects were noted

  15. Rent Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Shankha Chakraborty; Era Dabla-Norris

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rent seeking and economic performance when governments cannot enforce property rights. With imperfect credit markets and a fixed cost to rent seeking, only wealthy agents choose to engage in it, as it allows them to protect their wealth from expropriation. Hence, the level of rent seeking and economic performance are determined by the initial distribution of income and wealth. When individuals also differ in their productivity, not all wealthy agen...

  16. The role of radioisotopes for the palliation of bone pain from bone metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-gang; LI Chun-lin

    2006-01-01

    Bone metastasis occurs as a result of a complex pathophysiologic process between host and tumor cells leading to cellular invasion, migration adhesion, and stimulation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity. Several sequences occur as a result of osseous metastases and resulting bone pain can lead to significant debilitation. Pain associated with osseous metastasis is thought to be distinct from neuropathic or inflammatory pain. Several mechanisms, such as invasion of tumor cells, spinal cord astrogliosis,and sensitization of nervous system, have been postulated to cause pain. Pharmaceutical therapy of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates. These drags are associated with side effects, and tolerance to these agents necessitates treatment with other modalities. Bisphosphonates act by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated resorption and have been increasingly used in treatment of painful bone metastasis. While external beam radiation therapy remains the mainstay of pain palliation of solitary lesions, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have entered the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of multiple painful osseous lesions. 32p has been used for over 3 decades in the treatment of multiple osseous metastases. The myelosuppression caused by this agent has led to the development of other bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, including 89SrCl, and 153Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP). 89Sr is a bone-seeking radionuclide, whereas 153Sm-EDTMP is a bone-seeking tetraphosphonate; both have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of painful osseous metastases. While both agents have been shown to have efficacy in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from prostate cancer, they may also have utility in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from breast cancer and perhaps from non-small cell lung cancer. This article illustrates the salient features of these radiopharmaceuticals, including the

  17. EORTC QLQ-BM22 and QLQ-C30 quality of life scores in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer treated with strontium-89 radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 80% of patients with prostate cancer will develop bone metastases, which often lead to bone pain and skeletal-related events. Sr-89 is an established alternative for the palliation of bone pain in prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the effect of Sr-89 radionuclide therapy on quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer patients with painful bone metastases. Thirteen patients received a single intravenous injection of Sr-89 at a dose of 2.0 MBq/kg. All patients underwent QOL evaluation prior to Sr-89 treatment and 1, 2, and 3 months afterward using the Japanese version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer developed a Quality of Life questionnaire for Patients with Bone Metastases 22(EORTC QLQ-BM22), EORTC Quality of Life Group core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), a visual analog scale (VAS), and face scale. We also evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) response and toxicity of the Sr-89 therapy. The pain characteristics subscale of the EORTC QLQ-BM22 was significantly reduced from 1 month onward compared with the baseline. The functional interference and psychosocial aspects subscales were significantly higher than baseline from 2 months onward. At 2 months, VAS indicated a significant reduction in pain as compared to the baseline. Sr-89 therapy caused a nonsignificant reduction in PSA and ALP levels. No patients had leukocyte toxicity, and one patient had grade 3 platelet toxicity. Sr-89 radionuclide therapy can provide not only reduced pain characteristics but also better psychosocial aspects and functional interference in patients with painful bone metastases of prostate cancer. (author)

  18. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...

  19. Radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of radionuclides to biota is discussed especially with reference to specific elements in local soils. Two annual plant species have received concentrated study. These are cheatgrass and tumbleweed, both important inhabitants of waste burial sites. Little is known concerning the radionuclide dynamics of perennial grasses, forbs, or shrub species. The potential for radionuclide transport by jackrabbits, waterfowl, small mammals, and biota inhabiting pond systems is discussed. Concentration ratios are tabulated

  20. Cosmogenic radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Jürg; Von Steiger, R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any f

  1. Radionuclide Tc-99m MDP Imaging for diagnosis of bone tumour at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (Ghana): an illustrative review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are used in diagnosing primary and metastatic bone tumours because of the high sensitivity. Diagnosing bone tumours using technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) on 9 randomly selected whole-body bone scans have been demonstrated by clinical studies of patients for illustrative review. Upon satisfactory testing of the e.cam (R) Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography at the Nuclear Medicine Department (Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital), scans of patients provided essential physiologic information about the sites of bone lesions and prognosis as shown by sequential changes in tracer uptake. The bone scintigrams were classified either as normal or pathologic. Of the 197 patients (91 males and 106 females) who underwent radioactive whole-body scans in the year 2006, the peak age at bone tumour detection was between 51 and 60 years. From qualitative analyses of the reported cases, 144 patients were diagnosed with bone tumours, but ∼ 17 % were found to be primary, while ∼ 83 % were metastatic in nature. The observation confirmed other published data that bone tumours with origin in the cells of bone are not prevalent compared to tumours that metastasize from other parts of the body, such as breast, cervix and prostate. Breast, prostate and cervical cancers contributed respectively to 34 %, 19 % and 18 % of the bone tumour cases, but only 3 % were diagnosed with osteoporosis (a relatively rare type of bone disease). (au)

  2. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  3. An In Vitro Instead of In Vivo Approach to Develop 117MSN Based Bone-Seeking Radiopharmaceuticals as Studied for SN(II) and SN(IV) Complexes of the Polymer Polyethyleneiminomethyl Phosphonic Acid (PEI-MP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has become standard practice in the development of radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate/assess the efficacy of prospective therapeutic or diagnostic agents by animal models, which generally calls for subjecting a substantial number of animals to intensive test and retest measurements for obtaining representative and conclusive results. This work communicates the advantage of combining various analytical modalities with mathematical and computational modelling as a multifaceted tool, for pre-vivo screening of prospective radiopharmaceuticals intended for the treatment of metastases in bone. In an attempt to improve the tumour selectivity and uptake of phosphonates, the novel water soluble phosphonate polymer PEI-MP (N,N',N'-trimethylenephosphonate-polyethyleneimine) was studied, exploiting a phenomenon known as the Enhanced Permeation and Retention effect (EPR), whereby macromolecules, e.g. polymers, selectively accumulate within tumours due to irregularities in the vasculature and poor lymphatic clearance. 117mSn (t1/2=13.6d) could prove to be a promising therapeutic radionuclide in that it emits mono-energetic Auger and conversion electrons with a discrete range (0.2-0.3mm) in bone tissue, allowing for larger bone radiation doses with limited radiotoxicity to bone marrow. It also emits a gamma (159keV, 86.4%) which could allow for visualisation of treatment localisation. The aspects covered in the pre-vivo assessment were; 1) The oxidation state of the metal ion as the fate of the drug-complex may depend on the valence stability of the metal-ion in vivo. It was proven that Sn2+ and Sn4+ do not interchange in conditions simulating blood plasma 2) Using glass electrode potentiometry, the complexes with the most prominent physiological metal ions, namely Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ with PEI-MP were studied and after compilation of a Sn2+ and Sn4+ blood plasma model, PEI-MP complexed with Sn2+ proved to be the superior combination. 3) Concurrently the same combinations were

  4. Radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radionuclide cystography in infants and children for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux represents a common and potentially serious form of urinary tract pathology. Reflux accompanied by asymptomatic or inadequately treated urinary tract infections has been associated with significant sequelae, including renal scarring, hypertension, and end- stage renal disease. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages to both radionuclide and radiographic techniques for detection of reflux, radionuclide cystography has been found to be at least as sensitive as the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for the detection of clinically significant reflux. The major advantage of radionuclide cystography is a significantly lower radiation dose as compared to VCUG. Both indirect and direct techniques for radionuclide cystography have been developed. In addition to detection of vesicoureteral reflux, indirect radionuclide cystography allows evaluation of differential renal function. Supplemental parameters that may be evaluated with direct radionuclide cystography include: quantitation of reflux, determination of bladder volume at which reflux occurs, evaluation of the dynamics of bladder emptying, and determination of residual bladder volume following voiding

  5. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of the stability of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical [177Lu]Lu(III)–DOTP under simulated blood plasma conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic blood plasma model supports in vivo biodistribution of [177Lu]Lu–DOTP. ► Lu3+ remains predominantly complexed (98.1%) with the DOTP under simulated physiological conditions. ► Thermodynamic and kinetic stability [177Lu]Lu–DOTP in blood plasma facilitates selectivity of the proposed radiopharmaceutical for bone. - Abstract: The stability and in vivo robustness of [177Lu]Lu–DOTP as a potential bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical was determined with the aid of thermodynamic blood plasma modeling simulations. Glass electrode potentiometry was employed to measure the stability constants of the complexes of Lu3+ with DOTP. Similarly, the complexes of DOTP with a selection of the important physiological metal ions: Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cu2+ were determined, representing the typical interactions that the ligand would encounter upon administration. This made possible the construction of a blood plasma model of DOTP, aiding in establishing the potential susceptibility of the radiopharmaceutical. The ligand binds predominantly to calcium in vivo, accounting for 59.6% of that initially introduced as a component of the Lu–DOTP complex. Furthermore, due to a preference of the DOTP to bind to Cu2+ it causes mobilization of the ions in blood plasma, and would therefore indicate a deficiency if the ligand is administered at a concentration of 8.5 × 10−5 mol dm−3. The lutetium-ions are preferentially bound to DOTP, with as much as 98.1% of the Lu3+ occupying the ligand under physiological conditions.

  7. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented are from the nationwide programme to survey the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland. This programme includes results from the vicinities of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Analysis of deposition samples for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents was continued. The results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. The cumulative deposition of long-lived radionuclides retained in soil was measured near the Finnish nuclear power stations. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1979 were lower than in the previous two years, and no 89Sr was detected. The trend to slightly increasing 3H concentrations of previous years was reversed in 1979. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 85 nCi/m2 (3.1 kBq/m2) to 180 nCi/m2 (6.7 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides have decreased continuously since the maximum in 1977. No short-lived radionuclides originating from either nuclear explosions or nuclear power plants were observed in 1979. (author)

  8. Phosphate-induced metal stabilization: Use of apatite and bone char for the removal of soluble radionuclides in authentic and simulated DOE groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apatite group of minerals is a family of calcium phosphate phases. Apatite is the principal component of bone tissue, and it also occurs naturally as mineral deposits in the geosphere. Bone char is calcined (coked) animal bone, containing activated carbon as well as calcium phosphate mineral phases. Apatite IItrademark is a more reactive form of apatite, supplied by UFA Ventures, Inc., at a cost of approximately 1/4 that of commercial bone char. Apatite is shown to be effective for the removal of select heavy metal impurities in groundwater. Previous investigations have demonstrated that apatite is an effective medium for the stabilization of soluble lead, cadmium, and zinc from mine waste leachate by the formation of highly insoluble precipitate phases. The performance of bone char and apatite II are compared with other candidate sorption media (including granular activated carbon and anion exchange resin) for the removal of soluble uranyl ion in synthetic DOE Site groundwater supplemented with varying levels of interfering nitrate ion. Apatite II has a greater affinity for U(VI), especially in the presence of nitrate ion, as evidenced by a larger value for the conditional distribution coefficient (Kd) in batch test experiments. Contact of uranyl nitrate solution with apatite II is shown to produce highly insoluble mineral phases of the autunite group (calcium uranyl phosphate hydrates). Apatite II is also demonstrated to be moderately effective for the removal of soluble radioactive isotopes of strontium, but not cesium, when these ions are supplemented into authentic DOE Site groundwater

  9. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were carried out to determine the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland including those from the surroundings of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Deposition samples were analysed for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents. 90Sr, 239,240Pu, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclides deposited in soil were also measured. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1978 remained at almost the same level as in 1977. The slightly increasing trend in 3H concentrations continued in 1978. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 120 nCi/m2 (4.4 kBq/m2) to 200 nCi/m2 (7.4 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides during 1978 were smaller than during 1977. No increase in radioactivity originating from nuclear power plants could be observed. (author)

  10. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  11. Radionuclide cisternogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  12. Role of labeled and free lanthides in the management of metastatic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Different radiopharmaceuticals are being used for the management of metastatic bone diseases. This article relates the comparison of therapeutic beta emitter radionuclides of Lutetium-177, Samarium-153 and Holmium-166 complexes to bone seeking phosphonate ligand of ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) with free chlorides of all these radionuclides. Objective: Objective of our study is to formulate and evaluate Lutetium-177, Holmium-166 and Samarium-153 labeled EDTMP and then compare the results of biodistribution free lanthides of these radionuclides. Materials and Methods: All the radionuclides were prepared by n, . reaction. Quality control was checked by paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis. Various parameters were optimized to formulate these radiopharmaceuticals with maximum labeling efficiency. Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for biodistribution and imaging study. Results: 177Lu-EDTMP showed that the complex can be prepared with radiochemical purity >96% at pH 7.5. The labeling efficiency of 153Sm-EDTMP was found to be > 98% at pH 7.5 incubated for 20 minutes at room temperature. 166Ho-EDTMP showed that the complex can be prepared with radiochemical purity >90% at pH 7.5. Among biodistribution study for all these radiopharmaceuticals, skeletal uptake was found to be maximum for 177Lu-EDTMP All the labelled radiopharmaceuticals showed good renal and rapid blood clearance. The biodistribution study of free radionuclides showed significant uptake of activity by soft tissues including lungs, liver and spleen, with minimal uptake in the skeletal system Conclusion: Therefore, it was concluded that labeled complexes of these lanthides can be used effectively in the therapy for bone pain palliation, due to the maximum affinity of skeletal system for the labeled complexes. However, chlorides of the lanthides cannot be used for bone pain palliation due to their poor skeletal localization and accumulation of radionuclides in the

  13. Impact of 18F-fluoride PET-CT on implementing early treatment of painful bone metastases with Sm-153 EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the diagnostic impact of using skeletal 18F-fluoride PET/CT on patients with painful bone metastases to schedule an early palliative radionuclide treatment. Methods: The skeletal involvement from prostate cancer metastases was assessed by both 99mTc-diphosphonate bone scan (BS) and 18F-fluoride PET/CT within four weeks in 24 patients (67.7 ± 5.1 years) suffering from a borderline degree of bone pain for which radionuclide palliation was not shortly planned for administration. The BS and 18F-fluoride PET/CT results were compared, assessing the number and extension of the skeletal sites involved. Afterward, the patients were randomly assigned either to the study group (N = 12) receiving radionuclide therapy (Samarium-153 EDTMP) or to the control group (N = 12) not receiving radionuclide therapy. The short-term results from the radionuclide palliation group (evaluated with a visual analogue scale) were compared with the controls. Results: Overall, at BS, 7.6 ± 1.4 sites were considered metastatic, involving at least 5 ± 1 body regions. At 18F-fluoride PET/CT, 116 ± 19 sites presented metastatic involvement with 12/12 body regions concerned. No differences were found in regards to either the number of metastatic sites or regions at both BS and 18F-fluoride PET/CT between the study group and controls (p = ns). At CT, 88 blastic metastases were identified, whereas 110 were mainly lytic. Most of mainly lytic lesions were not detectable at BS. The reduction in total discomfort and bone pain in the study group was significantly greater than in the controls (p 18F-fluoride PET/CT may be helpful in deciding if the implementation of bone pain palliation using bone-seeking radionuclides at pain onset is necessary

  14. Radionuclide bone imaging results of renal osteopathy%肾性骨病核素骨显像结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄之杰; 陈建忠; 王庆旭; 孙志勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨99Tcm-亚甲基二磷酸盐(99Tcm-MDP)骨显像在肾性骨病中的应用价值.方法 选择我院2008~2011年经过确认的肾性骨病36例,行核素SPECT显像,分析其影像学表现.结果 10例双侧胫腓骨摄取增加;8例双下肢骨、6例全身长骨骨摄取不均匀;5例全身关节膨大,双侧肱骨、股骨弯曲畸形;6例全身关节膨大伴周围软组织钙化;1例全身关节膨大伴全身多处软组织包块.结论 结合临床资料,99Tcm-MDP骨显像能准确判断病变性质,可为肾性骨病的诊治提供有力依据.%Objective To discuss the application value of technetium 99Tcm- methylene diphosphonate( 99Tcm- MDP )in renal osteopathy( RO ). Methods Thirty six patients diagnosed RO in our hospital from 2008 to 2011 were selected to receive the nuclide single photon emission computed tomography( SPECT )imaging. And their manifestation was analyzed. Results The uptake of bilateral tibiofibula in 10 cases increased. Uneven bone uptake occurred in bones of both lower limbs in 8 cases and long bones over the whole body in 6 cases. In 5 cases,joint intumescentia occurred over the whole body,and the bilateral humerus and femur bones were twisted and crooked. In 6 cases,joint intumescentia occurred over the whole body combined with calcification of surrounding soft tissues. In 1 case,joint intumescentia occurred over the whole body combined with several soft tissue masses. Conclusion Associated with the clinical data,99Tcm- MDP bone imaging can accurately judge the nature of pathological changes and provide effective evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of renal osteopathy.

  15. Europium-154 contamination levels in Samarium-153-EDTMP for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, L [Department of Medical Physics, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Fantinato, D [Department of Medical Physics, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Frigerio, F [Department of Industrial and Environmental Hygiene, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Shamhan, G [European School of Advanced Studies in Nuclear and Ionising Radiation Technologies, University Institute of Advanced Studies, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Angelovski, G [European School of Advanced Studies in Nuclear and Ionising Radiation Technologies, University Institute of Advanced Studies, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, a useful non toxic bone seeking isotope in the palliative radionuclide therapy for bone metastases, is produced by neutron activation of enriched of {sup 152}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. During the large-scale formation of {sup 153}Sm, however, there is a co-production of some long-lived radio nuclides, among which {sup 154}Eu is a major and inevitable radionuclide impurity. The level of {sup 154}Eu contamination was evaluated performing a gamma-ray spectrometry of a radiopharmaceutical sample and the urine of an administered patient. As expected, gamma-ray spectra revealed the presence of {sup 153}Eu in all the samples. The specific activity of {sup 153}Eu in the urine sample collected at 6 hours after injection is 21 Bq/ml and is less than 1 Bq/ml in 24 hr. The contamination levels of {sup 153}Eu, normalized to the corresponding activity of {sup 153}Sm, were 0.0012% in the residual and in the first urine sample and 0.0017% and 0.0031% at 30 and 54 hours after administration, respectively. The results of this study show that the level of the long-lived {sup 153}Eu impurity is not a limitation in the metastatic bone pain palliation due to the additional radiation dose burden, but could pose a cause of concern in case of discharging.

  16. SU-E-T-588: Optimization of Imaging Following 223Ra Administration in Targeted Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With a growing demand of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, especially Xofigo (223RaCl2) which is used in the treatment of metastatic bone disease, the optimization of dosimetry becomes necessary. Indeed, in Europe, as stated on the council directive 2013/59/euratom, exposures of target volumes for radiotherapeutic purposes shall be individually planned taking into account that doses to non-target volumes and tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable. To that aim, the possibility of imaging 223Ra was first investigated. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou with an Infinia Hawkeye 4 gamma camera, equipped with a medium-energy collimator. Imaging parameters, such as sensibility, spatial resolution and energy spectrum, were determined using several physical phantoms with a source of 6 MBq of 223Ra. Bone metastases were modeled with a NEMA Body Phantom to investigate image degradation based on the concentration of 223Ra. Results: The acquired energy spectrum allowed to visualize several photon peaks: at 85, 154 and 270 keV. Camera sensitivity measured from the phantom study was 102.3 cps/MBq for the 85 keV ± 20 %, 89.9 cps/MBq for the 154 ± 20 % window and 65.4 cps/MBq for the 270 ± 10 % window. The spatial resolution (full-width at half-maximum) was respectively 1.7, 1.9 and 1.8 cm for the three energy windows. SPECT/CT images of NEMA Body Phantom without and with attenuation have permitted to determine the best reconstruction parameters. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clinically relevant information from images of 223Ra. All these results will be valuable to analyze biodistribution imaging of the radiopharmaceutical in the patient body and go further in the reconstruction of patient images in order to personalize the dosimetry

  17. SU-E-T-588: Optimization of Imaging Following 223Ra Administration in Targeted Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benabdallah, N; Bernardini, M [Hopital Europeen George Pompidou, Paris, Ile de France (France); Desbree, A [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-roses, Ile-de-France (France); Labriolle-Vaylet, C de [Hopital Trousseau, Paris, Ile de France (France); Franck, D [Institut de Radioprotection et de Suretu Nucleaire, Fontenay Aux Roses, Ile de France (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: With a growing demand of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, especially Xofigo ({sup 223}RaCl{sub 2}) which is used in the treatment of metastatic bone disease, the optimization of dosimetry becomes necessary. Indeed, in Europe, as stated on the council directive 2013/59/euratom, exposures of target volumes for radiotherapeutic purposes shall be individually planned taking into account that doses to non-target volumes and tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable. To that aim, the possibility of imaging {sup 223}Ra was first investigated. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou with an Infinia Hawkeye 4 gamma camera, equipped with a medium-energy collimator. Imaging parameters, such as sensibility, spatial resolution and energy spectrum, were determined using several physical phantoms with a source of 6 MBq of {sup 223}Ra. Bone metastases were modeled with a NEMA Body Phantom to investigate image degradation based on the concentration of {sup 223}Ra. Results: The acquired energy spectrum allowed to visualize several photon peaks: at 85, 154 and 270 keV. Camera sensitivity measured from the phantom study was 102.3 cps/MBq for the 85 keV ± 20 %, 89.9 cps/MBq for the 154 ± 20 % window and 65.4 cps/MBq for the 270 ± 10 % window. The spatial resolution (full-width at half-maximum) was respectively 1.7, 1.9 and 1.8 cm for the three energy windows. SPECT/CT images of NEMA Body Phantom without and with attenuation have permitted to determine the best reconstruction parameters. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clinically relevant information from images of {sup 223}Ra. All these results will be valuable to analyze biodistribution imaging of the radiopharmaceutical in the patient body and go further in the reconstruction of patient images in order to personalize the dosimetry.

  18. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements presented here were carried out for determination of the fallout levels of radionuclides throughout the country, including the areas surrounding the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H contents of deposition were determined and the results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. 89Sr and other gammaradionuclides in addition to 137Cs were measured from wet and dry deposition. Also 89-90Sr, 239-240Pu, 137Cs and other gammaradionuclides deposited in soil were measured. The radiochemical separation technique was used to determine 89Sr, 90Sr, 137Cs and 239-240Pu. Tritium contents were determined by liquid scintillation counting after electrolytic enrichment. Gammaradionuclides were measured by Ge(Li) spectrometry. In 1977 the contents of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in deposition increased to almost the same level as in the early '70s. This is due to the high-yield atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out by China. A slight increase in 3H deposition can also be noticed in 1977. The results of soil sample measurements indicate that practically all the activity is found in the top 20 cm layer. (author)

  19. Bifunctional Bisphosphonate Complexes of 99mTc and 188Re for Diagnosis and Therapy of Bone Metastases. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method to purify the rhenium tricarbonyl precursor for labelling small molecules and biomolecules with 188Re is reported in this chapter. The synthesis of a new radiopharmaceutical for the radionuclide therapy of bone metastases and of the corresponding 99mTc analogue is also described. In contrast with the clinically approved 186/188Re HEDP, this new 188Re agent forms an inert, single species that has been well characterized and displays superior stability, selective bone targeting and retention properties. Similarly, a new bone seeking 99mTc tracer prepared using the 99mTc nitrido core as a prereduced intermediate shows prolonged retention in bone and higher stability and binding to serum proteins compared to 99mTc MDP. (author)

  20. Bone SPECT with quantitation for the diagnosis of periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods: A radionuclide method based on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the diagnosis of periodontitis is presented. Nineteen consecutive patients, 13 with periodontitis and a control group of 6 healthy subjects, were studied. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The tomographic slices corresponding to the alveolar crest of the mandible and the maxilla were used for reconstruction. The upper and the lower jaws were divided into segments and the mineral metabolism was assessed semiquantitatively. Results: Our preliminary results suggest that the method may play a role in detecting the regions of the alveolar bone affected by the periodontal disease and in the assessment of the activity of the pathological process. (author)

  1. 186Re-HEDP for metastatic bone pain in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-thirds of patients with metastatic cancer suffer from pain. Pain originating from skeletal metastases is the most common form of cancer-related pain. Bone pain, often exacerbated by pressure or movement, limits the patient's autonomy and social life. Pain palliation with bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has proven to be an effective treatment modality in patients with metastatic bone pain. These bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are extremely powerful in treating scattered painful bone metastases, for which external beam radiotherapy is impossible because of the large field of irradiation. 186Re-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) is a potentially useful radiopharmaceutical for this purpose, having numerous advantageous characteristics. Bone marrow toxicity is limited and reversible, which makes repetitive treatment safe. Studies have shown encouraging clinical results of palliative therapy using 186Re-HEDP, with an overall response rate of ca. 70% in painful bone metastases. It is effective for fast palliation of painful bone metastases from various tumours and the effect tends to last longer if patients are treated early in the course of their disease. 186Re-HEDP is at least as effective in breast cancer patients with painful bone metastases as in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. It is to be preferred to radiopharmaceuticals with a long physical half-life in this group of patients, who tend to have more extensive haematological toxicity since they have frequently been pretreated with bone marrow suppressive chemotherapy. This systemic form of radionuclide therapy is simple to administer and complements other treatment options. It has been associated with marked pain reduction, improved mobility in many patients, reduced dependence on analgesics, and improved performance status and quality of life. (orig.)

  2. Optimization of production and quality control of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'renaissance' of the therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals during the last few years was in part due to a greater availability of radionuclides with appropriate nuclear decay properties, as well as to the development of carrier molecules with improved characteristics. Although radionuclides such as 32P, 89Sr and 131I, were used from the early days of nuclear medicine in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the inclusion of other particle emitting radionuclides into the nuclear medicine armamentarium was rather late. Only in the early 1980s did the specialized scientific literature start to show the potential for using other beta emitting nuclear reactor produced radionuclides such as 153Sm, 166 Ho, 165Dy and 186-188Re. Bone seeking agents radiolabelled with the above mentioned beta emitting radionuclides demonstrated clear clinical potential in relieving intense bone pain resulting from metastases of the breast, prostate and lung of cancer patients. Therefore, upon the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in Vienna in 1993, the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Production and quality control of Radiotherapeutic Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1994. The CRP aimed at developing and improving existing laboratory protocols for the production of therapeutic radionuclides using existing nuclear research reactors including the corresponding radiolabelling, quality control procedures; and validation in experimental animals. With the participation of ten scientists from IAEA Member States, several laboratory procedures for preparation and quality control were developed, tested and assessed as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. In particular, the CRP optimised the reactor production of 153Sm and the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 153Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), as well as radiolabelling techniques and quality control methods for the

  3. Abscopal induction of leukaemia and osteosarcoma following administration of alpha-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, B.I. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom))

    2008-12-15

    Alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking radionuclides can induce leukaemia and/ or osteosarcoma in mice. Furthermore, plutonium-239, given to male mice before mating with normal females, while not directly leading to leukaemia in the progeny does lead to enhanced susceptibility to leukaemogenic agents. In the first case, the amounts of radionuclide are very small in experimental terms; and zero in the case of transgenerational activity. In both cases, the development of the disorders is remote in time and location relative to that of the contaminating radionuclide, making interpretation of the mechanisms and estimation of radiation risk problematic. It is necessary, then, to address questions involving the basis of haemopoiesis itself. Cellular kinetics of the development of blood from the pluripotent stem cells to the mature functional cells are outlined, describing compensatory proliferation mechanisms and extensive movement of cells throughout the marrow space. The locations of potential oncogenic target cells are identified and the nature of the stromal microenvironment that regulates haemopoiesis is defined. Plutonium-239, given to male mice, targets spermatogenesis at the stem cell level leaving unidentified damage that is inherited by his offspring. This leaves the offspring susceptible to a leukaemogenic agent encountered later in life. The characteristics of this, corroborated by consideration of the cellular kinetics, are of an inherited genomic instability. Cells of the microenvronment, inheriting the same genetic damage, probably act in the role of an enhancing 'bystander'. In adult mice, the mechanisms are different. Bone turnover results in radioactivity being gradually transported through the marrow by long-lived macrophages. A model based on temporal microdistributions of activity, defining specific target cell regions, is able to illustrate that considering bone marrow as a uniform mass of cells is inadequate to describe the observed

  4. Evolutionary Rent-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Hehenkamp, Burkhard; Leininger, Wolfgang; Possajennikov, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Tullock’s analysis of rent-seeking is reconsidered from an evolutionary point of view. We show that evolutionarily stable behavior in a rent-seeking contest differs from efficient rent-seeking behavior in a Nash equilibrium. We explore that implications of evolutionary stability for rent-seeking behavior and relate them to the well examined Nash equilibrium behavior. A most interesting result is an overdissipation law, which holds in evolutionary equilibrium.

  5. Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, W A; Goeckeler, W F; Ehrhardt, G J; Ketring, A R

    1991-01-01

    The development of effective therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals requires careful consideration in the selection of the radionuclide. The in vivo targeting and clearance properties of the carrier molecule must be balanced with the decay properties of the attached radionuclide. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications fall into three general categories: beta-particle emitters, alpha-particle emitters, and Auger and Coster-Kronig-electron emitters following electron capture. Alpha particles and Auger electrons deposit their energy over short distances with a high LET that limits the ability of cells to repair damage to DNA. Despite their high levels of cytotoxicity, the relatively short range of alpha particles requires binding of the carrier molecule to most cancer cells within a tumor in order to be effective. Because of the extremely short range of Auger electrons, the radionuclide must be carried directly into the nucleus to elicit high radiotoxicity, making it necessary to deliver the radionuclide to every cell within a tumor cell population. These characteristics impose rigid restrictions on the nature of the carrier molecules for these types of particle emitters but successful targeting of these types of radionuclides could result in high therapeutic ratios. Most beta-emitting radionuclides are produced in nuclear rectors via neutron capture reactions; however, a few are produced in charged-particle accelerators. For radionuclides produced by direct neutron activation, the quantities and specific activities that can be produced are determined in large part by the cross-section of the target isotope and the flux of the reactor. Many applications (e.g., therapeutic bone agents, radiolabeled microspheres, radiocolloids) do not require high-specific activities and can therefore utilize the wide range of radionuclides that can be produced in sufficient quantity by direct neutron activation. Other applications (e.g., MAb labeling) require high-specific activity

  6. Production cross-section calculations of medical {sup 32}P, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 186,188}Re radionuclides used in bone pain palliation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Bayram [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Kaplan, A.; Capali, V. [Univ. Isparta (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Sarpuen, I.H. [Afyon Kocatepe Univ., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Aydin, A. [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Tel, E. [Univ. Osmaniye (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2015-03-15

    In this study, production cross-section calculations of {sup 32}P, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 186,188}Re radionuclides used in bone pain palliation treatment produced by {sup 30}Si(d,γ){sup 32}P, {sup 118}Sn(γ,n){sup 117}Sn, {sup 116}Sn(n,γ){sup 117}Sn, {sup 150}Nd(α,n){sup 153}Sm, {sup 154}Sm(n,2n){sup 153}Sm, {sup 152}Sm(n,γ){sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186}Re, {sup 187}Re(γ,n){sup 186}Re, {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186}Re and {sup 187}Re(n,γ){sup 188}Re reactions have been investigated in the different incident energy range of 0.003-34 MeV. Two-component exciton and generalised superfluid models of the TALYS 1.6 and exciton and generalised superfluid models of the EMPIRE 3.1 computer codes have been used to pre-equilibrium (PEQ) reaction calculations. The calculated production cross-section results have been compared with available experimental results existing in the experimental nuclear reaction database (EXFOR). Except the {sup 118}Sn(γ,n){sup 117}Sn, {sup 150}Nd(α,n){sup 153}Sm and {sup 185}Re(n,γ){sup 186}Re reactions, the two-component exciton model calculations of TALYS 1.6 code exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this present study.

  7. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (Auth.)

  8. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information, the...... activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing on the...... collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  9. DNA gel electrophoretic and micro-autoradiographic studies on apoptosis in bone tumor cells after exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of injury in apoptotic bone tumor cells and behavior of radionuclide 153Sm in tumor cells. Methods: DNA gel electrophoresis and micro-autoradiographic tracing of apoptotic bone tumor cells at different intervals after 153Sm-EDTMP internal irradiation. Results: Bone tumor cells internally irradiated with 153Sm-EDTMP displayed characteristics of DNA ladder formation in apoptotic cells. 153Sm could permeate through tumor cell membrane and be phagocytized by the tumor cells, showing membrane-seeking and membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies condensation. Conclusion: Progression of apoptosis in bone tumor cells induced by 153Sm-EDTMP is dependent on the time elapse of 153Sm internal irradiation

  10. [Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

  11. Radionuclide generator systems for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide generators which produce therapeutically useful isotopes are potentially significant for the clinic or central radiopharmacy because they obviate the need for long-distance transport of short-lived isotopes. Several therapeutic generator systems will be reviewed, with emphasis on the W-188/Re-188 gel generator system and its relevance to radioimmunotherapy in association with monoclonal antibodies targeted to cancer cells, bone cancer pain palliation, and radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This talk will also discuss physical and chemical characterization of the tungsten (W-188) generator system (radionuclidic and radiochemical purities, elution yields and profile, neutron diffraction analyses), and evaluate this type of generator from a clinical perspective

  12. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  13. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social...

  14. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  15. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  16. Studying on process for labeling of EDTMP with 90Y using for bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Study describes the method for preparation of labelling compound Ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) with 90Y. Malignant cancer is one of the most important resulting in human death. Bone metastases in nearly 25% of all cancer patients; so it is useful to develop radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of bone cancer. Yttrium-90 is high energy (2.3 MeV) beta emitter required with a physical haft life of 2.7 days which has limited bone-seeking properties. Its physical properties make it ideal for therapeutic application, the most energetic beta emission being able to penetrate to 1 cm from the site of deposition in soft tissue with an average range of approximately 4 mm. Theoretically, therefore, it can penetrate all marrow spaces in normal trabecular bone and conceivably even to the centre of large tumours where bone destruction may be extensive. Specific deposition of 90Y into the skeleton demands its delivery in a chemical form with affinity for bone mineral alone. Compounds with these properties are the phosphonate analogues of polyaminocarboxylic acids, and one in particular EDTMP (ethylen diamine tetra methylene phosphonate) has already been used to target 153Sm to bone mineral with success. Because of chemical similarities between 90Y and the rare earths, EDTMP should form stable complexes with 90Y and carry it specifically to the bone with comparable efficiency. Skeletal uptake of -emitting radionuclides may be used for bone pain palliation or myeloablation. The physical characteristics of the β- particles required for the two conditions are, however, different, that is, higher energies are favorable for destruction of bone marrow. (author)

  17. Examination of thick-section confocal microscopy as a tool for the histomorphometric analysis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have examined the potential utility of confocal microscopy as part of an effort to evaluate the deposition patterns of potentially interesting bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals or toxic radioactive agents in Beagles and to characterize these patterns in a way that the radiation doses or toxic agent dosage delivered to the skeleton might be more easily modeled. In separate studies, they have looked at the deposition of 166Ho-labeled pharmaceuticals and found that their deposition patterns were amendable to description with the same models heretofore used for various bone-seeking radionuclides. In other work, they are examining the relationship in skeletal tissue between the apparent densities that can be obtained from computerized tomographic (CT) scanners and the direct measurement of mass via neutron activation analysis. The CT method has the potential advantage of reducing skeletal dissection effort and the capability of providing a record of macroscopic bone morphology down to a thickness of about 300-400 μm, and at the same time providing an index of surface-to-skeletal tissue mass ratios in bone. In this abstract, they describe efforts to employ a combination of confocal microscopy and ultra-milling technology to efficaciously address the biological issues and the technical difficulties that require acquisition of the multi-megabyte quantities of data and their storage

  18. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  19. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  20. Comparative analysis of 11 different radioisotopes for palliative treatment of bone metastases by computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Throughout the years, the palliative treatment of bone metastases using bone seeking radiotracers has been part of the therapeutic resources used in oncology, but the choice of which bone seeking agent to use is not consensual across sites and limited data are available comparing the characteristics of each radioisotope. Computational simulation is a simple and practical method to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate and compare 11 different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for the palliative treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the percentage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct DNA repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and the radiation-induced cellular effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by phosphorus-32 (32P), strontium-89 (89Sr), yttrium-90 (90Y ), tin-117 (117mSn), samarium-153 (153Sm), holmium-166 (166Ho), thulium-170 (170Tm), lutetium-177 (177Lu), rhenium-186 (186Re), rhenium-188 (188Re), and radium-223 (223Ra). Results: 223Ra alpha particles, 177Lu beta minus particles, and 170Tm beta minus particles induced the highest cell death of all investigated particles and radioisotopes. The cell survival fraction measured post-irradiation with beta minus particles emitted by 89Sr and 153Sm, two of the most frequently used radionuclides in the palliative treatment of bone metastases in clinical routine practice, was higher than 177Lu beta minus particles and 223Ra alpha particles. Conclusions: 223Ra and 177Lu hold the highest potential for palliative treatment of bone metastases of all radioisotopes compared in this study. Data reported here may prompt future in vitro and in vivo experiments comparing

  1. Comparative analysis of 11 different radioisotopes for palliative treatment of bone metastases by computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D. C., E-mail: meb12020@fe.up.pt, E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S., E-mail: meb12020@fe.up.pt, E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, João Manuel R. S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica e Gestão Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, Porto 4200-465 (Portugal)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Throughout the years, the palliative treatment of bone metastases using bone seeking radiotracers has been part of the therapeutic resources used in oncology, but the choice of which bone seeking agent to use is not consensual across sites and limited data are available comparing the characteristics of each radioisotope. Computational simulation is a simple and practical method to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate and compare 11 different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for the palliative treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the percentage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct DNA repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and the radiation-induced cellular effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by phosphorus-32 ({sup 32}P), strontium-89 ({sup 89}Sr), yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y ), tin-117 ({sup 117m}Sn), samarium-153 ({sup 153}Sm), holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho), thulium-170 ({sup 170}Tm), lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu), rhenium-186 ({sup 186}Re), rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re), and radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra). Results: {sup 223}Ra alpha particles, {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles, and {sup 170}Tm beta minus particles induced the highest cell death of all investigated particles and radioisotopes. The cell survival fraction measured post-irradiation with beta minus particles emitted by {sup 89}Sr and {sup 153}Sm, two of the most frequently used radionuclides in the palliative treatment of bone metastases in clinical routine practice, was higher than {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles and {sup 223}Ra alpha particles. Conclusions: {sup 223}Ra and {sup 177}Lu hold the highest potential for palliative treatment of bone metastases of all

  2. The theory of individual variability of osteotropic radionuclides metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to study mechanisms of individual peculiarities of osteotropic radionuclides skeletal metabolism, and to develop approach for dose value prediction. Some regulations explaining the importance of skeleton in radionuclides metabolism and showing the direction of search of its quantitative regularities are taken as a basis of these theory. The first, there are three evolution treads: universal significance of calcium in the cells in the row beginning from bacteria to highest organizms and increase of its regulator role in the multicellular on the level of organizm; ability of calcium salts to increase mechanical strength of supporting tissues; growing connection of metabolic and supporting function. The second, bone is involved in metabolism of radionuclides as a structurally functional wholeness. The third metabolic way of radionuclide from blood into bone consists of a number of stages. (author)

  3. Rent Seeking and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Boldrin(UniBO); Levine, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Innovations and their adoption are the keys to growth and development. Innovations are less socially useful, but more profitable for the innovator, when they are adopted slowly and the innovator remains a monopolist. For this reason, rent-seeking, both public and private, plays an important role in determining the social usefulness of innovations. This paper examines the political economy of intellectual property, analyzing the trade-off between private and public rent-seeking. While it is tr...

  4. Bone scanning in the evaluation of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kun Sik; Zeon, Seok Kil; Lee, Hee Jung; Song, Hong Suk [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    We studied the diagnostic significance of bone scan in evaluation of bone metastasis by lung cancer, prevalence rate, and the causes of false positive bone scan and soft tissue accumulation of bone seeking agent. This subject include 73 lung cancer patients with bone scan, We analyzed the frequency of the metastasis, its distribution and configuration, and any relationship between bone pain and corresponding region on bone scan. The positive findings of bone scans were compared with simple X-ray film, CT, MRI and other diagnostic modalities. The false positive bone scan and the soft tissue accumulation of bone seeking agent were analyzed. The positive findings on bone scan were noted in 26 cases(36%) and they were coexistent with bone pain in 30%. The correspondence between bone scan and bone X-ray was 38%. False positive bone scans were seen in 12 cases(16%), which include fracture due to thoracotomy and trauma, degenerative bone disease, and bifid rib. Accumulation of bone seeking agent in soft tissue were seen in 13 cases(18%), which included primary tumor, enlarged cervical lymph node, pleural effusion, ascites and pleural thickening. Bone scans should be carefully interpreted in detecting bone metastasis in primary malignancy, because of the 16% false positivity and 18% soft tissue accumulation rate. It is very important to note that the correlation between bone pain and positive findings of bone scans was only 38%.

  5. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99mTc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  6. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  7. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  8. 32-Phosphorus for bone pain palliation due to bone metastases, its safety and efficacy in patients with advanced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone pain due to bony metastases can seriously affect a patient's quality of life. External irradiation, narcotic drugs and polyphosphates may cause important side effects or are expensive, therefore in many patients radionuclide treatment using a single dose of beta emitting bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals has become widely accepted. Except 32-Phosphorus (32-P) all of them are expensive and difficult to obtain in certain countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of 32-P for palliation of bone pain due to bony metastases by comparing it to 89-Strontium (89-Sr), the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation in the framework of a prospective IAEA co-ordinated multicenter study. A very strict protocol for unified patient inclusion and follow up was used. 93 cancer patients with osteoblastic bony metastases were included into the study, 48 were treated by 89-Sr (150 MBq) and 45 by 32-P (450 MBq). Pain score, analgesic consumption, quality of life, and indices of bone marrow depression were monitored 2 weeks pre- and up to 4 months post treatment. Favourable response to treatment was recorded in 75% of the patients treated with 89-Sr and in 60% of those treated with 32-P (p=0,122). There was no significant difference between the duration of favourable effect for both radiopharmaceuticals. Moderate decrease of white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts, and haemoglobin (Hb) levels was detected more often in the 32-P treated group. Although 32-P appears to be more toxic, no toxic effects requiring specific treatment were seen in either group. Due to its comparable efficacy and safety, general availability and low cost its more widespread use should be encouraged to increase quality of life and reduce cost of medical care of patients with intractable bone pain due to cancer metastases. (author)

  9. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  10. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism and effects of radionuclides may be influenced by a number of dietary, physiological, and environmental factors. Some factors are studied which have been identified as potentially important determinants of radionuclide behavior: the reproductive performance of female rats exposed to 239Pu during pregnancy or lactation, and the relative contribution of cross-placental and milk transfer to offspring

  11. Overview of radionuclides transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recognition of radioactivity levels and the fate of radionuclides that could have modified the biogeochemical cycles in the ecological environment. These modifications can disturb a variety of the ecosystems on which human life depends. It is essential to understand the pathways of radionuclides that are transported and deposited in the atmosphere and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems related to their impacts on human life. This paper is mainly focused on the transport in the atmospheric part. Various physical processes that control the transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere are reviewed. The transport processes used in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as underground are briefly described. For the purpose of demonstration, dose calculations due to the exposures of radionuclides, and the numerical model simulations of transport of 210Pb particles and dust aerosols in the atmosphere are presented. Each transport process is complex. More sampling data are needed to refine the transport models for assessing and predicting the fate of radionuclides and their impacts on ecosystems. Long-lived radionuclides are remained in the atmosphere and can be transported in a long distance over wider areas. Although a numerical model can handle complex transport processes, a Gaussian model offers an attraction for ease and quickness of interpretation of exposures to radionuclides during emergency. Radionuclides entering the atmosphere go through the transfer process from air to soil, soil to plants, and plants to animals. The transfer is a long-term process. Therefore, a longer-term study of environmental sampling of radionuclides is required to accurately assess the transport processes and long-term impacts on health and ecosystems. Also, it should get involving in a study of modeling transport of radionuclides over urban area having various heights and sizes of buildings, i.e., skyscrapers with high population, in the case of an event occurring

  12. Can bone metastases from mammary carcinomas and their regional distribution patterns established on the basis of radionuclide studies provide any clues to the mechanisms of their further spread over the skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective analysis of data from 100 female patients showing metastisation from mammary carcinomas into the bones led to the conclusion that the vertrebral column must be a factor in the spread of those metastases to more remote skeletal regions. This is primarily explained by the role of the vertebral venous system and the special action of the red bone marrow that enhances the establishment of cells capable of metastisation. (TRV)

  13. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and 90Sr body-burden in general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of 238Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and 90Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: → Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. → Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. → It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. → The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. → The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  14. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  15. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 900C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 5000C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  16. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing

  17. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  18. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Bone Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  20. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  1. Contamination of soil and food with radionuclides from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of systematic gamma spectroscopic analyses of fission products performed on the territory of SAP Vojvodina after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Samples of soil grass and food were periodically taken at 5 representative locations and the regions of highest activity concentration are identified on the basis of the results obtained. In the controlled chain soil-plants (feeds)-cow's (milk) on three characteristic locations (soil with different physico-chemical and mechanical properties) the activity concentration of fission radionuclides was determined and transfer factors for soil-plants; feed-milk were calculated. At the territory of hunting sites of SAP Vojvodina, artificial radionuclides were determined in meat and bones of fallow-deer, deer, boar and wild hare; and the highest content of radionuclides was found in meat and bones of boar. (author)

  2. Bone trauma and related benign disease: assessment by bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide investigation of skeletal trauma in the past was confined generally to scintimetry and an occasional bone scan. The development of improved radiopharmaceuticals, including /sup 99m/Tc-labeled compounds with their enhanced sensitivity, and the refinement of imaging devices offering superior resolution and speed have allowed a more detailed assessment of conditions resulting from trauma. Practical approaches to the diagnosis of subtle bone injury resulting in stress fracture, the differentiation between delayed healing and nonunion, and early recognition of avascular necrosis and osteomyelitis are now available. The changing pattern of radionuclide uptake in bone following damage by radiation and other abnormalities as a consequence of trauma also can be easily studied

  3. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  4. Analgesic therapy of skeletal metastases with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionculide therapy of bone metastases is an unspecific palliative treatment of metastatic skeletal pain especially useful in patients suffering in multiple sites. In these cases the long-term administration of increasing doses of analgesics such as opiate which have important side effects can be reduced. The aim of this therapy is pain relief and improvement of quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. This report is focusing on options, indications and contraindications of the radionuclide therapy of metastases and on used radionuclides such as Strontium-89, Yttrium-90, Rhenium-186 (188) and Samarium-153. In oncology, the analgesic therapy using boneseeking radiopharmaceuticals in combination to drug administration should gain more importance because this therapy can be administered on an outpatient basis. (orig.)

  5. Bone scan in diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the foot bones in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide technique for early diagnosis of inflammatory process in the bones of the foot was developed for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The most important diagnostic criterion of the bone lesion in patients with DM is area asymmetry and total activity percentage between the lesion focus and symmetrical zone

  6. Rent seeking and organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wärneryd, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The quest for benefit from existing wealth or by seeking privileged benefit through influence over policy is known as rent seeking. Much rent seeking activity involves government and political decisions and is therefore in the domain of political economy, although it can also take place in personal relations and within firms and bureaucracies. Rent seeking, which involves the unproductive use of resources, is however primarily associated with policies that create rents as well as rent extract...

  7. Asymmetries in Rent-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci; Eric Langlais; Bruno Lovat; Francesco Parisi

    2013-01-01

    The quest for benefit from existing wealth or by seeking privileged benefit through influence over policy is known as rent seeking. Much rent seeking activity involves government and political decisions and is therefore in the domain of political economy, although it can also take place in personal relations and within firms and bureaucracies. Rent seeking, which involves the unproductive use of resources, is however primarily associated with policies that create rents as well as rent extract...

  8. Auctions with rent seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2000-01-01

    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we ana-lyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both bids and efforts are unity. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium. In the equilibrium each player submits the same bid, while the sum of all...

  9. Variety Seeking Through Brand Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Givon

    1984-01-01

    A concept of variety seeking behavior is modeled as a stochastic brand choice model. The model yields a measure of variety seeking for each individual consumer. Panel data for 28 products are analyzed for each household and the possibility of market segmentation by variety seeking behavior is explored.

  10. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  11. Exposure of bremsstrahlung from beta-emitting therapeutic radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: manjunathhc@rediffmail.com; Rudraswamy, B. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, Karnataka (India)

    2009-02-15

    There has been an increased interest in beta therapeutic nuclear medicine, which emits relatively high-energy (>1 MeV) {beta}-rays and the production in vivo of Bremsstrahlung sufficient for external imaging, the produced Bremsstrahlung radiation hazard warrants evaluation. The Bremsstrahlung dose from patient administered {beta}-ray emitted radionuclide has been calculated by extending the national council on Radiation Protection and measurement model of a point source in air to account for biologic elimination of activity. We have estimated the probability of bremsstrahlung production, specific Bremsstrahlung constant (defined by Zanzonico et al.) and activity (A{sub release}) in bone cortical, bone compact, different regions of tooth enamel (enamel dentin junction (EDJ), enamel middle surface, enamel inner surface), different regions of dentin (outer surface, middle surface, enamel dentin junction (EDJ)), soft tissue, lungs and skeleton for different therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclide. In the present calculations we have used modified atomic number (Z{sub mod}) defined for bremsstrahlung process. Proper localization and quantification of incorporated beta emitters in bone and tooth are possible, because Bremsstrahlung production is greater in bone and tooth than soft tissue due to their high modified atomic number (Z{sub mod}). Radionuclide therapy with pure {beta}-ray emitters emitted in bone, tooth, soft tissue, lungs and skeleton does not require medical confinement of patients for radiation protection.

  12. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  13. Radionuclide equilibria between the aquatic environment and fish tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium conditions are often assumed in dose and risk calculations based on the simple linear concentration factor model, a commonly used model in the study of contaminant flow through ecosystems. It has been argued that by using a power function model to describe radionuclide retention in fish, equilibrium may never be achieved under natural conditions, thereby violating the equilibrium requirement in the concentration factor model. Our results demonstrate uranium-series radionuclide equilibria in a natural population of common white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Concentration factors indicated that 226Ra, 232Th, 230Th, and 228Th preferentially deposited in bone over muscle. Although 226Ra had the highest concentration in bone, 228Th yielded the highest concentration factors for water-to-bone transfer. 232Th may not be in equilibrium because of a growth dilution effect. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  15. Pyomyositis diagnosed by radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle which is usually associated with abscess formation. Although it is a common disease in tropical countries, it is rare in temperate zones, with only 15 cases reported in the United States. We recently evaluated a patient with primary muscle abscess, using technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) bone scanning, gallium-67 citrate (67Ga) scanning, and sonography. To our knowledge, the radionuclide and sonographic diagnosis of the disease has not been previously reported in this country

  16. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    record has introduced risks of new kinds of breakdown in collaborative information seeking. In working to prevent and recover from breakdowns in the seeking and sharing of information a focus on collaborative information seeking will point toward collaborative, organizational, and systemic reasons for......Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these...

  17. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2016-01-01

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence. The...... present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review discusses the current status of available radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging. For skeletal imaging 99Tcsup(m)-labelled diphosphonates as a group seem to be superior to other phosphorous compounds including pyrophosphate. Of the diphosphonates, 99Tcsup(m)-labelled MDP is better than EHDP. The new compound 99Tcsup(m)-IDP shows more skeletal uptake than MDP or EHDP in patients, but requires further clinical evaluation. Bone-marrow imaging has not received as much attention as bone imaging because of the lack of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. The erythropoietic marrow can be well visualized by using iron-52, an accelerator-produced positron emitter (511 keV gamma). However, availability (short half-life) and instrumentation problems limit its use to only a few institutions with access to an accelerator. The RES cell function of the bone marrow can be demonstrated by using colloids labelled with a suitable radionuclide. However, none of the available colloids of short-lived radionuclides (99Tcsup(m) or 113Insup(m)) localize to any great extent in the marrow - their localization often being limited to 10-15% of the injected dose in normal patients. Indium-111 chloride has been claimed to be useful as an erythropoietic cell marrow imaging agent by some investigators but others have disputed this claim. At the present time, we do not have an optimal agent for bone-marrow imaging and further work in this area is warranted. (author)

  19. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  20. Effect of bone-status on retention and distribution of americium-241 in bones of small rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced physical exercise before and after application of americium-241 resulted in only small changes in bone-structure and behaviour of the radionuclide in bone. Feeding of a low phosphorus or low calcium diet resulted in an increased excretion of americium from bone, whereby Zn-DTPA as chelating agent removed an additional fraction of the radionuclide from bone. Low calcium diet and simultaneous continuous infusion of pharmacological doses of vitamin D-hormones didn't increase the excretion of americium more than the low calcium diet alone. (orig.)

  1. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  2. Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and 14C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. 90Sr and 239Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (∼16%) and calcium (∼100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq-1) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children). (authors)

  3. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  4. Relationship of doses and bone uptake with dosimetric results in bone pain treatment with 188Rhenium - HEDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone pain paliation in metastases by means of bone seeking β-emitters is an accepted option and 188Rhenium - HEDP has several advantages already communicated. Increased doses and multiple doses put emphasis on dosimetric considerations, although this radiopharmaceutical is estimated to deliver comparatively low absorbed doses to bone marrow. The dosimetric results of 29 therapeutic 188Re-HEDP doses in patients with painful bone metastases are presented in comparison to administered dose amount and to bone uptake

  5. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  6. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  7. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  8. The use of radionuclide skeleton visualization method in hygienic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation, intragastric and combined effect of two cadmium compounds on rats is studied. Investigations are performed by biochemical methods and the method of radionuclide visualization of the skeleton which was performed delta hours after RPP introduction in gamma-chamber with computer tape recording for the following mathematical treatment of the image. Using the method of radionuclide skeleton visualization pronounced quantitative characteristics of changes in the bone tissue are obtained, it is found that dose dependence of these changes is especially important when estimating the complex effect. Biochemical methods, are used to find alterations, however they have not been assessed quantitatively

  9. Radionuclide transfer in Alpine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although alpine ecosystems are only of limited extent in Europe and the world, they serve as an important socio-economic basis for food production and tourism for the local population. The specific climate conditions and agricultural practice do have influence on radionuclide transfer in Alpine regions. The paper describes basic processes governing radionuclide behaviour in Alpine ecosystems and gives parameters for vertical migration of radionuclide in soil, for soil-plant transfer as well as transfer of radionuclide to cow milk. (author)

  10. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups

  11. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modif...

  12. Rent seeking e questione meridionale

    OpenAIRE

    Pugno Maurizio

    2000-01-01

    A model of allocation of heterogeneous individual ability between rent seeking and productive activity is proposed in order to explain the slow economic growth and high apparent unemployment of Italian Mezzogiorno. Two versions of the model are designed to capture legal rent seeking in the public sector (redundant public employees), and, respectively, illegal rent seeking in the organised criminal activity. In the first version of the model the individuals can choose to become either workers ...

  13. Radionuclides in house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  14. Underground radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number 9 sub-report of the safety assesment studies of the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns the calculation of radio-nuclide migration with groundwater. Calculations ar carried out in two phases. The first phase consists of calculation of the groundwater flow system under a great number of different hydrological boundary conditions, which possibly can be encountered in future. Variations in sea level and consequences of glaciations are included. Given a great number of possible groundwater flow systems, in the second phase radionuclide migration is calculated for a restricted number of representative situations. Transport of radionuclides with groundwater takes place, starting at a release point at the top (edge) of the rock salt formation until the landsurface, the bottom of a sea or an extraction-well for public water supply has been reached, at which places concentrations radionuclides have been computed as a function of time. Calculations continued till all concentrations had reached their maxima. Results form the input for biosphere dose-calculations, as reported in the number 10 sub-report. (author). 26 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  15. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  16. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  17. The skeletal radiography vs bone scintigraphy in assessment of bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the radiography and bone scintigraphy for bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods: Skeletal radiographs and bone radionuclide images of 20 patients newly diagnosed as multiple myeloma were comparatively studied. Results: On radiograph, lytic bone destruction was seen in 90% cases, pathological fracture was revealed in 80% cases, and diffuse osteoporosis was shown in 80% cases. While the positive rate of the bone scintigraphy was 45%. Areas of increased uptake and filling defects were revealed on scintigraphic images. Conclusion: Radiography has higher sensitivity and specificity than radionuclide imaging in imaging bone destruction and pathological fracture in patients with multiple myeloma. Skeletal radiography is still the first choice of imaging modalities in assessing the bone destruction in patients with multiple myeloma

  18. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  19. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  1. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  2. Neonatal osteomyelitis examined by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three infants less than six weeks of age and suspected of having osteomyelitis were examined by bone scintigraphy. Each of the 25 sites of proved osteomyelitis in 15 individuals demonstrated abnormal radionuclide localization. Ten additional scintigraphically positive but radiographically normal sites were detected. Optimal quality scintigrams of the growth plate complex and osteomyelitis in neonates appeared similar to those in older children. All neonates suspected of having osteomyelitis should be studied with bone scintigraphy following initial radiographs

  3. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  4. Radionuclide diagnosis of nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process

  5. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  6. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  7. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO2(s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral infarction showed hyperperfusion pattern on radionuclide cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients of middle cerebral infarctin showed hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and fan-shape accumulation at the area of middle cerebral artery on early and delayed brain scan. In these patients, bone scanning agents such as sup(99m)Tc-EHDP or sup(99m)Tc-MDP also prominently accumulated at the area of infarction. These findings were observed on the study when it was performed within seventeen days after attack, but reexamination tended to show normal or decreased perfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography and improve abnormal accumulation on brain scans. The clinical diagnosis of these three patients were cerebral embolism with heart disease, but one patient was internal carotid artery occlusion. The prognosis of all patients were very good. The hyperperfusion on radionuclide cerebral angiography of these patients represents the luxury perfusion in the lesion and these infarction has been called hot stroke by Yarnell et al. (author)

  9. Radiography and bone scintigraphy in multiple myeloma: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging for detecting skeletal lesions was compared with that of radiography by evaluating 573 different anatomical sites in 41 patients with multiple myeloma. Radiography revealed a significantly greater number of myeloma-related bone lesions than did radionuclide imaging. Of the 179 myeloma-related bone lesions detected when both techniques were applied, 163 were seen by radiography and 82 by radionuclide imaging. Ninety-seven lesions were detected by radiography alone and 16 lesions seen by scintiscanning only, yielding a sensitivity of 91% for the former and of 46% for the latter technique. Radionuclide imaging proved superior to radiography only occasionally in the rib cage, and rarely in other anatomical sites. These findings suggest that radiography is the method of first choice in obtaining a skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma. In cases with continued pain, unexplained by standard radiography, the skeletal survey should be supplemented by tomography and radionuclide imaging. (author)

  10. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  12. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  13. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  14. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  15. Natural α-radionuclides in children's teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural α-radiation has been linked epidemiologically to the induction of childhood leukaemia. In 1996 COMARE reported that 14% of UK childhood leukaemia incidence could be attributed to natural α-radiation exposure. Two thirds of the total radiation dose to the red bone marrow has been estimated to originate from long lived α-radionuclides, principally 210Pb supported 210Po and 226Ra, accumulated in the skeleton. The concept of using teeth as an analogue measure of the pollutant burden of bone is well established in studies examining the effect of stable lead uptake in children. This study explores the potential for using teeth as a bioassay of cumulated α-activity uptake in order to identify population sub-groups at risk from enhanced levels of α-radionuclides in bone. The spatial and temporal distributions of α-activity across the tooth structure have been examined, with the particular aim of identifying a component part suitable for use as an assay of cumulative α-activity uptake. Significant variations in α-activity concentration have been found in relation to tooth type, donor age and tooth component part. The outer surface of permanent teeth is shown to significantly accumulate α-activity over the lifetime of the tooth and this measure forms the basis of the tooth bioassay. The tooth bioassay has been used to identify variation in the natural α-radiation exposure of individuals within the study population, resulting from geographical and environmental differences. Multiple linear regression analysis has been used to model the relationship between the α-activity concentration on the outer surface of permanent teeth and the morphological and environmental factors that affect it. Human uptake of 210Pb has been assessed and the relative importance of exposure pathways, such as ingestion and inhalation, compared. Uptake values under a variety of conditions have been used in conjunction with the Salmon 210Pb dosimetry model to obtain bone activity

  16. The clinical value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the assessing of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine imaging modalities, including 18F-FDG, 99Tc-MIBI, 201Tl, radionuclide labeled antibody and other radio agent, had got certain value in detecting multiple myeloma. These methods were useful complement of planar X photo, CT and MRI. Radionuclide scintigraphy can demonstrate the condition of whole body bone, stage of the disease and follow up the therapy result, but it needs other examinations to increase its diagnosis accuracy

  17. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  18. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99mTc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99mTc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67Ga citrate and 111In white blood cells (111In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  19. Deposition of plutonium-238 injected intratracheally within different skeleton bones iron homeostasis being changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the distribution of plutonium-239 injected intratracheally within different bones of the skeleton, the iron status in the blood being changed. The iron preparation caused 2.5-3-fold decrease in the plutonium loading onto cancellous bone tissue that displayed, in ordinary conditions, a higher tropism to the radionuclide than a cortical highly mineralized bone did

  20. "Pseudo-thyroid lobe": A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature. PMID:25589815

  1. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the...... study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...... associated with information seeking abroad five themes were identified for further examination and analysis: 1) the international student identity; 2) the influence from individual characteristics and experiences; 3) private and academic information seeking during time; 4) language barriers across private...

  2. Capital Taxation and Rent Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Arefiev, Nikolay; Baron, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    We find the optimal capital income tax rate in an imperfectly competitive economy, where some part of recourses is devoted to rent-seeking activity. Optimal tax offsets the difference between marginal social and marginal private return to capital, which is a result of rent seeking, and the difference between the before tax interest rate and the marginal productivity of capital, which arises from imperfect competition. Optimal capital income tax rate depends neither on other tax rates nor on o...

  3. Digital Communications Plan: Seek Tapahtumasuunnittelu

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkonen, Eveliina

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was commissioned by event planning company Seek tapahtumasuunnittelu. As a new company, Seek tapahtumasuunnittelu needed ways to get visibility and gain foothold in the market. The aim of the thesis was to gain insight about the possibilities that digital communication channels offer for companies as well as to come up with recommendations on how the digital presence of the commissioning company should be established. The marketing process and the concept of marketing communica...

  4. Assessment of 186Re chelate-conjugated bisphosphonate for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    accumulation similar to those of [186Re]CpTR-Gly-APD, the specific activity of 186Re-labeled BPs was found to play a crucial role in bone accumulation and blood clearance. Thus, the molecular design of chelate-conjugated BP would be useful for the development of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals with a variety of radionuclides by selecting chelating molecules that provide high specific activities

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  6. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  7. Absorption of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1978, the Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg e.V. published a contribution to part 26 of the model study of radio-ecology at Biblis under the title 'Estimation of the absorption of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal tract in the blood'. Using the example of this contribution, a critical analysis is made to show how a selection of the information contained in various scientific publications and other items of literature can give uncritical readers the impression that all statements made are scientifically well founded. (orig./HP)

  8. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  9. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  10. Trends of Rent-seeking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Latkov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the origin and development of the rent-seeking theory. The interim results of the rent-seeking theory are summarized. The main trends in the rent-seeking theory development are presented in modern conditions.

  11. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial

  12. Factor analysis of dynamic radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis of ischemic necrosis of femoral head in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10 healthy adults (20 hips) and 28 adult patients with femoral head ischemic necrosis (AFHIN) (35 hips) were examined by factor analysis of radionuclide imaging and compared with bone SPECT and 3-phase bone imaging. The results showed that there is increased accumulation in the lesion hip joint in patients with early AFHIN (I and II stage) on bone factor image only. In the patients with late AFHIN (>III stage), marked accumulation appeared not only on the bone factor image but also on the soft tissue factor analysis image. For detecting early AFHIN, the sensitivity of factor analysis image is 76.47%, bone SPECT 52.94% and 3-phase bone image 35.29%, but for late AFHIN the sensitivity of the three methods is almost same. In conclusion, radionuclide factor analysis imaging was useful for early diagnosis of AFHIN

  13. Potential therapeutic agents for bone pain palliation: Sm-153 EDTMP and Lu-177 EDTMP and their comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a quest for more effective radiopharmaceutical for palliation of pain experienced by metastatic cancer patients, this article relates the results obtained with therapeutic beta emitter radionuclide of Lutetium-177 complexed to bone seeking phosphonate ligand of ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) and then its comparison with Samarium-153 labelled EDTMP. The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate 177Lu- EDTMP for bone pain palliation and to compare it with 153Sm-EDTMP that is currently being used in many centers of the world. Materials and Methods: The radionuclide was prepared by n, . reaction. Quality control was checked by paper chromatography. Various parameters were optimized to formulate these radiopharmaceuticals with maximum labelling efficiency. Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for biodistribution and imaging study. Results: The labelling efficiency of 153Sm-EDTMP was found to be > 99% at pH 7.5 with 1:5 (Sm: EDTMP) molar ratio incubated for 20 minutes at room temperature. 177Lu- EDTMP showed that the complex can be prepared with radiochemical purity >95% using ligand: molar ratio from 20-30 at pH 7.5. Among biodistribution study for all these radiopharmaceuticals, skeletal uptake was found to be maximum for 177Lu-EDTMP (70±2.4%), followed by 153Sm-EDTMP ( 5 8 . 5 ± 2 . 8 % ) . B o t h t h e s e radiopharmaceuticals showed good renal and rapid blood clearance. The biodistribution study of free radionuclides showed significant uptake of activity by soft tissues including lungs, liver and spleen, with minimal uptake in the skeletal system (153SmCl3: 7.5±0.04%, 177LuCl3: 2.5±0.1%). Imaging study carried out for 153Sm-EDTMP and 177Lu-EDTMP showed good uptake of activity by the skeletal system (including epiphyses, spine and facial bones). Conclusion: It was concluded that labelled complexes of these lanthides can be used effectively in the therapy for bone pain palliation, having more potential for 177Lu

  14. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRogatis, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

  15. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references

  16. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  17. Use of radiopharmaceuticals for treating bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer prevalence is estimated at around 2% of the population and on average between 64-80% of patients with solid tumors develop bone metastases, being breast tumors, lung and prostate those who do more frequency. In this paper an estimate of the prevalence of bone pain from metastases, with reference to the data reported in the literature is presented. the different treatment techniques are summarized for pain management with special emphasis on Radionuclidic therapy, analyzing the different factors to consider for the selection of suitable radiopharmaceutical. cost data and cost-benefit of some radiopharmaceuticals for the purpose to take into account during their selection are provided. It is concluded that although the treatment of metastatic bone disease requires multidisciplinary therapies, Radionuclidic therapy is not sufficiently used, particularly by inadequate perception of risks and costs of radiopharmaceuticals, despite the undeniable support of its efficacy and tolerability. (author)

  18. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by β- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  19. Medical-radionuclide production methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable supply of radionuclides is critical for many areas of nuclear medicine. The recent shortages have highlighted the need for additional sources of medical radionuclides, especially molybdenum-99. The Workshop brought together specialists with knowledge in various methods of producing radionuclides for nuclear medicine to share their perspectives. Its outcome was the provision of sound technical information on the various alternatives. The Workshop comprised expert presentations on the different methods available for producing medical radionuclides, and featured speakers from ACSION Industries, AECL, McMaster University, MDS Nordion, TRIUMF, Canadian Society of Nuclear Medicine and others. There was extensive opportunities for discussions and exchange of ideas. This Workshop was of interest to persons with general knowledge of radioactivity, nuclear reactors, accelerators and related technologies who wish to become more knowledgeable about the available methods of producing medical radionuclides.

  20. Observations on serial radionuclide blood-flow studies in Paget's disease: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four symptomatic patients with symoptoms of active Paget's disease of bone were evaluated, during the course of their therapy, a total of 71 times (24 baseline and 47 follow-up examinations) by serial alkaline phosphatase levels (AP), Tc-99m MDP bone scans, and radionuclide blood-flow studies. The flow study correlated with disease activity in all of the baseline studies and in at least 85% of the follow-up studies. In five patients (seven follow-up studies) the changes in local blood flow correctly anticipated the eventual rise or fall of AP. In comparison with the bone scan, the changes in blood flow preceded the bone-scan alterations or were more reliable indicators of disease activity in 12 of the 13 follow-up studies in which the results of the two examinations disagreed. We conclude that the radionuclide flow study provides useful additional clinical information in the management of Paget's disease

  1. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  2. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  3. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  4. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  5. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these studies is to develop a basic understanding of radionuclide chemical behavior in soil systems and determine biological availability and transport through ecological pathways defining basic mechanisms at the chemical, cellular, and organism level, enables the incorporation of information into predictive models, which are subsequently validated in the field at reactor and waste management sites. Through investigations of critical geochemical, microbial, and plant phenomena, the precision with which human dose assessments are made is improved. The biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways are studied rather than the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water. Results can also be used to predict the behavior of non-nuclear pollutants such as heavy metals, and to provide a basis for new designs and remedial measures (chemical treatments, biobarriers) that will minimize hazards associated with extended waste disposal and isolation

  6. Comparison of radionuclide scintigraphy and radiography for the evaluation of diabetic osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide scintigraphy using Tc-99m and radiography were compared in the evaluation of diabetic osteomyelitis in 11 patients. Of the eleven patients, nine showed findings highly suggestive of osteomyelitis by bone scan. Of these nine patients, however, six were considered negative for osteomyelitis based on radiography. Bone imaging appears to be more sensitive diagnostic procedure in determining osteomyelitis than X-rays. (Auth.). 9 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  8. Diagnostic applications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are now used routinely in two different types of medical diagnostic tests: in vivo measurements of the distribution of radioactivity in the body, and in vitro assays. Information gained from these procedures is expected to improve the physician's understanding of this patient's well-being by providing an objective evaluation of important physiologic functions. This information may be used to establish a correct diagnosis, determine the extent or severity of the patient's illness, or to evaluate a patient's response to therapy. Diagnostic tests thus increase the speed and accuracy of patient care decisions. As a result, treatment is more objective, recovery is more rapid, and the duration of patient suffering is reduced. These benefits may significantly reduce the overall costs of medical care. The numbers of test performed and the amount of radioactivity employed has increased dramatically. This growth has been facilitated by the development of new radiation detection instruments that are especially designed for clinical applications, and by the increased commercial availability of labeled materials that can be used for diagnostic tests. In addition, the use of isotopes in human subjects is limited by a variety of special problems. Some of these problems are rather technical, relating only to the development of method for storage and preparation of labeled materials in a form suitable for human use. Other more critical problems include the limited selection of radionuclides available for use in the investigation of human metabolism, the inefficiency of instruments used to detect radioactivity, and the growing concern for the potential hazards associated with the use of all forms of ionizing radiation

  9. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  10. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 (210Pb) and beryllium-7(7Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  11. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  12. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  13. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  14. Strategic Asset Seeking by EMNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Seifert, Jr., Rene E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chapter provides an economic explanation and perspectivation of strategic asset seeking of multinational enterprises from emerging economies (EMNEs) as a prominent feature of today’s global economy. Approach: The authors apply and extend the “springboard perspective.” This perspective...

  15. Radionuclides for nuclear medicine: a nuclear physicists' view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantone, M.; Haddad, F.; Harissopoulos, S.; Jensen, Mikael; Jokinen, A.; Köster, U.; Lebeda, O.; Ponsard, B.; Ratzinger, U.; Stora, T.; Tarkanyi, F.; Van Duppen, P.

    NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, an expert committee of the European Science Foundation) has the mission to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics and its trans-disciplinary use and application. NuPECC is currently...... working on a report on “Nuclear Physics for Medicine” and has set up a working group to review the present status and prospects of radionuclides for nuclear medicine. An interim report will be presented to seek comments and constructive input from EANM members. In particular it is investigated how nuclear...... physics Methods and nuclear physics facilities are supporting the development and supply of medical radionuclides and how this support could be further strengthened in future. Aspects that will be addressed: •In recent years, the reactor-based supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc generators was repeatedly...

  16. Radionuclides for nuclear medicine: a nuclear physicists' view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantone, M.; Haddad, F.; Harissopoulos, S.;

    2013-01-01

    NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, an expert committee of the European Science Foundation) has the mission to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics and its trans-disciplinary use and application. NuPECC is currently...... working on a report on “Nuclear Physics for Medicine” and has set up a working group to review the present status and prospects of radionuclides for nuclear medicine. An interim report will be presented to seek comments and constructive input from EANM members. In particular it is investigated how nuclear...... physics Methods and nuclear physics facilities are supporting the development and supply of medical radionuclides and how this support could be further strengthened in future. Aspects that will be addressed: •In recent years, the reactor-based supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc generators was repeatedly...

  17. Radionuclide source term and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in two types of experiment is reported. In the first the equilibrium and concentration of radionuclides in groundwater in contact with real radioactive wastes are measured. Container material, backfill material and rock are added to groundwater to investigate their effects. In the second experiment the retardation of radionuclides leached from wastes as groundwater flows over samples of container, backfill and geological material is measured. Outflow is analysed for radionuclides and experimental results for cesium 134, cesium 137 and cobalt 60 are presented. (U.K.)

  18. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  19. 6. Radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural transformation series are described and the characteristics given of natural radionuclides which do not form series and of certain cosmogenic radionuclides. The hazard is evaluated of internal and external irradiation from various artificial radioactivity sources, namely those which are linked with the operation of nuclear power installations and waste processing. Data are given on the occurrence of natural radionuclides in the environment and in the human organism. A brief description is presented of environmental monitoring methods and methods of dosimetry at nuclear power installations. (M.D.)

  20. [Bone diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  1. “Pseudo-thyroid lobe”: A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature

  2. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author)

  3. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  4. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors are discussed affecting the rate of migration of radionuclides in the soil (properties of the radionuclide - the sign and magnitude of ion charge, soil properties - moisture, density, presence of salts and organic substances, composition of sorption complex and soil solution, climatic conditions -temperature). Fick's 2nd law cannot be used for the mathematical description of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil and equations are therefore suggested for describing the movement of substances through an absorbing porous medium and for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient. In order to specify the mathematical description of migration it is necessary to obtain a great numbert of experimental data and to use multiparameter regression analysis for identifying the effect of the different properties of the soil on the diffusion of radionuclides. (J.C.)

  5. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water

  6. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  7. New ways enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl nuclear accident it has become very important to seek new ways of enhancing the vital activity of plants in order to increase crop yields and to suppress radionuclide accumulation. It is found that by optimizing the vital activity processes in plants, is possible to reduce radionuclide uptake. A great number of biologically active compounds have been tested, which increased the disease resistance of plants and simultaneously activated the physiological and biochemical processes that control the transport of micro- and macroelements (radionuclide included) and their 'soil-root-stem-leaf' redistribution. (author)

  8. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  9. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  10. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  11. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  12. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  13. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  14. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  15. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions. (orig.)

  16. Bone scanning in the child and young adult. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple, yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions. (orig.)

  17. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone....... The weak response at the distal forearm during antiresorptive treatment has restricted the use of bone densitometry at this region. We describe a new model for bone densitometry at the distal forearm, by which the response obtained is comparable to the response in other regions where bone densitometry...... is much more expensive and technically complicated. By computerized iteration of single X-ray absorptiometry forearm scans we defined a region with 65% trabecular bone. The region was analyzed in randomized, double-masked, placebo- controlled trials: a 2-year trial with alendronate (n = 69), a 1-year...

  18. Nuclear medicine imaging diagnosis in infectious bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Infectious and inflammatory bone diseases include a wide range of disease process, depending on the patient's age, location of infection, various causative organisms, duration from symptom onset, accompanied fracture or prior surgery, prosthesis insertion, and underlying systemic disease such as diabetes, etc. Bone infection may induce massive destruction of bones and joints, results in functional reduction and disability. The key to successful management is early diagnosis and proper treatment. Various radionuclide imaging methods including three phase bone scan, Ga-67 scan, WBC scan, and combined imaging techniques such as bone/Ga-67 scan, WBC/bone marrow scan add complementary role to the radiologic imaging modalities including plain radiography, CT and MRI. F-18 FDG PET imaging also has recently been introduced in diagnosis of infected prosthesis and chronic active osteomyelitis. Selection of proper nuclear medicine imaging method will improve the diagnostic accuracy of infections and inflammatory bone diseases, based on understanding of pathogenesis and radiologic imaging findings.

  19. Radionuclides in animal tissue samples from various regions of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the concentration of radioactive substances in animal species from various regions of Austria has been carried out. For bone and liver of deer, radionuclide concentrations typical for central Europe were found. The content of 90Sr were higher in gasteropod shells than in deer bone. Similar concentrations of 90Sr were found in isopods as in snail shells related to fresh weight, but related to Ca content the values in isopods were higher than in all other animals. Based on these results, a study of snail shells and of isopods as bioindicators for 90Sr content in environmental control is indicated. In tissue samples of the same species, but from different regions of Austria, the fallout radionuclide concentrations were found to be related to altitude (90Sr) and to the amount of precipitation (137Cs). These correlation differences could point to a different deposition behaviours of 90Sr and 137Cs, the former being deposited mainly with solid precipitation. This seems plausible since aerosols carried over continental distances show a high sulfate content and alkaline earth metal sulfates are less soluble than alkali sulfates. Examination of absolute concentration values related to fresh tissue weight show high fallout radionuclide concentrations, as compared to natural radionuclide concentration, especially in hard tissues. These fallout levels constitute a significant radioactive load on the biosphere. Due to the long physical half-life of 90Sr and 137Cs, this situation will remain virtually unchanged during the next decades, even if no further nuclear weapons tests are carried out. (G.G.)

  20. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  1. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  2. Development of a bone tissue-engineered construct to enhance new bone formation in revision total hip replacement

    OpenAIRE

    García Gareta, E.

    2012-01-01

    The main issue associated with revision total hip replacements (rTHRs) is how to generate new bone and restore bone stock for fixation of the revision stem. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) seeks the generation of constructs ex vivo in order to replace damaged or lost bone. The aim of this thesis was to develop a bone tissue-engineered construct with a calcium-phosphate (CaP) coated porous metal scaffold seeded throughout its structure with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to enhance new b...

  3. Role of radionuclide imaging in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, the role of nuclear medicine studies in the diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis has been discussed in depth in the literature. Yet, the respective roles played in this setting by each of the commonly used radionuclide studies often are confusing. In an attempt to develop a cogent diagnostic strategy, we reviewed the literature published within the last 12 years pertaining to the use of radiophosphate bone scintigraphy as well as gallium and indium WBC imaging in the diagnosis of this condition. Based on our findings, we propose an alternative approach to the evaluation of a patient with suspected acute osteomyelitis. 63 references

  4. X-ray and radionuclide diagnostic techniques for osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available data on the use of X-ray and radionuclide techniques in the diagnosis of osteoporosis are generalized. It is shown that because of the considerable spreading of osteoporosis the real demand for wide osteodensitometry performance exists. Absorptiometry may be widely used in clinic practice due to its accuracy, reproducibility, low cost, low radiation doses. Quantitative computerized tomography permits to obtain the absolute values of bone tissue density. Osteodensitometry plays an important role in identification and treatment of osteoporosis, promotes the prophylaxis of traumatism

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  6. Help-Seeking Attitudes among Israeli Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishby, Orya; Turel, Miriam; Gumpel, Omer; Pinus, Uri; Lavy, Shlomit Ben; Winokour, Miriam; Sznajderman, Semi

    2001-01-01

    Study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help seeking attitudes. In general, adolescents preferred seeking help from family and peers, rather than professionals, for emotional…

  7. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the knee in either the femur (thigh) or tibia (shinbone). Other common locations include the hip and ... bone that is weakened by a tumor to fracture, or break. This may be severely painful. Occasionally, ...

  8. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fall! If you play sports like football, soccer, lacrosse, or ice hockey, always wear all the ... to strengthen your bones is through exercise like running, jumping, dancing, and playing sports. Take these steps ...

  9. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on various types of radionuclides that may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. One of the primary goals of this ICRP Task Group is to assess specifically the biological implications of inhaled plutonium. Because other transuranics are becoming more abundant, information on americium, curium and einsteinium is included. Data are also included from studies of polonium and of several beta-gamma emitting isotopes. The Task Group evaluated most of the data on the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in experimental animals to identify the tissues at risk and to assess possible dose-response relationships. Few data from human cases of inhaled radionuclides are available for this assessment. The biological effects of nonradioactive air pollutants were also considered to provide the perspective that all air pollutants can have a deleterious effect on human life and to emphasize the possibility for combined or synergistic effects of nonradioactive and radioactive substances on the respiratory tract. (orig./HP)

  10. 153Sm oxabiphor in complex therapy of metastatic bone tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article provides a review of literature regarding radionuclide treatment of bone metastases disease in patients with different malignant neoplasms. Retrospective review of radiopharmaceutical application in the treatment of bone distant metastases is given. Advantages and limitations of different radiotracers have been determined. Possibility of application of the most updated, last generation agent, 153Sm, which is according to literature data showed an excellent analgesic properties and minimum side effects has been comprehensively studied

  11. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  12. Radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite controversy over its exact role, radionuclide imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. The differentiation between osteomyelitis and cellulitis is best accomplished by using a three-phase technique using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Frequently, it is necessary to obtain multiple projections and magnification views to adequately assess suspected areas. It is recommended that a Ga-67 or In-111 leukocyte scan be performed in those cases where osteomyelitis is strongly suspected clinically and the routine bone scan is equivocal or normal. Repeated bone scan after 48 to 72 h may demonstrate increased radioactivity in the case of early osteomyelitis with the initial photon-deficient lesion. In-111 leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating recent fracture or operation, but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation. The recognition of certain imaging patterns appears helpful to separate osteomyelitis from septic arthritis or cellulitis. 83 references

  13. A Model of Stochastic Variety-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Minakshi Trivedi; Frank M. Bass; Ram C. Rao

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and test a stochastic model of consumer choice that incorporates attribute-based variety seeking. Our stochastic variety-seeking model (SVS) has nested within it a fixed variety-seeking model, a zero-order model of choice, and a first-order (“pure variety”) model. We compare the SVS model to alternative models. Under stochastic variety seeking, we examine the nature of the variety sought and provide a test of the “satiation” hypothesis. Unlike fixed variety-seeking m...

  14. A review of radionuclides determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiochemical analysis have several steps such as sample pre-treatment, sample pre-concentration, separation and determination. Many separation methods, using solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography are applied tote preconcentration and separation of radionuclides. These methods are time-consuming, use large amounts of strong acids and produce organic wastes. Recently, separation methods on the extraction chromatography have became increasingly popular in radiochemical analysis. In this presentation, we briefly summarize the published literature on principles and various applications of radioanalytical method that have been commonly used in radionuclide separations (authors)

  15. High-grade MRI bone oedema is common within the surgical field in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing joint replacement and is associated with osteitis in subchondral bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, F M; Gao, A; Ostergaard, M;

    2007-01-01

    resected bone. METHODS: Preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI scans were obtained in 11 RA patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery to the hands/wrists or feet. In 9, MRI scans were scored by 2 readers for bone oedema (RAMRIS system). Its distribution with respect to surgical site was investigated. In 4......OBJECTIVES: MRI bone oedema has been observed in early and advanced RA and may represent a cellular infiltrate (osteitis) in subchondral bone. We studied MRI scans from RA patients undergoing surgery, seeking to identify regions of bone oedema and examine its histopathological equivalent in...... patients, 7 bone samples were examined for a cellular infiltrate, and this was compared with MRI bone oedema, scored for spatial extent and intensity. RESULTS: Inter-reader intraclass correlation coefficients for bone oedema were 0.51 (all sites) and 0.98 (bone samples for histology). Bone oedema was...

  16. Recent advances in targeted radionuclide therapy in treatment of metastatic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early forties, Nuclear Medicine uses 'targeted radionuclide therapy' for treatment, when it was discovered that 131I (radioiodine) is accumulated in thyroid tumours and their metastases. The examples of nuclear medicine viz. radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer, for bone metastases in prostrate and breast cancer, in neuroendocrine tumors, selective internal radio therapy, antibody therapy of lymphoma, indicates its benefits. In the near future, some other ways of tumour treatment using PSMA and RGD have to prove their utility for targeted radionuclide therapy

  17. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  18. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani; Hylarides, Mark; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  19. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  20. Radionuclide transfer in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems differs substantially from the other ecosystems. The contamination of various forest products is commonly quantified using the Aggregated Transfer Factor (Tag in m2 kg-1) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. This review aims at compiling the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean Tag values is 10-3 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of Tag, from 10-3 to 101 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01 to 0.1 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Even if, the importance of radioactive contamination of forests as a significant source of the population exposure is recognized, most of the data refer to caesium and to a lesser extent, strontium. Data for other radionuclides are rather limited. (author)

  1. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  2. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  3. Transfer of radionuclides to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for 40K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for 137Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p137Cs and 99Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for 99Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for 137Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  4. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  5. Radionuclide investigation of nutritive absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the theoretical rationale, algorithm and results of verification of a new radionuclide method for the determination of nutritive absorption. The proposed method allows the determination of the amount of a labeled unabsorbed food ingredient without the collection and radiometry of feces, with a high degree of significance

  6. Radionuclide retention in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. Retention of radionuclides within the geosphere for prolonged periods is an important safety function of deep geologic disposal concepts for radioactive waste. The extent to which retention processes can be relied upon in repository performance assessment depends upon the existence of well-established theoretical bases for the processes. It also depends on support for the operation of specific retention processes, and models for their quantitative evaluation, from a wide range of laboratory and field experiments and observations from nature. The fifth GEOTRAP workshop, 'Geological Evidence and Theoretical Bases for Radionuclide-retention Processes in Heterogeneous Media' held in May 2001, looked at radionuclide-retention processes and their consideration and representation in performance assessments. Current approaches to characterising and modelling retention processes, and suggestions for future improvements, were presented and discussed. In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions. (author)

  7. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the conference contain 22 texts of contributions presented, out of which 21 have been inputted in INIS. The topics treated include mainly contamination of surface waters by radionuclides, e.g from the operation of nuclear power plants, accumulation of radionuclides by the biosphere, and analytical problems of determination of radionuclides in the hydrosphere. (P.A.)

  8. /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate bone imaging and uptake in healing rat extraction sockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinically positive bone scans of the jaws may result from a variety of benign dental conditions. An experimental system for studying radionuclide imaging and uptake in the jaws of rats was developed. Sequential /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate bone scans and radionuclide uptake determinations were performed on rats after standardized extractions of their mandibular left first molars. Positive bone scans were seen 4 to 16 days after molar extraction, and increased radionuclide uptake was found in the healing extraction wounds 4 to 42 days after the extraction. Conventional radiography and histology fail to show unusual bony architecture in extraction sockets at such times. These results correlate with clinical findings in patients and suggest that human beings may have positive bone scans for several months after dental extraction

  9. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG)

  10. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... during development and growth. We hypothesized that adolescent cancellous bone differed significantly from adult cancellous bone in their microarchitecture and mechanical properties. METHODS: Twenty-three human proximal tibiae were harvested and divided into 3 groups according to their ages: adolescence...... Orthopaedics & Traumatology and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark. RESULTS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of cancellous bone from micro-CT imaging are shown in Figure 1. Our data showed that trabecular separation was significantly greater in the adolescence...

  11. Effect of electrical current on the healing of mandibular freeze-dried bone allografts in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branham, G.B.; Triplett, R.G.; Yeandle, S.; Vieras, F.

    1985-06-01

    Low levels of electrical current have been shown to affect the process of osseous repair. This study experimentally evaluated the effect of electrical stimulation on the healing of freeze-dried mandibular allogeneic bone grafts in dogs. Healing of the grafts was monitored by sequential submento-occlusal radiographs and radionuclide bone imaging at two, four, six, and eight weeks after grafting. Results indicated no significant difference in the osseous repair of stimulated and nonstimulated freeze-dried allogeneic bone grafts.

  12. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiying, Ni; Peilong, Gu; Minghua, Zhao; Jida, Ye [State Environmental Protection Administration Radiation Environmental Monitoring Technical Center, Hangzhou (China)

    2002-07-01

    The effect of two Bone-coal Power Stations (6MWe) on environment was investigated through the dose contribution caused by various radionucliders in different ways. It was found that the best measures to reduce the Effect of Bone-coal Power Station on Radiation Environment were to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  13. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  14. What Is Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your browser. Home Bone Basics What Is Bone? Publication available in: PDF (57 KB) Related Resources ... Men, and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Prevention For Your Information Bone Remodeling Throughout life, bone is constantly renewed through ...

  15. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  16. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Facts About Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > The Facts About Broken Bones ... through the skin . continue What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  17. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  18. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  19. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 31 papers dealing with the impact of nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere (radionuclide composition of waste waters and their assessment, the effect of liquid radioactive wastes on surface water organisms, the occurrence of radionuclides in bottom sediments, the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction of liquid radioactive wastes, etc.); the methods of concentrating and separating radionuclides from high-volume liquid samples; the methods of radionuclide contamination measurement (semiconductor spectrometry, the use of silicon detectors, the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities, etc.); and radionuclide migration in ground waters. (E.S.). 25 figs., 30 tabs., 86 refs

  20. 170Tm-EDTMP: a potential cost-effective alternative to 89SrCl2 for bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Metastron (89SrCl2) is a radiopharmaceutical currently used for bone pain palliation in several countries since the long half-life of 89Sr (50.5 days) favors wider distribution than other radioisotopes approved for this application, which have shorter half-lives. Strontium-89 is not ideal for bone pain palliation due to its high energy β- particle emission [Eβ(max)=1.49 MeV] and is also difficult to produce in large quantities. A 170Tm [T1/2=128.4 days, Eβ(max)=968 keV, Eγ=84 keV (3.26%)]-based radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation could offer significant advantages over that of 89Sr. The present study constitutes the first report of the preparation of a 170Tm-based agent, 170Tm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), and its preliminary biological evaluation in animal models. Methods: 170Tm was produced by thermal neutron bombardment on natural Tm2O3 target for a period of 60 days at a flux of 6x1013 neutrons/cm2.s. 170Tm-EDTMP complex was prepared at room temperature. Biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with 170Tm-EDTMP complex were performed in normal Wistar rats. Preliminary dosimetric estimation was made using the data to adjudge the suitability of 170Tm-EDTMP for bone pain palliation. Results: 170Tm was produced with a specific activity of 6.36 GBq/mg and radionuclidic purity of 100%. The 170Tm-EDTMP was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99%) and the complex exhibited satisfactory in vitro stability. Biodistribution and imaging studies showed good skeletal accumulation (50-55% of the injected activity) with insignificant uptake in any other vital organ/tissue. Activity was observed to be retained in skeleton until 60 days post-injection demonstrating that 170Tm-EDTMP exhibits good bone-seeking properties with long retention. It is predicted that a dose of ∼0.5 μGy/MBq is accrued to red bone marrow and 4.3 Gy/MBq is delivered to the skeleton. Conclusion: 170Tm-EDTMP shows promising

  1. Do Democracies Breed Rent-Seeking Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, César; Chong, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Using objective institutional historical data we test the link between extent, duration, and transparency in democracies and rent-seeking behavior using time-series and panel data approaches. In this paper we focus on the case of Uruguay, an ethnically homogeneous country. We find three main results. First, democratic regimes are negatively linked with rent-seeking actions. Second, the longer the duration of democracy, the less rent-seeking in a society. Third, legislation enacted more transp...

  2. On The Allocative Effects of Rent Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Corchón, Luis C.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the effects of rent-seeking activities on resource allocation. Before rent-seeking activities take place, there are prior probabilities that an object will be given to one of several agents. The posterior probability depends on prior probabilities and the expenses incurred by all agents. In the case of two agents who equally value the object, prior and posterior probabilities coincide, and thus rent seeking has no effect on resource allocation. If there are two agents ...

  3. Entrepreneurship and Rent-Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dejardin, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we propose a primer of the treatment that has received in the economic literature the problematic of entrepreneurship and rent-seeking behavior. It comprises the introduction of employed concepts, the discussion of the allocation of entrepreneurs between different types of economic projects, namely between innovative entrepreneurship and rent-seeking, as well as the explicative factors of the allocation. Interactions between entrepreneurship, rent-seeking and growth are consi...

  4. Technetium bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 5 1/2-year retrospective study of hospitalized children with osteomyelitis who had technetium bone scans, we found that 32 of 38 (84%) had increased radionuclide uptake, 4 (11%) had normal uptake and 2 (5%) had decreased uptake. The two patients with decreased uptake had a stormy course with extensive bone destruction and pathologic fractures in spite of prolonged courses of antibiotic therapy. Decreased uptake on bone scan in patients with clinical evidence of osteomyelitis could indicate a poor prognosis and early surgical drainage is indicated in order to decrease morbidity

  5. Bone marrow scan evaluation of arthropathy in sickle cell disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and arthropathy were studied, using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scans. Eight of 12 had decreased marrow radionuclide activity adjacent to painful joints, suggesting obliteration of vessels supplying bone marrow. Four patients without marrow defects on scanning had causes other than infarction for their joint symptoms, viz, small fractures, postinfectious synovitis, degenerative arthritis, and osteochondromas. Roentgenograms never showed bony abnormalities in five patients with marrow infarctions, and, in three others, showed defects several months later than did the marrow scans. Bone marrow scans offer a sensitive and early diagnostic aid in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies with arthropathy

  6. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for 210Po and 210Pb by alpha spectrometry and for 137Cs and 40K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 ± 32 Bq kg-1 wet weight (w.w.), while 210Pb averaged 0.17 ± 0.07 Bq kg-1 w.w., 137Cs averaged 0.29 ± 0.28 Bq kg-1 w.w., and 40K 129 ± 48 Bq kg-1 w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 μGy h-1 on a whole body basis. 210Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from 210Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high 210Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: → In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of 40K and 210Po. → Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h-1 on a whole body basis. → Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. → The high 210Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. → The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  7. Radionuclide distribution dynamics in skeletons of beagles fed 90Sr: Correlation with injected 226Ra and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the bone-by-bone redistribution of 90Sr in the beagle skeleton are reported for a period of 4000 d following a midgestation-to-540-d-exposure by ingestion. The partitioned clearance model (PCM) that was originally developed to describe bone-by-bone radionuclide redistribution of 226Ra after eight semimonthly injections at ages 435-535 d has been fitted to the 90Sr data. The parameter estimates for the PCM that describe the distribution and clearance of 226Ra after deposition on surfaces following injection and analogous parameter estimates for 90Sr after uniform deposition in the skeleton as a function of Ca mass are given. Fractional compact bone masses per bone group (mi,COM) are also predicted by the model and compared to measured values; a high degree of correlation (r = 0.84) is found. Bone groups for which the agreement between the model and experimental values of mi,COM was poor had tissue-to-calcium weight ratios about 1.5 times those for bones that agreed well. Metabolically defined surface in PCM is initial activity fraction per Ca fraction in a given skeletal component for intravenously injected alkaline earth (Sae) radionuclides; comparisons are made to similarly defined surface (Sact) values from 239Pu injection studies. The patterns of Sae and Sact distribution throughout the skeleton are similar

  8. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling of...... aged bones....

  9. Pdvsa, seeks foreign investment hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking at a protracted cash crunch, state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA plans to encourage accelerated investment by foreign companies in Venezuela's oil sector. Pdvsa late last month sliced about $1 billion from its capital and operating budget for 1992. This paper reports that in the medium term, Pdvsa plans to focus on investment in quicker payout projects in oil production and refining while seeking foreign capital for as many projects as possible in oil and gas exploration and development, petrochemicals, and coal. And it will continue to expand its presence in other countries, especially the US, to maintain market shares of crude and refined products exports. Those are among the business strategies outlined by new Pdvsa Pres. Gustavo Roosen after his first 100 days on the job. Pdvsa sees a key window of opportunity in gaining part of the market share lost by US crude producers as their production continues to decline. Pdvsa production outlays this decade are estimated at $4.4 billion. Pdvsa continues to hold to its target of crude productive capacity at 3.3 million b/d by 1996. The company wants to jump capacity as quickly as prudently possible from the yearend 1991 level of 2.83 million b/d. Currently, Pdvsa must buy 6000,000 b/d of oil on the US market to meet all of its commitments

  10. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  11. Determination of radionuclides in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  12. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  13. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  14. Aspects of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton with particular emphasis on the active marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological surveys on man and results from animal experiments have shown that two tissues associated with the skeleton are of primary concern with respect to cancer induction by ionizing radiation. These are the cells on or near endosteal surfaces of bone, from which osteosarcomas are thought to arise, and hematopoietic bone marrow, which is associated with leukemia. The complex geometry of the soft tissue-bone intermixture makes calculations of absorbed dose to these target regions a difficult problem. In the case of photon or neutron radiations, charged particle equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interface. In this paper a general study of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton is presented. Dosimetric data consistent with the MIRD schema and reflecting the physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition are tabulated for the relevant target regions. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Aspects of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton with particular emphasis on the active marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological surveys on man and results from animal experiments have shown that two tissues associated with the skeleton are of primary concern with respect to cancer induction by ionizing radiation. These are the cells on or near endosteal surfaces of bone, from which osteosarcomas are thought to arise, and hematopoietic bone marrow, which is associated with leukemia. The complex geometry of the soft tissue-bone intermixture makes calculations of absorbed dose to these target regions a difficult problem. In the case of photon or neutron radiations, charged particle equilibrium may not exist in the vicinity of soft tissue-bone mineral interface. In this paper a general study of the dosimetry of radionuclides within the skeleton is presented. Dosimetric data consistent with the MIRD schema and reflecting the physical and anatomical parameters defining the energy deposition are tabulated for the relevant target regions. 27 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  16. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. Mineralisation and biomineralisation of radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshaw, Diana Roumenova

    2013-01-01

    Management of contamination from industrial activities and wastes from nuclear power generation and weapons development are arguably amongst the greatest challenges facing humanity currently and into the future. Understanding the mobility of toxic radioactive elements is essential for successful remediation strategies and safe management of our nuclear waste legacy (DEFRA, 2008). Interactions between minerals and radionuclides, such as sorption and precipitation, govern the mobility of the co...

  18. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author)

  19. Accelerator-derived radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the research, development and commercialization of accelerator produced generator systems intended for life science applications is reviewed. The generator technology reported since 1983 is stressed with emphasis on loading the generator, the selection, and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter and the breakthrough of the radionuclidic parent. Quality control considerations and the automated delivery of the eluent for human use are mentioned. 121 references are cited. (orig.)

  20. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252Cf base with the activity from 106 to 109 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  1. AQUAMAN: a computer code for calculating dose commitment to man from aqueous releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AQUAMAN is an interactive computer code for calculating values of dose (50-year dose commitment) to man from aqueous releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The data base contains values of internal and external dose conversion factors, and bioaccumulation (freshwater and marine) factors for 56 radionuclides. A maximum of 20 radionuclides may be selected for any one calculation. Dose and cumulative exposure index (CUEX) values are calculated for total body, GI tract, bone, thyroid, lungs, liver, kidneys, testes, and ovaries for each of three exposure pathways: water ingestion, fish ingestion, and submersion. The user is provided the option at the time of execution to change the default values of most of the variables, with the exception of the dose conversion factor values. AQUAMAN is written in FORTRAN for the PDP-10 computer

  2. First-pass radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of aortoiliac thromboembolism in a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-pass radionuclide angiography of the terminal aorta was performed in 3 normal horses and a 6-year-old Standardbred intact male with aortoiliac thromboembolism. Thromboembolism caused chronic bilateral hind limb lameness, more severe in the right hind limb, was detected by rectal examination, and confirmed using transrectal ultrasonography. Using 99mTc-HDP, first-pass radionuclide angiography was combined with hind limb and pelvis bone (delayed) scintigraphy and revealed marked reduction in blood flow through both external iliac arteries and absence of blood flow in the internal iliac arteries. Quantitative analysis showed a decreased activity in the right iliac vessels in the clinic patient consistent with reduced blood flow when compared to control horses. First-pass radionuclide angiography provided a method to obtain diagnostic images of the terminal aorta and branches and a method to diagnose aortoiliac thromboembolism in the horse

  3. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of 153Sm-EDTMP, 177Lu-EDTMP and 166Ho-EDTMP for systemic radiation therapy: Influence of type and energy of radiation and half-life of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiopharmaceutical therapy, delivered doses to critical organs must be below a certain threshold therefore internal radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals is essential. Advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides with different characteristics were evaluated for selection of appropriate radionuclide. The Monte Carlo MCNPX simulation program was used to obtain radial dose and cumulative dose of 153Sm, 177Lu and 166Ho used in radiotherapy of bone metastases. A cylindrical geometry with constant density materials was supposed for simulation of femur bone. The radius of bone marrow, bone, and surrounding soft tissue was considered 0.6 cm, 1.3 cm and 4 cm, respectively. It was assumed that the radionuclides were uniformly distributed throughout the tumor. “continuous energy spectrum” of beta particle was used instead of mean beta energy. Our simulations show that absorbed dose in target organ (bone) is greater than other organs and 166Ho gives a higher dose to the critical organ of bone marrow than either 153Sm or 177Lu. Absorbed dose versus time demonstrate faster dose delivery for the short half-life radionuclides (153Sm and 166Ho). These results are in good agreement with clinical observations which show a pain relief within 1 week after intravenous administration of 153Sm-EDTMP, whereas it occurs within 2 week in the case of 177Lu-EDTMP. According to the results, combination of different radionuclides with different characteristics such as 153Sm-EDTMP and 177Lu-EDTMP could be more advantageous to patients with painful bone metastasis. - Highlights: • The radial dose and cumulative dose of 153Sm, 177Lu and 166Ho are calculated. • The effect of half-life of the radionuclide on the suitable activity for injection is studied. • Dose delivery is fast for the short half-life radionuclides (153Sm and 166Ho). • The results are in good accordance with clinical observations. • The combination of different radionuclides with different characteristics

  5. PRISM: a planned risk information seeking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlor, LeeAnn

    2010-06-01

    Recent attention on health-related information seeking has focused primarily on information seeking within specific health and health risk contexts. This study attempts to shift some of that focus to individual-level variables that may impact health risk information seeking across contexts. To locate these variables, the researcher posits an integrated model, the Planned Risk Information Seeking Model (PRISM). The model, which treats risk information seeking as a deliberate (planned) behavior, maps variables found in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and the Risk Information Seeking and Processing Model (RISP; Griffin, Dunwoody, & Neuwirth, 1999), and posits linkages among those variables. This effort is further informed by Kahlor's (2007) Augmented RISP, the Theory of Motivated Information Management (Afifi & Weiner, 2004), the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (Johnson & Meischke, 1993), the Health Information Acquisition Model (Freimuth, Stein, & Kean, 1989), and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (Witte, 1998). The resulting integrated model accounted for 59% of the variance in health risk information-seeking intent and performed better than the TPB or the RISP alone. PMID:20512716

  6. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  7. Rent Seeking and Corruption in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Ijaz Khwaja; Atif Mian

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of rent seeking and corruption in financial markets. We outline three areas of inquiry: (a) conceptualizing rent seeking, (b) identifying rent-provision channels and their general equilibrium impact, and (c) designing feasible remedial mechanisms. We provide suggestions for making further progress in these areas and review a variety of approaches taken in the recent literature.

  8. Students' Help Seeking during Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content…

  9. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  10. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  11. Fractionation of radionuclide species in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment may be present in different physico-chemical forms (i.e., radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, degree of complexation, etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time-dependent transformation processes such as mobilisation of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews available fractionation techniques which can be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes

  12. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  13. Radionuclide uptake by beaver and ruffed grouse in the Serpent River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide levels were measured in tissues, gut contents, and diet items of adult beaver and ruffed grouse from the Serpent River drainage basin (which contains the city of Elliot Lake) and control sites in Ontario, and in beaver and muskrat fetuses from females taken in the same basin. Levels of radium 226 in beaver bone, muscle and kidney were highest in animals from locations close to uranium tailings; liver levels did not vary by site. Grouse taken near Elliot Lake has higher bone levels of radium 226 than distant controls; levels in other tissues did not vary by site. Environmental radium 226 levels were within ranges previously reported at these or similar locations elsewhere; levels in beaver and grouse gut contents reflected levels in diet items. Fetal beaver tissues had higher radium 226 levels than maternal tissues; fetal liver tissue carried higher levels than other body tissues in general; fetal levels varied with maternal levels but also inversely with fetal size (and thus age). Although muskrat fetal liver had more radium 226 than other tissues, levels were lower than maternal bone levels. In two grouse and two beaver, selected for their higher tissue levels of radium 226, neither thorium 232 nor thorium 230 were detected in bone, muscle, or liver samples, however other radionuclides were measured: uranium 238 in beaver and grouse bone, muscle and liver; thorium 228 in beaver bone and grouse muscle; polonium 210 was found in bone, muscle, and liver of both beaver and grouse sampled (except in one grouse muscle sample); lead 210 was measurable only in beaver bone and in one grouse liver sample. Concentration ratios exceeded unity only between some vegetation items and beaver bone at the Elliot Lake site; between vegetation and other beaver tissues values were never more than 0.19. In grouse, the concentration ratios from trembling aspen leaves to bone was 1.04; from other diet items and to other tissues the values were less than unity. Estimated

  14. Non-invasive measurement of bone: a review of clinical and research applications in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current methods for non-invasive measurement of bone quality are reviewed. In the horse this has traditionally involved the use of radiography, but there are now two other modalities available for the critical evaluation of cortical bone quality and strength. These utilise single photon absorptiometry and ultrasound velocity. Photon absorptiometry gives a direct measurement of bone mineral content, by using a monoenergetic radionuclide source, and transverse ultrasound velocity in bone gives a measure of bone stiffness or elasticity. They can both be used conveniently on the metacarpus of the conscious horse. Both ultrasound velocity and bone mineral content can be used as accurate indicators of skeletal maturity. In addition, the effects of disuse on bone and certain types of lameness can be monitored accurately. Preliminary data show an association with exercise in young and mature horses. There also appears to be considerable scope for in vivo research of bone changes in horses produced by immobilisation, weightlessness, exercise and nutrition

  15. Differences in Bone Quality between High versus Low Turnover Renal Osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Daniel S. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pienkowski, David [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Faugere, Marie-Claude [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center; Malluche, Hartmut H. [Albert B. Chandler Medical Center

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone turnover is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its effects on bone quality remain unclear. This study sought to quantify the relationship between abnormal bone turnover and bone quality. Iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained from CKD-5 patients on dialysis with low (n=18) or high (n=17) turnover, and from volunteers (n=12) with normal turnover and normal kidney function. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the microstructural parameters; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to quantify the material and mechanical properties in bone. Reduced mineral-to-matrix ratio, mineral crystal size, stiffness and hardness were observed in bone with high turnover compared to bone with normal or low turnover. Decreased cancellous bone volume and trabecular thickness were seen in bone with low turnover compared to bone with normal or high turnover. Bone quality, as defined by its microstructural, material, and mechanical properties, is related to bone turnover. These data suggest that turnover related alterations in bone quality may contribute to the known diminished mechanical competence of bone in CKD patients, albeit from different mechanisms for bone with high (material abnormality) vs. low (microstructural alteration) turnover. The present findings suggest that improved treatments for renal osteodystrophy should seek to avoid low or high bone turnover and aim for turnover rates as close to normal as possible.

  16. Bone metastases in the patients of carcinoma cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen of 620 patients (2.7%) of cancer cervix were diagnosed to have bone metastasis (BM). In three bone metastasis were seen at initial presentation; remaining 14 developed BM in 3 to 36 months after the diagnosis of cancer cervix. Back ache (8), localised pain (8), in thigh/hip/neck paraparesis (1) were main symptoms. The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 4 (median 2.5) months. Lumber spine, pelvic bones and long bones were commonest site of involvement. The lesions were single in 12 and at multiple sites in five patients. Radiologically the lesions were osteolytic in all except three where 99mTc bone scan showed increased uptake of radionuclide. Palliative radiotherapy resulted in significant symptomatic relief. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  17. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  19. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  20. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  1. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  2. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99Mo-99mTc, 188W-188Re and 68Ge-68Ga. 99Mo-99mTc generator. 99mTc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99mTc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99Mo-99mTc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99mTc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al2O3. The yields of 99mTc from experimental generators remained high (75-85%) independently

  3. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  4. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide (227Ac, 227Th, 223Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  5. Production of radionuclides in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given is a short review on the production of radionuclides which was performed in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences by using the nuclear reactor RA. Regarding the considerations of the possible re-starting of this reactor its use for the production of medical radionuclides should be taken into account. Listed are some of the important medical radionuclides routinely produced in nuclear reactors in the world and discussed the conditions for their obtaining in the reactor RA. (author)

  6. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  7. Development of Cyclotron Radionuclides for Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity it was shown that radionuclides can be used both for diagnostic and therapeutic studies, depending on the characteristic radiations emitted by them. By 1960’s the radionuclide production technology using nuclear reactors was well established. In early 1970’s a renaissance of the cyclotrons occurred because many of the neutron deficient radionuclides could only be produced using irradiations with charged particles, like protons, deuterons, α-particles,...

  8. Multispecies animal investigation on biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of {sup 177}Lu-EDTMP, a potential bone pain palliation agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathe, Domokos [Department of Applied Radioisotopes and Animal Experimentation, National ' Frederic Joliot-Curie' Institute of Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, H-1221 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: mdomokos@hp.osski.hu; Balogh, Lajos; Polyak, Andras; Kiraly, Reka [Department of Applied Radioisotopes and Animal Experimentation, National ' Frederic Joliot-Curie' Institute of Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, H-1221 Budapest (Hungary); Marian, Terez [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Debrecen University, Debrecen (Hungary); Pawlak, Dariusz [Institute of Atomic Energy, Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Zaknun, John J.; Pillai, Maroor R.A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Janoki, Gyozo A. [Department of Applied Radioisotopes and Animal Experimentation, National ' Frederic Joliot-Curie' Institute of Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, H-1221 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is an effective method for bone pain palliation in patients suffering from bone metastasis. Due to the long half-life, easy production and relatively low {beta}- energy, {sup 177}Lu [T{sub 1/2}=6.73 days, E{sub {beta}}{sub max}=497 keV, E{sub {gamma}}=113 keV (6.4%), 208 keV (11%)]-based radiopharmaceuticals offer logistical advantage for wider use. This paper reports the results of a multispecies biodistribution and toxicity studies of {sup 177}Lu-EDTMP to collect preclinical data for starting human clinical trials. Methods: {sup 177}Lu-EDTMP with radiochemical purity greater than 99% was formulated by using a lyophilized kit of EDTMP (35 mg of EDTMP, 5.72 g of CaO and 14.1 mg of NaOH). Biodistribution studies were conducted in mice and rabbits. Small animal imaging was performed using NanoSPECT/CT (Mediso, Ltd., Hungary) and digital autoradiography. Gamma camera imaging was done in rabbits and dogs. Four levels of activity (9.25 through 37 MBq/kg body weight) of {sup 177}Lu-EDTMP were injected in four groups of three dogs each to study the toxicological effects. Results: {sup 177}Lu-EDTMP accumulated almost exclusively in the skeletal system (peak ca. 41% of the injected activity in bone with terminal elimination half-life of 2130 and 1870 h in mice and rabbits, respectively) with a peak uptake during 1-3 h. Excretion of the radiopharmaceutical was through the urinary system. Imaging studies showed that all species (mouse, rat, rabbit and dog) take up the compound in regions of remodeling bone, while kidney retention is not visible after 1 day postinjection (pi). In dogs, the highest applied activity (37 MBq/kg body weight) led to a moderate decrease in platelet concentration (mean, 160 g/L) at 1 week pi with no toxicity. Conclusion: The protracted effective half-life of {sup 177}Lu-EDTMP in bone supports that modifying the EDTMP molecule by introducing {sup 177}Lu does not alter its biological behaviour as a specific bone-seeking

  9. Help-seeking atititudes among Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishby, O; Turel, M; Gumpel, O; Pinus, U; Lavy, S B; Winokour, M; Sznajderman, S

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Nearly fifteen hundred students in grades 7-12 participated in a comprehensive survey of attitudes, health status, and concerns, and the data were analyzed. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help-seeking attitudes. Females reported a higher level of distress and greater willingness to seek help than did males. Younger adolescents tended to state that they would turn to parents for help, whereas older adolescents increasingly preferred peers. In general, the adolescents preferred to seek help from family and peers for emotional and social problems, rather than turning to professionals. Adolescents in grades 9-10 reported the highest level of distress and were least willing to seek help for interpersonal problems and depressed mood. Overall, level of distress was not directly related to willingness to seek help. In subgroups of depressed and suicidal adolescents, an inverse relationship was found between willingness to seek help and levels of depression and suicidal ideation. Recommendations for health care services and counseling programs are discussed. PMID:11572304

  10. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  11. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk (author)

  12. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings contain 22 papers, all have been incorporated in INIS. They relate to the escape of radianuclides from nuclear power plant operation and nuclear power plant accidents into the hydrosphere, the measurement of radioactivity of and concentration of radionuclides in surface, ground and drinking waters, the study of the impact of radionuclides on aquatic organisms and the investigation of the deposition of radionuclides in these organisms and in water sediments, to modeling of the kinetics of radionuclide transport in the hydrosphere, and the problems of radon in the ambient air of water treatment plants and dwelling areas. (M.D.). 3 figs., 28 tabs., 124 refs

  13. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  14. Study on interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide migration through natural granite fractures under in situ geochemical conditions and diffusion of radionuclides into rock matrix were studied. Assumptions used in analysis of radionuclide migration through fractured rocks surrounding a geologic disposal of radioactive wastes were examined. Thermodynamic data of radionuclides were obtained and compiled in a database, which provide scientific basis for understanding interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks. (author)

  15. Bone blood flow measured by 85 Sr microspheres and bone seeker clearances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates further the relationship between the initial bone clearance of a bone-seeking radioisotope or labeled substance and the bone blood flow. The bone blood flow of rats was modified over the widest possible range of physiological values by heating and cooling their hindlimbs. Osseous blood flow was measured by the arteriolar trapping of labeled microspheres of 15 micrometer diameter injected into the left ventricle. The plasma clearances of 45Ca and 99m Tc by bone were measured 10 min after the intravenous injection of radiocalcium and of 99m technetium pyrophosphate. The extraction ratio for 45Ca over the 10-min interval (45Ca clearance/bone plasma flow) was 0.60 for low blood flows, 0.40 for blood flows at rest, and 0.25 for high values of flow. The data for 99m Tc were, respectively, 0.68, 0.34, and 0.22. Initial bone clearances of either substance should not be used to measure the increases in bone blood flow over the values at rest

  16. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  17. An anlaysis of engineers information seeking activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2013-01-01

    decompose the complexity of information seeking activity in order to more effectively support the evolving needs of engineering designers and design researchers. This paper addresses these issues by using an experimental study and network visualization technique to analyze Internet based information seeking......Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated to...

  18. Oligopolization in collective rent-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaoru Ueda

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of when oligopolization in collective rent-seeking occurs, that is, when some groups retire from rent-seeking. A complete characterization of the pure-strategy Nash equilibrium in a collective rent-seeking game among m (\\geq2) heterogeneous groups is derived. The conditions of oligopolization are derived by using this result and related to the works of Nitzan [9, 10] and Hillman and Riley [3]. Also, the subgame perfect equilibrium of a simple two-stage colle...

  19. Stochastic Control Model on Rent Seeking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A continuous-time stochastic model is constructed to analyze how to control rent seeking behaviors. Using the stochastic optimization methods based on the modern risky theory, a unique positive solution to the dynamic model is derived. The effects of preference-related parameters on the optimal control level of rent seeking are discussed, and some policy measures are given. The results show that there exists a unique solution to the stochastic dynamic model under some macroeconomic assumptions, and that raising public expenditure may have reverse effects on rent seeking in an underdeveloped or developed economic environment.

  20. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  1. Natural radionuclides in volcanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides of 222Ra, 210Pb and 212Pb present in the magma are emitted during the eruption of volcanoes. Depletion of 222Rn in pumices and in lava showed that significant amounts of 222Rn were released from erupting magmas. Atmospheric 210Pb originating from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was detected in Japan and in Korea as a temporal increase in the atmospheric concentration after the eruption. Atmospheric 212Pb originating from the 2000 eruption of Mt. Miyake-jima was also detected as an abrupt rise in atmospheric concentration after the event

  2. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  3. Radionuclide diagnosis of erectile disfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-camera angio scintigraphy of the penis was performed in 17 patients, twelve of them with erectile disfunction. A new method of quantitative assessment of the blood flow and perfusion of the penis is described. New objective criteria have been established for differential diagnosis of psychogenic and vasculogenic impotence, as well as for severity of condition and for diagnosis of other causes of erectile disfunction. The method was developed using Tc99-HSA and a gamma-camera. The specific nature of radionuclide curves is a reliable diagnostic criterion for making differential diagnosis in assessment of the causes of erectile disfunction. 3 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  4. Distribution of radionuclides in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data were taken on contamination of organs of a mother sheep and its lamb. 2.5 months after the passage of the Chernobyl - caused radioactive cloud over Graz (Austria). The specific activity of Cs-137 in the muscle tissues is strongly dependent on its fat content. Barium 140 could be detected in the rib bones of both animals

  5. Advances in noninvasive functional imaging of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheng-Min; Wu, Ya-Na; Wu, Ping-Ching; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Lin, Ruey-Mo

    2014-02-01

    The demand for functional imaging in clinical medicine is comprehensive. Although the gold standard for the functional imaging of human bones in clinical settings is still radionuclide-based imaging modalities, nonionizing noninvasive imaging technology in small animals has greatly advanced in recent decades, especially the diffuse optical imaging to which Britton Chance made tremendous contributions. The evolution of imaging probes, instruments, and computation has facilitated exploration in the complicated biomedical research field by allowing longitudinal observation of molecular events in live cells and animals. These research-imaging tools are being used for clinical applications in various specialties, such as oncology, neuroscience, and dermatology. The Bone, a deeply located mineralized tissue, presents a challenge for noninvasive functional imaging in humans. Using nanoparticles (NP) with multiple favorable properties as bioimaging probes has provided orthopedics an opportunity to benefit from these noninvasive bone-imaging techniques. This review highlights the historical evolution of radionuclide-based imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, diffuse optics-enabled in vivo technologies, vibrational spectroscopic imaging, and a greater potential for using NPs for biomedical imaging. PMID:24439341

  6. A bone marrow toxicity model for 223Ra alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Song, Hong; Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Aksnes, Anne-Kirsti; Ramdahl, Thomas; Flux, Glenn D.; Sgouros, George

    2012-05-01

    Ra-223, an α-particle emitting bone-seeking radionuclide, has recently been used in clinical trials for osseous metastases of prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between absorbed fraction-based red marrow dosimetry and cell level-dosimetry using a model that accounts for the expected localization of this agent relative to marrow cavity architecture. We show that cell level-based dosimetry is essential to understanding potential marrow toxicity. The GEANT4 software package was used to create simple spheres representing marrow cavities. Ra-223 was positioned on the trabecular bone surface or in the endosteal layer and simulated for decay, along with the descendants. The interior of the sphere was divided into cell-size voxels and the energy was collected in each voxel and interpreted as dose cell histograms. The average absorbed dose values and absorbed fractions were also calculated in order to compare those results with previously published values. The absorbed dose was predominantly deposited near the trabecular surface. The dose cell histogram results were used to plot the percentage of cells that received a potentially toxic absorbed dose (2 or 4 Gy) as a function of the average absorbed dose over the marrow cavity. The results show (1) a heterogeneous distribution of cellular absorbed dose, strongly dependent on the position of the cell within the marrow cavity; and (2) that increasing the average marrow cavity absorbed dose, or equivalently, increasing the administered activity resulted in only a small increase in potential marrow toxicity (i.e. the number of cells receiving more than 4 or 2 Gy), for a range of average marrow cavity absorbed doses from 1 to 20 Gy. The results from the trabecular model differ markedly from a standard absorbed fraction method while presenting comparable average dose values. These suggest that increasing the amount of radioactivity may not substantially increase the risk of toxicity, a result unavailable to the

  7. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed. PMID:15006171

  8. An Unusual Case of Extraosseous Accumulation of Bone Scan Tracer in a Renal Calculus - Demonstration by SPECT-CT

    OpenAIRE

    Prathamesh Vijay Joshi; Vikram Lele; Rozil Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Extraosseous localization of radioisotope, used in bone scan, in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions is a well-known phenomenon. The causes of extraosseous accumulation of bone-seeking radiotracers should be kept in mind when bone-imaging studies are reviewed to avoid incorrect interpretations. We report an extremely rare occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of bone scintigraphy tracer in a renal calculus, in a patient with adenocarcinoma of prostate, that was demonstrat...

  9. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  10. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  11. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  12. Computational modeling of radionuclide resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly fallen radionuclide materials after an energetic release from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or by a nuclear accident similar to Chernobyl can be re-suspended back into air by wind or human activities. Re-suspended microscopic radionuclides can be a threat to humans who are in the immediate vicinity of the fallout. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut fuer Schutztechnologien (WIS) facility in Germany and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis using FLUENT software was conducted at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) in Canada to determine the re-suspension factors of radioactive lanthanum oxide (140La2O3) powder which was used as a surrogate for RDD fallout. Both experimental and computational results show a linear increase in re-suspension factor from 0.25 μm to 1 μm particle sizes and exponentially decrease in re-suspension factor from 1 μm to 6 μm particle sizes. Results found using FLUENT software over-predicted the re-suspension factors for particle sizes between 1 μm and 3 μm. The over-prediction was attributed to surface roughness effects, and suggests the need to include natural surface profile with microscopic surface roughness elements into full CFD model to simulate physical behavior of the particles trapped in between roughness elements. (authors)

  13. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  15. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  16. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Source Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Rui; Kalivarapu, Vijay; Winer, Eliot; Oliver, James; Bhattacharya, Sourabh

    2015-01-01

    Signal source seeking using autonomous vehicles is a complex problem. The complexity increases manifold when signal intensities captured by physical sensors onboard are noisy and unreliable. Added to the fact that signal strength decays with distance, noisy environments make it extremely difficult to describe and model a decay function. This paper addresses our work with seeking maximum signal strength in a continuous electromagnetic signal source with mobile robots, using Particle Swarm Opti...

  17. Sensation Seeking, Overconfidence, and Trading Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Grinblatt; Matti Keloharju

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the role that two psychological attributes%u2014sensation seeking and overconfidence%u2014play in the tendency of investors to trade stocks. Equity trading data are combined with data from an investor%u2019s tax filings, driving record, and psychological profile. We use the data to construct measures of overconfidence and sensation seeking tendencies. Controlling for a host of variables, including wealth, income, age, number of stocks owned, marital status, and occupation,...

  18. Corporate manslaughter, regulation and 'seeking to profit'

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey, J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the concepts included in current draft legislation on Corporate Manslaughteris that of seeking to profit. The paper seeks to examine this concept and whether theassumptions underlying it are valid. Firstly the concept is examined in terms ofmanagerial economics where it is argued that there is no necessarily direct trade-offbetween profit and safety expenditure. It is also difficult to disentangle expectation ofprofit and actual profit realisation in relation to a single cost factor. R...

  19. Social Work with unaccompanied aylum seeking children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2010-01-01

    Review of "textbook" on social work with unaccompanied asyum seeking children. This book presents national and international research findings, case stories and interviews, is written on a high level and deserves a braod audience......Review of "textbook" on social work with unaccompanied asyum seeking children. This book presents national and international research findings, case stories and interviews, is written on a high level and deserves a braod audience...

  20. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged t...

  1. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  2. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  3. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported

  4. Natural radioactivity level of associated bone-coal mining area in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; ZHENG Hui-Di; SONG Wei-Li; ZENG Guang-Jian; WANG Sha-Ling; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution, γ-radiation level and specific activity of radionuclides of the bone-coal mines in Zhejiang Province were reported. The weighted average of γ-radiation dose rate of the bone-coal mines is 566 nGy/h for 107 main bone-coal mines. The weighted mean activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples are 949, 918, 34 and 554 Bq/kg for 171 samples of bone-coal, respectively.

  5. Natural radioactivity level of associated bone-coal mining area in Zhejiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geographic distribution, γ-radiation level and specific activity of radionuclides of the bone-coal mines in Zhejiang Province were reported. The weighted average of γ-radiation dose rate of the bone-coal mines is 566 nGy/h for 107 main bone-coal mines. The weighted mean activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples are 949, 918, 34 and 554 Bq/kg for 171 samples of bone-coal, respectively. (authors)

  6. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  7. Radionuclide therapy in children: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy in children has advanced significantly over the past few decades. Literature is replete with reports from investigators on the cytotoxic effects of tumor targeting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. The collective experiences gained through numerous clinical trials has led to fairly well established treatment strategies in some tumours and paved the way for exploration of treatment alternatives in many others

  8. Geochemistry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of radionuclides in environmental media has long been studies to construct a scientific foundation of environmental consequence assessment of a nuclear installation. In addition to the effort mentions above, the current interest in a nuclear environmental science focuses on geochemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides, reflecting from the current progress in the development of geologic disposal system for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The geologic disposal system has particular features compared with other nuclear installations such as a power plant and a reprocessing plant, i.e., HLW contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, the geologic disposal system based on a multi-barrier concept holds a high containment capability of radionuclides, radionuclides released from a repository first enters into the geosphere, and radiological consequences are potentially expected to appear only after a long period of time and may be associated with time-dependent degradation of an engineered barrier and with the migration of radionuclides in a natural barrier to the human environment. These features inevitably require the information on long-term behavior of long-lived radionuclides in geologic media, environmental media concerned, and a terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem, as scientific basis of long-team safety assessment of the geologic disposal system. The geochemical study has therefore been extensively conducted, in particular since the past decade, on long-lived radionuclides and also on the geologic disposal system. This paper summarizes achievements of the current topics on; solubility and speciation, retention mechanism, and complexation. (author)

  9. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  10. Technological radionuclides as landscape contamination source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphology of radioactive spots on territory of the Valozhyn Region of Belarus has been considered. The reasons of tessellated distribution of such contamination were discussed. Tendencies and main mechanisms of secondary redistribution of radionuclides were shown. Features of radionuclides migration in various landscapes were described. Were proposed recommendations to reduce consequences of radioactive contamination for population and national economy. 9 refs

  11. Radionuclide angiocardiography in cogential heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios(pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oximetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry has following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation(linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt. (Author)

  12. Radionuclide Angiocardiography in Cogenital Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios (pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oxymetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry had following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation (linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0. 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt.

  13. Separation of radionuclides from electrochemical decontamination waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of a combined process for the separation of radionuclides from organic complexonates containing waste. A combination of photo-catalytic degradation of organic complexonates followed by the sorption of the radionuclides onto a strongly acidic ion exchanger offers a promising route for the treatment of the spent electrochemical decontamination solution. (authors)

  14. Follow-up of transplanted patients with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine procedures have special indications in the follow-up of transplanted patients: In case of renal transplantation perfusion, function (glomerular filtration) and urinary flow measured by bolus application of 99mTc-DTPA is an important tool to detect and monitor acute tubular necrosis, rejection, urinary leakage, obstruction or vascular complications. This method is used for pancreatic grafts, too. To exclude rejection in case of heart transplantation more than one year after operation the antimyosin antibody scintigraphy is introduced avoiding biopsies. The radionuclide ventriculography is able to monitor heart function by determining the ejection fraction. Cholescintigraphy in liver transplants is sensitive to detect complications of bile flow. In case of an auxiliary liver transplantation a competition between two livers has been described. This method allows a distinction of functional performance of donor and recipient liver. The same problem is solved by ventilation-perfusion scan in lung transplants. Bone scintigraphy is of prognostic value for graft viability. Other radionuclide examinations have been developed to measure perfusion, glucose-, fat-metabolism to detect rejection episodes, abscesses or tumor recurrencies. (orig.)

  15. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope. PMID:25771364

  16. Efficacy of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic bone survey and radionuclide bone scan are the principal methods for the detection of metastatic bone diseases. A retrospective study of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in 169 patients with various tumors, over a period of 2 years revealed 82 patients having metastasis to skeletal system. The bone scan finding in these 82 cases were correlated with clinical symptoms, laboratory data, and radiographic studies. The results were as follows: 1.Male to female ratio was 47:35. The 7th decade (25 cases, 30.5%) was the most prevalent age group, followed by the 8th decade (22 cases, 26.9%), and the 6th decade (21 cases, 25.6%). 2.The primary sites of metastases were lung (36 cases, 43.9%), followed by stomach and prostate (9 cases each, 43.9%), breast (8 cases, 9.7%), liver (4 cases, 4.7%), Kidney and lymphoma (3 cases, 3.7%). 3.False negative radiographic bone survey was seen in 47 cases (57.3%) of 82. 4.43 cases (52.4%) of 82 had bone pain, and of these, 36 cases (83.7%) showed correlation with bone scan findings. 5.52 cases (63.4%) showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and it was significant, especially in patients with bone pain, along with the elevation of serum calcium and phosphorus. 6.The metastatic sites in skeletal system were ribs and sternum (35 cases), lumber spine (32 cases), thoracic spine (25 cases), lower extremity (19 cases), pelvis (18 cases), upper extremity (6 cases), and skull and face (2 cases)

  17. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  18. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  19. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  20. Bone strength: more than just bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The following bone density measurements have limited utility in determining bone strength because they do not include bone quality: microarchitecture, mineralization, ability to repair damage, collagen structure, crystal size, or marrow composition. Patients with kidney disease have poor bone quality. Newman et al. now describe beneficial effects with raloxifene in an animal model of progressive kidney disease. These biomechanical measurements will be important in the development of medications to decrease fractures in patients. PMID:26759040

  1. Public Forum Help Seeking: the Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Public Forum Help Seeking: The Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behaviour David J. Barnes Published in Computer Based Learning in Science '99, Editor Graham M. Chapman, ISBN 80-7042-144-4. Conference Proceedings of CBLIS '99, Twente University, Enschede, the Netherlands, 2nd July - 6th July 1999. Abstract We investigate the impact of providing anonymity to a group of undergraduate Computing students, in order to encourage them to seek help for course related questions. We...

  2. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    In this study Ajzen' theory (1991) of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650). In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process) we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression) and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment) variables to build a model...

  3. Metastron in palliative therapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastron (strontium-89 chloride) was used as a palliative therapy for metastatic bone pain in 34 patients: in 17 persons cancer of prostate was diagnosed, in 13 patients - breast cancer and in four persons - cancer of other localizations. In case of cancer of prostate complete response was received in four persons, partial one - in two patients, in case of breast cancer - in eight and five patients. The effects had been observed for 13 week. The radionuclide may be recommended as an alternative method to the external radiation in case of multiple metastases

  4. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... at 146 days of life and five left and right ribs (fourth to eighth) were removed for analysis. The influence of AKG on skeletal system development was evaluated in relation to both geometrical and mechanical properties, as well as quantitative computed tomography (QCT). No significant differences between...... has a long-term effect on skeletal development when given early in neonatal life, and that changes in rib properties serve to improve chest mechanics and functioning in young animals. Moreover, neonatal administration of AKG may be considered as an effective factor enhancing proper development...

  5. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  6. Treatment status of painful bone metastases with 153Sm-EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical management of painful bone metastases is radiation therapy and the graduated use of opiate analgesics. As the development of nuclear medicine, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been utilized in cancer treatment, especially in management painful bone metastases. 153Sm-EDTMP (samarium-153-ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate) offers a good choice of treating method in palliating pain, improving quality of life, decreasing the rate at which new painful sites develop, and decreasing management costs

  7. Food contamination with cesium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, specific activities were monitored on Czechoslovak territory in the years 1986-1988 of 134Cs and 137Cs in canned meat products, in meat, milk, milk products and milk feed mixes. The radionuclides were determined radiochemically or gamma spectrometrically. The time dependence of the specific activities is tabulated. The values in canned meat were up to 70 Bq/kg in 1986, up to 150 Bq/kg at the beginning of 1987 and gradually decreased down to 40 Bq/kg by the end of 1988. The values in raw milk did not exceed 10 Bq/kg and in milk products 30 Bq/kg. Values of up to 200 Bq/kg were observed in feed mixes. (M.D.). 2 figs., 5 tabs., 12 refs

  8. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  10. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine (NM) is an essential procedure in modern medical practice. Recent survey reported that more than 2 million NM examinations are conducted every year in Japan. Around 75% of diagnostic NM employs single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc, 123I, 133Xe, or 201Tl-labeled compound, and 25% positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose, 15O-labeled H2O, CO, O2, or 11C-labeled compounds. Modern medicine is based on the intervention of molecular pathology of the diseases. Therefore, NM is expanding in number and in quality in daily medical practice including early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, strategy decision of treatment, evaluation of regeneration medicine. Furthermore, the NM is being utilized to facilitate new drug development. Combining molecular diagnosis with radionuclide therapy (Theranostics) is another future direction of clinical NM. (author)

  12. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  13. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  14. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  15. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in limb edemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is a safe, non-invasive and physiological method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system. Colloids as antimony or rhenium sulphide labeled with 99m technetium have been widely used for morphological studies. Quantitative studies involving a continuous count rate monitoring of the injection sites followed by a computer analysis of dynamic image sequences have been a new promising step for an objective measurement of the peripheral lymphatic function. The injection site is always bilateral on the first web space of either the hand or the foot using a small volume (<0.2 mL) of the radiocolloid. This method has been validated on 30 young healthy volunteers and normal values established from a group of 125 upper and 141 lower limbs (normal subjects). The normal results showed a slight but continuous decrease in lymphatic function depending on the age of the subject. In pathological situations, we observed dysfunction of the lymphatic system in pure lymphoedemas or so-called lympho-venous edemas as demonstrated on the 1,182 upper and 2,463 lower limbs tested. The radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy may be helpful in cases of unilateral swollen limbs demonstrating a lymphatic dysfunction on a clinically normal contralateral limb at the first stage of a distal edema which appears within a few weeks or days, in a transient edema phase when normal status and oedema alternate. The lymphoscintigraphy gives objective and reproducible parameters necessary to assess the lymphatic variation under therapy (decongestive physiotherapy, surgery, drugs) and may be useful in the selection of new lympho-tonic treatments. This method is only reflecting the lymphatic function and is unable to appreciate the total lymphatic flow of the limb. Its results only reflect what happens at the injection site and it may be necessary to add a second test using a proximal injection in order to assess the occurrence of lymph nodes not visualized by the

  16. Bone scan demonstration of progression of sacral insufficiency stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case documents the progression of a sacral insufficiency stress fracture, initially involving the lateral left ala and later extending across the body of the sacrum to the right ala. A bone scan was performed using technetium-99. The H shaped distribution of increased uptake on radionuclide bone scanning is characteristic of this type of fracture, although variations of this pattern are also seen according to the severity of the sacral trauma. While the differing bone scan patterns of this particular fracture type are well established, this case demonstrates this progression on bone scan (and CT) from, initially, uptake in a single sacral ala to the characteristic H-shaped increased uptake on a later scan. 4 refs., 4 figs

  17. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  18. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta Bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  19. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  20. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  1. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  2. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  3. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  4. Bone grafts in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar; Belliappa Vinitha; Ghousia Fathima

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  5. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  6. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient's biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  7. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malta, Margarida [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb by alpha spectrometry and for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 {+-} 32 Bq kg{sup -1} wet weight (w.w.), while {sup 210}Pb averaged 0.17 {+-} 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w., {sup 137}Cs averaged 0.29 {+-} 0.28 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w., and {sup 40}K 129 {+-} 48 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} on a whole body basis. {sup 210}Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from {sup 210}Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high {sup 210}Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: {yields} In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of {sup 40}K and {sup 210}Po. {yields} Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h{sup -1} on a whole body basis. {yields} Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. {yields} The high {sup 210}Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. {yields} The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  8. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www

  9. Radionuclides in coal and its radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the closure Ignalina NPP other sources of fuel will be needed for the generation of electricity. One of the possible sources is coal. Coal is a fuel which might cause the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. All types of coal contain small levels of natural radionuclides -potassium-40 and the radionuclides in the uranium-238, uranium-235 and thorium-232 decay chains. Combustion of coal in a coal-fired plant results in a release of gaseous radionuclides, and in the increased concentrations of non-gaseous radionuclides in the ash. The subject of this work is the radiological impact of the ash, which contains enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, and the atmospheric release of gaseous radionuclides. A fraction of the ash that is formed is released to atmosphere. The remaining ash is disposed to landfill or may be used in the manufacture of construction industry. Ash may be accumulated prior to disposal or use. There are therefore a variety of potential exposure scenarios. In these work we take into account only the exposure of members of the public to atmospheric release from the stack due to inhalation, external exposure of deposited radionuclides and food chains. Collective doses to the population from stack releases of ash have been determined. Information on the quantities of ash which could be generated at coal-fired station, radionuclide content of coal and ash were obtained from number of sources. Individual doses from the release ash to atmosphere from the stack were determined using elements of the PC CREAM suite of models. Predicted individual doses for individuals living in the local area is 0,2 μSv year1. The collective dose is equal to 0,132 man Sv and is 11 times larger than that caused due to Ignalina NPP activity. (author)

  10. Sensation Seeking, Substance Abuse, and Psychopathology in Treatment-Seeking and Community Cocaine Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Samuel A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed sensation seeking, substance abuse severity, and psychiatric disorders in clinical and community sample of 335 cocaine abusers. In contrast to low-sensation-seeking subjects, high-sensation seekers exhibited more severe symptoms of substance abuse, exhibited more severe psychosocial impairment, were more likely to be polysubstance…

  11. Measuring Help-Seeking Intentions: Properties of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Rickwood, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Understanding help seeking intentions and behaviour is fundamental to the identification of factors that can be modified to increase engagement in counselling. Despite considerable research on these variables, integrating prior research has been impeded by a lack of consistent and psychometrically sound help-seeking measures. The General…

  12. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  13. Experiments on radionuclide soil-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental studies were performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors.A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Therefore, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (author)

  14. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumhagen, J.D. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  17. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  18. Fundamental Concepts in Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview of the basic concepts and principles of radionuclide therapy is presented in this chapter. After introducing the most important radionuclides currently employed in therapeutic applications and new promising radioisotopes such as α emitters, this review covers the various types of vector molecules and biological approaches for targeting specific cancer cells. These applications include the use of receptor specific pharmacophores such as antibodies and peptides, and DNA targeting agents. The potential advantages of combining methods developed for radionuclide therapy with gene therapy and nanotechnology are also discussed. (author)

  19. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  20. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  1. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking...... experience many search problems, such as the lack of specificity, differences in the interpretation of the topics of documents, and unwieldy and irrelevant search results. These problems can be solved by a combination of improved indexing practices and search features....

  2. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  3. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  4. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included

  5. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  6. Isolation of Cu radionuclides with dithizone impregnated XAD-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolley, S.G. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Walt, T.N. van der [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; National Research Foundation, Somerset West (South Africa). iThemba LABS

    2014-04-01

    A novel separation method for Cu radionuclides from proton bombardment of {sup nat}Zn is presented. A solid phase extraction procedure using a modified dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone) XAD-8 chelating resin was used for the purification of the Cu radionuclides from up to 5 g of {sup nat}Zn and other radionuclides. More than 95% of the Cu radionuclides was recovered. (orig.)

  7. Radionuclides: origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origin, presence or emission in the environment of natural and artificial radionuclides and their contribution to human irradiation were reviewed. Data were given concerning dose commitments to individuals and populations from natural radioactivity (including non nuclear modifications introduced by man); from medical use of radionuclides; from radionuclides produced in nuclear tests; from radionuclides released into the environment from nuclear fuel cycle operations

  8. SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ - supplementary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a revision of the SFACTOR computer code, which has been developed to estimate the average dose equivalent to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, gamma radiation, and spontaneous fission. The principal refinement to the program is the addition of a method for calculating components of the dose equivalent rate from alpha particles to endosteal cells and red bone marrow from a source in mineral bone. Other details of the calculations remain unchanged. Corrected tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 19 radionuclides in an adult

  9. Computer Conferencing: Its Impact on Academic Help-Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabenick, Stuart A.

    Arguing that seeking help when needed is an integral part of the learning process, this paper describes a three-stage help-seeking process; examines computer conferencing in academic contexts; and describes several characteristics that promote help-seeking, including the admission of inadequacy, the decision to seek help, and the ultimate…

  10. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.)

  11. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  12. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  13. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  14. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.)

  15. Memory complaints associated with seeking clinical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pires; D. Silva; J. Maroco; S. Ginó; T. Mendes; B.A. Schmand; M. Guerreiro; A. de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as c

  16. Seeking Understanding by Which to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brian V.

    2009-01-01

    In retrospect, Anselm's motto "fides quaerens intellectum" (faith seeking understanding) could fairly be taken to reflect the author's life's journey, beginning with a period of intellectual rebellion against the faith of his Methodist parents as he was entering adolescence. At the age of 14, however, in a revelatory moment, and unbeknown to…

  17. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  18. Adolescent Help-Seeking from the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Lubell, Keri; Kleinman, Marjorie; Parker, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade there has been increased interest in help-seeking behavior among adolescents. This reflects the recognition that while many psychiatric problems increase markedly during adolescence, the majority of disturbed teenagers do not receive mental health services. Nearly half of all adolescents have reported using the Internet to…

  19. Health-Seeking Behavior Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausell, R. Barker

    1986-01-01

    Compared persons 65 years of age or older (N=177) to younger adults (n=997) with respect to compliance with 20 recommended health-seeking behaviors. Overall, the elderly group reported greater compliance with these behaviors, attributed more importance to their value, but perceived themselves as having less control over their future health.…

  20. Does Risk Seeking drive Asset Prices?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); H. Levy (Haim)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate whether risk seeking or non-concave utility functions can help to explain the cross-sectional pattern0 of stock returns. For this purpose, we analyze the stochastic dominance efficiency classification of the value-weighted market portfolio relative to benchmark portfolios

  1. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  2. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava M.; Vitorović Gordana; Andrić Velibor; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško; Grdović Svetlana; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra) in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable...

  3. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention

  4. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  5. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  6. Valuation of radionuclides using radioecological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the radiation exposure of the public following an accidental release of radionuclides into the atmosphere by means of radioecological models is shown. The radiation exposure after the Chernobyl-accident is used as an example to demonstrate the identification of the relevant radionuclides and exposure pathways. The natural radiation exposure is given as a means for the valuation of the calculated radiation exposures. (orig.)

  7. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  8. Software for forecasting radionuclides migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software for forecasting radionuclides' migration in soil has been proposed. Distinguishing feature of this software is its capability to use different approaches for prediction of radionuclides' migration. It shows that by means of physical-mathematical modeling it is possible to make prediction for wide-scale conditions. On the other side, neuronets' models where the prediction mechanism is based on experimental data and expert's knowledge makes prediction results more close to the real. (authors)

  9. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  10. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis

  11. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    In the project, 3,985mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,912mCi of {sup 201}Tl and 2,569mCi of {sup 123}I were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 8,466mCi and 103,191,950won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was developed and new {sup 201}TI chemical processing system was installed in the hot-cell. With this new solid target, R.I. production yield could be increased by more than 2 times per batch. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In the project, 3,412mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 10,718mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 1,848mCi of {sup 123}I, 542mCi of [{sup 123}I]mIBG and 285mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 16,805mCi and 257,777,660won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was used. Tl-201 has been produced two times per week for increasing demand. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  13. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, R J; Tatum, J L; Sugerman, H J; Hartshorne, M F; Boll, D A; Kaplan, K A

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs. PMID:6226097

  14. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  15. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs

  16. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  17. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  18. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  19. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  20. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210Po and 210Pb followed by 226Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14C, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs